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UsesUses ofof FireFire DynamicsDynamics SimulatorSimulator V4V4 forfor LargeLarge Scale/IndustrialScale/Industrial IncidentsIncidents

JasonJason E.E. FloydFloyd

20042004 LossLoss PreventionPrevention SymposiumSymposium AIChEAIChE 20042004 SpringSpring MeetingMeeting NewNew Orleans,Orleans, LALA AprilApril 2525 AprilApril 29,29, 20042004

LA LA April April 25 25 – – April April 29, 29, 2004 2004 HUGHES ASSOCIATES,

HUGHES ASSOCIATES, INC

FIRE SCIENCE & ENGINEERING

FireFire DynamicsDynamics SimulatorSimulator (FDS)(FDS)

DevelopedDeveloped byby NISTNIST BuildingBuilding andand FireFire ResearchResearch LaboratoryLaboratory CompanionCompanion softwaresoftware calledcalled SmokeviewSmokeview forfor viewing/animatingviewing/animating FDSFDS outputoutput LargeLarge eddyeddy simulationsimulation (LES)(LES) SingleSingle parameterparameter mixturemixture fractionfraction GrayGray gas,gas, finitefinite volumevolume radiationradiation heatheat transfertransfer 1D1D temperaturetemperature dependentdependent heatheat conductionconduction throughthrough surfacessurfaces

1D 1D temperature temperature dependent dependent heat heat conduction conduction through through surfaces surfaces

AdditionalAdditional FDSFDS CapabilitiesCapabilities

MultiMulti--blockblock gridsgrids (single(single processorprocessor oror MPI)MPI) IgnitionIgnition ofof remoteremote objectsobjects PoolPool firesfires withwith calculatedcalculated heatheat releaserelease ratesrates** FireFire spreadspread andand growthgrowth overover solidsolid fuelsfuels (charring(charring andand thermoplastic)thermoplastic)** DropletsDroplets** -- fuelfuel sprayspray fires,fires, sprinklerssprinklers (convention(convention andand mist)mist) FireFire suppressionsuppression byby oxygenoxygen depletiondepletion andand fuelfuel coolingcooling oror delivereddelivered waterwater**

**LevelLevel ofof physicalphysical detaildetail inin submodelssubmodels maymay notnot supportsupport itsits useuse forfor allall applicationsapplications

in submodels submodels may may not not support support its its use use for for all

AcknowledgementsAcknowledgements

KevinKevin McGrattanMcGrattan (NIST)(NIST) LeadLead softwaresoftware developerdeveloper GlennGlenn ForneyForney (NIST(NIST)) SmokeviewSmokeview developerdeveloper HowardHoward BaumBaum (NIST(NIST)) RadiationRadiation andand combustioncombustion theorytheory RonaldRonald RehmRehm (NIST(NIST)) LargeLarge outdooroutdoor fires,fires, windwind DaveDave SheppardSheppard (ATF)(ATF) SprinkerSprinker sprayspray measurementsmeasurements UriUri Vandsburger(VTVandsburger(VT),), ChrisChris WieczorekWieczorek (FM)(FM)UnderventilatedUnderventilated fires,fires, validationvalidation datadata SimoSimo HostikkaHostikka (VTT)(VTT) RadiationRadiation heatheat transfertransfer MarinoMarino didi MarzoMarzo (UMD)(UMD) DropletDroplet heatheat transfertransfer

transfer Marino Marino di di Marzo Marzo (UMD) (UMD) – – Droplet Droplet heat heat transfer

FireFire vs.vs. CombustionCombustion SimulationSimulation

CombustionCombustion simulationsimulation NumericalNumerical modelingmodeling ofof thethe physicalphysical andand chemicalchemical processesprocesses relatedrelated toto combustioncombustion atat highlyhighly resolvedresolved temporaltemporal andand spatialspatial scales.scales. FireFire simulationsimulation LargeLarge scalescale numericalnumerical modelingmodeling ofof combustioncombustion andand transporttransport processesprocesses atat thethe dominantdominant hydrodynamichydrodynamic lengthlength andand timetime scales.scales.

at at the the dominant dominant hydrodynamic hydrodynamic length length and and time time scales. scales.
at at the the dominant dominant hydrodynamic hydrodynamic length length and and time time scales. scales.

GuidingGuiding DevelopmentDevelopment PrinciplesPrinciples

TargetTarget useruser isis thethe practicingpracticing FPE/AHJFPE/AHJ

CodeCode mustmust bebe easyeasytoto useuse CreationCreation ofof inputinput filesfiles UsabilityUsability ofof outputoutput filesfiles CodeCode mustmust bebe lowlow costcost (hardware+software)(hardware+software) CodeCode mustmust bebe fastfast

Code Code must must be be fast fast Keep Keep submodels submodels of of similar similar

KeepKeep submodelssubmodels ofof similarsimilar relativerelative accuracyaccuracy

must must be be fast fast Keep Keep submodels submodels of of similar similar relative relative

HydrodynamicsHydrodynamics

ConservationConservation ofof MassMass

ρ

t

+ u r ⋅∇ =− ∇⋅

ρ

ρ

u r

ConservationConservation ofof SpeciesSpecies

Y

ρ

i

t

r

Conservation of of Species Species ∂ Y ρ i ∂ t r + ⋅∇ =− ∇⋅

+ ⋅∇ =− ∇⋅ +∇⋅

u

ρ

Y

i

ρ

Y

i

u r

ρ

&

D Y W ′′′

∇ +

i

i

ConservationConservation ofof MomentumMomentum

r

u

1

v

+ ×ϖ+∇ =

u r

r

H

t

ρ

((ρ

ρ)

r

g

r

+ f +∇⋅

τ)

DivergenceDivergence (Conservation(Conservation ofof Energy)Energy)

r

∇⋅ u =

1

dp

γ

& ′′′−∇⋅ +∇⋅∇ +∇⋅

k T

T

D Y

0

γ

p

0

q

q

r

i

c

p i

,

ρ

i

γ

1 dt

1

T D ∇ Y − 0 γ p 0 ⎜ ⎝ q q r i c

HydrodynamicsHydrodynamics

PressurePressure TermTerm

1

1

v

H = ∇

r

u

2

+

2

ρ

Pressure Term Term 1 1 v ∇ H = ∇ r u 2 + 2 ρ

~

p

Viscosity Viscosity Term Term

µ LES

2 ) 2 =ρ ∆ ( 2 C 2 def u r ( )( ⋅
2
)
2
=ρ ∆
(
2
C
2 def u r
(
)(
def u r
)
− ∇⋅
(
u r
)
s
3

DiscretizationDiscretization

SimpleSimple CartesianCartesian oror cylindrical,cylindrical, multiblockmultiblock gridgrid (No(No bodybody fitting)fitting) ScalarScalar quantitiesquantities (temperature,(temperature, density,density, etc.)etc.) defineddefined atat cellcell centerscenters VectorVector quantitiesquantities (velocity)(velocity) defineddefined atat cellcell edgesedges DifferencesDifferences 22 ndnd orderorder inin spacespace

defined at at cell cell edges edges Differences Differences 2 2 n d n d order
defined at at cell cell edges edges Differences Differences 2 2 n d n d order

SubmodelsSubmodels

MixtureMixture FractionFraction CombustionCombustion FiniteFinite VolumeVolume RadiationRadiation SolidSolid phasephase LiquidLiquid phasephase

Combustion Finite Finite Volume Volume Radiation Radiation Solid Solid phase phase Liquid Liquid phase phase
Combustion Finite Finite Volume Volume Radiation Radiation Solid Solid phase phase Liquid Liquid phase phase

MixtureMixture FractionFraction DefinitionDefinition

ConservedConserved scalarscalar quantity:quantity: ZZ

Z =

∞ Y Y − Y F − O O υ M υ M F F
Y
Y
− Y
F
O
O
υ
M
υ
M
F
F
O
O
1
Y
O
υ
υ
M F
M O
F
O

ZZ == 00 == ambientambient air,air, ZZ == 11 == purepure fuelfuel IfIf YY FF andand YY OO == 0,0, thenthen ZZ == ZZ FF == flameflame sheetsheet

If If Y Y F F and and Y Y O O = = 0, 0,

ImplementationImplementation

CombineCombine thethe equationsequations forfor conservationconservation ofof oxygenoxygen andand mixturemixture fractionfraction

dY

O

2

m & ′′ =

O

2 dZ

(

fraction fraction dY O 2 − m & ′′ = O 2 dZ ( ρ D

ρ

D Z n ˆ

)

Z Z

=

F

ApplyApply HuggetHuggetss relationship.relationship.

q &

′′′=−∆

O

2

H

O

2

dY

O

2

dZ

(

ρ

D Z n ˆ

)

Z Z

=

F

’ ’ s s relationship. relationship. q & ′′′=−∆ O 2 H O 2 dY O

StateState RelationshipRelationship

StartStart withwith genericgeneric combustioncombustion equationequation forfor aa fuelfuel

 

F

+υ

M

⎜ ⎜ +

Y

O

N

2 O

2

N

CO

+

H O

+

Y

N

2

M

O

2

υ

F

O 2

2

M

Y

O

2

N

2

2

⎯⎯→

υ

CO

υ CO

2

2

υ

H O

2

2

υ

O 2

Y

O

2

M

N

2

N

2

ModifyModify toto allowallow forfor nonnon--stoichiometricstoichiometric statestate

υ

F

F

+ x ×

υ

O 2

O

⎜ ⎜ O

2

Y

N

2

M

+

2

M

Y

O

2

N

2

N 2

⎟ ⎞

⎯⎯→

⎟ ⎠

Max

[

0,1

x

]

υ

F

F + Max

[

Min 1, x

]

υ

CO

2

CO

2

+

[

Min 1, x

]

υ

H O

2

H O + x ×

2

υ

O 2

Y

N

2

M

O

2

Y

O

2

M

N

2

N

2

⎢ ⎡ 0,

x

×

υ

O

2

υ

CO

2

υ

2

H O

2

O

2

× 2 υ O 2 ∞ Y N 2 M O 2 ∞ Y O 2

StateState RelationshipRelationship

CombustionCombustion TakesTakes PlacePlace AtAt ZZ FF ForFor CoarseCoarse Grids,Grids, ZZ FF SurfaceSurface WillWill NotNot BeBe ResolvedResolved

Methane Carbon Dioxide

Methane Carbon Dioxide
Methane Carbon Dioxide Oxygen Nitrogen
Methane Carbon Dioxide Oxygen Nitrogen
Methane Carbon Dioxide Oxygen Nitrogen

Oxygen

Nitrogen

 

Water Vapor

1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
Mixture Fraction (Z)
Z
F
Mass Fraction

MixtureMixture FractionFraction SurfaceSurface

Virginia Tech Fire Compartment

Fraction Surface Surface Virginia Tech Fire Compartment F D S v 2 S i m u

FDS v2 Simulation

Fire Compartment F D S v 2 S i m u l a t i o

400 kW propane fire in a 50%-scaled ISO-9705 Compartment

Fire Compartment F D S v 2 S i m u l a t i o

RadiationRadiation HeatHeat TransferTransfer

StartStart withwith graygray gasgas radiationradiation transporttransport equationequation

ˆs ⋅∇

I

(x )

r

, ˆs

=κ

(x )[I (x )

r

b

r

,

ˆs

I (x r , ˆs )]

DivideDivide pathpath vectorvector overover aa numbernumber ofof discretediscrete anglesangles andand applyapply toto eacheach gridgrid cellcell

6

m = 1

A I

L

m m

L

ˆs

nˆ d

m

Ω=

κ

ijk

(

I

b ,ijk

I

L

ijk

)

V d

ijk

L

grid grid cell cell 6 ∑ m = 1 A I L m m ∫ Ω

RadiationRadiation HeatHeat TransferTransfer

κκ ijkijk isis precalculatedprecalculated asas aa functionfunction ofof temperaturetemperature andand mixturemixture fractionfraction usingusing RADCAL.RADCAL.

TheThe radiantradiant sourcesource term,term, II b,ijkb,ijk ,, forfor aa gridgrid cellcell isis thethe largerlarger ofof σσTT 44 oror thethe radiantradiant fractionfraction ofof thethe cellscells heatheat release.release.

T T 4 4 or or the the radiant radiant fraction fraction of of the the
T T 4 4 or or the the radiant radiant fraction fraction of of the the

MultiblockMultiblock GridsGrids

MultipleMultiple computationalcomputational gridsgrids CanCan havehave differentdifferent nodenode sizessizes ReductionReduction ofof activeactive gridgrid cellscells atat thethe expenseexpense ofof moremore complexcomplex boundaryboundary conditionsconditions

cells cells at at the the expense expense of of more more complex complex boundary boundary

DropletsDroplets

LaGrangianLaGrangian superdropsuperdrop RosinRosin--RammlerRammler sizesize distributiondistribution forfor sprayspray nozzlesnozzles withwith useruser defineddefined angularangular dependentdependent sprayspray patternpattern (velocity(velocity andand massmass flux)flux) EvaporationEvaporation governedgoverned byby dropletdroplet heatheat transfertransfer andand locallocal equilibriumequilibrium vaporvapor massmass fractionfraction ((ClausiusClausius--ClapeyronClapeyron )) DropletDroplet absorptionabsorption scatteringscattering addedadded toto radiationradiation transporttransport equationequation

absorption scattering scattering added added to to radiation radiation transport transport equation equation

DropletsDroplets ++ RadiationRadiation RightRight WallWall Hot,Hot, ColdCold SpraySpray

Droplets Droplets + + Radiation Radiation Right Right Wall Wall Hot, Hot, Cold Cold Spray Spray

ExamplesExamples

SprinklerSprinkler effectivenesseffectiveness LargeLarge outdooroutdoor firefire ImpingingImpinging sprayspray firefire

effectiveness effectiveness Large Large outdoor outdoor fire fire Impinging Impinging spray spray fire fire

SprinklerSprinkler ActivationActivation

((McGrattanMcGrattan andand Stroup,Stroup, 1997)1997)

676711

2:45 2:44   5:48 2:40   2:26 4:20 1:11 1:28 1:12 1:20 2:22 2:38 2:34
2:45 2:44   5:48 2:40   2:26 4:20 1:11 1:28 1:12 1:20 2:22 2:38 2:34
2:45 2:44   5:48 2:40   2:26 4:20 1:11 1:28 1:12 1:20 2:22 2:38 2:34
2:45 2:44   5:48 2:40   2:26 4:20 1:11 1:28 1:12 1:20 2:22 2:38 2:34
2:45 2:44   5:48 2:40   2:26 4:20 1:11 1:28 1:12 1:20 2:22 2:38 2:34
2:45 2:44   5:48 2:40   2:26 4:20 1:11 1:28 1:12 1:20 2:22 2:38 2:34
2:45 2:44   5:48 2:40   2:26 4:20 1:11 1:28 1:12 1:20 2:22 2:38 2:34
2:45 2:44   5:48 2:40   2:26 4:20 1:11 1:28 1:12 1:20 2:22 2:38 2:34
2:45 2:44   5:48 2:40   2:26 4:20 1:11 1:28 1:12 1:20 2:22 2:38 2:34
2:45 2:44   5:48 2:40   2:26 4:20 1:11 1:28 1:12 1:20 2:22 2:38 2:34
2:45 2:44   5:48 2:40   2:26 4:20 1:11 1:28 1:12 1:20 2:22 2:38 2:34
2:45 2:44   5:48 2:40   2:26 4:20 1:11 1:28 1:12 1:20 2:22 2:38 2:34
2:45 2:44   5:48 2:40   2:26 4:20 1:11 1:28 1:12 1:20 2:22 2:38 2:34
2:45 2:44   5:48 2:40   2:26 4:20 1:11 1:28 1:12 1:20 2:22 2:38 2:34
2:45 2:44   5:48 2:40   2:26 4:20 1:11 1:28 1:12 1:20 2:22 2:38 2:34
2:45 2:44   5:48 2:40   2:26 4:20 1:11 1:28 1:12 1:20 2:22 2:38 2:34
2:45 2:44
2:45 2:44

2:45

2:45

2:44

2:44
2:44
2:45 2:44
2:45 2:44
 

5:48

2:40

 
2:26 4:20 1:11 1:28 1:12 1:20 2:22 2:38

2:26

2:26 4:20

4:20

1:11

1:11 1:28

1:28

1:12

1:12 1:20

1:20

2:22

2:22 2:38

2:38

2:26 4:20 1:11 1:28 1:12 1:20 2:22 2:38
2:26 4:20 1:11 1:28 1:12 1:20 2:22 2:38
2:34 3:58 1:09 1:28 1:11 1:12 2:36 2:52

2:34

2:34 3:58

3:58

1:09

1:09 1:28

1:28

1:11

1:11 1:12

1:12

2:36

2:36 2:52

2:52

2:34 3:58 1:09 1:28 1:11 1:12 2:36 2:52
2:34 3:58 1:09 1:28 1:11 1:12 2:36 2:52
DNO 6:52 2:11 2:06 2:16 3:30

DNO

DNO 6:52

6:52

2:11

2:11 2:06

2:06

2:16

2:16 3:30

3:30

DNO 6:52 2:11 2:06 2:16 3:30
DNO 6:52 2:11 2:06 2:16 3:30
DNO 6:52 2:11 2:06 2:16 3:30
1:20 2:22 2:38 2:34 3:58 1:09 1:28 1:11 1:12 2:36 2:52 DNO 6:52 2:11 2:06 2:16
1:20 2:22 2:38 2:34 3:58 1:09 1:28 1:11 1:12 2:36 2:52 DNO 6:52 2:11 2:06 2:16
1:20 2:22 2:38 2:34 3:58 1:09 1:28 1:11 1:12 2:36 2:52 DNO 6:52 2:11 2:06 2:16
1:20 2:22 2:38 2:34 3:58 1:09 1:28 1:11 1:12 2:36 2:52 DNO 6:52 2:11 2:06 2:16
1:20 2:22 2:38 2:34 3:58 1:09 1:28 1:11 1:12 2:36 2:52 DNO 6:52 2:11 2:06 2:16
1:20 2:22 2:38 2:34 3:58 1:09 1:28 1:11 1:12 2:36 2:52 DNO 6:52 2:11 2:06 2:16
1:20 2:22 2:38 2:34 3:58 1:09 1:28 1:11 1:12 2:36 2:52 DNO 6:52 2:11 2:06 2:16
2:22 2:38 2:34 3:58 1:09 1:28 1:11 1:12 2:36 2:52 DNO 6:52 2:11 2:06 2:16 3:30
2:22 2:38 2:34 3:58 1:09 1:28 1:11 1:12 2:36 2:52 DNO 6:52 2:11 2:06 2:16 3:30
2:36 2:52 DNO 6:52 2:11 2:06 2:16 3:30 Draft Draft Curtain Curtain Sprinklers Sprinklers w/10 w/10

DraftDraft CurtainCurtain

SprinklersSprinklers

w/10w/10Spacing Spacing

Sprinklers Sprinklers w/10 w/10 ’ ’ Spacing Spacing 4 4 ’ ’ x8 x8 ’ ’

44x8x8RoofRoof VentVent

717122

~4.5~4.5 MWMW HeptaneHeptane SpraySpray FireFire

TimeTime toto ActivateActivate FDS v1 Test
TimeTime toto ActivateActivate
FDS v1
Test
’ ’ 2 2 ” ” ~4.5 ~4.5 MW MW Heptane Heptane Spray Spray Fire Fire

SprinklerSprinkler EffectivenessEffectiveness

Sprinkler Sprinkler Fire Origin Fire Origin
Sprinkler
Sprinkler
Fire Origin
Fire Origin

SprinklerSprinkler EffectivenessEffectiveness

1600 80 HRR w/o Sprinklers 1400 HRR w/ Sprinklers Link Temp First Link Temp Second
1600
80
HRR w/o Sprinklers
1400
HRR w/
Sprinklers
Link Temp First
Link Temp Second
1200
60
1000
800
40
600
400
20
200
0
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
Heat Release Rate (kW)
Link Temperature (°C)

Time (s)

800 40 600 400 20 200 0 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Heat

TankTank FarmFarm

Tank Tank Farm Farm

TankTank FarmFarm FireFire w/w/ andand w/ow/o WindWind

Tank Tank Farm Farm Fire Fire w/ w/ and and w/o w/o Wind Wind
Tank Tank Farm Farm Fire Fire w/ w/ and and w/o w/o Wind Wind
Tank Tank Farm Farm Fire Fire w/ w/ and and w/o w/o Wind Wind

HeptaneHeptane SpraySpray FireFire

Heptane Heptane Spray Spray Fire Fire

ImpingingImpinging SpraySpray FireFire

Impinging Impinging Spray Spray Fire Fire