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ced.docx
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Chapter 5
Torsion and Transverse Shear of Thin-walled Beams
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## 3D FEA examples of thin-walled beams

Simplifying assumptions
Shearing stresses in open sections
Shear center
Shearing stresses, strains, and deformations in single-cell
closed sections
Analysis of multicell thin-walled sections in shear
Combined torsion and transverse shear of multicell thinwalled beams

## Coupled behavior: C-beam subjected to transverse

See more here:
C:\W\whit\Classes\304\Notes\5_Torsion_and_transv
erseShear\Example_4.7\405_HW_4_C-beam

ced.docx
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Shear in Advanced Beams
Caveat: The discussion in this file assumes that the distributed moments my and mz =0, Iyz=0 and
there are no gradients of thermal load in the x-direction. Although this is restrictive, it does simplify
the equations a lot and we still get to see some interesting behavior. If time permits, we will also
consider the more complicated cases.
Ref. A&H p. 205
Warning: A&H uses a reference modulus which I have chosen not to use.
You have probably noticed that we tend to spend more time talking about normal stresses than shear
stress. One reason is that for a typical non-optimized beam, the failure is due to excessive normal stress.
However, once one decides that every ounce is important and you optimize the dimensions, shear
stresses can become very important. Weight is obviously critical for aerospace structures, so we must
understand how to evaluate the severity of the shear stresses.

Earlier, we derived a formula for transverse shear stress in a beam. The formula is
1 y d xx
bdy . We then converted this formula into a usable form for beams in
xy ( y ) =
b( y ) yb dx
which there is no coupling between extension and bending. The formula was
y
V
xy =
b E y d y for the case of no thermal load. If you wish to include thermal
b ( y ) EI
yb
1 y d xx
loads, you will need to go back to xy ( y ) =
bdy and include thermal effects in the
b( y ) yb dx
constitutive relation when expressing xx in terms of beam parameters. This formula can be
further simplified for homogeneous cross-sections. When we derived this formula, we were
only considering simple cross-section shapes, such as rectangular and we had not defined the
quantity known as shear flow. (q). Now we want to consider more complicated shapes, such as
that below.

We could start the derivation from scratch again (see AS&H for details) or we can extend what
we already know. Lets try using what we already know.

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p. 3 of 7

Recall that we defined shear flow to be q = t xs when we were discussing torsion of thin-walled
beams. That definition will not change. What does change is that the shear flow is not
constant in the cross-section of a beam subjected to transverse loads. In fact, our goal is to
determine how it changes. Using the formula above, we obtain
y
V
shear flow is q = t x y =
E y t dy , where I have replaced b with t just to be
EI
yb
consistent with our discussion of thin-walled cross-sections in which we used t for the
thickness of the thin wall. Recall that yb refers to the y-coordinate at the bottom of the beam
where the shear stress is zero. We can generalize this formula for piecewise evaluation as
follows.

q( y )
=

q ( y0 )

V
EI

y E y t dy

## where y 0 is simply the starting point for the integration

This is more useful, since when we do piecewise evaluation, the shear flow will not usually be
zero at the lower limit of integration.
This formula is also valid if the cross-section is more complicated, such as that shown above.
We only need one minor change replace y with s, where s is the curvilinear coordinate
that goes along the middle of the thin wall. Hence, our formula is
s
V
q ( s ) q ( s0 )
=
E y t ds .
EI
s0
The presence of y in this formula is not a typo. It appeared in the formula originally because
the axial strain varies linearly with y, and so when we replaced xx , it appeared in the
integral. In performing the integration, we will need to express y in terms of s. This formula
can be expressed as
s
VQE
q( s ) =
q ( s0 )
where QE =
E y tds
EI
s0

## for transverse shear load in the y-direction

This formula is for transverse shear load in the y-direction. If the transverse load is in the zdirection, the formula changes slightly, as you would expect.

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VQE
q( s ) =
q ( s0 )
EI

where QE =
E z tds
s0

## for transverse shear load in the z-direction

In each case you must choose the correct section stiffness and shear force. In the formulas
below, I have added subscripts to clarify this.
s

Vy QE y
q( s ) =
q ( s0 )
EI zz

E y tds
where QE y =
s0
s

V QE
q( s ) =
q ( s0 ) z z
EI yy

E z tds
where QEz =

s0
Note: In A&H, the subscripts for Q are different than the notation here.

The normal procedure in using this formula is to start at a location where the shear flow is zero
(i.e. q ( s0 ) =0) and start your piecewise integration. In this class, it is normally piecewise because
the wall usually consists of a sequence of straight pieces, but they are not collinear. Generally,
s
the integrand is piecewise constant, so QE y =

## E y tds can usually be expressed as

s0

QE y
=

E y tds
=

( E y A)
c

up to s

s0
and
s

QEz
=

E z tds
=

( E z A)
c

up to s

s0
In this course, I will encourage you to evaluate the shear flow for one loading direction at a
time. This is because I like to keep my formulas simple. Analyze the beam for transverse loading
in the y-direction. Then consider the z-direction loading. Then add the contributions. Make sure
the curvilinear coordinate s is defined in exactly the same way for both analyses.

ced.docx
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I should point out that you will often find these formulas specialized for homogeneous beams.
For the case of homogeneous beams, we obtain
s
Vy Qy
y tds
q( s ) =
q ( s0 )
where Qy =
I zz
s0

VQ
q( s ) =
q ( s0 ) z z
I yy

z tds
where Qz =
s0

## The derivation in this file has shown you that

if you know the shear flow at one location, you can integrate to obtain the shear flow at any
other location
to determine the shear stress, you must know how the stress xx varies in the x-direction.
Fortunately, this is not difficult for many configurations

Appendix
If you wish to start from scratch, here are the sketches you will need. The biggest difference
between our original derivation for shear stress in a simple beam and the derivation using these
sketches is that the original derivation considered a piece of the differential element that wen
from the bottom to some ybar or from ybar to the top. The reason was that that the shear
stress was zero at the top and the bottom, so it was convenient. Take a look at Allen and Haisler
to go through the details.

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Etc.
Note that in the above sketch, if delta s had been taken very small, you would not even know
the wall was curved.

1b_coupledCase_alt_2.mw

p. 1 of 2

coupledCase_alt_2.mw
In the derivation of the formula for shear stress, an intermediate result was

## What is the derivative of sigmaXX for more complex cases?

restart : currentdir

; with LinearAlgebra :
"C:\W\whit\Classes\304\Notes\5_Torsion_and_transverseShear"

(1)

> S d Matrix

s11
S :=

s22 s23

s23 s33

(2)

## R = list of stress resultants

e = list of generalized strains <epsXX, kz, ky>
> R d F x , Mz x , My x
edS. R

C FT x , MTz x , MTy x

F x CFT x
R :=

Mz x CMTz x
My x CMTy x
s11 F x CFT x

e :=

s22 Mz x CMTz x

Cs23 My x CMTy x

s23 Mz x CMTz x

Cs33 My x CMTy x

(3)

## > vxx := e: wxx := -e:

sigma[xx] := E*(-y*vxx-z*wxx-alpha * deltaT(x)):
dSigmaXX_dx := diff(sigma[xx],x);
dSigmaXX_dx := eval(dSigmaXX_dx, {diff(My(x), x) = -my+Vz,
diff(Mz(x), x) = -mz-Vy}):
dSigmaXX_dx := eval(dSigmaXX_dx, {diff(MTy(x), x) = dMTy_dx,
diff(MTz(x), x) = dMTz_dx});
d
d
d
d
dSigmaXX_dx := E Ky s22
Mz x C
MTz x Cs23
My x C
MTy x
Kz
dx
dx
dx
dx
d
d
d
d
d
Ks23
Mz x C
MTz x K s33
My x C
MTy x
K
deltaT x
dx
dx
dx
dx
dx
dSigmaXX_dx := E Ky s22 Kmz KVy CdMTz_dx C s23 Kmy C Vz CdMTy_dx
C dMTz_dx Ks33 Kmy CVz CdMTy_dx

Kz Ks23 Kmz K Vy

(4)

d
deltaT x
dx

If EIyz=0

(i.e. s23=0)

## > eval(dSigmaXX_dx, s23 = 0);

E Ky s22 Kmz K Vy CdMTz_dx Cz s33 Kmy C Vz CdMTy_dx K

d
deltaT x
dx

(1.1)

## If EIyz=0 and there are no distributed moments

> eval(dSigmaXX_dx, {my = 0, mz = 0, s23 = 0});

(1 2)

1b_coupledCase_alt_2.mw

p. 2 of 2

## E Ky s22 KVy CdMTz_dx Cz s33 Vz CdMTy_dx K

d
deltaT x
dx

(1.2)

If EIyz=0, there are no distributed moments, and thermal loads are constant in x-direction
> eval(dSigmaXX_dx, {my = 0, mz = 0, s23 = 0, dMTy_dx = 0, dMTz_dx = 0, diff(deltaT
(x), x)=0});
E y s22 Vy C z s33 Vz
(1.3)

If EIyz is non-zero, but there are no distributed moments and thermal loads are constant in xdirection
> eval(dSigmaXX_dx, {my = 0, mz = 0, dMTy_dx = 0, dMTz_dx = 0, diff(deltaT(x), x)=0}
);
print(`Can rewrite as `,Vy * diff(%,Vy) + Vz * diff(%,Vz) );
E Ky Ks22 Vy Cs23 Vz K z s23 Vy Ks33 Vz
Can rewrite as , Vy E y s22 K z s23 CVz E Ky s23 Cz s33

(1.4)

What is in S?
> C d Matrix
S d CK1;

## EA, 0, 0 , 0, EIzz, KEIyz , 0, KEIyz, EIyy

EA
C :=

S :=

>

;
0

EIzz KEIyz

KEIyz EIyy

1
EA

EIyy
EIzz EIyy KEIyz2

EIyz
EIzz EIyy KEIyz2

EIyz
EIzz EIyy KEIyz2

EIzz
EIzz EIyy KEIyz2

(2.1)

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Shear in Advanced Beam: Summary
----------update formulas for inhomogeneous beams!
Transverse shear stress in laminated beam

V = xy dA
y

xy

V
=
b ( y ) EI

y b E y d y
b

Euler-Bernoulli beam theory assume shear deformation due to transverse shear stress=0.
Torsion of circular cylinder (homogeneous)

Mx =

r rdrd

M x = GJ

x =

d
dx

d
r
dx

x = x
Torsion of thin wall, closed cell beam
(single cell)

=
Mx

=
q r ds
n

=
q t xs
2qA

1 q ds
=
x 2 A t G

4 A 2
Mx =
ds x
t G

4 A2
=
> GJ =
ds
t G

(multi-cell)

M x = 2 qi Ai

=
x i
GJ =

Mx

1 q ds

2 A t G i

## relates moment due to shear flow to moment in beam

must impose all rotations are the same

C:\W\whit\Classes\304_2012_ver_3\_Notes\5_Torsion_and_transverseShear\3_shear_beams.docx
p. 2 of 3

Combined torsion and transverse shear of thin wall, closed cell beams

## M x = moment due to shear flow

Must integrate to obtain moment due to shear flow.
s

Vy QE y
q( s ) =
q ( s0 )
EI zz

E y tds
where QE y =
s0

=
x i
GJ =

1 q ds

2 A t G i

## must impose all rotations are the same

Mx

Combined torsion and transverse shear of thin wall, open section beams

## Cannot assume shear stress xs is constant across wall thickness

s

Vy QE y
q( s ) =
q ( s0 )
EI zz

E y tds
where QE y =
s0

GJ = ?
If the cross section is a collection of slender rectangles,
1
then the torsional stiffness is approximately bt 3 i where "t" is the wall thickness

i 3
Shear center in thin wall beams
The shear center is a special location. If the transverse load acts through the shear center, the beam
does not twist. This gives us a clue as to how to calculate the location. Consider the following:
1. For any load system (including those that cause twist), the moment about the x-axis (i.e. the
torque) due to the shear flow must equal the moment in the beam about the x-axis. For
example, if the applied loading causes a twisting moment of 100 inch-lbs., then the moment due
to the shear flow in the cross section must equal 100 inch-lbs.
2. The rate of rotation must equal zero.
It is critical that you keep in mind that shear flow is a stress resultant. It is describing something inside
the beam. It is not the applied load. The following assumes that the load is applied on the positive end
of the beam. If you are applying the load on the negative end of the beam, there is a switch in sign

C:\W\whit\Classes\304_2012_ver_3\_Notes\5_Torsion_and_transverseShear\3_shear_beams.docx
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between what is applied and what is inside the beam.
Hence, one solution strategy is
1. Determine the shear flows for the case that the rate of rotation is zero (i.e. there is no twist)
2. Determine the moment about the x-axis due to the shear flow.
3. Position the shear force such that the moment due to the shear force = moment due to the
shear flow. For example, if you sum moments about the origin when calculating the moment
due to the shear flow, then the moment due to an applied shear force in the z-direction is Vz *
y.
Warning: If you wish to determine the y-coordinate of the shear center, you must only apply a
shear force in the z-direction. If you wish to determine the z-coordinate of the shear center, you
must only apply a shear force in the y-direction. If you have combined loads, you will be in
trouble.
For an open section, (e.g. rectangular, C, S, or I cross-section), there is a bit of a subtlety.
The shear stress due to an applied to an applied torque is not constant across the wall thickness.
The shear stress due to an applied shear force acting through the shear center is assumed to be
constant across the wall thickness.
If you apply a shear force through the shear center, there will be a shear flow in the section. The
moment due to the shear flow must equal the moment due to the shear force. You can sum moments
about any point when calculating these moments, but it is particularly revealing to sum moments about
the shear center. (I know we do not know where it is so just say it is at y= ySC for the y-coordinate.)
Assuming we sum moments about the shear center and the applied shear force in the z-direction acts
through the shear center, then the moment due to the shear flow must equal zero. This requirement
gives us an equation to determine the value of ySC.
If we sum moments about any other point, we should still assume that the shear force acts through the
shear center.

C:\W\whit\Classes\304_2012_ver_3\_Notes\5_Torsion_and_transverseShear\4a_summary_example4.7
.docx
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Summary of Maple Solutions for Example 4.7 in A&H (p. 213)
The discussion of Example 4.7 in A&H needs some clarification. Here is the example.

If one was to apply the shear forces as indicated in the sketch, the shear flows would not be as
calculated. You will note in the calculation that no mention is made about the z-location of the ydirection force or the y-location of the z-direction force but it makes a difference. There are two ways
to interpret this problem statement:
1) The calculation actually assumes that the shear forces are applied such that there is no twist.
For that to be the case, the shear forces must act through the shear center. We have not
discussed the shear center yet. If we allowed there to be twisting of the beam, the shear flows
would be different. Lets re-interpret the sketch. Assume the sketch simply shows that there are
y-and z-direction shear forces. We will assume that they are being applied such that there is no
twisting of the beam. After we analyze the beam, we will determine where the forces must
have been acting to avoid twist.
2) The forces are applied such that there is twisting of the beam. However, the first approximation
of the effect of the twisting is a shear stress distribution in each rectangular segment that is
symmetric about the mid-line and hence the net shear flow is zero. Hence, the twist does not
affect our calculation. Here is a schematic of the shear stress distribution in a rectangular region
(by Felippa)

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example_4.7.mw Solved like in A&H with the discontinuous path, but
not using the reference modulus method.

## example_4.7_shearCenter.mw Solved using a continuous path. This

worksheet also calculates the shear center, which is discussed in Example
4.8 in A&H
example_4.7_path.mw This uses the same path as ,
xample_4.7_shearCenter.mw but it adds another approximation. Assuming
the wall thickness is very small, the variation of the integrand is simplified.
For example,

y 2 EdA is approximated as

y 2 E t ds

## Making this approximation makes it much simpler to automate the calculation.

Comparison of predictions
example_4.7.mw

example_4.7_shearCenter.mw example_4.7_path.mw

zc

.8125

.800

.55+.25= .80

EIzz

2.629E9

2.757E9

2.756E9

EIyy

2.971E8

2.984E8

2.952E8

qA

1017.85

1041.5

1057.7

qB

-1212.36

-1201.95

-1202.38

Shear center

Z = -1.060

Z=-.8777

Z=-.8781

Twist

-66.7 degrees

-66.7 degrees

## Coordinates are given in terms of the original coordinate system.

The largest difference is for the the shear center.
The differences will reduce if the wall is made thinner. The configuration specified above is marginally
thin-wall.

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I created another Maple worksheet that is more flexible. It has the option of making the very thin
assumption or not, so it replaces the last two sheets mentioned above. It is
named example_4.7_pathOptionsNew.mw . It was used for the following.
Now lets cut the wall thickness to .2 and the load by a factor of 100.
w/o the very thin
assumption

## Very thin asumption

zc

.800

.800

EIzz

1.1026E9

1.1025E9

EIyy

1.183E8

1.181E8

qA

10.551

10.577

qB

-12.02

-12.02

Shear center

Z = -1.028

Z= -1.028

Twist

-10.43

-10.43 degrees

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Appendix
This example is from A&H. For inhomogeneous beams, A&H have used something called a reference
modulus. That is what E1 and all the starred terms are about. I have chosen not to introduce this
approach. This difference in notation means that it will probably be confusing for you to use A&H on
this example.

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4b_example_4.7.mw

p. 1 of 5

4b_example_4.7.mw
This worksheet uses the path used in A&H.
Let's determine the shear flow at points "A" and "B" for this "C" channel.

Note: Refer to the sketch on the right to identify the original coordinate system. Original means the
coordinate system before we shift to the weighted centroid. Because of the limits on what Maple can do
in terms of formatting, we will use "xyz" for the original coordinate system and the shifted one. (i.e.
ignore the primes).
It is important to recognize that when one analyzes thin wall sections, there can be disagreement as
to the idealization. It is a good idea to be consistent. In particular, the discussion in A&H, which this
worksheet follows, does not use a continuous path when defining the integration path. Referring to
the the sketch above, the path starts at the top left and goes for 5 inches. It then starts at the top
middle of part 2. (I have shown "s" it to the side because of lack of space, but it is actually going
down the middle of each section.) The sketch below shows what a continuous path would look like. If
you choose this second option, consistency would suggest that you would approximate the geometry
and you will obtain a slightly different location for the centroid and section stiffnesses than what is
given in this worksheet.

In this configuration, the subregions are rectangular, so the integrals become quite simple. For more

4b_example_4.7.mw

p. 2 of 5

complcated shapes, you might need to actually perform the required integrals rather using the
summation formulas. (... or you would use formulas from a table)
Solving this problem requires manipulation of many dimensions and coordinates. You will help
yourself a lot if you get a good sketch before you start. Below is an example. The z-coordinate of the
centroid of the cross-section is unknown at this point. Once you know it, you can save yourself time
(and mistakes) by updating the information. It will be much easier to keep track of your "s"
coordinate if you restart it at zero for each section

restart : currentdir

; with linalg :

Vy d 1.0e4; Vz d K1.0e4;
#Vz d 0:
"C:\W\whit\Classes\304_2012_ver_3\_Notes\5_Torsion_and_transverseShear"
10000.
K10000.

(1)

## Determine the location of the weighted centroid

We only need to calculate the z centroid, since symmetry tells us that yc = 0.0.
E := 1.00 107, 3.00 107, 1.00 107 ;
1.000000000 107, 3.000000000 107, 1.000000000 107

(1.1)

2.5, 5.0, 2.5

(1.2)

5.25, 0, K5.25

(1.3)

(1.4)

## ySubCentroid d 5.25, 0, K5.25

zSubCentroid d 2.5, 0.25, 2.5
3

zc d

> E A zSubCentroid

i=1

i i

sum E i \$A i , i = 1 ..3
print `zc = `, zc ;

## zSubCentroid d evalm zSubCentroid K zc ;

4b_example_4.7.mw

p. 3 of 5

0.8125000000
zc = , 0.8125000000
1.687500000 K0.5625000000 1.687500000

(1.5)

## Calculate the weighted moments of inertia using the extended

parallel axis theorem
EIzz
base d vector 3, 5, .5, 5
5 0.5 5

(2.1.1)

## height d vector 3, .5, 10, .5

0.5 10 0.5
Calculate the weighted moments of inertia relative to the centroid of each region
EIzz0 d vector 3 :
for i from 1 to 3 do
1
EIzz0 i d
\$E i \$ base i \$ height i 3;
12
od:
print `EIzz0 =`, EIzz0

(2.1.2)

## EIzz0 =, 5.208333333 105 1.250000000 109 5.208333333 105

Now use the parallel axis theorem to calculate the weighted moment of inertia for the section
#EIzz := sum( EIzz0[i]+ ySubCentroid[i]^2 * E[i]*A[i], i = 1..3);
EIzz d 0 :
for i from 1 to 3 do
EIzz d EIzz C EIzz0 i CySubCentroid i ^2 * E i * A i ;
od:
print `EIzz = `, EIzz ;
EIzz = , 2.629166666 109

(2.1.3)

(2.1.4)

EIyy
Reverse the roles of base and height
height d vector 3, 5, .5, 5

5 0.5 5

(2.2.1)

## base d vector 3, .5, 10, .5

0.5 10 0.5
Calculate the weighted moments of inertia relative to the centroid of each region
EIyy0 d vector 3 :
for i from 1 to 3 do
1
\$E i \$ base i \$ height i 3;
EIyy0 i d
12
od:
print `EIyy0 =`, EIyy0

(2.2.2)

## EIyy0 =, 5.208333333 107 3.125000000 106 5.208333333 107

Now use the parallel axis theorem to calculate the weighted moment of inertia for the section
EIyy d 0 :
for i from 1 to 3 do

(2.2.3)

4b_example_4.7.mw
EIyy d EIyy C EIyy0 i CzSubCentroid i ^2 * E i * A i ;
od:
print `EIyy= `, EIyy ;
EIyy= , 2.971354166 108

p. 4 of 5

(2.2.4)

## Calculate the shear flow at loction "A"

#sbar d 4.5:
QEy d E 1 \$ 5.25 \$ sbar\$.5
QEz d E 1 \$ .5 C 2.25 K zc \$ sbar\$.5
9.687500000 106 sbar

(3.1)

K99.84152142 sbar

(3.2)

326.0297985 sbar

(3.3)

## Due to the shear Vy, we obtain

q0 d 0 :
Vy \$ QEy
qshearY d q0 K
EIzz
Due to the shear Vz, we obtain
q0 d 0 :
Vz \$ QEz
qshearZ d q0 K
EIyy
q12 d qshearY CqshearZ = 226.1882771 sbar
Therefore, the shear flow at "A" = eval q

shearY

Cq

shearZ

## We will do this using the path used in A&H.

We repeat the calculation we performed for point "A", but extend the integration to the end, i.e. 5
inches
sbar d 5.0 :
QEy d E 1 \$ 5.25 \$ sbar\$.5

1.312500000 108

(4.1)

4.218750000 107

(4.2)

K499.2076071

(4.3)

## QEz d E 1 \$ 2.5 Kzc \$ sbar\$.5

Due to the shear Vy, we obtain
q0 d 0 :
Vy \$ QEy
qshearY d q0 K
EIzz
Due to the shear Vz, we obtain
q0 d 0 :

4b_example_4.7.mw
qshearZ d q0 K

p. 5 of 5

Vz \$ QEz
EIyy

1419.807187
(4.4)
Therefore, the shear flow at the right end of the horizontal piece = qStart d qshearY C qshearZ = 920.5995799
Note that his is physically impossible, since this is a free surface, but the approximations in our simple theory + the
presence of the vertical piece cause this to be non-zero.
We could just integrate down the vertical member to point B to get the increment and then add "qStart" to the increment.
However, it turns out that it is instructive to look at the contributions of Vy and Vz seperately.
Let's continue the integration for QEy and QEz.
QEy d QEy C E 2 \$ 2.5 \$ 5.0\$.5
3.187500000 108
(4.5)
QEz d QEz C E 2 \$ .25 K zc \$ 5.0 \$ .5
0.
(4.6)
q0 d 0 :
Vy \$ QEy
qshearY d q0 K
EIzz
K1212.361332
(4.7)
q0 d 0 :
Vz \$ QEz
qshearZ d q0 K
EIyy
0.
(4.8)
qB d qshearY CqshearZ :
print `The total shear flow at B =`, qB ;
The total shear flow at B =, K1212.361332

(4.9)

## Quick calculation of shear center

Must set Vz =0 for this calculation to work out correctly (set it at the top of the file)
Let's sum moments about y=0 and z= middle of vertical member. This is chosen so that we do not have to consider the
moment due to the shear flow in the vertical member. The result is
sbar d 'sbar':
shearFlowMoment d int Kq12 \$ 5.25, sbar = 0 ..5.0 \$ 2
K29687.21138
(5.1)

I cheated a little bit. I knew that the shearflow in the upper and lower horizontal pieces were the
same, so I did it for the upper part and multiplied by 2. You should confirm this.
The applied force Vy must be applied at a location (i.e. through a particular z-coordinate) such that it
creates this moment.
In terms of the original coordinate system, the moment due to Vy is -(zsc - .25)*Vy. Hence, we
can calculate the z-coordinate as follows:
ans d solve K zsc K.25 \$ Vy = shearFlowMoment, zsc ;
3.218721138
(5.2)
The distance from the median line is (in the -z direction)
abs K.25 C ans
2.968721138

(5.3)

if Vz s 0 then
print `Need to re-do this calculation with Vz set to zero` ;
fi:
Need to re-do this calculation with Vz set to zero

(5.4)

>

4c_example_4.7_pathOptionsNew.mw

p. 1 of 9

4c_example_4.7_pathOptionsNew.mw
This procedure makes an additional approximation optional... since the wall is assumed to be thin,
the variation of the coordinate through the wall thickness is ignored. (negligible). This simplifies
automating the calculation.
For example, we can make the following approximation:

## If you define thinWallOption = `veryThin`, this approximation will be used.

I also shifted the original coordinate system. The original y now goes through the middle of the
vertical piece.

## update this sketch... use variables rather than numbers.

4c_example_4.7_pathOptionsNew.mw

restart : currentdir

## ; with linalg : with plots : #Digits d 15:

#thinWallOption d veryThin;
"C:\W\whit\Classes\304_2012_ver_3\_Notes\5_Torsion_and_transverseShear"

## Define the geometry and loads

Vy d 1.0e4; Vz d K1.0e4;
#Vyd0:
#Vz d 0:

p. 2 of 9

#It is interesting to see what each load contributes to the shear flow

numPoints d 4 :
numSeg d 3 :
YZ d
5.25, 4.75 , 5.25, 0 , K5.25, 0 , K5.25, 4.75 : evalm YZ ;
conn d
1, 2 , 2, 3 , 3, 4 : evalm conn ;
t d .5, .5, .5 :
E d 1.00 107, 3.00 107, 1.00 107 ;
10000.
K10000.

(1)

4c_example_4.7_pathOptionsNew.mw

p. 3 of 9

5.25 4.75
5.25

K5.25

K5.25 4.75
1 2
2 3
3 4
1.000000000 107,

(1.1)

## Determine the location of the weighted centroid

We only need to calculate the z centroid, since symmetry tells us that yc = 0.0.

L d vector numSeg :
yc d 0 : # for this config
weightedArea d 0 :
ZweightedFirstMoment d 0 :
for i from 1 to numSeg do
printlevel d 0 :
p1 d conn i, 1 : p2 d conn i, 2 :
y1 d YZ p1, 1 : z1 d YZ p1, 2 :
y2 d YZ p2, 1 : z2 d YZ p2, 2 :
L i d sqrt y2 Ky1 2 C z2 Kz1 2 ;
print `Coordinates for segment & length= `, y1, z1, y2, z2, L i ;
s
s
y d y1 \$ 1 K
Cy2\$
:
L i
L i
s
s
z d z1 \$ 1 K
C z2\$
:
L i
L i
weightedArea d weightedArea C int E i \$ t i , s = 0 ..L i ;
ZweightedFirstMoment d ZweightedFirstMoment Cint z\$E i \$ t i , s = 0 ..L i ;
od;
ZweightedFirstMoment
zc d
;
weightedArea
print `weightedArea = `, weightedArea ;
print `ZweightedFirstMoment = `, ZweightedFirstMoment ;
print `zc = `, zc ;
#zc C.25;
Coordinates for segment & length= , 5.25, 4.75, 5.25, 0, 4.750000000
Coordinates for segment & length= , 5.25, 0, K5.25, 0, 10.50000000
Coordinates for segment & length= , K5.25, 0, K5.25, 4.75, 4.750000000
0.5503048780
weightedArea = , 2.050000000 108
ZweightedFirstMoment = , 1.12812500 108
zc = , 0.5503048780

(2.2)

## Shift the coordinates to the weighted centroidal axes

for i from 1 to numPoints do
YZ i, 1 d YZ i, 1 K yc :
YZ i, 2 d YZ i, 2 Kzc :
od:
evalm YZ ;

4c_example_4.7_pathOptionsNew.mw
5.25

4.199695122

5.25 K0.5503048780
K5.25 K0.5503048780
K5.25

p. 4 of 9

(2.1.1)

4.199695122

## Calculate the weighted moments of inertia

EIzz and Eyz
EIzz d 0 :
EIyy d 0 :
for i from 1 to numSeg do
printlevel d 0 :
p1 d conn i, 1 : p2 d conn i, 2 :
y1 d YZ p1, 1 :
z1 d YZ p1, 2 :
y2 d YZ p2, 1 :
z2 d YZ p2, 2 :
#print `z1,z2=`, z1, z2 ;
y d y1 \$ 1 K

L i
s
z d z1 \$ 1 K
L i

Cy2\$

:
L i
s
Cz2\$
:
L i

#print `y,z,L=`, y, z, L ;
EIzz d EIzz C int y2 \$ E i \$ t i , s = 0 ..L i ;
EIyy d EIyy C int z2 \$ E i \$ t i , s = 0 ..L i ;

## #print `contrib=`, int z2 \$ E i \$ t i , s = 0 ..L i

E i
\$L i \$ t i 3 :
12
if thinWallOption = `veryThin` then
localEI d 0.0 :
fi:

localEI d

if y2 = y1 then
EIzz d EIzz C localEI :
fi:
if z2 = z1 then
EIyy d EIyy C localEI :
fi:
od;
print `EIzz = `, EIzz ;
print `EIyy = `, EIyy ;
EIzz = , 2.757239584 109
EIyy = , 2.984395644 108

## Calculate the shear flow in each segment

(3.1.1)

4c_example_4.7_pathOptionsNew.mw

p. 5 of 9

## QEy d vector numSeg :

QEz d vector numSeg :
sumY d 0 :
sumZ d 0 :
for i from 1 to numSeg do
printlevel d 0 :
p1 d conn i, 1 : p2 d conn i, 2 :
y1 d YZ p1, 1 :
z1 d YZ p1, 2 :
z2 d YZ p2, 2 :
y2 d YZ p2, 1 :
s
s
y d y1 \$ 1 K
Cy2\$
:
L i
L i
s
s
z d z1 \$ 1 K
C z2\$
:
L i
L i
QEy i d int E i \$ y \$ t i , s = 0 ..s C sumY;
QEz i d int E i \$ z \$ t i , s = 0 ..s
C sumZ;
sumY d eval QEy i , s = L i :
sumZ d eval QEz i , s = L i :
print `sumY, sumZ=`, sumY, sumZ ;
od;
print `QEy for each segment = `, evalm QEy
;
print `QEz for each segment = `, evalm QEz
;
sumY, sumZ=, 1.246875000 108, 4.333650915 107
sumY, sumZ=, 1.246875000 108, K4.333650913 107
sumY, sumZ=, 0., 0.02
QEy for each segment = ,
2.6250000 107 s, 7.8750000 107 s K7.500000 106 s2 C1.246875000 108, K2.6250000 107 s
C1.246875000 108
QEz for each segment = , 2.099847561 107 s K 2.500000 106 s2, K8.254573170 106 s C 4.333650915 107,
K2.751524390 106 s C 2.500000 106 s2 K 4.333650913 107

## Loop over segments

shearFlow d vector numSeg :
p d vector numSeg :
offset d 0 :
segmentColor d red, green, blue :
for i from 1 to numSeg do
print `Results for segment `, i ;
Vy \$ QEy i
q0 d 0 :
qshearY d q0 K
;
EIzz
print `Shear flow due to Vy = `, qshearY ;
Vz \$ QEz i
;
EIyy
print `Shear flow due to Vz = `, q
;
shearZ
shearFlow i d q
Cq
;
shearY
shearZ
print `Total shear flow in segment = `, shearFlow i
q0 d 0 :

qshearZ d q0 K

(4.1)

4c_example_4.7_pathOptionsNew.mw
p i d plot s Coffset, shearFlow i , s = 0 ..L i , color = segmentColor i , title
= `Shear flow... look at sketch to see meaning of coordinate "s"` , thickness = 3 :
print `offset, length = `, offset, L i
offset d offset C L i :
od: display convert p, list ;

## Results for segment , 1

Shear flow due to Vy = , K95.20391392 s
Shear flow due to Vz = , 703.6089753 s K 83.76905405 s2
Total shear flow in segment = , 608.4050614 s K83.76905405 s2
offset, length = , 0, 4.750000000
Results for segment , 2
Shear flow due to Vy = , K452.2185911 K285.6117417 s C 27.20111826 s2
Shear flow due to Vz = , 1452.103351 K 276.5911144 s
Total shear flow in segment = , 999.8847599 K562.2028561 s C27.20111826 s2
offset, length = , 4.750000000, 10.50000000
Results for segment , 3
Shear flow due to Vy = , K452.2185911 C 95.20391391 s
Shear flow due to Vz = , K1452.103350 K92.19703814 s C 83.76905405 s2
Total shear flow in segment = , K1904.321941 C 3.00687577 s C83.76905405 s2
offset, length = , 15.25000000, 4.750000000

p. 6 of 9

4c_example_4.7_pathOptionsNew.mw

p. 7 of 9

## Shear flow... look at sketch to see meaning of coordinate "s"

1000

500

0
5

10

15

20

K500

K1000

K1500

Maximum value in segments... assumes that there is a zero slope in curve for the segment,
which is not always the case. If there is not, tghe extreme value occurs at an endpoint.
for i from 1 to numSeg do
sMax d solve diff shearFlow i , s = 0, s :
print sMax, eval shearFlow i , s = sMax ;
od:
Check endpoint values
for i from 1 to numSeg do
print eval shearFlow i , s = 0 , eval shearFlow i , s = L i
;
od:
0., 999.884760
999.8847599, K1904.321941
K1904.321941, 0.000001

(4.1.1)

## Shear flow at points A and B

eval shearFlow 1 , s = 4.5
1041.499431

(4.1.2)

K1201.949413

(4.1.3)

## Shear center............ for this calculation we need to go to the top of the

4c_example_4.7_pathOptionsNew.mw

p. 8 of 9

## worksheet and set Vz=0

print(`The shear flows are `, evalm(shearFlow));
The shear flows are , 608.4050614 s K83.76905405 s2, 999.8847599 K 562.2028561 s
C27.20111826 s2, K1904.321941 C 3.00687577 s C83.76905405 s2

(4.1.1.1)
(4.1.1.2)

Let's sum moments about y=0 and z= middle of vertical member. This is chosen so that we do not have to
consider the moment due to the shear flow in the vertical member. The result is
shearFlowMoment d int KshearFlow 1 \$ 5.25, s = 0 ..4.75 C int KshearFlow 3 \$ 5.25, s = 0 ..4.75
11277.20109
(4.1.1.3)

The applied force Vy must be applied at a location (i.e. through a particular z-coordinate) such
that it creates this moment.
In terms of the original coordinate system, the moment due to Vy is
-(z - .25)*Vy.
Hence, we can calculate the z-coordinate as follows:
z d 'z':
zc d solve K z K t 2
\$ Vy = shearFlowMoment, z ;
2
K0.8777201090
(4.1.1.4)
The distance from the median line is (in the -z direction)
t 2
abs K
C zc
2
1.127720109
ZC d K0.8781249960;
K0.8781249960

(4.1.1.6)

## Calculate the rate of rotation

If loads are applied as shown, the beam will twist. This will cause additional shear stresses. Along the
middle of the rectangular segments, the first approximation of the additional shear stress will be
zero. However, away from the middle, there will definitely be additional shear stress. Here is a sketch
(from notes by Carlos Felippa of U. Colorado) of a rectangular region that gives some feeling for
what is going on. The length of each arrow corresponds to the intensity of the shear stress.

For a cross-section made up of thin rectangular regions, the contribution of each rectangular region to
the total torsional stiffness is quite simple. Each rectangular region behaves like it is detached from
the rest of the cross-section, so we simply caculate the torsional stiffness of each rectangle and add it

4c_example_4.7_pathOptionsNew.mw

p. 9 of 9

3
up. The tosional stiffness of a rectangle is approximately GJ = G b t

Once we know this, we proceed in exactly the same way we did for a multicell cross-section, but in
this case we have multiple solid rectangles rather than multiple cells.
Mx = GJ * kx
where kx = rate of rotation and GJ = effective torional stiffness
We assume a Poisson's ratio of .3
E 1
E 2
E 3
,
,
;
2 1 C.3
2 1 C.3
2 1 C.3
3
Mx1 d G 1 \$ abs YZ 2, 2 KYZ 1, 2 \$t 1 \$ kx;
3
3
Mx2 d G 2 \$ abs YZ 3, 1 KYZ 2, 1 \$t 2 \$kx;
3
3
Mx3 d G 3 \$ abs YZ 4, 2 KYZ 3, 2 \$t 3 \$kx;
3
Mx d Mx1 C Mx2 CMx3;
Gd

## 3.846153846 106, 1.153846154 107, 3.846153846 106

7.612179487 105 kx
5.048076927 106 kx
7.612179487 105 kx
6.570512824 106 kx

(5.1)

## What is the applied torque?

If the shear forces were applied through the shear center, there would be no twist.
Let's calculate equivalent loads that have the shear forces acting through the shear center. When we
shift the location of a force, the magnitude of the force does not change, but there is a change in the
specified moment. Consider the z-direction force. When we shift it to act through y=0, equivalence
demands that both the original and the new load system create the same moment. Let's sum
moment1 d 'moment_1': moment2 d 'moment2 ':
moment1 d solve Vz \$ 5.5 = Vz \$ 0 C moment1, moment1 ;
(5.2)
K55000.
The y-direction force is being shifted from z=0 to z=zc. Let's calculate moments about z =0.
moment2 d solve Vy \$0 = KVy \$ZC C moment2, moment2 ;

## appliedTorque d moment C moment ;

1

K8781.249960
K63781.24996
ror d solve Mx = appliedTorque, kx ;
tipRotation d 120 \$ ror ;
tipRotation \$ 180.
tipRotationDegrees d evalf
;
Pi
K0.009707195111
K1.164863413
K66.74175724
>

(5.3)

(5.4)

C:\W\whit\Classes\304_2012_ver_3\_Notes\5_Torsion_and_transverseShear\5a_rectangularBoxBeam_
summary.docx
p. 1 of 3
Box Beam Analysis
This summarizes the results for one version of the single-cell box
beam. These calculations make the additional assumption about
ignoring the moment of inertia about the centroid of each section.
Details are in the Maple worksheet rectangularBoxBeam.mw.
w=10 h=10

In what follows, we define qa to be the shear flow at the coordinate location y,z= (-w,-h)

## ror = Rate of rotation =

=>
Substitute this into the expressions for the shear flow for each segment.

Plot of shear flow path = 1-2-3-4-1 for the case Mx= -1.0e5 Vy = 1.0e4. The value of Mx is
the torque about the center.

C:\W\whit\Classes\304_2012_ver_3\_Notes\5_Torsion_and_transverseShear\5a_rectangularBoxBeam_
summary.docx
p. 2 of 3

Let's calculate the net force in each segment due to the shear flow. The direction of the force is in
the direction "s". Here are results for several cases.

Unless one has the right mix of shear and moment, there will be twist.

C:\W\whit\Classes\304_2012_ver_3\_Notes\5_Torsion_and_transverseShear\5a_rectangularBoxBeam_
summary.docx
p. 3 of 3
Finally, consider the case that the shear force acts through the shear center (which means the
moment is just right to prevent twist)

Let's calculate the net force in each segment due to the shear flow. The direction of the force is in
the direction "s". Now we see that segment 1 is picking up a lot more load than segment 3, which
is expected, since the modulus is 3 times as large.

## Dont forget, positive force is in the direction of s not y or z.

What if we had multiple cells? What is different?
For one cell you assign the starting value of the shear flow at some arbitrary point to equal an
unknown quantity and then started your integrations. (Later, you solve for this unknown.)
For multiple cells, you will have to repeat what you did for one cell, which means you will have
n unknown starting values if there are n cells.
Calculate the moment due to the shear flow. You cannot use the simple formula involving the
enclosed area, since the shear flow is not constant.
Now you are basically back where you were for just torsion of multi-cell beams: you have n
unknowns, n-1 compatibility constraints since the twist rate is the same for all the cells, and
one equation that equates the moment due to the shear flow to the total moment.

5b_rectangularBoxBeam_mod.mw

p. 1 of 10

rectangularBoxBeam.mw
This procedure makes an additional approximation... since the wall is assumed to be thin, the
variation of the coordinate through the wall thickness is ignored. (i.e. assumed to be negligible). This
simplifies automating the calculation.
To keep things from getting too messy, we will restrict ourselves to shear force in the y-direction and
torque only
Make sure the box is symmetric about y=0, since this worksheet only handles lack of symmetry
I suspect that if you make this rectangle too elongated or too asymmetrical, the approximate solution
is not very good. For example, if we set the modulus of two adjacent sides to a very low value, I do
not expect you to recover the solution for a "right angle" cross-section.
restart : currentdir

## ; with linalg : with plots : #Digits d 15:

"C:\W\whit\Classes\304_2012_ver_3\_Notes\5_Torsion_and_transverseShear"

(1)

Note that the dimensions are defined per the path along the middle of the walls.
(2)

## Define the geometry and loads

It is assumed that the shear force is acting through the shear center. At this point I do not know where that is! (Actually,
for a homogeneous rectangular cross-section, I do, but in general I would not.) Before I finish, I will calculate the shear
center.
# Vy d 1.0e4: Mx d 50000:
numPoints d 4 :
numSeg d 4 :
w d 10 : h d 10 :
YZ d
Kw,Kh , w,Kh , w, h , Kw, h
: evalm YZ ;
conn d
1, 2 , 2, 3 , 3, 4 , 1, 4 : evalm conn ;
t d .5, .5, .5, .5 :

5b_rectangularBoxBeam_mod.mw

p. 2 of 10

## E d 3.00 107, 1.00 107, 1.00 107, 1.0e7 : nu d .3 :

#Ed 1.00 107, 1.00 107, 1.00 107, 1.0e7 : nu d .3 :

G d vector 4 :
for i from 1 to 4 do
E i
G i d
;
2\$ 1 Cnu
od:
K10 K10
10 K10
10

10

K10

10

1 2
2 3

(1.1)

3 4
1 4

## Determine the location of the weighted centroid

We only need to calculate the z centroid, since symmetry tells us that yc = 0.0.
L d vector numSeg :
yc d 0 : # for this config
weightedArea d 0 :
ZweightedFirstMoment d 0 :
YweightedFirstMoment d 0 :

## for i from 1 to numSeg do

printlevel d 0 :
p1 d conn i, 1 : p2 d conn i, 2 :
y1 d YZ p1, 1 : z1 d YZ p1, 2 :
y2 d YZ p2, 1 : z2 d YZ p2, 2 :
L i d sqrt y2 Ky1 2 C z2 Kz1 2 ;
#print `Coordinates for segment & length= `, y1, z1, y2, z2, L
s
s
y d y1 \$ 1 K
Cy2\$
:
L i
L i
s
s
C z2\$
:
z d z1 \$ 1 K
L i
L i
weightedArea d weightedArea C int E i \$ t i , s = 0 ..L i
ZweightedFirstMoment d ZweightedFirstMoment Cint z\$E
YweightedFirstMoment d YweightedFirstMoment Cint y\$E

;
i \$ t i , s = 0 ..L i ;
i \$ t i , s = 0 ..L i ;

od;
ZweightedFirstMoment
:
weightedArea
YweightedFirstMoment
yc d
:
weightedArea
zc d

## #print `weightedArea = `, weightedArea ;

#print `ZweightedFirstMoment = `, ZweightedFirstMoment ;
print `yc, zc = `, yc, zc ;
yc, zc = , 0., K3.333333333

(2.2)

5b_rectangularBoxBeam_mod.mw

p. 3 of 10

## Shift the coordinates to the weighted centroidal axes

for i from 1 to numPoints do
YZ i, 1 d YZ i, 1 K yc :
YZ i, 2 d YZ i, 2 Kzc :
od:
evalm YZ ;
K10. K6.666666667
10. K6.666666667
10.

13.33333333

(2.1.1)

K10. 13.33333333

## Calculate the weighted moments of inertia

EIzz and Eyz
EIzz d 0 :
EIyy d 0 :
for i from 1 to numSeg do
printlevel d 0 :
p1 d conn i, 1 : p2 d conn i, 2 :
y1 d YZ p1, 1 :
z1 d YZ p1, 2 :
y2 d YZ p2, 1 :
z2 d YZ p2, 2 :
#print `z1,z2=`, z1, z2 ;
s
s
Cy2\$
:
L i
L i
s
s
z d z1 \$ 1 K
Cz2\$
:
L i
L i
print `y,z,L=`, y, z, L i ;
EIzz d EIzz C int y2 \$ E i \$ t i , s = 0 ..L i ;
EIyy d EIyy C int z2 \$ E i \$ t i , s = 0 ..L i ;
y d y1 \$ 1 K

## #print `contrib=`, int z2 \$ E i \$ t i , s = 0 ..L i

od;
print `EIzz = `, EIzz ;
print `EIyy = `, EIyy ;
y,z,L=, K10. C1.000000000 s, K6.666666667, 20
y,z,L=, 10., K6.666666667 C 0.9999999999 s, 20
y,z,L=, 10. K1.000000000 s, 13.33333333, 20
y,z,L=, K10., K6.666666667 C 0.9999999999 s, 20
EIzz = , 3.333333333 1010
EIyy = , 3.999999999 1010

(3.1.1)

## Calculate the shear flow in each segment

We have a little complication. We do not know the shear flow anywhere. Hence, we will simply start
somewhere and use a variable (whose value is unknown) to identify the shear flow at that location.
Once we calculate all of the shear flows, we can impose equilibrium. For example, if the imposed
loads cause Mx and Vy to exist in the beam, then if we integrate to obtain the effects of the the shear
flows, we had better recover those values of Mx and Vy.

5b_rectangularBoxBeam_mod.mw

p. 4 of 10

In what follows, we define qa to be the shear flow at the coordinate location y,z= (-w,-h)

## QEy d vector numSeg :

q0 d qa :
shearFlow d vector numSeg :
q d vector 4 :
for i from 1 to numSeg do
#printlevel d 0:
p1 d conn i, 1 : p2 d conn i, 2 :
z1 d YZ p1, 2 :
y1 d YZ p1, 1 :
y2 d YZ p2, 1 :
z2 d YZ p2, 2 :
s
s
y d y1 \$ 1 K
Cy2\$
:
L i
L i
s
s
z d z1 \$ 1 K
C z2\$
:
L i
L i
QEy i d int E i \$ y \$ t i , s = 0 ..s ;
Vy \$ QEy i
;
q i d q0 K
EIzz
q0 d eval q i , s = L i ;
print `Segment`, i, `: q = `, q i ;
od;
qSave d copy q :

## q = , qa K3.000000000 10-11 Vy K1.50000000 108 s C 7.500000 106 s2

Segment, 2, : q = , qa K 0.001500000000 Vy s
Segment, 3, : q = , qa K 0.03000000000 Vy K 3.000000000 10-11 Vy 5.0000000 107 s K2.500000 106 s2
Segment, 4, : q = , qa K0.03000000000 Vy C0.001500000000 Vy s
Segment, 1, :

(4.1)

Solve for z-coordinate of shear center (see procedure used in next section--more straightforward)
rotation rate

1
q 1
q 2
q 3
\$ int
, s = 0 ..2\$w C int
, s = 0 ..2\$h Cint
, s = 0 ..2\$w
2\$4\$h\$w
t 1 \$G 1
t 2 \$G 2
t 3 \$G 3
q 4
C int
, s = 0 ..2\$h
;
t 4 \$G 4
K7.800000000 10-10 Vy C 4.333333334 10-8 qa
(4.1.1)
torqueAboutCenter d int h \$ q 1 , s = 0 ..2\$w Cint w \$ q 2 , s = 0 ..2\$h C int h \$ q 3 , s = 0 ..2\$w C int w
\$q 4 , s = 0 ..2\$h ;
qaAns d solve Mx = torqueAboutCenter, qa :
print `qa = `, qa ;
q d map eval, q, qa = qaAns :

ror d

5b_rectangularBoxBeam_mod.mw
print `The shear flows are `, evalm q
eval ror, qa = qaAns ;

p. 5 of 10

K10. Vy C800. qa
qa = , qa
The shear flows are , 0.01250000000 Vy C0.001250000000 Mx K 3.000000000 10-11 Vy K1.50000000 108 s
C 7.500000 106 s2 , 0.01250000000 Vy C0.001250000000 Mx K0.001500000000 Vy s,
K0.01750000000 Vy C0.001250000000 Mx K 3.000000000 10-11 Vy 5.0000000 107 s
K 2.500000 106 s2 , K0.01750000000 Vy C0.001250000000 Mx C0.001500000000 Vy s
K2.383333332 10-10 Vy C 5.416666668 10-11 Mx
(4.1.2)
If I want the rate of rotation to be zero, this equation tells me that I will need to apply both a moment and a shear
force. Let's offset the shear force from the weighted centroid. Apply it at a distance "e" from the weighted centroid (in
the z-direction).The moment about the weighted centroid
moment d solve eval ror, qa = qaAns = 0, Mx ;
solve KVy\$e = moment, e ;
4.399999996 Vy
K4.399999996
(4.1.3)

## Solve for z-coordinate of shear center... calculated relative ot the original

coordinate system
rotation rate

q d copy qSave :
1
q 1
q 2
ror d
\$ int
, s = 0 ..2\$w C int
, s = 0 ..2\$h Cint
2\$4\$h\$w
t 1 \$G 1
t 2 \$G 2
q 4
C int
, s = 0 ..2\$h
;
t 4 \$G 4
K7.800000000 10-10 Vy C 4.333333334 10-8 qa
qaAns d solve ror = 0, qa :
print `qa = `, qaAns ;
q d map eval, q, qa = qaAns :
print `The shear flows are `, evalm q ;
eval ror, qa = qaAns ;

q 3
, s = 0 ..2\$w
t 3 \$G 3

(4.2.1)

## torqueAboutCenter d int h \$ q 1 , s = 0 ..2\$w C int w \$ q 2 , s = 0 ..2\$h C int h \$ q 3 , s = 0 ..2\$w C int w

\$q 4 , s = 0 ..2\$h :
print `This shear flow gives a moment about the center = `, torqueAboutCenter ;
qa = , 0.01800000000 Vy
The shear flows are , 0.01800000000 Vy K3.000000000 10-11 Vy K1.50000000 108 s C 7.500000 106 s2 ,
0.01800000000 Vy K0.001500000000 Vy s, K0.01200000000 Vy
K 3.000000000 10-11 Vy 5.0000000 107 s K2.500000 106 s2 , K0.01200000000 Vy
C 0.001500000000 Vy s
1. 10-19 Vy
This shear flow gives a moment about the center = , 4.400000000 Vy
(4.2.2)

This tells me that in order to impose a zero rotation, I will need to impose a moment as indicated.
zsc d solve KVy \$ zsc = torqueAboutCenter, zsc :
print `z-coordinate of shear center = `, zsc ;
z-coordinate of shear center = , K4.400000000

(4.2.3)

5b_rectangularBoxBeam_mod.mw

p. 6 of 10

## Plot for specified Mx and Vy

Note that the moment is the "total moment". If we impose Vy alone, there would be rotation.
> q d copy qSave :
torqueAboutCenter d int h \$ q 1 , s = 0 ..2\$w C int w \$ q 2 , s = 0 ..2\$h C int h \$ q 3 , s = 0 ..2\$w
C int w\$q 4 , s = 0 ..2\$h :
qaAns d solve torqueAboutCenter = Mx, qa ;
q d map eval, q, qa = qaAns ;

## qaAns := 0.01250000000 Vy C0.001250000000 Mx

q := 0.01250000000 Vy C 0.001250000000 Mx K3.000000000 10-11 Vy K1.50000000 108 s
C7.500000 106 s2 , 0.01250000000 Vy C 0.001250000000 Mx K0.001500000000 Vy s,
K0.01750000000 Vy C0.001250000000 Mx K3.000000000 10-11 Vy 5.0000000 107 s
K2.500000 106 s2 , K0.01750000000 Vy C 0.001250000000 Mx C0.001500000000 Vy s
offset d 0 :
for i from 1 to numSeg do
p i d plot s Coffset, eval q i , Mx = 1.0e5, Vy = 1.0e4 , s = 0 ..L i , title
= `Shear flow... look at sketch to see meaning of coordinate "s"` , thickness = 3 :
#print `offset, length = `, offset, L i
offset d offset C L i :
od: display convert p, list ;

(4.3.1)

## Shear flow... look at sketch to see meaning of coordinate "s"

400

300

200

100

0
10

K100

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

5b_rectangularBoxBeam_mod.mw

p. 7 of 10

(4.3.2)
offset d 0 :
for i from 1 to numSeg do
p i d plot s Coffset, eval q i , Mx = K1.0e5, Vy = 1.0e4 , s = 0 ..L i , title
= `Shear flow... look at sketch to see meaning of coordinate "s"` , thickness = 3 :
#print `offset, length = `, offset, L i
offset d offset C L i :
od: display convert p, list ;

## Shear flow... look at sketch to see meaning of coordinate "s"

200

100

0
10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

K100

K200

K300

Let's calculate the net force in each segment due to the shear flow. The direction of the force is in the direction "s".
L d 2\$w, 2\$h, 2\$w, 2\$h :
print ` Mx= K1.0e5, Vy= 1.0e4 ` ;
for i from 1 to 4 do
force d int q i , s = 0 ..L i :
;
print `Force for segment `, i, eval force, Mx = K1.0e5, Vy = 1.0e4
od:
print ;
print ` Mx= 0, Vy= 1.0e4 ` ;
for i from 1 to 4 do
force d int q i , s = 0 ..L i :
print `Force for segment `, i, eval force, Mx = 0, Vy = 1.0e4
;
od:

5b_rectangularBoxBeam_mod.mw
print ;
print ` Mx= -1.0e5, Vy= 0.0 ` ;
for i from 1 to 4 do
force d int q i , s = 0 ..L i :
print `Force for segment `, i, eval force, Mx =K1.0e5, Vy = 0.0
od:

p. 8 of 10

## Mx= -1.0e5, Vy= 1.0e4

Force for segment , 1, 3000.000000
Force for segment , 2, K3000.000000
Force for segment , 3, K7000.000000
Force for segment , 4, K3000.000000
Mx= 0, Vy= 1.0e4
Force for segment , 1, 5500.000000
Force for segment , 2, K500.0000000
Force for segment , 3, K4500.000000
Force for segment , 4, K500.0000000
Mx= -1.0e5, Vy= 0.0
Force for segment , 1, K2500.000000
Force for segment , 2, K2500.000000
Force for segment , 3, K2500.000000
Force for segment , 4, K2500.000000

(4.3.3)

More thoughts
> q d copy qSave :
torqueAboutCenter d int h \$ q 1 , s = 0 ..2\$w C int w \$ q 2 , s = 0 ..2\$h C int h \$ q 3 , s = 0 ..2\$w
C int w\$q 4 , s = 0 ..2\$h ;
netFy d int q 1 , s = 0 ..2\$w Kint q 3 , s = 0 ..2\$w ;
torqueAboutCenter := K10. Vy C800. qa
netFy := 1.000000000 Vy
(4.4.1)

If we apply just a shear force that acts through the center, then the torque about the center is
equal to zero. Let's consider that.

## > qaAns d solve torqueAboutCenter = 0, qa ;

q d map eval, q, qa = qaAns ;
qaAns := 0.01250000000 Vy
q := 0.01250000000 Vy K 3.000000000 10-11 Vy K1.50000000 108 s C7.500000 106 s2 , 0.01250000000 Vy (4.4.2)
K0.001500000000 Vy s, K0.01750000000 Vy K3.000000000 10-11 Vy 5.0000000 107 s
K2.500000 106 s2 , K0.01750000000 Vy C 0.001500000000 Vy s
> torqueAboutCenter d int h \$ q 1 , s = 0 ..2\$w C int w \$ q 2 , s = 0 ..2\$h C int h \$ q 3 , s = 0 ..2\$w
C int w\$q 4 , s = 0 ..2\$h ;
netFy d int q 1 , s = 0 ..2\$w Kint q 3 , s = 0 ..2\$w ;
(4.4.3)
netFy := 1.000000000 Vy
1
q 1
q 2
q 3
> ror d
\$ int
, s = 0 ..2\$w Cint
, s = 0 ..2\$h C int
,s = 0
2\$4\$h\$w
t 1 \$G 1
t 2 \$G 2
t 3 \$G 3
q 4
..2\$w Cint
, s = 0 ..2\$h
:
t 4 \$G 4
print `The rate of rotation = `, ror ;
The rate of rotation = , K2.383333334 10-10 Vy
(4.4.4)
>

5b_rectangularBoxBeam_mod.mw

p. 9 of 10

## Even more thoughts

What are the forces in each segment if the shear force acts through the shear center (there will be
just the right amount of moment to have the rate of rotation = 0).

q d copy qSave :
q 1
q 2
1
\$ int
, s = 0 ..2\$w C int
, s = 0 ..2\$h Cint
ror d
2\$4\$h\$w
t 1 \$G 1
t 2 \$G 2
q 4
C int
, s = 0 ..2\$h
;
t 4 \$G 4
K7.800000000 10-10 Vy C 4.333333334 10-8 qa
qaAns d solve ror = 0, qa :
print `qa = `, qaAns ;
q d map eval, q, qa = qaAns :
print `The shear flows are `, evalm q ;
eval ror, qa = qaAns ;
tmp1 d int
tmp2 d int
tmp3 d int
tmp4 d int

q 3
, s = 0 ..2\$w
t 3 \$G 3

(4.5.1)

h \$ q 1 , s = 0 ..2\$w :
w \$ q 2 , s = 0 ..2\$h ;
h \$ q 3 , s = 0 ..2\$w :
w\$q 4 , s = 0 ..2\$h :

## # torqueAboutCenter d int h \$ q 1 , s = 0 ..2\$w C int w \$ q 2 , s = 0 ..2\$h C int h \$ q 3 , s = 0 ..2\$w

C int w\$q 4 , s = 0 ..2\$h :
torqueAboutCenter d tmp1 C tmp2 C tmp3 C tmp4 :

print `This shear flow gives a moment about the center = `, torqueAboutCenter ;
print `Contributions of each segment`
print tmp1 ; print tmp2 ; print tmp3 ; print tmp4 ;
qa = , 0.01800000000 Vy
The shear flows are , 0.01800000000 Vy K3.000000000 10-11 Vy K1.50000000 108 s C 7.500000 106 s2 ,
0.01800000000 Vy K0.001500000000 Vy s, K0.01200000000 Vy
K 3.000000000 10-11 Vy 5.0000000 107 s K2.500000 106 s2 , K0.01200000000 Vy
C 0.001500000000 Vy s
1. 10-19 Vy
0.6000000000 Vy
This shear flow gives a moment about the center = , 4.400000000 Vy
Contributions of each segment
6.600000000 Vy
2

0.6000000000 Vy
K3.400000000 Vy
0.6000000000 Vy
for i from 1 to 4 do
force d int q i , s = 0 ..L i :
print `Force for segment `, i, eval force, Vy = 1.0e4 ;
od:
Force for segment , 1, 6600.000000
Force for segment , 2, 600.0000000
Force for segment , 3, K3400.000000
Force for segment , 4, 600.0000000

(4.5.2)

(4.5.3)

5b_rectangularBoxBeam_mod.mw

## > evalm qSave ;

qa K3.000000000 10-11 Vy K1.50000000 108 s C7.500000 106 s2 , qa K0.001500000000 Vy s, qa
K0.03000000000 Vy K3.000000000 10-11 Vy 5.0000000 107 s K2.500000 106 s2 , qa
K0.03000000000 Vy C0.001500000000 Vy s
>

p. 10 of 10

(4.5.4)

10_rightAngle_4.17_broken.mw

p. 1 of 6

## problem_4.17.mw-----calculations are wrong--- this is more complicated

than it seems
Need a better sketch! Had to do some guessing to figure out where the
original origin is located.
A&H solution is wrong

## Summary of what we need to do and calculate

weighted centroid (since it is homogeneous, the centroid is the same)
shift coordinate system
section properties EIyy, EIzz, EIyz relative to new coordinate system
statically equivalent loads that act through the weighted centroid
My(x), Mz(x) using FBD or by integrating the equilibrium equations in terms of stress resultants
curvatures diff(v,x,x) and -diff(w,x,x) using the structural constitutive equations (will need to
invert a matrix, since the constitutive matrix is not diagonal)
axial strain
axial stress
maximum axial stress
displacements v0(100) and w0(100)
Note: This beam is also going to twist, but based on our
simplifed theory, that will not affect the displacements v and w on the x-axis. Also, note that the
weighted centroid is not located on the beam!
>

10_rightAngle_4.17_broken.mw

p. 2 of 6

## Summary with numbers (there are errors!)

The following has the numbers taken straight from the solutions manual. The steps are correct, but
there are errors. You will rework this problem for HW and use the correct numbers.
1. weighted centroid (since it is homogeneous, the centroid is the same)
zbar = -1.18421
ybar = 1.18421
2. shift coordinate system
You might wish to draw a sketch with the shifted coordinate system. The alternative is to
remember to shift coordinates whenever they are used in subsequent calculations.
3. section properties EIyy, EIzz, EIyz relative to new coordinate system
Iyy = Izz = 11.25
Iyz = 6.66
4. statically equivalent loads that act through the weighted centroid

5. My(x), Mz(x) using FBD or by integrating the equilibrium equations in terms of stress
resultants

6. curvatures diff(v,x,x) and -diff(w,x,x) using the structural constitutive equations (will
need to invert a matrix, since the constitutive matrix is not diagonal)

7. axial strain

10_rightAngle_4.17_broken.mw

p. 3 of 6

8. axial stress
multiply strain with modulus (no thermal load)
9. maximum axial stress
Look for where the axial strain is largest. => Look at how the curvatures vary. In the absence
of thermal loads, you know the strains are largest on the outside of the beam. You might want
to plot the variation of strain with x.

## 10. displacements v0(100) and w0(100)

Note: This beam is also going to twist, but based on
our simplifed theory, that will not affect the displacements v and w on the x-axis. Also,
note that the weighted centroid is not located on the beam!
You know the curvatures. Integrate them to obtain expressions for v0(x) and w0(x). These
expressions will have integration constants. Use the kinematic BC's to determine the
integration constants. Now you have the functions v0(x) and w0(x).

>

## Now let's do our own calculation

>
restart : currentdir

## ; with linalg : Digits d 15 :

# Vy d 1.0e4; Vz d K1.0e4;
"C:\W\whit\Classes\304_2012_ver_3\_Notes\5_Torsion_and_transverseShear"

(1)

## Determine the location of the weighted centroid

We only need to calculate the z centroid, since symmetry tells us that yc = 0.0.
E := 1.00 107, 1.00 107 ;
1.000000000 107, 1.000000000 107

(4.1)

2.375, 2.375
2.5, 2.5

(4.2)

K2.25, 0
0., 2.25

(4.3)

A d 2.5, 2.5 ;

## If we do they way in A&H

ySubCentroid d K2.25, 0 ;
zSubCentroid d 0. , 2.25

10_rightAngle_4.17_broken.mw
#ySubCentroid d K2.5 C .25, 2.5 K
#zSubCentroid d K2.5 C

p. 4 of 6

4.75
;
2

4.75
, 2.5 K.25
2

> E A zSubCentroid ;

i=1

i i

5.625000000000 107

(4.4)

zc d

> E A zSubCentroid

i=1

i i

sum E i \$A i , i = 1 ..2
print `zc = `, zc ;

## zSubCentroid d evalm zSubCentroid K zc ;

1.12500000000000
zc = , 1.12500000000000
K1.12500000000000 1.12500000000000

(4.5)

## Calculate the weighted moments of inertia---------- change this

to use Maple procedure
EIzz
base d vector 3, 4.75, .5, 4.75
4.75 0.5 4.75

(5.1.1)

## height d vector 3, .5, 10.5 , .5

0.5 10.5 0.5
Calculate the weighted moments of inertia relative to the centroid of each region
EIzz0 d vector 3 :
for i from 1 to 3 do
1
EIzz0 i d
\$E i \$ base i \$ height i 3;
12
od:
print `EIzz0 =`, EIzz0

(5.1.2)

## Error, invalid subscript selector

EIzz0 =, 4.94791666666667 105 4.82343750000000 108 EIzz03
Now use the parallel axis theorem to calculate the weighted moment of inertia for the section
#EIzz := sum( EIzz0[i]+ ySubCentroid[i]^2 * E[i]*A[i], i = 1..3);
EIzz d 0 :
for i from 1 to 3 do
EIzz d EIzz C EIzz0 i CySubCentroid i ^2 * E i * A i ;
od:

(5.1.3)

## Error, invalid subscript selector

print `EIzz = `, EIzz ;
EIzz = , 6.09401041666667 108

(5.1.4)

10_rightAngle_4.17_broken.mw

p. 5 of 6

EIyy
Reverse the roles of base and height
height d vector 3, 4.75, .5, 4.75

(5.2.1)

(5.2.2)

## base d vector 3, .5, 10.5 , .5

Calculate the weighted moments of inertia relative to the centroid of each region
EIyy0 d vector 3 :
for i from 1 to 3 do
1
EIyy0 i d
\$E i \$ base i \$ height i 3;
12
od:
print `EIyy0 =`, EIyy0

## Error, invalid subscript selector

EIyy0 =, 4.46549479166667 107 1.09375000000000 106 EIyy03
Now use the parallel axis theorem to calculate the weighted moment of inertia for the section
EIyy d 0 :
for i from 1 to 3 do
EIyy d EIyy C EIyy0 i CzSubCentroid i ^2 * E i * A i ;
od:

(5.2.3)

## print `EIyy= `, EIyy ;

EIyy= , 1.09029947916667 108

(5.2.4)

EIyz

## Calculate the shear flow top horizontal piece

I will use the integral formula rather than the summation.

t d .5 :
y d 5.25 :
QEy d int E 1 \$ y \$ t , s = 0 ..s ;
QEz d int E 1 \$ 5 Ks K zc \$ t, s = 0 ..s ;
1.9375000 107 s K2.500000 106 s2
Due to the shear Vy, we obtain
q0 d 0 :
Vy \$ QEy
q
d q0 K
shearY
EIzz
K0.0430750822614418 Vy s
Due to the shear Vz, we obtain
q0 d 0 :
Vz \$ QEz
qshearZ d q0 K
EIyy

(6.1)

(6.2)

10_rightAngle_4.17_broken.mw
K9.17179196273957 10-9 Vz 1.9375000 107 s K 2.500000 106 s2
Therefore, the shear flow at "A" = shearFlow d qshearY CqshearZ
K0.0430750822614418 Vy s K9.17179196273957 10-9 Vz 1.9375000 107 s K2.500000 106 s2

p. 6 of 6

(6.3)
(6.4)

## At point "A", s= 4.5.

eval shearFlow, s = 4.5
K0.193837870176488 Vy K0.335343643637666 Vz

(6.5)

## Calculate the shear flow in vertical member

I will use the integral formula rather than the summation.

## Start by calculating the values at the beginning of the vertical integration.

QEy0 d eval QEy, s = 4.75

1.2468750000 108

(7.1)

3.56250000000 107

(7.2)

## Let's continue the integration for QEy and QEz.

QEy d QEy0 C int E 2 \$ 5.25 Ks \$t, s = 0 ..s ;
QEyB d eval QEy, s = 5.25 ;
1.2468750000 108 C2.6250000 107 s K 2.500000 106 s2
1.935937500000 108
QEz d QEz0 C int E 2 \$ .25 K zc \$t, s = 0 ..s ;
QEzB d eval QEz, s = 5.25 ;

(7.3)

## 3.56250000000 107 K 4.375000 106 s

1.26562500000 107

(7.4)

K0.317678731678133 Vy

(7.5)

K0.116080492028423 Vz

(7.6)

## The total shear flow at B =, K0.317678731678133 Vy K0.116080492028423 Vz

(7.7)

At point B
q0 d 0 :
qshearY d q0 K

Vy \$ QEy

EIzz

q0 d 0 :
qshearZ d q0 K

Vz \$ QEzB
EIyy

Cq
:
q dq
B
shearY
shearZ
print `The total shear flow at B =`, q