Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 39

A SEMINAR REPORT

ON

MOBILE

COMMUNICATION

AND

ITs

GENERATION
B.TECH- IV (ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION)
SUBMITTED BY:
MUKESH KUMAR JAISWAL

(Roll No.: U11EC010)


GUIDED BY:
Prof. SHWETA SHAH

ECED, SVNIT

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

Year: 2014-15
SARDAR VALLABHBHAI NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
(SVNIT)
SURAT-395007

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It gives me great pleasure to present my seminar report on Mobile communication
Generation. No work, big or small, has ever been done without the contributions of others.

I would like to express deep gratitude towards Prof. Shweta s hah (Assistant Professor
at Electronics & Communication Engineering Departme nt, SVNIT) who gave me their
valuable suggestions, motivation and the direction to proceed at every stage. She extended
towards a kind and valuable guidance, indispensible help and inspiration at times in appreciation
I offer them my sincere gratitude.

In addition, I would like to thanks Dept. of Electronics and Communication Engineering,


SVNIT .Finally, yet importantly, I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to my beloved
parents and my brother for their blessings, my friends/classmates for their help and wishes for
the successful completion of this seminar.
Mukesh Kumar Jaiswal

ABSTRACT
Mobile communications systems revolutionized the way people communicate, joining together
communications and mobility. A long way in a remarkably short time has been achieved in the
history of wireless. Evolution of wireless access technologies is about to reach its fourth
generation (4G). Looking past, wireless
access technologies have followed different evolutionary paths aimed at unified target:
performance and efficiency in high mobile environment. The first generation (1G) has fulfilled
the basic mobile voice, while the second generation (2G) has introduced capacity and coverage.
This is followed by the third generation (3G), which has quest for data at higher speed to open
the gates for truly mobile broadband experience, which will be further realized by the fourth
generation (4G).The Fourth generation (4G) will provide access to wide range of
telecommunication services, including advanced mobile services, supported by mobile and fixed
networks, which are increasingly packet based, along with a support for low to high mobility
applications and wide range of data rates, in accordance with service demands in multiuser
environment. This paper provides a high level overview of the evolution of Mobile Wireless
Communication Networks from 1G to 4G.

Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat-07


Electronics Engineering Department

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that candidate Mr. Mukesh Kumar Jaiswal bearing Roll No: U11EC010 of
B.TECH IV, 7TH Semester has successfully and satisfactorily presented seminar & submitted
the Report on the topic entitled Mobile Communication and its Generation for the partial
fulfillment of the degree of Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech) in Nov. 2014.

Guide: SHWETA SHAH


Examiner 1 Sign:

NAME

Examiner 2 Sign:

NAME

Examiner 3 Sign:

NAME

Head,
ECED, SVNIT.
(Seal of the Department)

CONTENTS
I
2

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

II
3

ABSTRACT

III
5

CONTENTS

IV
7

LIST

V
8

OF

LIST

Topic

NAME

OF

FIGURES

TABLES

PAGE

MOBILE COMMUNICATION AND ITS GENERATION

1
9
1.1

Advantage

9
1.2

Disadvantage

1.3

Types of Wireless Communication

10

1.3.1

IR wireless Communication

10

1.3.2

Broadcast Communication

11

1.3.3

Microwave

Communication

11
1.3.4

Communication

Satellite

12
1.4
2

Generation

13
0TH

GENERATION

14

1ST

GENERATION

15
3.1

AMPS

15

3.2

ETACS

15

3.3

FDMA

16

3.4

Different 1G standards

16

3.5

Disadvantage

3.6

Advantage

3.7

Features

16

17

17
2ND

GENERATION

18
4.1

2G-2.7G

18
4.1.1

TDMA

4.1.2

19
TDMA

Characteristics

19
4.1.3
4.2

Features

20

2.5G-GPRS

20

4.2.1

GPRS

20

4.2.2

Features

21

4.2.3

Disadvantage

21

4.3

2.75G EDGE

21

3RD GENERATION

22

5.1

WCDMA

23

5.2

3.5G HSDPA

24

5.3

3.75G

HSUPA

24

5.4

Features

5.5

Drawbacks

25

25
5.6

Comparison

between

2G

and

3G

25
4TH

GENERATION

26
6.1

OFDMA

26
6.1.1

Advantage

27
6.1.2

Disadvantage

28

6.2

Features

6.3

Drawbacks

28

28
6.4

Basic

Difference

between

3G

and

4G

29
5TH

GENERATION

30
7.1

Features

30
7.2

Difference

Between

4G

and

5G

31
8

COMPARISON BETWEEN DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES

32
9

CONCLUSION

34
7

10

REFERENCE

35

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure No

Fig

1(a)

Title

Page NO

IR

wireless

Communication

10
Fig

1(b)

Broadcast

radio

1(c)

Microwave

radio

11
Fig
12
Fig

1(d)

Communication

Satellite

12
Fig 1(e)

Different mobiles according to their Communication

13
Fig 4(a)

Comparison between FDMATDMA and CDMA

18
Fig 5(a)

Comparison between CDMA and WCDMA

24
Fig

6(a)

OFDMA

28
Fig

8(a)

Evolution

of

mobile

Communication

33

LIST OF TABLES

Table No

Title

Page NO

Table 6(a)

Comparison between 3G and 4G

29

Table 7(a)

Comparison between 4G and 5G

31

Table 8(a)

Comparison Between different technologies

32

Table 8(b)

Comparison of data throughput

33

CHAPTER-1:
MOBILE COMMUNICATION AND Its GENERATION
Wireless communication is among technologys biggest contributions to mankind. Wireless
communication involves the transmission of information over a distance without help of wires,
cables or any other forms of electrical conductors. The transmitted distance can be anywhere
between a few meters (for example, a televisions remote control) and thousands of kilometres
(for example, radio communication).
Some of the devices used for wireless communication are cordless telephones, mobiles, GPS
units, wireless computer parts, and satellite television.

1.1 Advantage:
Wireless communication has the following advantages:

Communication has enhanced to convey the information quickly to the consumers.

Working professionals can work and access Internet anywhere and anytime without
carrying cables or wires wherever they go. This also helps to complete the work anywhere
on time and improves the productivity.
10

Doctors, workers and other professionals working in remote areas can be in touch with
medical centres through wireless communication.

Urgent situation can be alerted through wireless communication. The affected regions can
be provided help and support with the help of these alerts through wireless communication.

Wireless networks are cheaper to install and maintain.

1.2 Disadvantages
The growth of wireless network has enabled us to use personal devices anywhere and
anytime. This has helped mankind to improve in every field of life but this has led many threats
as well. Wireless network has led to many security threats to mankind. It is very easy for the
hackers to grab the wireless signals that are spread in the air. It is very important to secure the
wireless network so that the information cannot be exploited by the unauthorized users. This
also increases the risk to lose information. Strong security protocols must be created to secure
the wireless signals like WPA and WPA2. Another way to secure the wireless network is to have
wireless intrusion prevention system.

1.3 TYPES OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATION:


There are several kinds of wireless technologies. The main difference is their range and
connectivity over an area or a space. Our most familiar wireless network, the mobile phone,
covers whole continents.
Wireless technology can offer businesses more flexible and inexpensive ways to send and
receive data.

Types of wireless communication


1.3.1 Infrared (IR) wireless communication:
In this communication communicates data or information in devices or systems

through

infrared (IR) radiation. Infrared is electromagnetic energy at a wavelength that is longer than
that of red light IR wireless is used for short and medium-range communications and security
control. For IR communication to work, the systems mostly operate inline-of-sight mode which

11

means that there must be no obstruction between the transmitter (source) and receiver
(destination).
Ex: Infrared is used in television remote controls and security systems.

Fig 1(a): IR wireless communication

1.3.2 Broadcast Radio:


Basically an audio broadcasting service, radio broadcasts sound through the air as radio waves. It
uses a transmitter to transmit radio waves to a receiving antenna. To broadcast common
programming, stations are linked to the radio networks. The broadcast occurs either in
syndication or simulcast (simultaneous broadcast) or both. Radio broadcasting can also be done
viacable FM, the internet and satellites. A radio broadcast sends data over long distances (across
countries) at up to 2 megabits per second.

Fig 1(b): Broadcast Radio

12

1.3.3 Microwave Radio:


Microwave transmission involves the transfer of voice and data through the atmosphere as super
high- frequency radio waves called microwaves. Microwave transmission is mainly used to
transmit messages between ground-based stations and satellite communications systems.
Microwave transmission mainly uses radio waves whose wavelengths are conveniently measured
in small units such as centimeters. Microwaves belong to the radio spectrum ranges of roughly
1.0 gigahertz (GHz) to 30 GHz.

Fig 1(c): Microwave radio

1.3.4Communications Satellites
A communication satellite is an artificial satellite used specifically as a communication
transmitter/receiver in orbit. It behaves like a radio relay station above the earth to receive,
amplify, and redirect analog and digital signals carried on a specific radio frequency.

13

Fig 1(d): Communication Satellite

1.4. Generations:
In the past few decades, the mobile wireless technologies have experience of various generations
of technology revolution & evolution, namely from 0G to 4G. An advance implementation of 5G
technology which are being made on the development of World Wide Wireless Web (WWWW).

14

Fig 1(e): Different mobile phones according to their generation)

Chapter-2

0th GENERATION

0G refers to pre-cellular mobile telephony technology in 1970s. These mobile telephones were
usually mounted in cars or trucks, though briefcase models were also made.
OG (Zero Generation) is also known as Mobile Radio Telephone system. As this generation was
invented prior to cellular system it was mentioned as pre cellular system. This system was analog
in nature i.e. analog signals were used as carriers. Generally Mobile Radio Telephone system
provides half duplex communications i.e. only one person will speak and other should hear.
Mobile Radio Telephone system (Zero generation) consists of various technologies such
15

as Advanced

Mobile

Telephone

System (AMTS), Mobile

Telephone

System (MTS),

MTD (Mobile telephony system D), OLT (Offentlig Landmobile telefony or Public Land Mobile
Telephony), Push to Talk (PTT) and Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS).These mobile
telephones were placed in vehicles (truck, cars etc ). The mobile telephone instrument had two
main parts those were transceiver (transmitter receiver) and head (instrument which had
display and dial keys). Transceiver (transmitter receiver) was fixed in the vehicle trunk; head
was fixed near the driver seat and both head and transceiver were connected to each other with
wire. The device (telephone) would connect to local telephone network only if it is in the range
of 20 Kms. Each city had a central antenna tower with 25 channels. This means that mobile
transceiver should have a powerful transmitter with a transmitting range of 50-70 Kms. Only few
people were able to use this device as only 25 channels were available. Roaming facility was not
supported in this generation of analog cellular Mobile Radio telephone system. Mobile Radio
telephone system was a commercial service underpublic switched telephone network with unique
telephone numbers. Zero generation had seen different variants of two way radio telephones.
Large number of limitations in this generation led to the advent of new generation.

CHAPTER-3

1ST GENERATION

The first generation mobile systems are based on analog technology. The first technology uses
frequency modulation (FM) and frequency division duplexing (FDD), frequency division
multiple access (FDMA). The common signalling channels were used in first generation cellular
systems. Due to the use of analog technology the analog speech signals are provided by the first
generation wireless systems. The data transmission between base station and mobile user was
insufficient and the low data rate necessitates the next generation cellular systems. The first

16

generation systems are relies on analog systems therefore, the transmission is not secure whereas
the second generation systems uses digital modulation so, provides secure transmission of data. .

3.1 AMPS:
AMPS is the first U.S. cellular telephone system called advanced mobile phone system. The
AMPS system uses 7-cell reuse pattern with provisions for sectoring and cell splitting to increase
capacity when needed. AMPS uses frequency modulation (FM) and frequency division duplex
(FDD) for radio transmission. It uses FDMA multiple access, Channel bandwidth is 30 KHz. In
the United States transmissions from mobile to base stations (reverse link) use frequency
between 824-849MHz, while base station transmits to mobile (Forward link) using frequencies
between 869MHz and 894 MHz. Data rate of AMPS on control channel is 10 kbps.

3.2 ETACS:
European Total Access Communication systems (ETACS) was developed in mid-1980s and is
virtually identical to AMPS except it is scaled to fit in 25 KHz channels used throughout Europe.
Another difference between AMPS and ETAC is how the telephone number of each subscriber
(called the mobile identification number or MIN) is formatted, due to the need to accommodate
different country codes throughout Europe as opposed to area codes in U.S.

3.3 FDMA:
Frequency division multiple access is the division of the frequency band allocated

for wireless cellular telephone communication into 30 channels, each of which can carry a voice
conversation or, with digital service, carry digital data. FDMA is a basic technology in
the analog Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS), the most widely-installed cellular phone
system installed in North America. With FDMA, each channel can be assigned to only one user
at a time. FDMA is also used in the Total Access Communication System (TACS).

17

The Digital-Advanced Mobile Phone Service (D-AMPS) also uses FDMA but adds time division
multiple access (TDMA) to get three channels for each FDMA channel, tripling the number of
calls that can be handled on a channel.

3.4 Different 1G standards were used in various countries.

Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) was a 1G standard used in the United States.

Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) was a 1G standard used in Nordic countries


(Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden), as well as in its neighboring
countries Switzerland and Netherlands, Eastern Europe, and Russia.

Italy used a telecommunications system called RTMI.

In the United Kingdom, Total Access Communication System (TACS) was used.

France used Radiocom 2000.

3.5 Disadvantage:

Overall connection quality is poor (limited capacity).

Unreliable handoff.

Poor voice link.

Less security (unwanted dropping more interference by third party).

Poor battery life and large phone size.

3.6 Advantage:
It has some advantage over 2G in some ways. In comparison to 1G's
Analog signals, 2G's digital signals are very reliant on location and proximity. If a 2G handset
made a call far away from a cell tower, the digital signal may not be strong enough to reach it.
While a call made from a 1G handset had generally poorer quality than that of a 2Ghandset, it
survived longer distances. This is due to the analog signal having a smooth curve compared to
the digital signal. Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) was a 1G standard used in the
United States.
18

3.7Features:

It's Speed was up to 2.4kbps.

It allows the voice calls in 1 country.

1G network uses Analog Signal.

Chapter-4

2ND GENERATION

(2G)
4.1 (2G-2.75G)

19

Second generation (2g) telephone technology is based on GSM or in other words global system
for mobile communication. Second generation was launched in Finland in the year 1991. 2G
network allows for much greater penetration intensity. 2G technologies enabled the various
mobile phonenet works to provide the services such as text messages, picture messages and
MMS (multimedia messages). 2G technology is more efficient. 2G technology holds sufficient
security for both the sender and the receiver. All text messages are digitally encrypted. This
digital encryption allows for the transfer of data in such a way that only the intended receiver can
receive and read it as we know that first generation mobile system was based on analog system
but due to evolution in Integrated circuit, it had made more economical. It can be classified in
different groups.
As:

Fig 4(a): Comparison between FDMA, TDMA and CDMA

FDMA: set of frequency slots.

TDMA: same frequency but different time slot.

CDMA: multiple sender and receiver use code for detection the correct channel.

GSM (Global System for Mobile communication) is a digital mobile telephony system that is
widely used in Europe and other parts of the world. GSM uses a variation of time division
multiple access (TDMA) and is the most widely used of the three digital wireless telephony
technologies (TDMA, GSM, and CDMA). GSM digitizes and compresses data, then sends it
20

down a channel with two other streams of user data, each in its own time slot. It operates at
either the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz frequency band.
4.1.1 TDMA:
Time division multiple access (TDMA) is a channel access method for shared medium
networks. It allows several users to share the same frequency channel by dividing the signal into
different time slots. The users transmit in rapid succession, one after the other, each using its
own time slot. This allows multiple stations to share the same transmission medium (e.g. radio
frequency channel) while using only a part of its channel capacity. TDMA is a type of Timedivision multiplexing, with the special point that instead of having one transmitter connected to
one receiver, there are multiple transmitters. In the case of the uplink from a mobile phone to
a base station this becomes particularly difficult because the mobile phone can move around and
vary the timing advance required to make its transmission match the gap in transmission from its
peers.
4.1.2 TDMA CHARACTERISTICS:

Shares single carrier frequency with multiple users

Non-continuous transmission makes handoff simpler

Slots can be assigned on demand in dynamic TDMA

Less stringent power control than CDMA due to reduced intra cell interference

Higher synchronization overhead than CDMA

Advanced equalization may be necessary for high data rates if the channel is
"frequency selective" and creates Intersymbol interference

Cell breathing (borrowing resources from adjacent cells) is more complicated than in
CDMA

Frequency/slot allocation complexity

Pulsating power envelope: Interference with other devices

4.1.3 Features:
21

Digital signals are considered environment friendly. The use of digital data service assists
mobile network operators to introduce short message service over the cellular phones.
Digital encryption has provided secrecy and safety to the data and voice calls.

voice clarity and reduces noise in the line.

Better capacity and quality in comparison to 1G.

4.2 (2. 5G GPRS)


(General Packet Radio Service)
It is the technology between 2G and 3G. It is also called as 2G cellular technology with GPRS
services. The mobile technology using general packet radio service (GPRS) standard has been
termed as 2.5G. 2.5G systems enhance the data capacity of GSM and mitigate some of its
limitations.

GPRS

adds packet-switched capabilities

to

existing GSM and

TDMA networks. Working on the basis of emails, it sends text and graphics-rich data as packets
at very fast speed. The circuit-switched technology has a long and successful history but it is
inefficient for short data transactions and always-on service.

4.2.1 GPRS:
General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) is a packet-based wireless communication service that
promises data rates from 56 up to 114 Kbps and continuous connection to the Internet for mobile
phone and computer users. The higher data rates allow users to take part in video conferences
and interact with multimedia Web sites and similar applications using mobilehandheld devices as
well as notebook computers. GPRS is based on Global System for Mobile (GSM)
communication and complements existing services such circuit-switched cellular phone
connections and the Short Message Service (SMS).
In theory, GPRS packet-based services cost users less than circuit-switched services since
communication channels are being used on a shared-use, as-packets-are-needed basis rather than
dedicated to only one user at a time. It is also easier to make applications available to mobile
users because the faster data rate means that middleware currently needed to adapt applications
to the slower speed of wireless systems are no longer be needed.
22

4.2.2 Features:

Phone Calls

Send/Receive E-mail Messages

Web Browsing

Speed : 64-144 kbps

Camera Phones

4.2.3 Disadvantage:

Circuit switched data transmission (dedicated link is required.)

Poor video quality

Appropriate for only voice services

4.3 2.75 EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution)


EDGE (EGPRS) is an abbreviation for Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution, is a digital
mobile
Phone technology which acts as a bolt-on enhancement to 2G and 2.5G General Packet Radio
Service (GPRS) networks. This technology works in GSM networks. EDGE is a superset to
GPRS and can function on any network with GPRS deployed on it, provided the carrier
implements the
necessary upgrades. EDGE technology is an extended version of GSM. It allows the clear and
fast
transmission of data and information. It is also termed as IMT-SC or single carrier. EDGE
technology was invented and introduced by Cingular, which is now known as AT& T. EDGE is
radio technology and is a part of third generation technologies. EDGE technology is preferred
over GSM due to its flexibility to carry packet switch data and circuit switch data. The use of
EDGE technology has augmented the use of black berry, N97 and N95 mobile phones.

23

3rd Generation(3G)

Chapter-5

If you want augmented bandwidth, multiple mobile applications and clarity of digital signals,
then3G (Third Generation Technology) is your gateway. GSM technology was able to transfer
circuit switched data over the network. The use of 3G technology is also able to transmit packet
switch data efficiently at better and increased bandwidth. 3G mobile technologies proffers more
advanced services to mobile users. It can help many multimedia services to function. The
spectral efficiency of 3G technology is better than 2G technologies. Spectral efficiency is the
measurement of rate of information transfer over any communication system. 3G is also known
as IMT-2000.
3G technologies make use of TDMA and CDMA. 3G (Third Generation Technology)
technologies make use of value added services like mobile television, GPS (global positioning
system) and video conferencing. The basic feature of 3G Technology (Third Generation
Technology) is fast data transfer rates. However this feature is not currently working properly
because, ITU 200 is still making decision to fix the data rates. It is expected that 2mbit/sec for
stationary users, while 348kbits when moving or traveling. ITU sell various frequency rates in
order to make use of broadband technologies. Network authentication has won the trust of users,
because the user can rely on its network as a reliable source of transferring data.3G technology is
much flexible, because it is able to support the 5 major radio technologies. These radio
technologies operate under CDMA, TDMA and FDMA.CDMA holds for IMT-DS (direct
spread), IMT-MC (multi carrier).

There are many 3G technologies as W-CDMA, GSM EDGE, UMTS, DECT, Wi Max and
CDMA 2000.Enhanced data rates for GSM evolution or EDGE is termed to as a backward
digital technology, because it can operate with older devices. EDGE allows for faster data
transfer than existing GSM.EDGE was introduced by AT& T in 2003.EDGE has increased the
GSM coverage up to three times more. EDGE is a 3G Technology (Third Generation
Technology);

therefore

it

can

be

used

for

packet switched systems.

Universal
24

mobile telecommunications systems .UMTS conforms to ITU IMT 2000 standard. It is complex
network and allows for covering radio access, core network and USIM (subscriber identity
module). It is a relatively expensive technology for the network operators because it requires
new and separate infrastructure for its coverage. The GSM is the base of this technology. CDMA
is also referred to as IMT-MC. this technology is close to 2G technology GSM because it is also
backward compatible. Digital enhanced cordless telecommunications (DECT) is another 3G
Technology

(Third

Generation

Technology).

DETC

was

developed

by

European telecommunications standards institute; however it is now widely popular in the other
countries of the world as well.

Fig 5(a): Comparison of CDMA and WCDMA

5.1 WCDMA:
W-CDMA (Wideband Code-Division Multiple Access), an ITU standard derived from CodeDivision Multiple Access (CDMA), is officially known as IMT-2000 direct spread. W-CDMA is
a third-generation (3G) mobile wireless technology that promises much higher data speeds to
mobile and portable wireless devices than commonly offered in today's market.
W-CDMA can support mobile/portable voice, images, data, and video communications at up to
2 Mbps (local area access) or 384 Kbps (wide area access). The input signals are digitized and

25

transmitted in coded, spread-spectrum mode over a broad range of frequencies. A 5 MHz-wide


carrier is used, compared with 200 KHz-wide carrier for narrowband CDMA

5.2(3.5G HSDPA (High-Speed Downlink Packet Access)


High-Speed Downlink Packet Access(HSDPA) is a mobile telephony protocol, also called 3.5G
(or "3G"), which provides a smooth evolutionary path for UMTS-based 3G networks allowing
for higher data transfer speeds. HSDPA is a packet-based data service in W-CDMA downlink
with data transmission up to 8-10 Mbit/s (and 20 Mbit/s for MIMO systems) over a 5MHz
bandwidth in WCDMA downlink. HSDPA implementations includes Adaptive Modulation and
Coding (AMC), Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO), Hybrid Automatic Request (HARQ),
fast cell search, and advanced receiver design.

5.3 ( 3.75G HSUPA (High-Speed Uplink Packet Access)


The 3.75G refer to the technologies beyond the well defined 3G wireless/mobile technologies.
High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) is a UMTS / WCDMA uplink evolution
technology. The HSUPA mobile telecommunications technology is directly related to HSDPA
and the two are complimentary to one another. HSUPA will enhance advanced person-to-person
data applications with higher and symmetric data rates, like mobile e-mail and real-time persontoperson gaming. Traditional useful applications along with many consumer applications will
benefit from enhanced uplink speed. HSUPA will initially boost the UMTS / WCDMA uplink up
to 1.4Mbps and in later releases up to 5.8Mbps.

5.4Features:

Data Transmission speed increased from 144kbps- 2Mbps.

Providing Faster Communication

Send/Receive Large Email Messages

High Speed Web / More Security

Video Conferencing / 3D Gaming

TV Streaming/ Mobile TV/ Phone Calls


26

Large Capacities and Broadband Capabilities

11 sec 1.5 min. time to download a 3 min Mp3 song.

5.5 Drawbacks:

Expensive fees for 3G Licenses Services

It was challenge to build the infrastructure for 3G.

High Bandwidth Requirement.

Expensive 3G Phones.

Large Cell Phones.

5.6 Comparison between 2G and 3G

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) offered speeds up to 114 Kbps.

Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) reached up to 384 Kbps.

UMTS Wideband CDMA (WCDMA) offered downlink speeds up to 1.92 Mbps.

High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) boosted the downlink to 14Mbps.

LTE Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) is aiming for 100 Mbps.

27

Chapter-6

4th Generation(4G)

It was started from late 2000s.


It is basically the extension in the 3G technology with more bandwidth and services offers in the
3G. The expectation for the 4G technology is basically the high quality audio/video streaming
over end to end Internet Protocol. Capable of providing 100Mbps 1Gbps speed.
In fourth generation a new method OFDMA is adopted. It is somewhat different from CDMA or
TDMA. CDMA sends data through one channel but with the division of time in three slots.
While CDMA also sends data through one channel identifying the receiver with the help of code.
Whereas in 4G mobile technology OFDMA is going to introduce in which data packets sends
by dividing the channel into a narrow band for the greater efficiency.
One of the basic term used to describe 4G is MAGIC.
MAGIC:

Mobile Multimedia

Anytime Anywhere

Global Mobility Support

Integrated Wireless Solution

Customized Personal Services

6.1 OFDMA
OFDMA is the access technique used in Long-Term Evolution (LTE) cellular systems to
accommodate multiple users in a given bandwidth. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
(OFDM) is a modulation method that divides a channel into multiple narrow orthogonal bands
that are spaced so they dont interfere with one another. Each band is divided into hundreds or
even thousands of 15-kHz wide subcarriers.
28

The data to be transmitted is divided into many lower-speed bit streams and modulated onto the
subcarriers. Time slots within each sub channel data stream are used to package the data to be
transmitted. This technique is very spectrally efficient, so it provides very high data rates. It also
is less affected by multipath propagation effects. . OFDMA assigns a group of subcarriers to
each user. The subcarriers are part of the large number of subcarriers used to implement OFDM
for LTE. The data may be voice, video, or something else, and its assembled into time segments
that are then transmitted over some of the assigned subcarriers.

Fig 6(a): Ofdma

6.1.1Summary of advantages

High spectral efficiency as compared to other double sideband modulation schemes, spread
spectrum, etc.

Can easily adapt to severe channel conditions without complex time-domain equalization.

29

Robust against narrow-band co-channel interference.

Robust against intersymbol interference (ISI) and fading caused by multipath propagation.

Efficient implementation using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT).

Low sensitivity to time synchronization errors.

Tuned sub-channel receiver filters are not required (unlike conventional FDM).

Facilitates single frequency networks (SFNs); i.e., transmitter macro diversity.

6.1.2 Summary of disadvantages

Sensitive to Doppler shift.

Sensitive to frequency synchronization problems.

High peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR), requiring linear transmitter circuitry, which


suffers from poor power efficiency.

Loss of efficiency caused by cyclic prefix/guard interval.

6.2 Features:

More Security

High Speed

High Capacity

Low Cost Per-bit etc.

High QOS.

Speed 100Mbps-1Gbps.

6.3 Drawbacks:

Battery uses is more

Hard to implement
30

Need complicated hardware

Expensive equipment required to implement next generation network.

6.4 The basic difference between 3G and 4G is in data transfer and signal quality.

Table 6(a): Comparison between 3G and 4G


Technology

3G

4G

Data Transfer Rate

3.1 MB/sec

100 MB/sec

Internet Services

Broadband

Ultra Broadband

Mobile - TV Resolution

Low

High

Bandwidth

5-20 MHz

100MHz

Frequency

1.6-2 GHz

2-8 GHz

Download and upload

5.8 Mbps

14 Mbps

31

Chapter-7

5th Generation(5G)

5G Technology stands for 5th Generation Mobile Technology. 5G technology has changed to
use cell phones within very high bandwidth. 5G is a packet switched wireless system with wide
area coverage and high throughput. 5G technologies use CDMA and BDMA and millimeter
wireless that enables seed is greater than 100Mbps at full mobility and higher than1Gbps at low
mobility. The 5G technologies include all types of advanced features which make 5G technology
most powerful and in huge demand in the near future. It is not amazing, such a huge collection of
technology being integrated into a small device. The 5G technology provides the mobile phone
users more features and efficiency. A user of mobile phone can easily hook their 5G technology
gadget with laptops or tablets to acquire broadband internet connectivity. Up till now following
features of the 5G technology have come to surface- High resolution is offered by 5G for
extreme mobile users, it also offers bidirectional huge bandwidth [2], higher data rates and the
finest Quality of Service (QoS) (i.e. discussed below in the paper).
5G Wireless Communication System is not deployed yet. The big challenge for the design and
deployment of 5G wireless system can be faced easily as proposed features and architecture
(mentioned below) that will increase system capacity and quality within the limited available
frequency spectrum, whose frequency band and Data Bandwidth will be 3-300GHz and 1Gbps &
higher (as demand) successively. The remarkable issue, there dont have any limitation in 5G as
respect to user demands in the next 200 years. The 5G also implies the whole wireless world
interconnection (WISDOMWireless Innovative System for Dynamic Operating Mega
communications concept), together with very high data rates of the Quality of Service (QoS)
applications.

7.1 Features:

High Speed, High Capacity

5G technology providing large broadcasting of data in Gbps.


32

Multi - Media Newspapers, watch T.V programs with the clarity as to that of an HD
Quality.

Faster data transmission that of the previous generations.

Large Phone Memory, Dialing Speed, clarity in Audio/Video.


Support interactive multimedia, voice,

streaming video, Internet and other 5G is More Effective and More Attractive

7.2 The following basic differences between 4G and 5G are:


Table 7(a): Comparison between 4G and 5G
Technology

4G(2000-10)

5G(2010-20)

Switching

Circuit/packet

Circuit/packet

Data Rate

Upto 20Mbps

Upto 1Gbps

Technology

Combination

of

LAN/WAN/PAN

broadband Combination

of

broadband

LAN/WAN/PAN

33

Chapter:8

Comparison Of Different Technologies

34

Table 8(a)

Technology

1G

2G

3G

4G

5G

Deployment

1970/1984

1980/1999

1990/2002

2000/2010

2014/2015

Bandwidth

2kbps

14-64Kbps

2Mbps

200Mbps

>1Gbps

Technology

Analog

Digital cellular

Broadbandwidth/

Unified

cdma/ip technology

&seamless combo

ervices

Multiplexing

witching

cellular

ip 4G+wwww

of
LAN/WAN/WLA
N/PAN

Mobile

Digital

telephony

short

voice Integrated high quality Dynamic


audio,data and video

information

messaging

access

FDMA

TDMA/CDMA CDMA

CDMA

circuit

Circuit/
circuit

Packet except for air All packet

Dynamic

informatio

access with AI capabilities

CDMA
All Packet

for interface

access
network&air
interface

Core Network

PSTN

PSTN

Packet Network

Internet

Handhoff

Horizontal

Horizontal

Horizontal

Horizontal

Internet

& Horizontal & vertical

vertical

35

8.2 Data Throughput speeds over fixed line vs Wireless Networks:


Table 8(b)

8.3 Evolution of Mobile Technologies:

Fig 8(a):Evolution Of Mobile technology

36

CONCLUSION

The last few years have witnessed a phenomenal growth in the wireless industry. The ever
increasing demands of users have triggered researchers and industries to come up with a
comprehensive manifestation of the up-coming fourth generation (4G) mobile communication
system. As the history of mobile communications shows, attempts have been made to reduce a
number of Technologies to a single global standard. The first generation (1G) has fulfilled the
basic mobile voice, while the second generation (2G) has introduced capacity and coverage. This
is followed by the third generation (3G), which has quest for data at higher speeds to open the
gates for truly mobile broadband experience, which will be further realized by the fourth
generation (4G).

37

REFRENCES

[1] Review on Generations in Mobile Cellular Technology C. S. Patil1, R. R.Karhe2, M. A.


Aher3.
[2]

Evolution of Mobile Wireless Communication Networks: 1G to 4G Amit Kumar1; Dr.


Yunfei Liu2; Dr. Jyotsna Sengupta3; Divya4.

[3]

Generations of Mobile Wireless Technology: A Survey Mudit Ratana Bhalla and Anand
Vardhan Bhalla.

[4]

Generations of Wireless Technology Gagan Preet Kaur1, Joni Birla2 Jitender Ahlawat3.

[5] Jamil.M. 4G: The Future Mobile Technology, in TENCON 2008 IEEE Region 10
Confererence, 19-21 Nov. 2008
[6]

Li Weiwei, Comparison and Transition of Key Technologies on 3Gand

4G,GUANGDONG
COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY,2004.
[7]

Marcus L. Roberts, Michael A. Temple, Robert F. Mills, and Richard A. Raines,

"Evolution
of the air interface of cellular communications systems toward 4G realization", IEEE
Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 8, no. 1,1st Quarter 2006,
[8]

Mishra, Ajay K. Fundamentals of Cellular Network Planning and Optimization,


2G/2.5G/3GEvolution of 4G, John Wiley and Sons, 2004.

[9]

S. Y. Hui and K. H. Yeung, "Challenges in the Migration to 4G Mobile Systems," IEEE


Communication Magazine, vol. 41, no. 12, Dec. 2003, pp.54-59.

[10]

Fumiyuki Adachi, Wireless past and Future: Evolving Mobile Communication Systems.
IEICE Trans. Findamental, Vol. E84-A, No.1, January 2001.

[11]

Kamarularifin Abd Jalil, Mohd Hanafi Abd. Latif, Mohamad Noorman Masrek, Looking
Into The 4G Features,MASAUM Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences Vol.1,No. 2
September 2009

38

39