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Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames

by Walterio A. López, SE Rafael Sabelli, SE

Rutherford & Chekene Walter P Moore

Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames (BRBFs)

Code Intent

How BRBs work

Brief History of BRBFs in US Codes

Sample BRBF Construction

Brief treatment on testing

Building-Code Design

Design Methodology

Specification, Other Issues

Gusset Connections

Summary

Code Intent

Building-Code Philosophy

Objective:

Prevent collapse in the extreme earthquake likely to occur at a building site.

Objectives are not to:

limit damage maintain function provide for easy repair

To survive a strong earthquake without collapse:

Design for Ductile Behavior

Material Ductility Member Ductility System Ductility

a strong earthquake without collapse: Design for Ductile Behavior Material Ductility Member Ductility System Ductility
a strong earthquake without collapse: Design for Ductile Behavior Material Ductility Member Ductility System Ductility

AISC Methodology

Designate fuses

Members that undergo inelastic strain

Provide ductility in fuse members

Prevent local buckling Prevent member instability Prevent connection failure

Design system to ensure ductility is concentrated in fuses

How BRBs work

What is a Buckling-restrained Brace? Two Definitions

Stress resisted by steel core

Buckling resisted by sleeve

resisted by steel core Buckling resisted by sleeve De-Coupled Stress and Buckling (Mechanics Definition)

De-Coupled Stress and Buckling (Mechanics Definition)

resisted by sleeve De-Coupled Stress and Buckling (Mechanics Definition) Balanced Hysteresis (Performance Definition)

Balanced Hysteresis (Performance Definition)

BRB Definitions Explained:

Conventional Bracing

BRB Definitions Explained: Conventional Bracing Brace behavior is asymmetric with respect to tension and compression
BRB Definitions Explained: Conventional Bracing Brace behavior is asymmetric with respect to tension and compression
BRB Definitions Explained: Conventional Bracing Brace behavior is asymmetric with respect to tension and compression

Brace behavior is asymmetric with respect to tension and compression and is subject to strength and stiffness degradation

Tension R y A g F y P cr Compression
Tension
R y A g F y
P cr
Compression

Compression Strength

BRB Definitions Explained:

Sleeved Column

Steel core achieves F y A

λ c

kl / r ~ 0

~ 0

Sleeve achieves π 2 EI/L 2

Stress is zero No material stress limit

π 2 E I L 2 F y A
π 2 E I
L 2
F y A

0

1

2

3

Slenderness Parameter λ c

Brief History of BRBFs in US Codes

Historical Background

1 st BRBF paper: 2000 SEAOC Convention BRBF design presentations:

SEAOC: 2001-2006 NASCC: 2004, 2005 Steel TIPS Seminars: 2004 ASCE Structures Congress: 2005 AISC braced frame seminars: 2005, 2006

BRBFs in U.S. to date: >100 bldgs, >15,000 BRBs

Background (recent past/present)

SEAOC/AISC BRBF committee
SEAOC/AISC BRBF committee

Background (present)

Background (present)
Background (present)
Background (present)
Background (present)
Background (present)

Sample BRBF Construction

Sample Construction

Sample Construction
Sample Construction

Sample Construction

Sample Construction
Sample Construction

Sample Construction

Sample Construction
Sample Construction

Buckling-Restrained Brace Types

Buckling Restrained Brace Unbonded Brace PowerCat Brace ACME Bracing Company
Buckling
Restrained
Brace
Unbonded Brace
PowerCat
Brace
ACME
Bracing
Company

Buckling-Restrained Brace Assembly

Core

Buckling-Restrained Brace Assembly

Sleeve

Buckling-Restrained Brace Assembly Core Buckling-Restrained Brace Assembly Sleeve
Buckling-Restrained Brace Assembly Core Buckling-Restrained Brace Assembly Sleeve
Buckling-Restrained Brace Assembly Core Buckling-Restrained Brace Assembly Sleeve

Buckling-Restrained Brace Mechanics

Unbonded Brace Type

Decoupling

Encasing mortar Yielding steel core Debonding material between steel core and mortar Steel tube
Encasing
mortar
Yielding steel
core
Debonding material
between steel core and
mortar
Steel tube

Buckling

Restraint

Brief treatment on testing

Selected Testing Data

Literature

 

Number of Tested Braces

Brace

Reference

Test Type

Strain

(%)

SIE, 1999

Uniaxial

3

2.1

SIE, 2001

Uniaxial

2

2.1

 

Frame

   

UC Berkeley, 2002

(Subassemblage)

3

1.8

- 2.1

Merritt et al., 2003a

Subassemblage

6

2.4

- 2.7

Merritt et al., 2003b

Subassemblage

8

1.8

- 2.6

Merritt et al., 2003c

Uniaxial

2

1.6, 1.7

SIE, 2003

Subassemblage

4

1.6 – 3.0

BRB Tests Short Summary

About 50+ different brace tests have been performed in support of US projects

All tests results so far have met Appendix T’s acceptance criteria

Tests have included Appendix T, moment frame, near-field, and fatigue displacement protocols

Kinematic rotations of brace ends were not detrimental to brace performance

Building-Code Design

ASCE 7 2005 (with Supplement 1)

R Values

7

for Basic BRBF System

8

for BRBF System with Rigid Beam-Column Connections

8

for BRBF/SMF Dual System

ASCE 7 2005 (with Supplement 1)

Ω o Values

2 for Basic BRBF System

2 1 / 2 for BRBF System with Rigid Beam-Column Connections

2 1 / 2 for BRBF/SMF Dual System

ASCE 7 2005 (with Supplement 1)

C d Values

5 1 / 2 for Basic BRBF System

5 for BRBF System with Rigid Beam-Column Connections

5 for BRBF/SMF Dual System

ASCE 7 2005 (with Supplement 1)

Height Limits

Separated by Seismic Design Category:

B&C D

E

F

NL

160*

160

100

for Basic BRBF System

NL

160*

160

100

for BRBF System with Rigid Beam-Column Connections

NL

NL

NL

NL

for BRBF/SMF Dual System

(NL = Not Limited) *Can be increased to 240 for regular buildings.

ASCE 7 2005 (with Supplement 1)

Coefficients for Determination of Approximate Period

T a = C r ( H / ft. ) x

C r

x

= 0.03

(ASCE to incorporate)

= 0.75

(Similar to EBF)

Combined effect of R and T

SCBF BRBF SCBF Building BRBF Building Design Base Shear
SCBF
BRBF
SCBF Building
BRBF Building
Design Base Shear

Period

Design Methodology

Design Procedure

Define appropriate BRB modeling Determine required brace strength Check drift Determine brace displacements at 2.0 Δ m

Compare required displacements to existing tests Plan and conduct new tests?

Determine adjusted BRB strengths at 2.0 Δ m

Requires test data or manufacturer’s summary

Calculate required strength of columns, beams, and connections based on adjusted BRB strengths

BRBF Design Methodology

BRB is energy dissipater

Steel core material specified as mild & ductile

• Steel core material specified as mild & ductile • Design checks: • BRB φ P

Design checks:

BRB φP n

Global drift

BRB deformation, Δ bM

Adjusted BRB strengths

Beam R u /φR n

Column R u /φR n

Connections R u /φR n

Analysis

Gravity Load

Size frame to resist 100% of gravity

All load combinations Do not model braces as resisting gravity load

Check that braces do not yield under Live Load

Seismic Load

Size braces for seismic load only

Do not model braces to resist gravity load Size for 100% of seismic load? Or consider shear in columns

Found by analysis

Size frame considering plastic mechanism

Design Summary

Load Combination

Gravity 1.2D + 1.6L

Seismic 1.2D + 0.5L + E

Frame

Design for 100% of load

Design for maximum brace forces, plus 100% of gravity

Check to make sure live load does not cause (cyclic) yielding

Design for seismic force from analysis; do not include gravity

Braces

Brace Stiffness

Brace Stiffness K b r = P / Δ Δ ~ PL y /A y E
Brace Stiffness K b r = P / Δ Δ ~ PL y /A y E
Brace Stiffness K b r = P / Δ Δ ~ PL y /A y E
Brace Stiffness K b r = P / Δ Δ ~ PL y /A y E

K br = P/Δ

Δ ~ PL y /A y E

L y = 0.5-0.8 L

(depending on brace type and configuration)

K br = 1.2 - 2.0 A y E /L

Flexibility

L y E A sc

brace type and configuration) K b r = 1.2 - 2.0 A y E /L Flexibility

L

L y

E A nonyielding

BRB Modeling

= 1.3 A sc E /L ? K br
= 1.3 A sc E /L ?
K br
= 1.6 A sc E /L ? K br
= 1.6 A sc E /L ?
K br

BRB Modeling (Nonlinear)

BRB Modeling (Nonlinear) Isotropic and kinematic strain hardening Difference in tension/compression values Modified
BRB Modeling (Nonlinear) Isotropic and kinematic strain hardening Difference in tension/compression values Modified

Isotropic and kinematic strain hardening Difference in tension/compression values Modified DRAIN, PERFORM 3D

Steel Core Material

Specifications

ASTM A36 Grade 36/42

JIS G3136 SN400B

Wide range of yield strength not desired

Solution: supplementary yield strength requirements verified by coupon tests

Current practice: material procured based on MTRs, coupon tests performed prior to fabrication

Preliminary BRB Design

P u

=

A sc

F

2cos

θ

P

u

φ

F

ysc

F

Assume braces resist 100% of story shear

θ
θ

Design braces to calculated capacity

(P u = φP n = φF ysc A sc )

BRB Axial Deformation Check

Compute elastic story drift Δ X Extract from analysis program Δ bX = Δ brace at Δ X story drift

elastic story drift Δ X Extract from analysis program Δ b X = Δ b r
elastic story drift Δ X Extract from analysis program Δ b X = Δ b r
elastic story drift Δ X Extract from analysis program Δ b X = Δ b r
elastic story drift Δ X Extract from analysis program Δ b X = Δ b r

BRB Axial Deformation Check

Δ bX is computed at largest elastic story drift

(ρ = 1.0 for drift)

Compute Δ bM = C d Δ bX = Δ brace at Δ M story drift Compute max. brace strain ε MAX = 2.0Δ bM / L ysc ε MAX cannot exceed maximum value tested If ε MAX exceeds tested values, resize BRB

BRB Axial Deformation Comparison

For a ASCE 7 earthquake (2/3 of MCE) 2.0 Δ bm ~ 10 Δ by (elastic methods, Ch. 16) Mean = 9-11 Δ by (Sabelli, Fahnestock) For a 2%/50 year event Not addressed in codes Mean = 17-19 Δ by (Sabelli, Fahnestock)

Ductilities underestimated but not forces

Solution: fabricate BRBs to Δ by larger than predicted by elastic methods

Plastic Mechanism

Plastic Mechanism All braces yielding Tension or compression Strain Hardened “Adjusted strength” = Maximum force
Plastic Mechanism All braces yielding Tension or compression Strain Hardened “Adjusted strength” = Maximum force
Plastic Mechanism All braces yielding Tension or compression Strain Hardened “Adjusted strength” = Maximum force

All braces yielding Tension or compression Strain Hardened “Adjusted strength” = Maximum force Based on first mode

BRB Adjusted Strength

Compression: βωR y F ysc A sc Tension: ωR y F ysc A sc Adjusted for Various Factors

ω Strain-Hardening

β Compression Overstrength

R y Material Overstrength

If F y is used as core yield strength F ysc , R y is > 1.0 If F ysc is taken from material coupon test, R y = 1.0.

BRB Adjusted Strength

Factors

Factors Taken from Test Results within 2.0

Δ m . Compression Strength Adjustment Factor

β = C max /T max

Strain-Hardening Adjustment Factor

ω = T max /F y A

Provided by brace manufacturers

BRB Uniaxial Test Results

Hysteresis courtesy of SIE, Inc.
Hysteresis courtesy of SIE, Inc.

BRB Adjusted Strength (example)

ε MAX = 0.98 % at 2.0Δ bM Go to graph from BRB manufacturer and obtain:

= 1.22

ω

ωβ = 1.25

β = ωβ/ω

= 1.25/1.22

= 1.03

at 2.0 Δ b M Go to graph from BRB manufacturer and obtain: = 1.22 ω

BRB Adjusted Strength

Case at inverted-V beam

BRB Adjusted Strength Case at inverted-V beam
BRB Adjusted Strength Case at inverted-V beam

Frame Design: Model BRB Forces Directly

Frame Design: Model BRB Forces Directly ω R y F ysc A sc β ω R

ωR y F ysc A sc

βωR y F ysc A

sc

ωR y F ysc A sc

βωR y F ysc A

sc

ωR y F ysc A sc

 
 
 
β ω R y F ysc A sc
β ω R y F ysc A sc
β ω R y F ysc A sc

βωR y F ysc A sc

ω R y F ysc A sc
ω R y F ysc A sc

ωR y F ysc A sc

 
 
 
β ω R y F ysc A sc
β ω R y F ysc A sc
β ω R y F ysc A sc

βωR y F ysc A sc

ω R y F ysc A sc
ω R y F ysc A sc

ωR y F ysc A sc

 
 
 
 
 
 

βωR y F ysc A sc

Column flexural forces not calculated

Combine with 1.2D + 0.5 L + 0.2 S ds D

Frame Design: Model BRB forces Using Temperature

Frame Design: Model BRB forces Using Temperature E = 1 ksi α = 1/ o F
Frame Design: Model BRB forces Using Temperature E = 1 ksi α = 1/ o F

E = 1 ksi

α = 1/ o F

Δ T = ωR y F ysc Tension

Δ T = βωR y F ysc Compression

Axial force approximation Column flexural forces not calculated

Combine with 1.2D + 0.5 L + 0.2 S ds D

Specification, Other Issues

Use of Proprietary BRBs

Engineer Specifies:

Brace Strength Brace Core Area (or stiffness) Maximum and Minimum F y Displacement range

Manufacturer Provides:

Braces that meet the specification Test data that qualifies the braces

Typical Specification of BRB Size- A SC

Uncertainty in strength (example)

Calculations

φP n

R

y

Drawings

A sc

= 0.9A ysc (38 ksi) = 46 ksi/38 ksi

=

8.5 in. 2

Specifications

c (38 ksi) = 46 ksi/38 ksi = 8.5 in. 2 Specifications 38 ksi ≤ F

38 ksi

F ysc 46 ksi

8.5 in. 2

38 ksi ≤ F y s c ≤ 46 ksi 8.5 in. 2 Manufacture A s

Manufacture

A sc

=

323 kips P ysc 391 kips

=

1.21

(for example)

Proportioning of strength likely similar to design

Alternate Specification of BRB Size- P ysc

Uncertainty in stiffness (example)

Calculations

φP n

R y

A sc

Drawings

= 0.9A sc F ysc

where F ysc is measured during manufacture and A sc is adjusted accordingly

= 1.0 = φP n /0.9 (44 ksi) [reasonably low stiffness for analysis]

P ysc

= 323 kips

Specifications

(= P u /φ)

38 ksi

F ysc 46 ksi

Manufacture

P ysc

38 ksi ≤ F y s c ≤ 46 ksi Manufacture P y s c =

= 323 kips Asc 8.5 in. 2

7.0 in. 2

Proportioning of stiffness likely similar to design

Construction Administration

General contractor

Steel fabricator Fabricator BRB Drawing Detailer Detailer Exchange
Steel fabricator
Fabricator
BRB
Drawing
Detailer
Detailer
Exchange
fabricator Fabricator BRB Drawing Detailer Detailer Exchange Coordinated submittals: BRBs, gusset plates, frames
fabricator Fabricator BRB Drawing Detailer Detailer Exchange Coordinated submittals: BRBs, gusset plates, frames
fabricator Fabricator BRB Drawing Detailer Detailer Exchange Coordinated submittals: BRBs, gusset plates, frames
fabricator Fabricator BRB Drawing Detailer Detailer Exchange Coordinated submittals: BRBs, gusset plates, frames
Coordinated submittals: BRBs, gusset plates, frames
Coordinated submittals:
BRBs, gusset plates, frames

Code Issues

BRB is a better brace that doesn't buckle.

BRB is a performance-specification item.

Single diagonals in one direction and stacked chevron allowed without penalty.

BRB and gussets often need not be fireproofed.

If manufactured in approved shop, inspections may be waived.

Non-structural attachments to casing not prohibited.

Gusset Connections

Sample Connections

Sample Connections
Sample Connections

Alternative Connections

Alternative Connections Direct bolting of core Courtesy of CoreBrace Direct welding of core Courtesy of STAR

Direct bolting of core

Alternative Connections Direct bolting of core Courtesy of CoreBrace Direct welding of core Courtesy of STAR

Courtesy of

CoreBrace

Direct welding of core

Alternative Connections Direct bolting of core Courtesy of CoreBrace Direct welding of core Courtesy of STAR

Courtesy of STAR Seismic

Gusset Plate Design Issues

Adjusted BRB strengths readily determined from backbone curve (first validation of methodology)

Frame fixity must be acknowledged in analyses

Recognize that cyclic testing of gusset plates not fully developed

Avoid unnecessary connection restraint

• Recognize that cyclic testing of gusset plates not fully developed • Avoid unnecessary connection restraint
• Recognize that cyclic testing of gusset plates not fully developed • Avoid unnecessary connection restraint
• Recognize that cyclic testing of gusset plates not fully developed • Avoid unnecessary connection restraint
• Recognize that cyclic testing of gusset plates not fully developed • Avoid unnecessary connection restraint
• Recognize that cyclic testing of gusset plates not fully developed • Avoid unnecessary connection restraint
• Recognize that cyclic testing of gusset plates not fully developed • Avoid unnecessary connection restraint

Potential Connection Issues

Beam (or column) yield at <1% Rotation ductility not tested These issues apply to all gussets at large drift

SCBF and OCBF drift likely to be greater than BRBF EBF rotations may be much greater

Potential Connection Issues

Potential Connection Issues Courtesy of K.C. Tsai
Potential Connection Issues Courtesy of K.C. Tsai

Courtesy of K.C. Tsai

Pin Connection

Courtesy of L. Fahnestock
Courtesy of
L. Fahnestock

Summary

BRBF Design Summary

BRBF Design Summary • BRB is energy dissipater • Check BRB ductility demands • Check surrounding
BRBF Design Summary • BRB is energy dissipater • Check BRB ductility demands • Check surrounding

BRB is energy dissipater

Check BRB ductility demands

Check surrounding elements for adjusted BRB strengths

Overall Summary

BRBs harness steel ductility to provide member ductility BRBF provide a ductile system if

Connection failure is precluded Braces are proportioned to earthquake demand Frame is designed for plastic mechanism Braces are properly specified.

Thank You