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THE LIBRARY
OF
THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA
GIFT OF
HORACE W. CARPENTIER

a^H

i^M

w^a^m^mtaitmrnMrntm^i^UBme^m

^y^3^j.^

THE

^J;-^

0^-%'

a^^

^iv-^

i^^.'^"^

ORTHOGRAPHY

MALAY

HERBERT HENRY HUDSt)N

Kelly

\"

oc

J-^^

>

A pu R

I-:

Walsh, LlmTieu
1892

[A// KJgkts reserved.

'\

f#

THE MALAY ORTHOGRAPHY

Printed at the "Koh

Yew Hean"

Press.

THE

MALAY

ORTHOGRAPHY

HERBERT HENRY HUDSON


(Deputy

Registrar,

Supreme

Court,

Singapore,

Straits

SINGAPORE
Kelly

& Walsh,

Limited

i8g2
\^All rights reserved. '^

Settlements)

LOAN STAOC

in.

TO
Sir

HIS

EXCELLENCY

CECIL CLEMENTI SMITH,

NiOMT CRA.ND CROSS Or THI MOST DISTINGCISBED ORDER OF ST. MICHAEL AND
GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SBTTLEUENTS,

ST.

%\tu jHges
ARE, BY PERMISSION.

MOST RESPECTFULLY

DEDICATED BY

THE AUTHOR.

658

CKOROK,

CONTENTS.
Paras.

Section.
I

11

III

IV

V
VI
VII

13
47

General

The Use of the Arabic Letters


The Radical or Primitive Words ...
The Malay Words in Roman Letters

9 II
12

Pronunciation

1516

Accent

IThe

Table
Table

14

II

Alphabet

(Page 14)
Twenty Letters used in Native
...

Malay Words ...


...
{Page 16)
Table III
Fourteen Letters only used in

Words
Table IV

V & VI Forms

Tables
in

Table

of Foreign Origin

...

(Page 16)

Forms of the Letters {Page


of the

17)

Letters

&

Combination

...

VII Favre's

Natural Alphabet of

the Malay

Table

VIII

{Pages i8

Language ...
showing how

19)

{Page 20)
Natural

the

Alphabet corresponds with the Letters


used
Vllf

IX

X
XI
XII
XIII

in

Native Malay

29

Numerals

69

Punctuation

7176
7793

Syllables

Prefixed Particles

XIX

17

Orthographical Marks

Suffixed Particles

XVIII

3034
3549
50-68

XV
XVI

21

..

Vowels

XIV

XVII

Words {Page

Division and Use of the Letters

94
...

...

Union

of

Two

Conclusion

Appendices.

Words
Radicals

1 1

13125

...

27134

...

35

38-151

...

Interposed Particles
Duplication of

70

126
...

...
...

...

137

Errata.
Page

25, 15th

For

and i6th

The Malays

often

Ordinary

d^

it

For

Read

8th line,

r^^
j^"*^^

use

^
it

li"

ta

panjang or "long

incorrectly in place of the

/.

call

incorrectly

ta panjang.
45,

call it

/", and

Read The Malays

Page

lines,

ity^L U ta bundar and often use

for

the ordinary

,j^ or

a^Ju

i-

IXTRODUCTORY PREFACE.
The ioUowing pages
notes

made

in

consist of the amplification of certain

The

studying the Malay Orthographv.

being one the principles of which are

little

subject

understood by

most of the persons whose services are available as teachers,


great difficulty

commonly experienced by

is

getting from them any reliable information.


the better

known Malay compositions


There

sistent throughout.

the

subject, but

authors meet

it is

of

is

little

with more

the student in

The

spelling in

bv no means con-

is

a native pamphlet dealing with

The works

value.

approval,

of

European

but these are nearly

all

out of print, and difficult of access. Probably every student of

Malay experiences the same


on

this subject, for

it

difficulty in

obtaining instruction

must be remembered that the services of

the more highly educated Malays are rarely available for this

purpose.

The general

oral lessons,
is

if

principles could be explained in a few

a competent

the difficulty of

finding

teacher could be met with, but

it

persons capable of imparting this

knowledge, which has induced the


student.
left for

There are a number

of

work

to the

the ultimate decision of the Malays themselves, but by

far the larger part

the

of

extreme simplicity.

subject

common ground, and

is

Each writer on

used the works of his predecessors,


part of the text of this
tions,

offer of this

moot points which must be

this

of

subject has freely

and a very considerable

book consists

of

extracts

and quota-

mainly taken from the works hereunder mentioned, but,

from the necessity of rendering the text consecutive and


concordant, the wording has been often changed and adapted

The

ii

from the Abbe Favre's book, which has been

extracts

largely used, though not uniformly followed,

have been freely


and often intermixed with quotations from other
authors, and new matter, and the equivalents in Roman letters
translated,

Malay words and sounds in his book, being written for


French readers, are here differently rendered, for, it was

of the

thought advisable,
such to

all

order to

in

plan

the

of

avoid complication, to adapt

work.

this

attempt to mark each quotation,

number

render a very large

therefore,

was found,

sincere

his

for

that to

as such,

and

notes

of

humbly apologizes

taken, and testities


skill

It

extract,

would

explanations

and seriously cramp and confine the

necessary,
author,

or

text.

The

the liberties he has

admiration

learning,

for the

and labour which have produced the works

in question,

and, in answer to a charge of plagiarism which might be made,

and

freely

fully

admits that, but for them, these pages would

never have been

The whole

been

has been frequently revised and

compared

carefully
subject,

written.

to

every

with

but

divided

sections and

into

the various

that

The

this

arrangement

is

is

and

The

text

the

has

paragraphs for the sake

convenience of reference,

for

at times

parts are

fact that this

repetition,

re-written,

dealing with

which access could be obtained.

making some break, and

of

work

not in

all

so

connected,

nearly

respects

satisfactory.

subdivision leads to a certain

not perhaps a great disadvantage

in

amount

of

work

of

this kind.

The
has

transliteration of the Arabic characters in

been

rendered

in

italics,

between inverted commas.


literal

The

Malay words

and the translation placed


latter

has been

made

as

as possible, even at the expense'of the English, in order

to increase the general utility

The mixture

of

the

considerable difficulty

of

different
in

the

work.

kinds of type has created

the setting up, especially because

iii

founts

great varieties of

indulgence

Two

are not

reader

of the

is

very apparent

defects are

available

requested for

deficiencies.

consequence

in

first,

and the

here,
all

of

the large bodies of the Arabic type the vowel signs appear at

too great

used does

secondly, the type


of

accompany

distance from the letters they

not admit

of

and

insertion

the

a hamzah between two joined letters except by employing

with

it

that which appears like a substantive letter

sincere thanks of the author are due to Mr. H. L,


of the

Government Printing

Office

for his

kind

The

NORONHA

assistance in

seeing these pages through the press.

H.H.

H.
Singapore, 'January, 1S92.

European Works quoted.

A Grammar
F. R. S.

An

Attempt

graphy, by

of the Malay Language, by

William Marsden,

London, 1812.
to

eliicklate

W. Robinson.

the Principles of

Fort Marlborough, 1823.

Grardiiiar and Dictionary of the

John CraWfurd,
Gvammaire de
Vienne, 187G.

F.
la

R. S.

Malayan Ortho-

Maluy Language, by

London, 1852.

langne malaise, par I'Abbe

P.

Favre.

THE

ORTHOGRAPHY

MALAY

Skction

I.

GENKRAL
1.

The

which

subject of

dif^culty, not

to

considerable license

When

Malay,

some

it

made

by

in

and

rule

present

is

not free from

diacritical points,

and

principle,

day, allow

the main

in

they, for

themselves a very

the spelling of words.

Arabic

the

accompanying the

quite

it

orthography was

was taken as a whole, with

requisite, to

treats

Malays themselves having

regulate

the most part, at the

2.

work

on account of any great complexity, but because

of its uncertainty, the

neglected

this

its

applied

first

to

elaborate and cumber-

\owel signs, and orthographical marks

letters,

and

it

was used,

reproduce the Malay sounds,

so far as

seemed

large part of

it

was

unnecessary, but no attempt appears to have ever been


to

addition

formulate
of

six

and define a

letters,

to

meet the sounds

Arabic had no corresponding


change.

letters,

of

the

orthographical

native words, but to account

for

it

ordinary

marks
the

for

it.

The

which the

was the most important

At the present day, however,

the vowel signs are never used in

two only

modification of

may

be said that

writing,

are

and

that

ever applied to

traditional

spelling

of

many words,

nothing
3.

The omission

of the

vowel signs, and an

their uses, partake of the

of

weak

character

some Malay words

in a

vowels, and

one of

in

it is

pro-

result in the spelling

will

manner inconsistent with the more

general practice of the Malays themselves.


spelling certain words, in a
principles,

which,

much

that the application of the

pages

in these

letters,

of

may be made,

down

imperfect

other marks, have led to a

freer use of those letters called

bable that a charge

mast be supposed,

writing Malay can well be attained.

of'the use of the

principles laid

of tliem

of the principles of their application,

like correctness in

knowledge

some

the presence of

and without a knowledge

manner

were universal, or

if

If the practice of

variance

at

with those

were any recognized

there

authority for such spelling accepted by the Malays in general,


or,

if

the practice

were reducible

to,

rule or principle, then such a charge

Not only

the

is

believed that

if

the

contrary

lead to the spelling of a word

would be unanswerable.

of all three

principles, with

deal, be carefully considered,

or explainable by, any

which

for

it

case,
is

in

manner

cases

in

decide

is

writers

But the

and there

correct.

is

In those

which a conventional spelling seems to have met

with anything like general acceptation,


noted.

no case

known Malay

which

is

inconsistent with

spelling in all native writings varies considerably,


to

it

proposed to

which good authority cannot be found.

no accepted authority

but

their application will in

the practice of one or other of the better

and

the

it

has been carefully

Section

II.

THE USE OF THE ARABIC LETTERS.


4.

Whatever may have been

ploved

in

existed"^),

Malay Orthography
it

any native Alphabet ever

(if

been exclusively written

has, for centuries past,

upon the Arabic system, and without some knowledge


system,

it

would be impossible

to arrive

Malay, and, as commonly

signs, insufficient to

written,

it is

\'\z.,

without the vowel

Roman

in

yet the Dutch spelling

5.

in

is

Roman

some

to

letters

been generally accepted.

letters has

additions, consists of 34 letters

never used, 19 are sufficient

e.,

i.

Arabic with the six

tht

one

of these,

for the

in

primitive

when

Malay words as a

final, but.

different value assigned

both

lists,

making the

when used

to

it.

total of

It.

in

One

is

now

letter

^J

substitute for another

foreign words, has a

therefore,

the

Malay, and 13

primitivt^

are only found in words of foreign origin.

used

sort of system,

misleading to an English reader, and

The combined Alphabet,

is

with

letters

the Arabic, has the

Dutch have reduced the

support of Favrp:, but although the

no rendering

convey the pronunciation of the words.

more precision and clearness than by

Malay

like

a system foreign

That these could be rendered by the Roman

Nvriting of

of that

anything

at

thorough knowledge of the language, but


to

em-

characters

the original

one

20.

Hndsaplacein
and that

of the

latter 14.
6.

* It is

Of these

snpp(

seil

that

14

tlit-

letters,

the

sounds are

foreign

Korinchi characters were once used.

to

the

Malays, and a very


will

be

met

.acquired a

wide divergence
the Arabs,

but

with,

knowledge

who who have

those

or

pronunciation

their

in

of Arabic, are the religious,

most part also the secular,

and

for the

Verses from the

instructors.

Koran are taught and expounded

in

are in Arabic, and, though as

understood by the majority

as the Latin prayers were

little

ancient days

in

England, yet some knowledge


those

who study Arabic

the schools, the prayers

of the

sounds

words adopted into Malay

somewhat pedantic manner Arabic words,


notwithstanding that the native Malay

convey the

Malay may be

meaning

said to be

meaning not

tinged

readily

expressed

some

in

their
in

instances,

words are competent

The

required.

words from the

writers freely use

acquired, and

is

and orthography, or by employing

original pronunciation

in

delight in displaying their knowledge,

either by giving to the Arabic

to

by the peasantry

result

is

that the

with Arabic, and the native


latter

language to convey a

their

in

The

own tongue.

Arabic has, however, had no effect upon the grammatical construction of Malay,

it

has enriched

and has supplied the system


its

influence does not extend.

to the supposition
of

of

orthography

effect

in

number

of

words,

Orthography, but beyond

this

There are indications leading

imperfect form,

of the

Arabic system

may have had some

upon the pronunciation, and caused uncertainty as

the proper vowel sounds in


7.

with a

employment

that the

an

it

Nearly

other than

Chinese,

all

many

words.

the words adopted

Arabic,

European,

for

instance,

and the
.

to

from foreign languages


Sanscrit,

Persian, Indian,

numerous languages

of

the

Archipelago, of which

it is

said

only

that

Malay are derived from a common

the Javanese anci

stock, have

been reduced

to

the Malay standard, and brought within the compass of the 20


letters

above-mentioned

words are adopted


or

debase,

and

for utility,

To

language.

and

natural

proper process, for

to enrich, not to complicate

process

this

some

of

the

adopted Arabic words have already been subjected, though

number preserve

the greater
tion has

their orthography, but the opera-

been retarded with regard to the remainder by the

intimate association of the Arabic language with the

Muham-

madan

to

religion,

which

is

that of the Malays, tending

keep

up a certain connection between them and the Arabic language, a connection


tion

\vhich

statement
native

The

is

of

further fostered

is

been drawn, and by the employment of the

orthography

made

languages.

both

in

as the result of enquiry as

invariable answer obtained

Malays have
it

to

work on the Malay grammar had ever


was

called

little

conception

of

The

latter

whether any
bee'n written.

"We have no grammar

but the Arabic," showing that, as regards their

of

by the venera-

Malays have towards the race from which

the

their religion has

same system

which

own language,

grammar beyond

that part

Orthography, for the remainder of the Arabic

Grammar can have

absolutely

that ihey consider their

the Arabic rules.

no application to Malay, and

Orthograpliy

should be regulated by

Section

III.

THE RADICAL OR PRIMITIVE WORDS.


8.

The

words

radical

Malay are

in

the most part dis>

for

syHables, with a slight stress or accent on

When

the penultimate syllable.

only indicates a general

any particular
definition,

'

part of speech

whether

of

In the course of these

frequently used, but

want

idea,

to

contains

no

In

'.

this state

pages the word


inaccurate,

'

here

in order, therefore, to

used.

indigenous

'

and

Radical

is

transformation,

whether

none

the

from Favre'S Grammar,

Marsden.

in

itself,

derivatives in
it

will

both

designate

to
their

simple

form,

undergone

from

which they

provided that they

suffixed

is

system^

may have

modifications

and

for

which the word

in

language

derivative forms, they are subject.

given by

be found

employed only

its

employed

the

prefixed or
of

sense

words

in

arc drawn, or in the Malay

by

will

'

avoid misconception,

words,

such

that

undergone

is

'

adopted

^notv>'ithstanding

accompanied

gender, or case.

radical

and

it

The Malay language knows no

be better to define exactly the


is

word

radical

and can rarely be assigned

whatever corresponding to the root and


Arabic, and

or rather

first,

the

isolated,

mood, tense, number,

it is

of a better term.

the

This

particles,

to

which,

deHnition

slightly enlarged

are

not

and ha\r
in
is

theiri

taken

from that
1'

''

[7]
Section

THE MALAY WORDS

ROMAN LETTERS.

IN

the Arabic characters, the

of

equivalent

In giving the

9.

IV.

Roman

to the

following values have been assigned

letters:--

Voivels*

= the

'

Italian

'

'

-turn-.

in

bird, third,

in

'

'

the

'

'

'

ah

cart, alms,

'

'

in

the

or nearly

rappelais pas,

decequejeueme

'

= the unaccented

comma)

'(an inverted

in

or the sound of

'

in

French as

in

sound

of

'

aver, vertical.'

voiuei.)
(See par. 49 as to the inherent

= the

'

occurring

'

the

'

nearly to that of

= the double

the sound of

= the

'

'

'

'

English as

in

syllable closed

in a

in

a syllable closed by

in

modified nearly to that of


e

as

English

in

'

'

in
in

'

by nasal
in
'

'

in

be, queen,

'

letter,

tin, sing,

minim.'

its

letter,

sound

its

a nasal

When

arid, cane.'

When

Eton.'

sound

is

occurrmg
modified

is

ten, end, hem.'

English as

in

'

boon, room.'

(Never

in 'use.')

'

o' in English as in

'

only, bone.'

Diphthongs*
av
of
'

'ave

a combination of
',

ay 'in

aw
sound

'

=
in

or of

pay

'

'

is

in

'

and

'

'

often heard, but


'

'

(a-ee) nearly the

'

but longer

fine, island,'

a combination of
'

.'

seems

and u
'

'

sound

the sound of
;

less correct.

(a-00) nearly the vowel

cow, allow,' but longer.

-7^^^^-^^^^;;^;;;^;;^-;,;;^^
in the transUteration.
to the rowe/s and diphthongs

to

be

<assi!,med

'

8]

Consonants.

the liard

:--

---

'

'

letters in English.

as in

'

'

begin, gone, agog.' (Never soft

as-

congeal/)

in 'genius,

same

the

b, d,

but an aspirate so soft

'

as

most cases to

in

bt

hardly perceptible.
li

= a very strong aspirate.

j,

k == the same letters

;r=

1,

m, n := the same

'

Erench seufneur,

the

the English
the

p
r

to

= as

tliis

s
(

^^

w, y

'

same

'

'

s' or

in

tt

'

'

ni

in

'

'

senior

Spanish

agneaii, the

'

or the

'

ii

'

in

'

gn

senor,

'

in

or

news, nuisance.

we

ss

'

in

but the Malays mostly give a softer sound


do.

English as

in

sincere, custom, toss.'

'

'busy, bosom, or sugar.')

in English.

'

'

'

stronger than

in English,

= as
'

'

of

letter in English.

than

letter
'

in

'

in English,

Never as

letters in English.

combined sound

the

li

English.

in

English, but a stronger guttural.

in

'

in

as in

'.

English (where not employed as vowels).


'

lazy

'

or the

'

The following represent


ths := a

sound partaking

of

'

in

'

busy, refusal.'

single Arabic letters


'

th

'

and

'

'

s,

a sibilant or

whistling sound.

= as in church.'
kh = a very strong guttural
ch

'

loch

'

'

or in

tb.e

German

Iclt.

like

the

'

ch

'

in

the Scotch

'

[9]

= as in shine, rushing, crash.


dl = as in
saddle.'
= as
gh or ghr = a very strong guttural.
sh

'

'

in

tl

ng

cattle.'

'

-- as in

hanging.

'

'

(The reader

cautioned against se-

is

parating the components of this sound, or giving to the

sound

of

'

'

as

in

sound of a double

may be

letters,

changed,' and also against giving

'

'

as

initial either in

dz == as in

From

'

'

'

in

angle.

'

In

')

Malay

this

g the
'

the

it

sound

a word or syllable.

adze.'

the reader will assign to these

therefore,

this point,

when representing a Malay sound,

the values above

given.
In addition to the above, a grave accent

10.

employed

to

mark the presence

of the

^) has been

and

letter called ain,

consonants representing a combined sound have been underlined

where there

any

is

risk

represent distinct sounds, or

if

of their

being understood to

representing separate letters

have been divided by a point, where there

is

being taken to represent a combined sound.


in

Roman

letters of the

Malay words

is

The

explanation of the principles


not intended as a

man

letters,

nor

new method

is

it

their

rendering

based upon a certain

plan of analysis for the purposes only of this


of

danger of

work,

the

viz.,

Malay Orthography, and


of writing the

Malay

intended to be imitated for the

in

is

Ro-

latter

purpose.
11.

The pronunciation

acquired from the

lips

of

of

any language should always be


a native, and

the

values

here

[10]
given

much

assistance

he

if

approximate

are

will

The

only.

learning the

in

habitually

student

pronunciation

consider each

tion, as primarily

of Malay,

consonant,

represented by a combination of consonants

in

find

will

sound

or

the translitera-

unaccompanied by any strongly marked vowel

sound, only adding the latter as circumstances require, thus


h,
'

t,

ck,

m,

2^,

and

'

ch,
sh,

and

s//,

and not

be considered as

will

ha, ta,

as to the inherent vowel.)

the

modern method

of

The

'

t,

is

will

'

m,

'

JJ,

indeed nothing more than

elementary instruction adopted


'h

special applicability

the Arabic characters

h,

mn, pa, dia and ska. {See par.


49

This

European languages. Thus


on.

'

-\-

a ^ha,

'

-\-

^ ho,

in

most

and so

of this to languages written

be seen

later.

in

'

11

Spxtiox y.

>

>

PRONUNXIATIOX.
The Malay language,

12.

h'ha-sa ja-ici,

by them h'ha-sa m'la-yu or

called

singularly free from

is

any

ation to a European. Its sounds are soft, pleasant

the ear, there

ment

of

a constant regularity

is

in

the

and clear to
employ-

relative

consonant and vowel, and. as has been observed by

M.ARSDEN, "the attention indeed


" so

pronunci-

difficulty of

great

that

to

smoothness of utterance

is

not only in the formation of derivatives are

" letters systematically

changed

in

order to please the ear, but

"also in words borrowed from Continental tongues the Malays


" are

accustomed to polish down the rougher consonants to the

own

" standard of their


it

There

organs.'"

is

hardly a sound in

which the least practised ear cannot distinguish

at the first

hearing, and which the least pliable tongue cannot


as well at the

guage.

first

attempt as a

For politeness and softness the Malay

description applied to
13.

person practised

As

it

follows alnio:

of "
-

The

syllables the

in

sound

latter instance

'

some places
as

//rt-.s'

numerous variations both

some places
English

to

vowels

probably correctly as noticed below

pronounce words ending

in the

to give

bay,
'

and

in

in

k,

/:a-ta. h'sor

in

among them
in

for (j(i-ml\ hi-f for h((-ta

others the sound of o as ka-to for

in

merits the

from the area over which

pronunciation and the use of words occur, notable


are the tendencies

the lan-

in

Italian of the East."

of necessity

the use of the language extends,

articulate

).

for b'sar,

as for instance bayk

'

final
in

the

and

in

and

to

good,'

others to sound the k as broadly as

spike, dyke.

[12]
14-

The

written language

is,

been remarked by Marsden,


respect

however,
but the

pronunciation and the use

to

pronouns and other


considerable

list

pages 112

seq.

et

outside the

of

fairly regular as

oral

tongue, both in

of peculiar personal

words, differs considerably.


the

of

his

scope of

this

principal

distinctions of

Grammar, but
work.

has

the

He

gives a

dialect

subject

is

at

one

[13]
Section VI.

ACCENT.
The accent

15.

consist merely of

in

Malay is very weak, and may be said to


prolongation of the vowel sound in one

The great tendency

syllable.

to place the accent

is

penultimate, or last syllable but one, of the word, and

on the

when we

speak of the accent being moved by the addition of a suffixed


particle, it must be clearly borne in mind that the original penultimate
so

change
16.

i. e.,

much

of

its

before the addition of the particle

of the following syllable

division of the

Malay,

reasons

these

F'or

syllables

it

loses only

from a short to a long sound.

has been considered, that the


the

of

radical

the

in

the point where the long vowel

at

length of sound, as naturally follows from the

any

if

Romanized
)

conveys to the reader where the accent

sufficiently

occurs,
will

be

found, and except in a few instances, where the accent does

not follow the ordinary course, no sign has been employed to

mark

\\"here

it.

accent

'

),

marked as
rarely found

or in
in

such

ikhlds.

on the

large,

'

the case, the sign used

We

syllable,

sound represented by

is

may add
if

an acute

that

the accent

occurs, as in p'das

k'nal' to recognize,

is

very

open, where the indefinite vowel

know,

'

'

pungent,' b'sar

but that this forms almost

the only exception to the accent being on


in

is

some Arabic words the long vowel has been

the

penultimate

native bisyllabic radical words.

Section

VII.

THE ALPHABET.
17.

The

Alphabet

following Table

gives

the

full

Arabic-Malay

[14]

TABLE

THE ALPHABET.
Letter

MvCL

lo^

(jifeu-


[15]
1

Of

8.

the

additions

which,

Arabic

to

CJ

f/a

)l(i

jAj

letters,

nga

9 2>(X

been

words

(hi^^

cha

formed from certain

of the diacritical points.

and occur only

letters are unnecessary to the primitive Malay,


in

the

has been already remarked that certain of the Arabic

It

19.

<

are

six

by the simple expedient of increasing to three

number

the

following

the

Arabic Alphabet

the

observed, have

be

will

it

Alphabet

full

made

of foreign

Subjoined

origin.

well as tables showing the forms

cording to their position

in

is

of

list

which the

letters

each,

as

take

ac-

'

word, and their relation to the

other letters thereof.

The

20.

by F.AVRE

natural

sounds required

formed, though
is

but

it is

in the

d'

is

is

dr

to

letter."

letter

it

meet some sound foreign to Arab

ears.

'</'

as in

this

sound

'

"

is

it.

'

d'

hi

'to

'

first

'

j.

^^^

a cerebral, and corresponds with the Euro-

(Robinson).

"

'j

Always

in

Malay

writing.

found in the Alphtibata

written

by the Malays for elementary instruction, but rarely

in their

books"

(M.-vrsden).

was

" The

found only whin

is

it

The second

have never met with the character

never occurs.

represented by

is

the English sound

pronunciation

and coalesces with

'"

ap-,^

a dental and corresponds with the Arabic

In English

class.

it

intended by the Arabs to be

Cuawfukd makes the following comment

same

We

Europeans;

pronunciation by

may have been

while the simple

followed by

This

was

At the present day

'.

a palatal, sometimes called

pean
"

'

Malay Alphabet

dental of the
'

19
will

why the character j da

difficult of

quite possible that

represented by j.

classification

utility of this

the present day

at

Tamil, but

in

represented by

The

must have been

it

preaches the sound of


r,

the

the

to

a peculiar soft sound sometimes heard from Malay lips nearly corres-

ponding to

Malay correspond

primitive

later.

* It is difficult to settle

There

how

followed by his table showing

in

Alphabet.

letters of the

be seen

alphabet of the language as formulated

given,

is

if

ever occurs

[17]

TABLE

IV.

FORMS OF THE LETTERS.


Isolated

[18]

[19]

TABLE
FORMS OF THE LETTERS
Letter

VI.
IN

COMBINATION.

[20]

TABLE
The Natural Alphabet
lated by the

Abbe Favre

of

Mala); language as

the

formu-

(6).

Votvels

VII.

'

Aspirate

).

h
Semi-voivels

( <$ ).

Consonants (15).

hard,

Gutturals

soft,

nasal,

hard,

Palatals

soft,

nasal,

hard

Dentals

soft,

nasal,

hard,

Labials

soft,

nasal.

Liquids
1

Sibilant

NOTE. This

classification

variance with those both of

may be

Crawfurd and ROBINSON,

forms an easy means of committing to

caused by prefixed particles.

questioned, and

is

at

but

it

memory certain changes

[21]

TABLE

VIII,

Showing how the Natural Alphabet corresponds


with the Arabic-Malay Alphabet ( the foreign elements
as shown in Table III being omitted).
Form
Class

of the Letter

Name

Nature

Power

Isola-

ted

Final

Mediallnitial

a
Weak

letters,

semi-vowels,

C5
and

aspirate.
_5^_5

y, i, e
watv W, Uj
k

Gutturals
A

^%

a
c

Palatals

hh

j,^ jim

J
ft

Dentals

J'^
tt>^

dal

wz/

P
b

Labials

m
r

r
Liquids

J
Sibilant

Including ^J

J
(^^

when used

Sim

as a substitute for this letter.

[22]
The Arabs

21.

two

classes

The

divide

the letters of their

Alphabet

solar letters are :-

U ^

a)

The

is

fja ^JC

lunar letters are

This classification

is

^^ J

6 d KJ

of

little

use in Malay, and

Arabic phrases to be explained later

The

22.

CL>

given for the purpose of one feature


of
(

only here-

pronunciation

Par. io6

diacritical points are integral

is

the cross stroke of the 't' in the

Roman

in

).

parts of the letters,

and are as inseparable therefrom as the


dot over the

'

'

or

letters.

be remarked that the letters


are written from
and joined, but that the letters
J J ^- and

It will

22.

right to left

have

this

distinguishing

them may be joined


them

into-

solar and lunar.

feature,

that,

although

of

all

to the letters, other than them,


preceding

words, yet when correctly written, they


cannot be joined to letters following them.
in

24.

CJ

The.

when

final

the long upper stroke, but


the
it

same

from

for the
it

to

letter in its initial or

mark hamzah

CJ

^
A',

is

written without

accompanied by a miniature
medial form

of

L^), to distinguish

but this miniature letter must


not be mistaken

Z,

accompany

letter

is

or isolated

::

the letter

),

if

which

it

nearly resembles, nor


should

the long upper stroke be


used.

The

g having been formed by the addition of


3 dots
the

miniature

in a similar way.

A:

accompanies that

letter also

23

Besides the varieties of form and combination above

25-

exhibited, there

many

are

acquired from

easily

others

in

inspection of

which

practice,

Malay

be

will

Some

writings.

produced by haste, others by capricious license of the pen, such


as an unindented slanting stroke for the

final

<ic

which

h,

extremity of

the

latter is likewise in

connect, but irregularly, with


in

headings

is

or

^>

of

with

reading from

In

mark well the

We

27.

unnecessary
letters

j and

in the

place of the

in

I,

letter, or, the

several shapes

is

made

The same

to

letter

ornamental form ^$,

also written

>

la.

manuscript

diacritical

it is

very important to

dots, called <UaJ noktah

points or

have said that a certain number of the

letters are

Malay, and the sounds which these

in the primitive

represent in Arabic are nearly as foreign to a native

Malay, as they are to

us,

ciation of such letters

and a wide divergence

The

be met with.

will

in the

pronun-

tables above

approximate pronunciation, but some of the

give an
require a

little

CL> ths

something

the sound
like

a.

the lungs.

letters

explanation.

our

th

given
'

(as in

Malays commonly pronounce


h

a curved stroke

ti-tek.

Jp^

forming merely the syllable

26.

or

li

sometimes found

The combination

s,

two dots over or under the

or semicircle instead of
slight inversion of

>^

strong guttural

to this letter
'

it

kith

'),

but

by the Arabs

is

more

of

is

a hissing.

s.

aspirate

proceeding direct

Malays do not usually aspirate

it

from

so strongly.

24

ijc s

render

it

sounded

simply

b
it

tl

mouth

the

't

'

tl

or

t,

they generally employ

whom

with

this is

Umu^' knowledge' ^^'*^^


gh or ghr

with

Arab

'

i-sa Jesus

the

The sound

Malays giving

much more

of

/)

^^

is

73

In the

and

Mat

'iiiic

imur

'custom'

^Az

'life'.

guttural, but

by the

r.

being foreign to the Arabs, as

either sound,

in

written

same way

also,

'

is

often a confusion between the two, the

frequently

n with a

of

not imitated by the

is

Arabs a strong

and the great tendency


.

\J g,

it

proper names.

in

a vague sign, or mere fulcrum to

Malays usually pronounced g or

to the Malays, there

it

I.

carry a vowel, as in l-j^ arab

three,

Malays

an Arab strong and emphatic, but

of

c ain indicates a guttural sound w^hich

(9 /.

by the

sound with the Arabs, but Malays give

peculiar

the value of

Q^

a European word, particularly

in

has a

Malays,

Malays

or dl.

with the Malays only an ordinary


to render

the

the strong emphatic d of the Arabs

is in

usually modified by the Malays.

by the Arabs strongly articulated

is

fj^ dl

)o

a strong guttural

kh

though more

is

fact

uJ

|>

is

with them

with one noktah than with


to give

it

always the sound

k\s sometimes confounded with


rarely,

-,

j with

ch,

and

ng.

k with the Arabs

less strong than

is

kh.

a guttural, stronger than

The

CJ

k,

Malays usually pronounce

but
it

[25]
CJ

A-

when

and,

final in

a word,

commonly

substitute

it

for

that letter.
28.

The

different parts

Settlements

k in

final

in the

it is

Malay words varies considerably

value

assigned to

it is

distinctly sounded, whilst in

hard and jfJu hayk


like

In

it.

is

short the

Sumatra and Java generalBorneo the sound

pronounced as broadly as

is

very

pike, spike,

'.

29.

In

words

often found

then usually

deri^-ed

from the Arabic the

surmounted by two noktah


give

it

the value of

Arabs only so pronounce iLjWhen

t,

it

( ^ )

The Malays
it

call

it

j^s^

incorrectly in

t(f

place

followed by a suffixed particle,

is

becomes an ordinarv

Ci-'

t.

is

followed by a word
in

which

the ordinaryit

and the Malays

panjang or 'long
of

final

notwithstanding that the

which forms a complement to the word

use

in

the Straits

nearly silent, or only series to cut

vowel sound which precedes


ly

In

it.

being no

/',

iJ:^

it

occurs.

and often
t.

longer

When
final,

26

Section
DIVISIOxN

AND USE OF THE LETTERS.

The Malays

30.

Arabs

like the

means

of

to

for

It is

as

monumental

'

if

To

Corollary
:

letters,

or

we

shall

and

are

as

in

they

should

be

arti-

M N M N T

English

very important to bear this

represent

hunlf),

placed above or below them,

one wrote
It is

'.

the

moveable,

vowels, which,

indicate the vocal sound with which

culated.

^'^^

only

proceed to explain, are supplemental to the


represented by certain signs

letters of

har'fp].

consonants^t and

all

susceptible of sound, by

the

call

^^

Alphabet c_i^ huriif* (Ar. sing.

and consider them

VIII.

an articulated

in

isolated

mind.

sound

both a letter and a vowel sign ought to be used.

The

31.
'

strong

The
and

letters,'

first

j_j

32.
cities.

letters are

and

hnnif k'ms or
^j^J
hunt/ I'mah or weak letters'.

<-J^=-

class comprises all

ya,

^^

divided into

'

the

which three form the second

The weak
Firstly,

like the strong

letters

they

and

alif,

j ivaw,

class.

employed

are

may be employed

letters,

except

letters,

in

two

as simple

in this state,

they

distinct capa-

consonants,

can only re-

ceive movement, by the application of the vowel signs,


any of

which may be borne upon them.


the

remainder of the

\j^j^f.

V^ Imruf

letters

h'r-ha-ris

They

are then

moveable,

meaning

'

or

termed

like

by the Malays

letters

carrying

* Tlie Malays do not indicate the plural or singular by


declension, and a lar^e
proportion of the Arabic words adopted into Malay have been'
taken in the
plnral form,
accordance with the general tendency in the language, to treat the
substantives as primarily rather general, or plural, in their
signification, than
fcjnigular, miless defined in the latter number
by a numeral or tlie context.
t This term though not quite accurate is used for want of a better.

[27]
vowel sign.'*

In

but serves as a

state

mere fulcrum

A M P D N T
i

this

for

'

alif has

of

to carry a vowel, as

A N

impudent/ or

may
and

and hence by the application

cation
b'' IJ^y

of different
y'>

un-

'

of the different vowels,

sounds

a,

ya and j icaw correspond to our

when not employed

'w',

for

in turn represent, either of the

^_J

sound,

one wrote

if

T N

F S

fasten',

no

itself

y^>

y<-%

I/^',

or yo, and

letters

n-a,

n', U'i,

or

u,

e,

represent

turn

in

i,

'

and may, by the

as vowels,

vowels,

',

o,

and

'

appli-

respectiveini,

ive,

or wo.

33.

Secondly, these three letters

may

but

they

cannot be

either

initial,

in

a word,

weak

quiescent

letter is called

madd meaning extension


'

signs,

In this state

or

syllable,

but

must follow a ^^'o^j u-j}^ huruf b'r-ba-ris or


moveable letter,
and if the vowel borne upon such letter has
a sound corresponding to that of the quiescent weak letter, such
two
sounds coalesce, and form a long vowel.

quiescent or in a

be treated themselves as mere vowels.

'

may be

and then they cannot receive the vowel

state of repose,

h'r-na-ma

JtKnif

madd

mfW meaning long

may
the

follov.-

weak

the

weak

^^ c_i^2^ ^^.\

huruf

ixinjanff

'

jc<

..J^

Jj.j

named huruf

But the quiescent weak

letters'.

letter

a letter, bearing a vowel of a different


nature

letter,

in

have an effect which


tion of a

by the Malays S^ uJ.rv huruf

letter.'

arti-ila

In this state the

to

which case they cannot coalesce, but

may be

described

as, either,

heterogeneous vowel or diphthong,


letter to revert to

its

character of

* This term does not iuclude the orthograpical


negation of the vowel.

or,

the forma-

the causino-of

consonant, and

mark Jazm,

wliich

is

the

28

the

close

syllable.

(V^7- *!;^

mark

j^^;^

meaning

jrr^m

the negation of the vowel.

and forming the


the vowel

and

coalesce,

^=^

^'*

syllable

and the

hurufmadd.

But

carrying

which, as

we

shall see

same

here,

al[f,

nature, their sounds

vowel'o & or BA, and


the syllable

if

the

carrying the vowel a

followed by

is

being of the

letter is called

letter

'

),'

Ex.,

ha or

form a long

weak

state the

h'r-jazni,

^i>"'"f

orthographical
is

In this

ha

is

the

is

followed by

J as in

half or

_jj

BW,

then the vowel and the

ent natures cannot coalesce, but form


the J

a diphthong

differ-

haw,

and

c_3^ huruf

then ^^^^^^

is

being of

_j

h'r^azm. These matters will


however be more readily understood, when
the use of the

vowels has been explained

see Par.

35

The vowels may be described

34.

).

as the

life

of the

con-

sonants, for, without a vowel, the consonant cannot


exist as a

sound.

If

the

reader will

a vowel, he will find


to
(

'&

it is

or

h'

to be in the

to

articulate

approach he can make

(compare Par. 49 as

to the inherent vowel),

appear to be exceptions,

same

be observed

category,'

that

if

the sound

a consonant

but

can

be

as in ah,

vowel following

this is the

Mjs^ji i^js>.

ba-ris, for both

cription of
sufficiently

dered

them

it,

'

of,

'

as in ha,

hum/

and

h'r-jazm

and

will

be found

be analyzed).

cutting short a preceding vowel,

tween

without

the nearest

sibilant letters

will

that

attempt

or, in

^^j^^jJ

It

articulated, in

opening a

distinction

be-

uJ^ httriif h'r-

must be considered consonants, and the des-

moveable by the application of vowels'

is

hardly

comprehensive, but would be more accurately ren-

susceptible of articulated

or of

them

to,

vowels.'

sound by the application to

[29]
Section

IX.

VOWELS.

We

35.

have already remarked that by

vowels

both

Malays and Arabs understand certain supplementary signs,


placed above or below the

and indicating the vocal

letters,

sound with which they should be pronounced, or by which


the letters are rendered

Arabs

harakat

trj^^s-

They

moveable.

Kp-

plural of

are

by the

called

harakat) signifying

'movement', and by the Malays either ^^J^. ba-ris 'lines',


orc:-5'.s-^ sinja-t'i
weapons ( perhaps from a resemblance to
'

'

lances in rest

)."^

These

36.

signs

is*^ fat-hah or

'^Avi

dlfimiiiah or ^^IjJfcJ

Each

of these signs has

letter,

The
eternal

'

',

Jj 2)ada

of
'

at

The second sound


J

nap

'

which

whole

(^1^

rrt-s'

agree

in

<fasr^

give
'

feel

is

'

is

fat-Jf,ah

as in

d'ndam

CL?i^ ka-t'

assigning

stroke

front stroke

',

',

a short diagonal stroke, placed

the
'

and

this

'

first

desire.'

to <fcs" fat-hah
',

'

right to

as

in

left.

J^

kakal

'.

Malays usually,

the

correctly,

j,jj

',

lower

two distinct sounds.

and sloping downwards from


sound

first

'

uy^ ba-ris di-hada-pan

37- ^=s-^ /Vf?-/m/i consists of

over a

'upper stroke'

di-a -tas

di-ha-wah

^^"^^^

o"*/''-

number

in

ha-ris-

i^jy^

^^j'^\y

or s.oJ

'ij*^ k'sjrih

three

are

say

it

It

All

sound to the

and

<

sound

appear

more

final

writers
*s-^'

aJA

of

this

is

would

open
'.

syllables

as

in

on Malay

fat-hah

and

* In many of the languages of the Indian Archipelago, though not in


Malay, nasal .sounds are also represented by adjuncts to the letters.

[30]
with reason,
tion

the

the tX^ 'p'

of

ultimate

we

when, as

for

uruf madd

syllable of the

the second to the

m'rasa-i 'to feel', and

but the sound

later,

the posi-

such words changes to

from

vowel reverts

of ^ss^ fat-hah,ex. gr,, ^A**jj^

'words, speech',

ij'r-kata-an

^J^^J^

in itself indefinite

is

in

see

radical the

sound

first

shall

see Par.

49

and, but for

),

Malay, would be no more assignable to one,

this peculiarity in

than to another class of vowel.


38.

a sign similar in form to the preceding,

is
'^f*^ JslM^di

but placed under the


Its

sound

first

chinchin

'

ring,'

letter.

is

bi-ni

,^5^:^^

The second sound


ne-nek

j>?-Ze/i

'

of

to the left

tuntut

to

'

sound

stinking
40.

It

signs

are

^j,

slave

'

^?^

',

and

appear

in

j^^i

ti-tek

'

drop,'

and a

is

it is

in practice

as in

.Jjl

little in

waw, and

front

i.

placed directly over

undur

'

e.,

it.

recede,' e:^juS'

to

',

as

in

JfAAj 'pondok

of

^U^i

dlammah appear

to-tui-

be

'

hut

',

y^>^

in.

^^yi

bu-sok

talk.'

remarked that the sounds

homogeneous with those


y,

'

yy

will

is

wen.'

sounds
J

I'

'pa-tek

demand.'

goitre,

Both
'

Jp'j

to be placed over,

The second sound


gondok

in

k'srah

ij>*^^

of the letter,

first
'

as

choose.'

though supposed

Its

^^'^

',

wife.'

is

screen

dlammali takes the form of a small

<K/^

39.

'

grandparent.'

'

Both sounds
*i>J

as in ciiJJ dinding

when

quiescent,

of these

of the three

and the

reade*

three

weak

letters

will

under-

'

[31]
stand that, upon the principle already enunciated

t\-*

de-sa
'

village

'

blind

',

hJ

that

to

by,

of

which

the

sign,

the

as

h'r-ha-ris,

of

^^J^

in

of

sound

of

as in j^x'J ta-ngan

u'rta

in

news

'

when

it

And

State.'

or

result

to

character

da-may

-<^J

^\

'peace',

From

'shining'.

consonant, as

of

ay

the

this

and

ang-kaw

cow

',

even

at

reader

'

risk

of

the

sounds represented by those

and

'

flaw

better

instead

',

of

convey the sounds

tao-e of

'

selected

ai

to

'

and

to

',

41.

and

^;-^

Custom has

ki-laiv

why

to

represent
in

'

buy

'

pay

',

which would perhaps

an English reader, and the advan-

the selection will be further seen,

^_^^

yJ^

words

when

the changes in

the orthography of a radical word, caused by the


ticles

revert

mistaken for

their being

au

million',

or at the end

those

letters in the
*

'a

understand

will

aw have been

the

weak

letter

'you',

diphthongal sounds nearly similar


'

the

^'i' im-hny 'to use',

in

the

'

',

weak

letters

'

when

which case we should

the

'

bu-ta

letter is f^J^ij^

sombre

'

making the

as

it

(^j*jJ

',

in cl?^j

over,

yii-ta

\.ZJ^^

in

h'r-jazm,

Aj=>'ji

describe

to

its

^^ wi-rang

three

';

a diphthong, whether

is

and

hand

'

or heterogeneous

dissimilar

is

'which',

'

that,

placed

is

^, rjang
',

is

it

prefer

and

ti-r/a

dlammaJi with j as

drum

'

formed, by the

is

'

beginning of a syllable when the weak

at the

CL>.

as

^_g

followed

is

the

long vowel

'

i.*^

or of

';

no-hat

vowel sign
letter,

with

k'srak

'^jM*^

or

is^ fat-hah with

of

coalition

or of

madd

hiiruf

J,=>-

Par. 33 ),a

a, are

commented on

justified the

suffixed par-

(Par. 117).

insertion in certain

cases of

[32]
both
JJ.'^J

weak

the

hayk

'

quiescent,

letters

Favre

good.'

as

treats these

jawh

;l-

in

words as

'

and

Another analysis

nunciation.
the

alif as

SjU-

and

nh,

and

\^J^y.

ha and J^}

without authority

than

one

rule,

a.

syllables

of the

and

this

and

to be the practice of the

and

to

would seem

but this

effect

derivative

Arabs

not only

of

removing the
the

writer

L.^/^ aja-ih 'wonders,

',

h'sar 'there

^*>^.
is

alif i^j^J^ji

in

marvels',

i-tii

JiJj^li eLjl^>^ jl

'

ada

one great advantage.'

on the same page, as the


^^'U^i'

sia-sia

and

later

i-tu

Vr-la-i-nan

^_J^^'^

'

latter of
Jlt>

and ^d^/Sfa-i-dah

j*,.lji^*w./*i L.(j.j

s'lca-tu
It is

in

fa-i-ddh

the

same book, and

the two examples

J.$^"

(^/^y. <:L-^^}y^^^

ijy>^^

now

given

is

tinggal da-lam p'r -ma -iin profitless

s'ka-H

yam/

not difficult to find

remain (occupied)

'

haliica

though verily marvellous be

instances of Malay words so written, and

rOAtj

h'r-ha-ris,

writing certain Arabic

Ci^j'^ C-^.^'^

s'sunrf-giih-na aja-ih liika-yat

story

forms of these

to represent similar sounds,

be recognized by the Malays

nan yang

is

ii*\

to be the correct solution of the difficulty,

'benefit, advantage^ CI^J

found,

and

ja,

:=

One educated Malay, whom

words, the ^ representing a deleted

that

to consider

Malay, but involves the breach of more

hamzali), at least in the

words, as

is

considered that the alif should be followed by

consulted,
(JSJ^a*

words

and the words written thus

respectively,

ik,

alter-

misleading as to the pro-

and would have the

accent from the

in

is

of these

h'r-ha-ris,

and consisting

i^>^,
j

but this

haik),

',

bi-syllabic

and renders ihtm jawuh and hayih (though he gives the


atives ja?<A

far

your

amusements',

ada-pnn fahiat-mu

nature

is

entirely

[33]
different

fishing line,'

JjVJU

H'^*

is

'

J:/-*^

dan

in'iiq-ayl

with

J^^

J'.=r^)

i^'ng-ayl

net'

oi

'a

before the

Par.

principle though the separate vowels are

particle

more

fisherman',

i-tn

d'ngan

was

fishing

below),

91

proceed upon

to

single fisher',

'a

also

'

derivatives

its

p'lc'rja-an-ua

{see

hayl

Jj/1^

his occupation

'

appears

below)

115

Par.

also

as also

^,

ti;^-^'>T*7^'

fishing with

and the employment


oi

so

and Jj^'-^ p'ng-ayl

'

^^^r.'

in'yi-ja-la

and

line

to

fish

s'o-rang-o-mng

^?jj^

^jjlj

written with

often

))i'nfi-ayl

Jj/Je

And

(<s^*J^ tahi-cth Ar.).

'

^^

(end

similar

distinctlv articu-

lated in this case.


In certain in stances

42.

found

by

divided

the

yfc'J

less

still

is

correct)

retained in

reason, and in

from jb

^^s

to

.j

v.rite

pra-hu

'

a.

it

'

is

odour

vessel

nearly

the

In

'.

',

The

In a

forms

^^y^

in

instance
A>t.s^
is

is

that

A>>3r^

the

nunnation

origin,

vowel

iiui/ui'iiinuil

muhainmadin, and

called i^y'^

lish

of

j'o

P^'^g-

few instances the vowel signs are found doubled,

but only in words of Arabic


nunciation

much

to distinguish

derivative

always found, as

is

separa-

but without

tahu-an 'knowledge', ij^yY*^ ka-mahu-an 'will


43.

know'

'

submitted

is

and .U.

yb'j ha-hv. 'shoulder', probably

haw

and jU the

is

ta-Jiu

pronunciation hardly justifies

and the more modern practice (which

this,

it

the

of the diphthono- are

as in

letter 8 h,

ybU ma-hu 'want', but

tion

vowe ls

the

tannin or
'.

is

the

effect

upon the pro-

closed by a sound of n

becomes

i\>^2r*
^i) i^j^J^i

muhammadun.
ha-)is

for

Aas"* muJuiminadan,

This

du-va and

in

form

Eng-

[34]
The

44-

reader

begin

language, to read from

Malay as

As an

omitting the whole of these signs.

what exaggerated instance


puzzle

or

catch,

But

tj'^

is

written, viz.,

illustration, a

subjoined, in

some-

shape of a

the

some

J^^V-

t^i^

J'^'^

^^'i

J^^'

J'^''

would

the vowel signs be employed, the difficulty

if

the

of

which even a Malay would require

thought to decipher
Ji-*^''/.

knowledge

usually

it is

why

understand

to

without a fairly extensive

difficult,

it is

now

will

dis-

appear

c^^}i

hak

j^^y
di

^.-J^

^^'^

J^*"

tumhuk o-rang h'r-tomhak dan

h'r-tim-

shooting.'

These remarks

45.

arisen

employing the weak

of

sent day, to a very


writer, the

large

more frequent

letters, in

is

of a long vowel.

most

day,

The

principle

to

be one position,

commnnis error facitjus,

open

an
6

Si

syllable,

their

is in

in positions

employment
the

present

Pars, it,^

et seq.).

at

is,

in

which, upon the

employment must be

words terminating with

having the vowel sound of

ij^

k'srah,

-^

or <U^ dlammaJi, and

CiiU

Malay

of

considered compulsory, and this

the pre-

at

and

not admit of the

spelling

place of the

employed,

so

arbitrary in this respect {see

There appears

46.

the

their recurrence,
will

the practice has

and the more ignorant the

extent,

which the pronunciation

how

explain

will also

omitted vowel signs, and they are

in

J^

J**'^

pounding the walls men fought, stabbing

at the time of

'

and

J''^

tumhuk temhoh

icaktu

'

is-'^-*-'

ncuiti

'

so

wait'

l^U
for c:-^ii

ma-ti
>

'

dead

jL' hii-fu

'

is

'stone

written for
'

for

cr-^'j

>

[35]
Vntu

.JUi

'certain' for s^x'i

must not be considered

but in these cases the 4^

as tX^

^J^

^uruf madd or 'long vowel,'

but as a mere substitute for the vowel sign.

does not extend to the employment of

cl^U

such words as
C^.JU) minta

But

47.

the

weak

l.Jo^

to

should be

^-?o

fat-^ah and

/irt-fa

t'm

^^ s'm

printed,

'

marked

cry out

call,

'

k'na

iJi

in

y^

',

S-*

/j'n

short,

'to

^r)

,'

final

and

and considered

written,

to say',

'

not be written with a

vowel', as

or 'long

glory',

'

s'ri

<iCsr*^

penultimate syllable be open

ind'ra (name), Ij

^y*t

This convention

for

the eye',

should

ask',

the

if

letter

madd

'^uriif

'

;rt-^rt

'

or j

<Jp-

touch',

give

'

',

t'bu 'sugar cane'

(compare Pars. 55 and 93).

The comments upon

48.

the vowel

signs would be incom-

plete without noticing an adjunct to the signs ij^S k'srali

^u^

dlaiiunaJi.

old editions of

called

JUc

the Koran,

J'v>^

*-x^

small 4
signifies

the

as

'battery'.

in

and

form
its

in

hut

or shed

that of a

is

vowel mark,

such case

has

its

it

second

pondok

^JJli

Though

its

letter

vowel sign
JO

sound,

was invented

and placed over the


that

It

signs has two sounds, and

which of these sounds the sign represents, the

inlin-una-la

some

in

and described by ROBIXSON.

has been shown that each of these


to distinguish

found

*:^ mlin-'imi-hi

and

rare

so

the great utility of the


recognition, for, without

'

as to

mark seems
it,

',

jlL

henteng

be almost unknown,
to plead strongly for its

or something in

its

place, Avritten

Malay can never adequately convey the pronunciation

of the

[36]
words, nor

be possible to preserve any correct native

Avill it

record of the language, thus ^jSj dindhuj 'a

screen' cannot
r

be distinguished from cA^J

hu-rong

'

49.

a bird

render

be

also

sounds

ho-rong 'wholesale', etc.

.^j

Malay orthography complete, however,

and

/at-hah,

the subject

move

the

may be

"fat-hall or haris di-a-tas

the second

" heard in

^Xi^

first

in

many

" the

following

As

(h'nar).

fat-h'ih

" in the

"

two

of the

is

sound

total

the

consequence
by which

of

one

The

of
first

that

vowel, as

second *

.*.v

hasar

b'sar

(second *)
vowel

that

languages,

it is

sound

absence of a vowel, as

first

is

sound

sound,

which,

^>
of
in

considered as inherent

consonant, and therefore termed the inherent vowel,

method here

adopted

recommended

in the Sungskrit,

and

" these languages no character

" inherent vowel, except at the


*

its

words

doubtless

oriental

in

character

pfintas, while

1'

the

felt

might be employed exclusively to

might be indicated by the

"

is

difficult to re-

distinguished from the other.

"

" hanar

RobixsON's

is

would not be

it

inconvenience, which

o{fat-h,ah,

" express

it

allowable for a foreigner

it

being no orthographical

sound

" the

subjoined

Were

"

suggest an improvement,

" there
"

t.^

nor

',

necessary to distinguish between the two

^^i

of

note upon

"

from

To

would

" to

'

'dried meat

den.letuj

In this book.

is

its

is

simply that

which

cognate languages.

made use

is

In

of to express the

commencement

of a syllable,

[37]
"

an

"

syllables

which

exception

therefore

consonant,

but

in

consist

understood to be

"

dered,

"

which the Malay bears a close


a

'

"

nothing

of

which the inherent

"

included ^ ^ ^
several

too, that

Many

cannot apply to the Malay.

^.

simple

of

course

but

vowel

is

When

is

it

consi-

languages ofthe Archipelago, to


affinity,

have alphabets, and

system of orthography, formed upon the Sungskrit model,

seems no serious

there

Malav,

" in this

" tives

though

it

4^

if

the ^ ^

good old custom

were to be adopted, the

"

aside

(.

" world with

dress,

of

its

-the

conform

near

rela-

^ ^ method here proposed ^ ^ ^ ^

"

^(.

making

against

has assumed a foreign

particular to the
4(.

objection

Roman

character

might be laid

and Dr. Marsden might then present the

another

edition of his Dictionary,

" labour of writing every

word

in

two

without the
''

different characters.

'

[38]
Section X.

ORTHOGRAPHICAL MARKS.
These as here given are

50.

[J^

jazm,

JiXe

2^**

hamzaJi,

and

51-

ciovex>

mi-ti.

tXJ.AA)

aAJ

tanda ma-ti,

is ^, ",

letter,

over which

this

mark

as

in

is

or

and

',

perhaps of

fia),

^^j

like

blind

',

and

it

closes the syllable,

c:^=r"

call',

letter

lanjut

the exception

(with

Malays rarely use

ejj^

bu-icat

^-u

'to

jct-^in,

si-iuja

'

do',

iAi

si-y (( n g

',

which

52.
its

^_
)Tl<vU($ i^nuiVWrtC

form

'^'^
is

ja(/(/fl/t^

or "^ f.

^^ ^"^^ "^^"^ ^ ^^^

for this purpose

~ -

_j

'

jj--

^^

"*

applied

It

The Malays suppose


),

madd

signifies

o^j
'

and

prolongation',

placed over a quiescent weak

by the

the long vowel

Malays only

liJ.*>j.

to

a as a separate

letter,.
It is

initial,

syllable.'

has nevertheless been couteuded that each h tirtif madd should bear this mark.
that this is a perverted form of the Arabic luuueral
.r
but it is more probably the Greek circumflex ( Rom.nson ).

It is

A^

Vighi',

latter are often, in

vowel signs, and marks a long vowel.

when representing

or

'

for ^JiJyi Im-ta

might be taken

a lion

certain

writing

in

[see

notwithstand-

it,

order to distinguish them, erroneously written

^.^^ ^

to pro-

'

capable of receiving a vowel sound ^

which, without the jJs'

to indicate that the

is

might be extremely useful

it

letter, in

no vowel sound, of which

has

to

'

Pars. 33 and 34 above).

words,

power

by

ha-ris

i,^j^,

placed over a

it is

can be placed over any

It

ing that

Its

placed,

imng-gil

ivaslah,

called

is

^U

or

the negation, in other words

J^'

long'.

it is

icic.

and

'cutting',

the rank of the vowel signs.

'

i'skdld,

angka.

signifies

^>U

form

Its

viAil

i(i_?'H

j^J^

Malays

the

maddah,

number :

six in

[39]
It

may be considered
two

requiring

by

panied

to

pronunciation of the syllable

one of them

ali/s,

the sign

madd

%urtif

the

that,

one

alif

extension

the

land

denote

to

(rate syllable, is

or

soft,

almost

fowl

J\

n-y<nti

Another form

'letter is

over

of

'water'.

n-y'r

initial,

and forming a sepa-

aspirate,

^o'^

final in

Most High

taMa

times introduce

'

',

it

a,

as in

a.\\s^

{j^*^

It

54.

cent

called Jk^

letter,
j,-

of a syllable (as

The

grmsct.

of

idea

'

on the

When

jj^*;;;

A^

madd-as'l,
as

in

contrary,

J^"*^

some-

fat-hah io the

<)Cs'*

',

as in

(Par. 33), that a quies-

representing a prolongation of sound,

often

is

in

conveyed by this vrord

and when found


Arabic), as the

is

is

to use'.

observed

fyuruf uiadd,
it

* l^

maddalif,

the sound a,

applying

im-hiy

has been already

weak

',*

produce the diphthongj^y

to

^^J

instead of

day

rahmdn 'merci-

called ij^i

but th^ Malays,

preceding consonant,
Jj-^'.S

is

it

has

letter

instead

'

and indicating that such

letter,

Arabic words,
this

with

'.

followed by the long

In

support the

to

or d-ri

lia-ri

mark, called

tliis

a^?/ placed over

and implies that

time, the elision

which may be equally correctly written

ful',

'

placed

is

in ^jJ

imperceptible,

ha-yam or

same

mark

much more commonly expressed by

in

a small

i'

long a

supplementary vowel, as

53.

at the

sound, as

of

[Malay words however the

the

J^ *;^

prolong the vowel sound, but the rules of ortho-

igraphy not admitting of such a repetition, this


iover the

accom.

h'v-ha-ris

\^J^j^.

fat-^ah, and the other

icar^

a period

in
1

in

is

the middle

lam the

of 24 hours, from sunset to

[40]
^ in ^^y nun,

and the ^j

madd-dlarn-ri, or

j^^i

might be applied

to

*^^ mlm,

in

i^^

each J^

kha-likun

'

Creator,'

medial

},itr-an

'

in

Koran'.

the

4X>uSAi

55.

doubles
nga,

the

It

it.

--

first

closed

c//,

Its

'.

can

be

and

^^

syllable,

iUi ^'Ha^

'finis',

They

'.

also

maddah

as

employ
in

^J^,'i

used over

is

alayi-M' ss'ldni 'peace

form

also

is

applied

",

signifies

and placed over a

to all

When

shaddii

tiJi

letter

strong letters except

a strong letter

consonant,

is

so doubled,

and forms with

it

and the second takes the vowel properly

and accompanying the mark, as

letter,

&^^ fnnat 'paradise'.

never applied to

but

the letter so marked, the

The

when placed over

first

becoming

S^iSJL")

or

|_^

in

t'shdld

doubles

A^i_J^>. hiinif mndcl

preceding consonant, and forming the

of the

^^^

in

the faithful", and

a syllable,

in

aylc

named

na.

as

it

'

rt/?/ initial

^^CjiM*^ ^s'sunggith-na 'vevWy'.

for

joins the preceding

belonging to the

is

employ

JsJs^

*1LJ1

^^'*'

t'shdjd

re-inforcement

initial

Finally
for

-^

j*

be upon him', and

so

nin-niinu-na

^^y^y^

a word but

abbreviations, as

'

Arabs

we

but, as

except over

it

klidli-fah 'a Caliph, or lieutenant

Jwj3'^
it

The

words.

certain

maddah

i$Jc^

hunif madd,

ijs>~

<

have observed, the Malays rarely use


in

madd'la-zhn.

tW

called ^^^^^

is

it

long vowel,

^"

* This rule admits of exceptions in Arabic words, but not, s6far as we li;r
been able to ascertain, in ^xm native word. The exceptions in Arabic oci
where the weak letter marked with t' slid id is preceded by a letter having a vowel
In this case, as we have seen, the weak letter
heterogenous to the weak letter.
;,

may

be

ti'catod as a

assumed

Trom
it

by

simple consonant, ex.,


Arabs who claim

certain

rectly rendered
Tiuiy't

pronounced viay-ynt 'a corpse


to them, but
corpse is more c
and Malays probably misuse the word i-^

the Malays writing i- for the


api)ear that this pecuUarity is

would

'death'.

--*

maytah,

say-yiil "Lord, master, the title


J-"
to hv of thf race of IMuhannnail.

w-ord

known

'

'

[41]
and the second becoming

^-'^rJ "';*'

hnruf

h^r-ha-ris oi the

and taking the vowel sound, the sign

next syllable,

accompany

should
do',

'to

JoJ-iJ

the

without

supposed
thus

ij* si,

is

and

J^

the syllables

t'shdld, as in

light

Were

'.

or

Vshd'id,

tr-

<

kin-vf madd of the


t^'^J^ri

and

ivat

<j:j^

'

?/rtf/

respectively.

omitted

SiSJL^

accompany

mark, and

accepted convention

to write

Ill-war 'out', x'y

for

.^

for

yi

or

pyi

for C)J bu-icang

sell',
is

j^j

i^

tu-ira
'

common

hi-rjar

'dwell,

'

in the

allow

remain, be

'

'

for

fat-}f,ah

tu-wan

^j^y

l^J

away',

'Mr.',

case of the

still'

for

'fruit,'

dii-na

J^

^^

'two,'

jn-icid

'

to

manner, but the practice

weak

other

ne\er written

is

"J

for

Jl^

a similar

in

hii-wah

sj

for

old',

cast

and many others

not so

for the

til

2j

jljl

*=5^

if

a very

amounts almost to an

it

^J^^

is

compensation

as

over the letter ^

that

or

hii

hnrufb'r-ba-ris beginning

practice of inserting an

should

first

9/^

common

t'skd'id

stand

syllable ^j

first

not

the

that

must be admitted, however, that there

It

hu-ivat

would

they

clear

is

dj^

presence were

it ),

it

which

ol
J

words written

these

its

it

here

f:^:^**'

and the second

N. B.

'

Malays usually omitting

*-^}yi

J or

si-yang

i^-*^

Jji^^

the

nor

lUj
jJ^

nor

letter,

j^ji

li-yar

and

di-yam

'wild'^U)>

.f*^.*^

but ji^ iii-yor

'

chi-yiim 'to kiss'


in

cocopalm

''

*y^ The
.

is

usually written

AjJ-io t'shdid

pronunciation, and especially where

harshness, and, but for the

fact

that

it

is

and *J^

not always audible

would

this

i^j

produce any

use of the

Roman

42

might mislead as to the proper Arabic

letters

used,

would be better

it

for cu>j^

see

the

explained,

derivative,

Thus

madd.

from

c:->jj

p'r-huwa-tan

^^\y,J^

'

[^j^iji h'r-ha-ris,

liurufmadd appears

by the application
the

sound

first

of

application to ^c the

not

Vslidld

As some

c ).

li-o

\-

"

comment on

When
madd

this

the

u^j- htmif

ii^

that

sound

difficulty

kuriif

here

hiinif

9.s>-

*^^j

hu, and

t'shd'ul to ^

first

yj*Uj hiya-sa 'accustomed',


further

ihsLt

of

is

is

formed

as the
of the

as

J^ '*t-

they

^
in

madd iormed

invariably gives
u

Sjv*^

may occur

applied to ^ and

may be

been formulated

by a

deletion of so

and there remains only

^u^ dlammah,

of

';

'

the

in

penultimate of the derivative word,

4iJ..:yAj

its

lost

and A^ **;* ^urufmadd

following

in the

word,

radical

the

to

do

to

derivative,

must be noted

It

57.

'

hereafter

have borne the mark

the thing done

radical, is omitted in the

wa

the

in

such case,

in

is,

hu-ivat

duplication,

part of the

bti-icat

often found in a dif-

only of the duplication, as consists of S^

much

was

it

loss is equivalent

but the

as will be

is

in the radical,

mark

that

fslidld,

madd

}f,uriif

that in which

such letter should,

JjjiJlJ

first

9;=^

<

to

position

ferent
if

J^-

than

).

of derivatives,

formation

be

letters to

write hirat or huot

to

Appendix B

In the

efi.

hut

not o), and by


k'sraU,

as to

radical

that

when

the following

mark

is

hiava-ya
necessary,

rule

has

are followed

'crocodile'.

for

is

iiOi^tio

they cannot take this mark

^y

it

the

",

ex.

No

Malays

43

rarely use

introduced from

a refinement

Malay has

ready

or ^li di-ya

i-ija

1^ muli-yd

',

ilc^

'

worthy

torm

is

It is

',

and

words,

icas'l

(J^^

signifies

and

preceding,

the

of others in

).

renders

s'di-ya

t_fA*

',

and a number
Par. 55

it is

must be sup-

presence

its

',

and placed over

between

junction

or

ivaslah

"

God

with which the

he, she, they

'

addition to those already given


58.

'

a language,

but

allah

*JJ1

for the traditional spelling of certain

posed to account

'

common

little in

such as ^^

word

except over the

it,

union

'

'.

Its

mute, allowing a

it

succeeding

letters.

only used in Arabic phrases, and mainly in the definitive

^^^

particle Jl aX^ as in

Prophet'

^__^4XaI]

apostle of
59.

God

The

ro-hul-kiidns

^j

rasu-lullah "apostle

'-r'-^ kita-hunnabi

God

of

<dll

',

'Holy

J,,.

book

'

Ghost',

of the
JdJl

rasu-lillah

J^*,

of the

'.

word

syllable of the

first

which

allali,

<t)J)

an

is
-

abbreviation,

'God'

illah

God

or

j^^aLl ^]

My

the

article

thus
for

is

It

'.

noun

is

reason

this

God',

ibra-hlm

^k!)

'

God

illah

however caution the reader,


formed by position, and
though correct
the

first

in

of

when

Abraham
'Our

omitted,

',

viX^Jl

God'.

^*>

One

as in

illah-hu

We

must

Malay being

by declension, these
no*:

ts

possessive

is

that the genitive in

not

'The

God',

article

Ica-mi

Malay would

instance quoted, a

that,

the

it,

and the second part

'The

signifying

pronoun follows
illah

nZ,

J^

forms

be good Arabic, and in


h'srah

would be placed

44

under the

final

to denote the genitive case

kita-hiomahi-j/i {st'ePa.r.
in

Nor must

06 below).

jJ^^'-r'-^

any case assume that the Arabic

words

the reader

occurring from

time to time are grammatically correct Arabic.


60.

hnmzah

^'tJb

marks

the orthographical
c

aiti

reduced

above or below
the

for

substitute

its

form

It

is

is

or

it,

So

letter.

close

kW

\^j^hi

^'^'^

^^^

''>'

li)

^'^

the

speaking

UzMj^'

'-^-^''

ba-ris liamzah lUDiia-na jikalaw tiya-da h'r-ha-ris

'when

it (

alif) bears a

has no vowel sign


it

its

vowel sign

name

is

its

alif\

alif

representative or

is

in

and therefore

sign,

the

is

it

to

vowel sign, and

its

and the

between them, that the Malays say


^l>o

appendage

either an

(if initial)

all

^ being merely the letter

properly accompanying

placed between the letter


either

the most used by the Malays of

size.

in

h'r-ha-ris,

^v'o.j

is

name

connection
of

the

(W^i^'i-^o

^'''-

aljf nam.i-ha

ham.iah

is

al{f,

when

As an appendage

it

to alif

reduces the latter to a sort of imperceptible aspirate, the only

power

of w^h.ich

is

companying
61.

it,

movement

to give

thus

<-r>^

In Malay, however,

are sparingly

to the.

ah

<-->^

medial

commencement

whether

weak

letters

mute by *Jssyllable.

'

jaziii,

a
_}

syllable,

>

in

is

letters,

to express the

a word, but at the


following one of the

or ^c quiescent, or a consonant rendered

or a prefixed particle consisting of an

These instances mostly occur

by annexing

uh.

where the weak, or vowel

elision of alif [ri'^ji h'r-ha-ris,

three

t^l

ih

employed, the chief use of

of

vowel sound acO c

in derivatives

open

formed

particles as will be hereafter explained, ex. gr..

45

^j^^U^j

;)'A;*r/rt-flrw

tainty

^xxxxX^

',

ampat

the

'

'performance',

ka-nanti-an

fourth

di, ji

1/1,

t'l',

di-angkat

^^j3 h'r-0-leh

cer^

ci^sAaa^

',

ka-

present day

at the

either of the parti-

j/r,

or

Ji

p7, as in

possess', ^'o|J t'r-ata-tna

to

'

di-oivlik 'on the waves',

^^^^i^

'lifted',

'most excellent',

'

jj^KLj p'r-ara-kan
instruction

procession', ^j^'^ls p'l-aja-ran

'

elision of

ginning of a word when


asa 'unity, oneness, one,

man

',

104 and 105

see Pars. 84,

'

62. ^ supplies the

'

1!!,-^*^'^

ka-t'ntu-an

expectation

'

yj^

when following

alif,

Jj

h'r,

tj

Universal custom

'.

however retains the


cles

^^

.^Q^'*' s'-c-kor

certain instances, as

an

a,

'

f^^^

sa or
') is

tail

).

before j or

s'

as

at

the be-

contraction

prefixed,
',

lesson,

'

of

^^1

as f-jj-^ s^o-rang

as by custom in

well

matii-j'r for js-^] V^Xo

maka

u-j'r

'and he said", ci^^JoG^ m(u-Tk-i-tu ior c:^.' ^^j- mari-ka


*

they, those people

initial,

when

fixed, as in

It

also sometimes

the particles

jdLe

retention of the

'.

hur even though no trace of the


nunciation

of

whenever such
63.

when
the

Its

use

'to

the

derivative

ji

p*ng are pre-

sow, scatter

seems preferable, as

niarks the elision of

m'ng and

m'ng-amhnr

i-tii

^x*^-*

but

',

the

m'ng-ham'

aspirate remains

in the pro-

used

generally

word.

It

is

elisions occur.
is

that letter

particles ^-c

advocated to mark the elision


is

dropped

for

w^

initial,

euphony on the application

m'ng and %t p'ng, as

work' a derivative formed from

^J

in

^ J^ m'ng-'rja

k*rja

'work'.

It

of
*tO
is

sometimes so used by the Malays, but not generally, though

46

there are strong reasons

m'ng and

}^

be not employed

f-

sary to divide

ni'-ng'r-Ja, this
IS nVn(i-'r-ja

this

being

shall

it

must appear

see,

here without

is

and W

becomes neces-

vowel of the

evidently f

'to

which results

syllables,

second
its

and

must, as we

substitute, and

write the syllable alone

and we

shall see that

is in-

more apparent from another

still

know',

word

the

To

jS^

be

will

^Ji<

with the pronunciation, which

be borne on a letter or

S"^ h'ml
^

particles

syllables,

and second being closed

either j\ or

This

instance, from

m'ng-nal,

first

mark

it

The

m'ng, and consider the word as

the opening

hereafter

admissible.

instance ^iven,

inconsistent

is

the

so,

the proper

tlie

appear to be closed

the

in

employment.^

for its

p'ncj

-^

formed

is

JUi^

m'tuj-'-nal

would probably be pronounced

in the

omission of an entire syllable.

This reasoning

is controverted
by F.AVRE, and he has the
support of the more general practice of Malay
writers.f

Sometimes, placed

64.

word,

indicates

it

nearly silent
sister, or

or

brother',

such

that
JS,

after a

as in

weak

takes

letter

^^d) a-de

-pUU ma-ma

letter

for

for

the

terminating
place

of

the

Jjl a-dek 'younger

jj^ ma-mak

'uncle,

aunt' -^^^1 inche for jx>] incliek 'Mr.',

and sometimes, placed

over a weak letter terminating a word,

it

letter

is

'foot' for

indicates that

a substitute only for the vowel sign, as

V^l^ ,in which cases

ma-ti, but these uses of

But

See Appendix A.

see Ai^pendix

as to

it

tliis

it is

in ^^J^i^ ka-ki

called ^^^U ^^s>

are rare.

and the ensuing observations,

such

hvnzah

47-]

JJ^

or

iiya-c-d

ti-dak
^^J^

intend".

wish,

marks abbreviations, as

Further

6'^.

l^c>

b'r-hU'tcali du-n-d kn-li


(

not

'

',

and

for

ta

-^'J

fc>ujj

J^i* handak

for

^^IVJ

j*;^3

jj^j^j

nd

-^J

in

fa aAvf/j

'The banana does not bear

pi-sang

fruit twice'

Prov.).

as a substitute should be written slightly

Lastly

66.

above the

line of the

cumstances

will

which

marks,

graphical

in

^^^^sSS

ex.,

ka-ada-an
r

near as

as

letter,

cir-

the elision of

signs and ortho-

the rank of vowel

angka the Arabic numeral

\>LXc\

67.

permit to the place of the

marks, and not

it

otherwise

but

letters,

existence

'

'.

Used as an

).

orthographical mark, and placed after a word, and in line w^th


the letters,

it

repeated, as

signifies that the

indicated by this
stood,

127
ral

from

ct seq.
t"

(3

),

the

is

it

is

very frequent in Malay, and

mark,

but

notes on

It is

).

which

to

applied

The

h:njk-hayk 'very good, very well'.

i'^.'.j

words

petition of

word

its

use

will

be

is

better

words below

duplicated

is

re-

usually

under(

Pars.

sometimes met with as the Arabic nume-

signifying that the

word

is

repeated three times

niaka s'gala khala-ik i-tupun m'ng-angkat-kan ta-ngan-na s'l-a-ya

m'ng-ota-kan amln cimln amln 'and

thereupon

tures)

lifted

Amen Amen Amen


!

68.

The vowel

up

their

all

the congregation (crea-

hands

whilst

exclaiming

'.

signs and orthographical marks have been

treated at considerable length, but from the prominence given


to them,

it

must not be taken, that the writing of every word.

[48]
with

all its

vowels, and appropriate

recommended, but written Malay


ambiguil}-, so long

in

ciphered by the context.


tii-wan 'master'

y;^I

hU'ivai

'

to

do

particularly,

vowels

if

and

foreign words.

'

for

is

from

this

state, but

cs^^j

unusual, ought

orthographical

^;^

hu-ta
to

tu-nu

'

burn

de-

be written

with

also

cd^j

',

Proper

as

be

be distinguished

'blind'.

marks,

from

Some words

many must

Some words might


from

moment

never be free

will

as they are totally omitted.

are easily recognizable

as

marks,

names
all

their

unfamiliar or

49

Section

XI.

NUMERALS.
69.

The

practice

of

writing from

right

to left does not

extend to the numerals, which are grouped as with

us.

The

European numerals are very generally known, and frequently


used by the Malays at the present day, but the greater proportion employ the Arabic, which are as follows
i

or

>*

[50]
The name

of

o8((

signifying

^ilj

iva-tii

'

the
'

s'-tra-tu are in

ployed
e-kor

ships'

70.

with

^J^

'fruit'

*^9; *i^

common

^1^

system

yl**!

Many

use.

among

^i^

termed

ancient order, as follows

Vmhu

as

S^}

'one ox",

and

kapal 'three

ra-mah 'seven houses*.

is

is

known

occasionally
to

In

ahfd.

Js:s^'

bers are represented by the letters of the


its

<-2j1^^

symbols are em-

bii-ivah

of which

and which

and

ha-tu, such

^i'lj

tl-ga

tu-Joh ha-icah

the Malays,

ba-ta or

^'.j

sa-tit

other

place of

in

exists, the use

the Arabic scholars,


.

both

for animals, ^xaI Sj^Xm s'-e-kor

'tail'

hn-icah

<^^

numeration

and

^^1

word being employed merely

the latter

numeration

in

a compound of

is

unity, oneness, isolation',

stone',

a symbol of

as

numeral

first

met

them through
the

this

num-

Arabic Alphabet in

20

10

40

30

50

60 70 80 90 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
In this

system the grouping

II

but

23
if

the order be

unchanged.

is

115
reversed,

or

reversed

ex. gr

1891

325
mixed, the

total

remains

51

Section

XII.

PUNCTUATION.
No

71.

known

is

system of punctuation, <:orresponding to our stops,

in

almost entirely, as
tical

The

Malay.
in

subdivision

depends

our legal documents, upon the gramma-

This, with

construction.

of sentences

the

fact that there is little or

no declension, leads to a considerable amount of tautology.

The beginnings
marked by

These words are usually written

characters

than the

regard

their actual

rest,

simj^n-lan 'knottings' or
of the discourse

the native
of,

and

with

us,

is

'

and are employed without much

They

^^^jSjS

i-ht jf'r-kata-an 'mothers

yxj}

common

word

CX

maliu* which answers the purpose

it

for

this

night

Beyond

the

is

marks the beginning, and not the end,

of a

15^'w^

'

came

purpose

stop

may be roughly

now people say

73.

use

full

mostly without meaning,

The

^J^>*>^

most

translated
.^1

on.

\j:jL.\ji

the

The King

'

>JL>^ \JLX^

maka ha-ri-pun ma-lam-lah maka


'

are called

in

though
It

larger

in

meaning.

used with about the same frequency

sentence.
is

? )

from

'.

The word

72.

subjects are, however,

conventional words mainly drawn

certain

Arabic sources.

to

new

of sentences or

\,

and

as,

'

or 'now', but

viaka ka-ta o-rang

wLJu ^aIU y;^.'<A viXo

ra-ja h'r-am/kat ka-ma-Ugay.

repaired to the palace.'

mere conventional use

of this word,

how-

*The origiu of this word is in doubt, Crawfurd connects it with the Javanese
It is possible that its
mangka. Bikkers gives two meanings now ', and
yet '.
use is coeval with the introduction of the Arabic letters, and that it is connected
'

with

\sJ>-j

viakat

'

to test'.

'

52

numerous instances

ever, there are

ing seems attached to

it

h'lum

krini/

an<j(jo-ia-ha

'one

limb

^MiU

s'tca-ta

dry

not

is

^Mi

^^U^w ijj\^. ^-^-^

^jyy>

yjfcji

dare enter',

o-rang ma-na

(manner
mountain

may

he

man

of)

obtain

it

(lit.

'

or paragraph,

is

used

found preceded,

the

first place',

Jjatta

without

it,

as

thus

maka Thus, when

di-p' r-o-leh-na

advice

upon

',

',

that

arki-yan

tya 'Especially',

or

J^r**"

hahwa

s'sungguh-ua

^?lilUMi

ly

'.

'

in

order that

obtained

').

'

'

To

'

many

in their turn,

maka

Whereas',

vi^

mav
'

In

^Ji^

order that, according

sh'haddn niaka 'Moreover,


'

Exhortation,

word

often

begin with
verily',

x\nd simiJarly

^^'^^y\ci

J^ti
',

istime-

h'r-mu-la,

J^^^j

',

of

as, there-

further', ^Jawj)

ada-pun 'l>iow',

also', yL.jS.j^'L^

Besides these

'

s'-h'r-mn-la

Whenever, so

'Though

s'ha.gay-lagi

gay-pu-la 'And so

y;1<^'i.

Moreover,

'

^^f>i^

s'-h'r-mu-Ui

maka

n'si-hat

k'l'ki-yan

^Ji^
ij^j^

viLc

\^..^cs^^

',

what

an indiomatic manner, bv

in

until, in

that,

'

it is

'

c^^l

be able to reach this

CXo J^^mj

viX^ l^j hahwa

to, therein comprised',

then

it,

ka-rfu-nong i-ni

a number of other words and phrases, which,

be

another',

cLA^ ^i) yjU

eii^'ti

may be by him

it

^.

lain

marking the beginning of a sentence

as

wets

master wishes

should

maka

that

'

The word viL

74.

that he

is this,

j^rt^^M*^ k1X-

',

my

maka da-pat samimy

i-ni

f^

i^^y**"

ha-sali-na

jih:daw ta-ican im-fia

^Ki>-

'if

di

he

^^ i*^**"

^^>}

ti^^^^

maka

before

8uka maka h'ra-ni s'ha-ya ma-sok


certainly

^*)^'^^->'^

^Ji)

which a certain mean-

in

short for

'And'.

dan
J^aj^'^

s'ka-li-2)'r-s'ta-a

s'ha-

'Former-

other forms will be met with, ex.

maka

'The

ada-lah.

whose relation

ampu-na ch'rtra

Now

narration.
this

is,

how

The termination
ada-na,

^\d)

ch'rtra-han o-rang yang

di

75.

53

and

were &c.'

that there

paragraph

of a

mostly marked by

is

a subject very

of

maka

related by the person

is

It

i-ni

i^) iw

by

often

i'mmat

'end of the story', or some high sounding

iiUcissat

t_^>UJ)j

Arabic phrase, such as


\

wallahu aalam hiss'wah ivalai-hil


Official or formal letters

76.
i

baJma

i-ni

warakat

'

mostly begin with

Whereas

sounding expressions of

high

.fr^^J

or

^Jj^s^

name, address, and

epistle

this

piiji-'pnji-an

ljs*Jj

is

meaning
often

date

'

after,

last,

expressions as

humility, called

with the

of the subject matter of the

communis

commonly

a ^

A>o

Hi

written

amma-badu, or
sAxjj

icabaadah

and now, furthermore,' to which the Malays

add superfluously

comes

and of the

marked by such words as

icabaddn, but

^JiJ

followed by

',

'compliments',

cation

or

sincerity

isj}

^^J

of the person addressed,

titles

The opening

sender.

^^

^^J;^^ -^^J^J ^^^r^'^


mara-ja walma-ab.

ij>.^*^

and the end


^KjI Ju3

discourse or writing'.

of the

k'mdi-yan

The

after'.

marked by such

letter is

V mmoAid-kaldm

'

'

the

end

of

the

54

Section

XIII.

SYLLABLES.
hijd or

>'.=:*

77.

signifies

e-ja

^}

^^^

Alphabet', and in Malay also 'syllable', and

or

^U:^

m'ng-heja

divide into

'to

its

of thfr

'letter

component

m'ng-eja

parts, reduce

to orthography, write or spell a word'.

Every

78.

h'r-ba-ris,

must begin with a

syllable

whether

{^j^ri '(;*"

be a strong, or a weak

it

httiruf

e:jo

ex.,

letter,

ka-ia

'to

h'sar

,w*j

say',

yam-tu-ivan

^fcAAJ

its

place

taken by

is

Those words,

79.

is

syllable, as in

in

when
>

indicating that
h'r-ha-ris

the
is

it

deleted,

is

hamzah.
initial

so in

reality, for, as

we have

should bear the mark SA^ maddah

two

equal to

alifs,

the

first

The almost

or

jjII

A^

'to

invariable omission by the

form being adopted


lia-ri

common

"

\j*'J^M

Malays

of

vowel signs, and orthographical marks, has led to the

^cjjs>

and the s.econd tX^u-i^*- ^uruf madd, and the word

being equivalent to
80.

a letter

which a long a alone forms the

tions to this rule, but are not


),

such

a-y'r 'water', look at first sight like excep-

ji\

seen (Par. 52.

The only

w'rta 'news'.

/>Jfc

'medicine',

o-hat

CL^^jl

cu..

'ruler',

exception to this rule

and

'large',

'day',

^y^

large

yU

substitution of

draw',

for

number

ha-Iaw

for

hu-lit 'head',

indiscriminately either way, as

of

words,

'to'^drive',

movable, as

in

and

the

latter

such as
a

(JjJb

very
he-la

and many words are written


^}

a-yain or

>jlfc

Jia-yam

55

ci^jl

fowl",
VS-Jl

8i.

c:,^

or

uiita

has been

It

begin with a

,^_^'oyj

beginning with
writing

^-y'o^

^jy^ji

second

Xo

fore

a mere

sound

i_iJl

alif

two

which

an

as

is

use

the

forbids

between

The

maJd.
the

(difs,

fulcrum to carry the

of

a/?/ wmrf(/

all

X*

and

equivalent to

is

Custom

'

words

in those

discriminate

to

correctly,

the

and

absolutely necessary, for the purpose of

or

I'v-ba-ris

every Malay syllable must

ktiriifh'r-ba-ris,

alif b'r-ba-ris,

fat-hah,

'X^r*^

u->js-

'

maggot'

hnnta 'camel'.

derivatives
w-aJ]

'worm,

hu-lat

.:iJyb

stated that

it is

marked with

or

u-liU

of

initial,

firSt

vowel

prolonged by the

hamzah be-

s^a*

yet such a practice

would tend to perspicuity, and obviate any

difficulty

spelling, ^^llen a particle is prefixed

instead of

were written

a-j'r 'teach',

the derivative
'

is

82.

be

omitted.

An

alif

',

Par. 60.

),

Malays

*to refuse',

po)

^^\

'to

unjok

idea of replacing

and

this

call

^_^^

In this

^AJb

it

leads

).

b'r-ba-ris,

and may carry

as

we have seen

case,

hamzah, and

'profit,

show, point

by

>
at

once to

which the

it

should bear

arti 'sense, signification', ^^^\

untotig

in

',

at

j^)

not marked, nor supposed to

^j^hji

vowel signs.

that mark, as in

^j^^

is

teach

to

Appendix

and

initial,

'

if

would lead

it

m'ng-a-j'r

Bi/f8

marked, with

either of the
(

t^'^^

t^^^

thus

as to

gain', -^j<s^'^

Now

out.'

we have
once

to

incke

'Mr.*

to follow out the

in the

the

'ngga}^

latter

instance

correct derivative

retains

and

m'ng-unjok,

Jfar***^*

had

be seen, therefore, that

will

It

observed that the

be

will

it

vowel sign, which the

tlie

83.

56

radical word.

in the

and

are of equal

value, but they cannot

be used indiscriminately.

general only be used as

initial in

particle
p*r,

Jj

or

p'l

it

/the fourth'

from

di,

disappears, and

ci^n^J ampat 'four'

thus from

\.:l^\

can

a radical word,* and

prefixed (other than H

is

y,

b'r,

its

b'l,

l>^

place

in

when

t'r,

jS

taken by ^

is

\jlJ^

formed

is

>

ka-ampaf

ei^XJi^ m'ng-

umpai 'calumny'

calumniate'; and from Js^l injak 'trampled, trodden

umpat

'to

down'

Jls^^

This

m'jig-injak 'to trample down'.

tion also accounts for the elision

of

explana-

as in ^jj*^ s'-o-rang 'a

person', &c., as noticed above (Par. 62).


84.

It

tention of
fJ

t'r,

has been before observed that custom


\

when

p'r

and

following the particles

Ji" p'l, as in

^^^y

as

J^^^y

and

it

di,

h'i'-o-leh 'to

but even these will be found at times


written with >

t)

allows the reh'r,

Jj

possess,'

h'l,

etc.,

older works

in the

would appear

to be

more

systematic so to write them.


85.

From

these

remarks,

it

will

vowel sound must be borne upon a


senting the elision of a

letter,

one mark, which can be used


'

Compare however end

of Par, 55.

be

obvious that every

letter,

or

and there are three


for this purpose,

mark repreletters,

and

and the sounds


[57]

which are practically (and

of

>

entirely*

Each

luDiizah.

The

imperceptible.

alifh*r-ha-ris,

ain,

and

of these

may

case of two of them,

in the

letters are

employed whenever

necessary to represent a vowel sound, not borne


the letters which has a definite

and

been already pointed out that >

syllables.

It is

customary

syllables, but this

of this

is

upon one

of

distinctive sound.

is

has

It

but an abbreviated c ain.

to

make a

third class, that of

does not appear necessary

mixed

purposes

for the

work.

An

open, or pure, syllable

open vowel sound


ka-ta 'to

is

one terminating with an

of this nature are

tl-ga 'three',

say', viAj-i"

the

^^^^,

ti-ru 'copy', ^rl^J hinca-ya 'crocodile'.

long, like the penultimates in

the remainder.

Beyond

sound with the weak


hm-uf madd, there

is

be shortj or long.
long, but from this
1st.

it

Syllables are divided into two classes, open, and closed

86.

j^i

s^aA

is

all

carry any of the vowel signs and

sounds, and one or other must be

87.

,^j*^Ij.j

and the mark

//,

and

syllables

hina-sa 'destroyed'
It

may be

either

these examples, or short, like

the case of the coalescence of a vowel

letter quiescent,

and forming

<X<

no certam indication whether the

An open

syllable penultimate

must be excepted

Syllables having

d;!^

of

the

is

j.s>-

syllable

usually

vague or uncertain sound

'

as

* Jilany Malays who have studied Arabic contend that hamzah like ain indicates a
guttural pronunciation.
This, though true in many instances of its application in
Arabic, is not correct as regards Malay.
The contention, however, affords a good
example of the disadvantage of the indiscriminate adoption of a foreign system of
orthography, and of the errors likely to arise if definite rules for its adaptation are
not laid down.

58

in

o^

'past',

^i*

'move,

stir',

(VuKim

'lever',

\^j>S.i

h'his
h'lah

<Kij

recognize',

h'n'il 'to

chaff',

'

ei^'

;>'/m<

^-^j^-

'

split

'

'noose',

Vniah

weak

CL^ii

d'dak 'meal, the broken grain of

yjdi^

above Par,
2nd.

',

'

husks,

'whilst',

i**i

Vpong

aJ

*-ct^

belly

'

s'kaiii

s'daiuj

s'nanfi 'in peace, in comfort, well off',

(fmk

'through',

p'rat

S^

',

aS^

m'rak 'peacock',

Jjj^

^.^

Vriis

.^^J

',

t'lah

<)clj

s'lam 'dive',

J.*-

foot-mark

A-^

'more',

Vhili

tired',

'

'correct',

h'^id

<ul

j'rat

imprint,
',

J.L

'win',

ui'nang

and

'flour',

(As noticed

rice'.

i6).

Words originally

monosyllabic, but to which,

in ac-

cordance with the tendency of the language, a second syllable


has been prefixed, as
h'lay from

^Ja
lang

'kite,

3rd.

ka-rana

'for,

lay

foreign

words,

ma-nikam

words

written

An open

to

^^^J

such

as

^!

The tendency

tute for the

is

generally

weak

b'ra-ni 'bold',

^oU'

pa-du

h'r-henti

'to

i*^"^

^^J^

however, to

latter

is

now

be

y.>j^

a substias in

s'rhu

stationary',

hinchi 'to hate, abhor'.

nor are

modern custom

this rule,

'solid',

stop,

short,

letter final, as

vowel sign, exceptions to

is*^ji

is,

kara-na.

syllable ultimate

'to deceive*,

stones',

Malay, and the

the

^J^U

ma-liyay

precious

'rubies,

allows the use of the quiescent

prise',

'gold',

from

k'lauf)

the cases, in which (as noticed above. Par. 46)

U-pu

mas

i^j^^

JIa

'fold',

on account of.

assimilate such

88.

^1

*C>U)

commonly

'mas from

{^j^<\

hawk',

Certain

'palace',

in

'to

^ajJ
sur-

t^^ji

But when the

59

penultimate has the indefinite vowel

open, the

ultimate

generally long {sec Par. 47).

is

89.

closed syllable

is

composed

two

of

the

letters,

first

having a vowel sign, and the second rendered mute by

Of

jazm.
'place

i)^

k'rhaic

the

this nature

panggil

second

race', the

in

'certain',

**::--^J

The breach

of this rule

Malay

in

'also',

and

words only;
is

The
in

'nation,

bu-jok

^^^yi

Two

X-<

huruf madd .*

*~~*p"

common

cause of discre-

words, however, are almost

dan

and

^^

in the

even these

'and', but
^^ii

pronunciation

rule, as

will

and more

al-

^J^

be found

correctly, for

to justify the

modern

above stated, refers to the native

those cf foreign origin, the

weak

letter quies-

often found in closed syllables, whether for the purpose

of defining the
in

^;'j

nothing

innovation.

cent

and

'dew',

letter of prolongation of sound, viz.,

the older writings


is

the most

is

spelling.

ways written with the

there

hangsa

i_/*^

a letter of prolongation of sound, or

in

umbun

^.^

closed syllable in a native Malay word should have

No

qo.

pun

'clever,

^^a^I

i-kat 'bind',

t'mpat

soothe, persuade'.

'flatter,

pancy

\::^a.43

pindaij

j_^Ja5

aiitok 'drowsy',

Vntu

^liJ

in

caW,

'to

^!

'buffalo',

first

are both syllables of

*3-

vowel sound, as

in <iyJ teh

(Chinese)

'tea',

or

accordance with the spelling of the language from ^vhich

such
I'lisfd

words

are

'apostle',
little

drawn, as

^J^^

careful study of the

ness of this rule

when such

otmln

in

fX^i

isldm

'Amen, so be

'Islam',
it',

J^*^

and many

Malay pronuneiation will be conclusive of the correctcompared to the madd la-zim of the Arabic.

letter is

60

othei

nania-nadan sunja fHind.j


akan ha-las-M 'they
called martyr, and heaven
shall be their reuard'.

Custom allows

91.

the use of one, or even


both,

letters in the case of


certain diphthongs,

sidered

that

syllable,

jawh

as

such
in

words consist

the

of

and

two,

it

the

weak

might be con

rather than

instance above given

b.

shall

(Par.

4Z.)

one

.J^

This appears to be the opinion


of Favre, who writes
\tjaa-nk (though he adds the
alternative spellingya./O.
and if
his explanation could be
accepted,
'far'.

it

breach of the rule


formation

of

particle

as

to

closed

derivatives.

^>

(in

would obviate any

and simplify the

syllables,

Thus by

the

application of the

accordance with the

rules, which we shall


proceed to deal with under the head
of 'Suf^^xed Particles'), he
would have l^ ja, the first syllable,

loose

longation of sound

u.J^ giving the

another

sound, and causing the


with

it

This

may

its

letter of prc-

and would divide the second

I,

a separate syllable

syllable

as letter of prolongation

to unite with the particle,

be well as a theory, but

^,^.

ki,
it

is

.^

of

and form

m^n^awu-kL

not consistent with the

practice of the Malays themselves,


nor does the pronunciation
justify the treatment of these
words as dissyllables in this

manner.
92.

Malays appear

and generally

to

pronounce them as monosyllables


to subject them to no
change by the

application

of suffixed particles,
except that, with the particles

and

^^

/,

they exchange a

f^nal

if

the

^>

an

word ends with

'

61

CJ

that letter, for

and consider the

from the final letter.

which
chief

commonly

's^^'j

niyh

ho if k 'good',

layn

iji}

m'n-jair-hi
^j/AjJU

recede'

'to

ka-nay-kan

'the

mounting'

demand

>9

that the 3rd

considered

^,jU

and

as

j;jlj

second long

etter,

but

law-tan

Vr-lay-nan

^J^^Ji

(or

'sports'

'seas',

^^J-J^^J

),

considered them

and ^JX^J^

(and this

and

is

the

appear

way tiiis

\Aord

in his
is per-*

These words must therefore


their

and 4th

orthography would seem

letters in the radical

h'r-jazm, as

(*Js^ji

J^

is^s.-

^j-^i'-J^J

vowel.

J^.'o

!5j'^

shonld

l2_>.^

"

letter

^i

would appear, by the pro-

huruf madd, but to be simulta-

"'/="

The

huritf

b'r-ha-ris

Malays

It is

evident that, failing

words

2tters occur,

(Par. 41),

of this nature

its

to

do not

what sign should properly accompany

I^Bnentioned above
istinguish

JfcjLsA<

Marsden (who

The second

leously used as

:ave settled

deriva-

umciation, to be

he

^U

'

CO

'

and

appears to be the

more commonly written).

treated as exceptions,

Imvt

their

Ji^t

and

e-ryj

this

^^ U

^J^^

'icLv',

repair',

'to

),

number, the

in

in

those

least

'sport',

write

p'r-may-nan

^^.'^3

dictionary, as also

)e

may a

(Fr. eloigner),

nonosyllabic), though both

)e

jaivh

m'm-hay-hi

Drthography recognized by

laps

x.lsw

m'layn-kan 'except' (or ^^^a^^U

difference',

,^M

few

are

Malays

^ioU^^

forms, as in

tive

which

aJ^ jazm removed

of this class, at

^^>U

'other',

ascend',

'to

The words

receive particles,

jJo

being

support

appear to
this

second

being followed by

something
from those,

fi

is

necessary to

in

which similar

without forming a diphthong, as

P;'J'

im-ivang

'a hunter',

jU^

62

^jj pa-yony 'an umbrella',

jU

ja-iva 'Java', &c., or

sa-u-ah 'paddy

We

field'.

pq-yah

isJ3

saivh

'difficult',

'anchor', from

have seen that

some instances

in

Malays have

obviated the difficulty by making the

bisyllabic, as

^a'o

ta-liu 'to

and instances arc met with


Support the second vowel

maka

^aU

know',

aA^J JS)

was

infallible

that

there

'

is

no word

this proposition

think that theoretically

ji)

d'ri

'grief,

'at',

'from',

atama

*j1

the

for

pada

iij

and that

',

of

considered

it

should be

spelling

it,

agama

jpi

as

chita

the

the

of

maka

tlA^

huiuf

<

all

we

words

letter

accompanied

by

ada

J^

must

s'gala

'all',

CJo

duka

'joy',

in

sign

be',

'to

apa 'what'^

Ji^

&c., and

the

necessary to

isl

suka

ciA*w

is

it

to

obviate

each

case

Jji^Aj

a
be

t'shdld,

to adda, padda,

makka, appa^

agamma, s'galla, atamma, sukka, dakka and

chitta, respec-

tively.

to

when

A^

then

'religion',

making these words equivalent


d'rri,

so,

'now',

'sensation',

final

'

be accepted as correct, and

'chief, principal',

v.^i^-

breach

y^^

^]

^^y>

Malay language

the

in

the syllables are open, one must contain a

account

used to

is

one time considered, and enunciated as an

at

rule,

If

want',

Islam'.

consisting only of short pure syllables

madd'.

'to

aiii

>^~^'w <idjcu<

desirous of entering the religion of


It

words

ptm ma-u-lah ma-Fo aga-ma islam 'and he was'

i-ya

93,

ma-hu

which

in

jl>-

Modern

some

practice,

of

practice has

removed the

them, by making them conform to the

and placing a

<y^

*(r*"

regard

dfficulty with

h^iruf

madd

general
in

the

63

penultimate,

thus

^l?l

CJ.^

^\3\

CJ^.J

common

more

is

it

and

now

c:,^:^^

to

find

but d'rri,

when

alone,

is

mainder have

Malays

correctly

less

rarely use the

written

We

been changed.

not

J.'J^)

and

)<^

the re-

have seen that the

and

f'shd'td,

is

it

in fact

fefinement hardly applicable


accepted, then

have the

lity,

but

JXsw

niceties

penultimate

madd.

In

the

yi^

'all',

which seems an impossibi-

'finished

words

the

equivalent

Malays pay

s't/alla.

but

not

is

^^

stated
:

'

the

at

there

used

is

in

sud-

attention

jikalaw

in

to

h^^'i^^f'f

viz.,

'

^-

jika.

beginning of the

no word

difficulty in the case of this rule

two long vowels are joined

of

however, usually written with

is,

rule

to

^< '~"V^

K-

forms of

abbreviated

ka-laiv,

it

little

such words cannot have a

age consisting only of long pure syllables

9i), but

j:-

though they recognize that the

distinction,

Paragraph, might be added

and

",

would be obviated by the employment

As a corollary to the

The only

siilah

kalaw and jika, the former


an

the rule be not

SA*

s'fjdla

and
of

in

in

rendering

t'shdld,

dah, jikallaw,
such

as

all diflficulty

JkiJ^iJ

if

must follow that a short open syllable may

it

accent,

'if,

kdlaiD

Malay, but

to

in the langu.

(compare Par. 46),

would be where the

a diphthong (compare Pars. 41

has been already observed that the words in

which this takes place are more

in

the nature of monosyllables.


[Ci]

Section XIV.

PREFIXED PARTICLES
94.

The prefixed

particles

with

CLASS

I.

rn'il,

p'ng,

ji'

CLASS

2.

CJ

CLASS 3.
or CLJ

and

/',

^^

on'

of

the

di,

Ji

^)V

^s

^''/J,

Jj

or

^)'Z

or

ni'ng,

p' with its

and

p'm,

^'i

s'.

or

//?

*w-j

i.-<

u-J

p'n,

sa

^j^

h'r

jj

And

m'm.

and

Jul,

6',

>

CJ

;>',

or

^
^^

?'/

A?^

/tttit;,

CLASS 4.
95.

^^

thus arranged

euphonic changes;

its

and

)u'n,

jj^

changes

Wi'

may be

From
and

the

i*

radical

Upon such

Jl

'I,

number
j^*

to

il or aZ.

nl,

which the

changes,

of

undergo,

according to the

particles

initial letter

which they are prefixed, and

their effect

they

are the most important from an

orthographical point of view.

Though appearing somewhat

initial letter,

complex, these changes


as soon as the ear

is

in reality

accustomed

present
to

the

little difficulty, for,

Malay sounds, the

tongue forms most of the derivatives correctly by natural


selection.

96.

The

following

are

changes, as formulated by

the

rules

Favrr

which

they

Natural Alphabet of the language, as given

that the

these

are based uponhis


in

VlII above, to which the reader should refer.

marked

govern

Tables VII and


It

must be

euphonic changes of these particles consist

the addition of the nasal letters.


* See note under Section

XV.

Par. 113.

rein

'

'

RLLE

I.

Take

the

65]
same

nasal of the

class as the initial

of the radical, and,

RULE
it

(but

if

2.

the

If

letter of the radical

initial

soft, retain it).

RULE

3.

the initial letter

If

of the

liquid, or seInivo^vel, use the particles

RULE

When

4.

sound, or

h,

the

and delete

class

is

97.

sibilant

ch

The

is

\^_/-j^

cjs.

commences

4_5 p'.

with

a vowel

ng.

^j^

take the nasal

s,

it,

and

application of these rules will

in this case,

Ica-ta

say

'

f/a-ris

be seen

in

'

cl>'A

scratch

'

nfja-rung

'

grumble

uc;W

^^j^JSJi.^

'

m'nff-a-ta.

m'ng-ga-ris.

^J"^

in'-nga-rung.

^^^.s^

in'n-ch'ha-ri.

ijj^^^

m'n-ja-ga.

J'w^

m'na-la.

8,'a<

m'na-i'ok.

'

8;o

^*3
j.iij

lKj^'
<fj^

il,

the

presersed.

following examples
Ci.'^

m' and

the palatal class, the nasal ^j of the dental

more commonly used than

hard

the

be a nasal,

radical

8.

^J>H

With

radical

use the nasal

RULE 5. With
N. B.

be hard, delete

ta-roh

place

'

^Jo^

m'n-dengar.

\\2i\t'

t^^^*

m'nanti.

beat

i^y*^

m'mn-kul.

hu-ru 'hunt'

yjy^*^

rn'm-bu-rii.

dengar
nanti

'

_2^j/-A-?<Z

'

'

listen

'

the

'

' '

'

mu-sok enter

^*j'c

la-ri

cl;.)

a-dii

c:-^J
i^^\

u-pah

'

Ija

hi-lir

'

vi^-w

sa-A:j^

These

in

flow

ci^Xjiio

'

t^'tH^

m'ng-hi-Ur.

^r!^

m'nangka.

equally applicable to the par-

Exceptions to these rules

such cases,

It

usually

Is

m'na-kit.

ci^^'a*

illustrations are

j)'.

m'ng-u-pah.

'

sick

'

m'ng-i-kut.

J^^^iiU

imagine

'

m'ng-a-dii.^

CrJi<,

'

c:^Uw

even

'

'

wages

sangka

m'mj-angkat.

e;,^kiii^

lift

follow

'

mUv'rta.

'^-^jy^

complain

'

i-/t^

'

m'hi-ri.

u^

news

'

m'ra-ha.

S-'^r*

run

'

angkat

<jS\

m'm't-sol:.

j^-^>^<

feel

'

?(;'/-^(?

ei-^^

19

'

ra-ha

s^Ji

ticle

'

-->U

98.

^Q

derivative in accordance with

not

them,

will

Incorrect
or, either

in the

own from
'

jAj^il*)

above

Malay

ft^f

thus

Itself,

im-na

'

is

form

the

the words will

m'm-jmna-i

'to

a contraction

of

^c^'*:**^^

own', the latter

to

undergone some

be found to be of foreign origin, or to have

change

be found, but

ampu-na, of which the derivative, according to the


rules,

would be

ing three nasal sounds

m^ ng-arapiina-i,

^yaa>Jl*U
in the first

part of the word, and the

deletion of that of a different class seems to follow

Further exceptions consist


initial of

the radical,

the radical, (3)

the

(2)

of,

the

(i)

of

naturally.

the retention of the hard

deletion

employment

contain-

of

the

the nasal

soft

initial of

ng before

The

ic.

latter

the English

ment

is

of these particles

and

f/,

m'n-cha-bnt

as in

CJ

the letter

used

is

m')i(j

r/.

^<'.s^

t,

^^-<==s*^*

in'ng-g'na-}ii

and

mad(h(h.
^

mark

is,

tained,

elision
',

to boil
'

>

'to

it

the application

It

a^xi^

m'ng-hampi-ri 'to ap'

to

make ready

j^^a'oJ^^

',

should be omitted

initial

marked by

in

lUii^ vi'ng-

'

would seem more correct that

acknowledge'.

'.

to order'.

to teach',

'

m'ng-i-ddr

.<>>iiro

and so from

-.

e:^lsr^

'

to revolve

wL)1

a-kii

We

'

'

shall

is

it

but

is re-

yllto m'ng-

later

of suffixed particles, the initial

should be pre-

formed
see

',

the radical, this

according to Malay custom, omitted, but the

and

j,

should, in the radical, bear the iS^

better

is

'

m'n-ti-tah

should properly bear the mark

ceded by
a-ku

its

to feast

?yt'//-fl-;'r

The

'.

it

'

-^

a vowel sound, an aspirate, and

^jjj^*^^^

complete

initials

m*n-tU-deh

iiSxxx-c

m'ng-Jf^adVrkan

io doze, sleep

the

if

to

as in

^sj-'Ji^

except when

in all cases,

antok

'

m'n-ja-nui

before

as in

with the

iSiSXt

',

m'ng-u-pah 'to hire",


preach,

in

sometimes precedes cl;


-

times in

a further explanation of the employ-

to pluck out

'

at

?r

nature of an aspirate, as

the

of

may precede words'

in'n

^^^<

by the

'.

The following

99.

c^,

which

explained

is

foreign words, partaking


'

67

that,

by

may

lose

maddah, and the suffixed particle having removed

its

J^

one

half of the duplication indicated

by

this

mark, the prefixed

particle disposes of the remainder, leaving only > in its place,

hence

we

find

^jf^^SJi^

p'ng-aku-an

'acknowledgment'.

68

The

Malays

81-3).

ha-his

(-*j'j6

has been

tliis

but this seems

formed

is

before

explained

omit also the

frequently

by

elision

its

of

principle

(^^-^ai^

less

and mark

initial,

thus from

correct,

)ii'ng-a-his

(Pars.

to hnish

'

[see

'

Appendix A).
m'm precedes

A-o

ha-y'r

'

to

the

rarely

This

'.

<fJj>A^

',

more

though
choose

pay

<

letter

ni'm-hii-noh

'

come

in

to kill

'

in

m'in-pi-leJt

the

ha-ha-wah dn-li

to your Majesty's

feet

m'm-

y}-^*--*

and sometimes

',

^J^^*^

received

already

pa-tek ma-soh in'mj-a-dap

hdl i-tu

as

p,

h -as

*--?

the form of the particle which

is

has

radical

the

to

used wheti

is

prefix

)ii'

'

.s

^j'r.

m-})' r-s' mhah-kan

and respectfully com-

municate the circumstance'.


A

and

precedes the

m'
jAj

il,

m'lintas

end to

',

publish',

'

as in
to

letters^

m'ro-sak

i^^^jjr-*

through

pass

^<xlLo

and

m'nanti

'

',

to wait

occurs before the soft aspirate

draw, drag'.

^^Ui^

exception, for

it is

jji

'

liL-icar

'

to the outside

',

',

is

When

dropped, and

as

sing'.
in

'

w,

',

(^j^oAaLs

to

put an
'

to

sometimes

It

m'he-la

ijj-t^
'

n,

m'ic'rta-kan

,^^'^jyo

',

'to

but from

the

the

^J

break, spoil

to

m'ng-alu-ivar-kan

initial

dropped on the application


100.

m,

to turn out

'

is

'

to

no

immediately formed from the radical

not

outside

'

Z,

^^^Ia^ m'mati-kan

m'na-ni

^^^^

r,

initial

^J^

its

of

%^

of the

m'n

is

derivative

jy^

being, as

kalu-war

we have

seen,

m'ltg.

radical

used,

is

the

ci;
^J

t,

that letter

n taking the

69

vowel sound of the deleted


;

ilJ

to-lovg

formed

is

CL!.J

tn-nd

eiJryU)

t'rJKu

^^JU

m'n'rjun

When

the

,-j

^^

sometimes

tion

as

correctly,

chu-chok

'

in

to

(lit.

'

ru-ini

Jjf

<

one form

der alike

When

^^

')

is

10 fan

',

u'ned

the

from

why

of the Bible,

composition.

'.

after

this

'to

letter

'

from

modifica-

but

ch,

fork

^c*-****

arrive',

',

less

j^^

from

already formed

subject to a similar change,


',

^jjXk

obtained,

is

the vowel

This

derivative

of the radical

m'ng

^j*Jj^

is

s'ru-pa

^^^y*'

m'n'riipa-kan

V^

is

used, as in

ki-pa.'<

'

fan

'.

A*,

'

thus
alike

'

to ren-

'

It is

but

is

The

used for

this

We

is,

particle, as

have already ex,

p'ng-'-tahu-an

'

k'

by

fi

is

any recognized native

however, found

^-^y^^JSi^

m'ng-i-jyaa

purpose by. the translators

said not to occur in

that letter is

^j-^ajoU-o

the marking of the deletion of

a sense analogous, namely, the

^^'^4(laiji

that

8,

j and

form, appearance

initial

irrcommended.

in

is

'.

'.

dropped, and j^
'

'

s'

off

n taking

^^

p'nu-chok

prod, pierce

tang-

'to order'.

with

^}r^y^

from {^-"^^

^^

is

m'uamjmtj

m'nii-roh

occurs

with the particle

from

JUjl<

s.^

'iti-roh,

^JSl-.^

of the radical, thus from

letter

formed

is

',

ward

to parrj-,

used, the

/yrti is

deleted

of the

s'tiiijuiif

down

the radical

of

initial

dropped, and

-ound

to leap
'

from

follow',

'to

from

aid',

'to

m'no-loiig

m'nn-ntt
'

the radical, thus from

of

letter

j|y-

m'nang-kis

^viiju

l-'ts

in

some old writings

insertion of a vowel

nVng-'-tahu-i

knowledge'.

(5t'e

"to

sound

know',

Appendices).

The

101.

70

k from the

Vi^

elision of

sometimes

radical

occasions a curious ambiguity in a derivative, by making

assume the
which

and

identical form of

a-rang 'charcoal',

^j\

may mean

a-'tang

maker

coal

another derivative, the

a^^ ha-vang

from

I; thus,

is

either

compose,

to be noticed

assimilate such letters to the sounds of their


to apply the particles

may be

the result

follows:

^jCij'ji.*

m'na-bit-kaji

m'ng,

takes

J
fi,

met

m'w, as

i^^isr*

as in

'

own

language^

and hence

7n'n.

^J^Ax^

ghr

k takes

to recount

^J*i.

sh

take

^
j^

m'ng.

is
'

and

m'ng.

but

j^^Uulc

'

to sentence'

is

'

met

with.

i3

to rule, or law
tl

take

uJ /

^^

takes

'

to

is

m'n.

,'

<h and

to bear witness, publish

)o

kh

to circumcise

sometimes changed

to reduce

'

n, aS in

h being an aspirate takes

77i'n-khatan-ka}i

ni'nahld-kan

{ja dl

'

forms

like s

m'7ig-hiikum-kan

(^^Cxiss^-*

m'A-/iZ/ar

yj^

(jo

foreign

apply different forms of

substantiate',

with.

^^pa.ZX^ 7n'n-gharat-kan
with,

that they

to prove,

^^^dks*^

3iS

^^

z take

and

letters ex-

a tendency to

assimilated,

is

being pronounced

cL>

'ni*n-thsa-hit-kan is

but

the

Approximately the particles are applied as

particles.

a char^

different persons apply different values to these

letters,

the

'

p'ng-

same, according to the

the

in

sound to which such foreign sound

when

or

',

The Malays have

pressing a foreign element.

and

indite',

9}*^

book

of a

initial of

'.

There only now remain

102.

to

the derivative,

the author

'

'

it

m'm.

^*)

',

but

met
ain

And

71

dan m'ng-'nal cVngan p'ng-tahu-an dan

m'ng-tahti-i

yang s'mponia

to

'

know and remember with

ledge and recollection

but of which the radicals have been

tives,

ma-kan

them are

^^/U

from

Javanese

the

death

'

eat

to

know-

perfect

'

really deriva-

^^U

food

ma-ti

^Jj

and

',

among

notable

lost,

and

',

pa-kan

^j^la

forming

In

'.

jj'ng-'nal

'.

There are a number of Malay words,

103.

from them there

derivatives

die

'

',

pa-ti

no

is

exception to rule.
104.

The

no change

in the

but
lost
\

if

in

We

should

remains

-^

{and

lose

see

bear the

but a

'

its

s',

cause

Par.

\^j^.j^.

is

f-

'

mark

h'r-ha-ris,

(Par.
that

62^'

mark

employed before
that the

(Par. 99),

is

t'^e
1

of

by the application of a suffixed

115

h'r-ba-ris,

\^j^ri

or

sa

already noticed

have already remarked

may

^^
alif

as

properly

the derivative,

the radical
particle

of

elision

nplacement by

its

and

ka,

orthography of the word to which they arc

prefixed, except the

and

i^

particles

etc.,

and

is

below), in
liable

which case

it

be deleted by

to

the application of these particles.


105.

jj h'r,
kaiv,

According to modern

J^
cause

h'l,

t'r,

usage the

jS p'r,

no change

in

which they are prefixed, but

Jj

the
in

j/Z,

particles

or y^ ku, and

ka and

11*.

sa or

s'.

di

orthography of the word to

some older writings they arc

found to cause similar changes to those noticed

in the

case of

72

J^ al

io6.

word

the

is

the Arabic definite article.

precedes, but

it

is

causes no chang-e

which

it is

prefixed.

sign

J^Oj

ex.

we have seen
vowel

final

avi.

accusative

Nom.

n,

'

w,

of the particle,

race, or

genitive

if

and the

lineage'.
of the first

and

f,

if

thus:

'Commander

ami-rul-mu-mini-na

tjtM^J*^!;:^*^

Faithful

Gen.

'noble

as'l

to

of this par-

depends upon the case

it is

word

rendered mute,

is

shari-ful

nominative

if

phrases, and,

word unites with the J

this should be,

Which vowel
noun, and

the

to

nouns are joined by the

being applied to the

that

of the first

(J>c^l

joined

is

the orthography of the

in

When two

waslah

It

only used in Arabic

in general,

ticle,

'.

ami-nl-mu-mini-na

L^'^'<J^^j^'^

of the

'

Commander

of the

of

the Faithful'.

Ace.

ami-ral-mn-mini-na

l^J'i'J'^^:^'*^

'

Commander

of the

Faithful'.

This

will

explain also

Abdidlah meaning

'

why

the

Servant of

name

Jdi'jcw:

God

Further,

'.

is

pronounced

if

the initial of

sound of the
the second noun be a solar letter, the
lost,

solar letter

and the

hunnabi

'

book

is

of the prophet

Orthography, that, when a


abbreviation,

and some
in

Malay

^^\

al

will

'.

letter

It is
is

as in

have applied

Appendices),

be found

in

in

is

also
kite

Arabic]

rejected for the sake of

this

rule

JjJ*jJ

to

Some remarks upon

Pars. 58

^illw^Ui'

a general rule

the following letter receives a

writers

{see

doubled

and

59,

but

the

t'shdlo

prefixes|

the particU
if

the reade

73

Arabic

consult an

must

he

information,

further

desires

grammar.

The word

107.

yang 'which, who.

^.

joined to a word following


ing

but

it,

tice

it

it,

and occasionally

also

The

down
the

initial of

/<,.^^i

more

joined,

^^*J

particles

y.

sometimes drop
be laid

'

^/'J

commonly

,08.

The prac

The words

word

is

p'r,

and

t'r,

b'r,

or

r,

*^

Appendices), but no rule can

seems optional, except when the

the deletion

dan

J^'^

when occurring together, are

',

{see

the

pen. and this word

the

of

cannot be considered as a particle.

'and' and

one preced-

orthography.
causes no change in the

mere capricious license

is

to

often

is

the',

immediately followed by that

is

in speakThe omission occurs much more frequently


instances are before
than in writing. The commonest

letter.

ing

^^

letters

the

'

di-p'-i'rta-kan

^^i.

s,

and

p,

accompanied by

h'p'rang or ^yy,

',

h'r-p'rang

these particles are prefixed, the

^<^^j^

intelligence',

The

change
.sJL

the

'school'
cal,

place
'

instances

b'l-a-j'r

if

'

ex.

/.

to light

first

'to

^'-^

the particle

for

V -p'r-a-las
in

which
/

are

'

be

the
to

very
',

rare.

of

p'r, ex-

Examples

cjj-^^

:-

p'l-aja-ran

(but with this radi-

the change

'.

',

j r, as in
communicate

and Ji

b'r

^?'^.^ 6'r-6'/m-^i 'to be divided

a waste, desert, trackless forest

voyage

and when two

',

drops

'division'

b'r,

iounded\

receive instruction
p'l-b'ha-gi

J'S^^^J

gr..

p^iya-ran

b'-p'r-samhah-kan khabar

,j^ i,^J^-/^

109.

J
^Ji^

').

does not
^liiil^

take

b'lanta-ra

[74]
In the study

10.

regard

difficulty with

shown

above,

the letter

one

the

to

th^

prefixed particles.

latter

two

p'r,

To

distinguish

and

111.

ji

which

in

occur,

p'.

Now

the

in

one

coincide,

and

As, therefore,

the

may

it

but

would be pardonable
derivative

in

viz.,

will

noiinS'

*i

be called

p'^g,

B).

marks the subject

general,

the place of such action, whilst

by

whom

of the action

the receipt of such action

or,

or,

is

of place, but will be mainly

out

Appendix

the action

forms

distinguish.

particles they

j>'r, in

or

p'ng gives the agent

performed, the instrument used, or the

and the

faculty, the former partaking of a neuter, or passive,

an active signification, and corresponding to nouns

formed from a verb

In

signor', 'seller', &c., as

English, by adding
the former

nouns, formed by adding


,

with

p'n,

^^

widely different,

expressed by the radical word,

latter, of

As

upon the meaning, an explanation

should

p'r. {See

y>

or

p'l,

p', their

not be

the

p'n,

^^

J.*

to

difficult

will

confusion

find

which begin

particles

are

limited to the only instance


that

of

p'ng,

correct spelling depends


the

two

of these particles

of their modifications,

of

student

//,

first

some

the

and each undergoes euphonic modifications,

p,

p'm, and the other

they are at

may

Malay,

there are

l_5

meanings

of

'

addition to the prefix, the

then a noun

is

formed,

English, in the case of

ee

',

as

'

with

'or'

'

er

do

',

as

to

consignee', 'bailee'.

derivative take the suffix

'

con-

similar
If,

^^f^

an,

analagous to a participial noun

from the past participle, as

p'r,
'

in

in

corresponding to that formed

the taught

',

and

in the

case of

'

75

ysAji

(hence
teacher

formed

a-/')* is

or

^L

often translated
^-a*

',

^n'^i*^
'

j-l

h'r-a-fr,

p'l-a-fr

'

^^V>
hunt

'

subject

p*r-huno-han

'the

p*m-6-r

^.^AAJ

'

instruction

And

'.

p'm-bu-noh

hunter

^^.Ji^J

',

so,

pada Vinpat

h'r-Vlah

pada

p'r-jala-nan-iix

who

place of call for those


In those

112.

cases

would

if it

battle,

is

employed.

And

fighting'.

so,

p'nuro-han

reader

again cautioned, that

to

derivative

phases
noun,

of

and

nouns

the

verb,

further,

way

f'

the radical,

for

whilst

is

so,

then he

'

^]j^

the

ordering

these remarks

p'tig

know

p'-p'rais

p'-suro-han

is

'.

'the
'the

The

apply only

p'r also marks one


ii'

particle

will

p'm'ra-ngau

u^jf*^

but

is

field'

place, a

this

initial of

Thus

i^^j^

ordered',

ij^;j^

the

which the forms of the particles

'the field of battle', but


the

to

o-rang gang

undergone change had the

have

other particle

that the

in

their

been used, but has not done

p'lig

M^ra/i is

in

weary on

must examine the

coincide, the student

and,

are

there,

Is

'

|)'jH-6wrt<-fl/t

p'r-singga-Juin ba-gi

i-ni

from

hii-ru

^.^

hunting'. f^r^y p*r-buru-an 'the hunted, the game, the

ada-kah

we

'a murderer',

From

killed'.

',

p^l-aja-ran

^o;'--*

instruction", and, as

of

^y^

to kill",

bii-noh

*jj

teach'

the pupil, recipient of instruction

'

of the action, school

the place

',

p'ng-a-j*r 'the

r-'-i*^

'),

teaching

the

receive

to

'the teaching'.

p'ng-aja-ran

seen,

to learn

'

'

m'nij-a-j'r 'to

w-'Jl^

b'l-a-j'r

the taught (matter), the

have

as

the present participle,

p'ng, from

Thus, from

of

the

always indicates

that these derivatives are

by no means

7G

regular

in

radical

reader to trace the

meanings

particle

the Sanscrit pra

rendered
rt is

'a

'

through most of the

the

to

assist the

from

probability taken

all

for

and hence,

'

',

hunting',

'

word

particle

p'r-biiru-

ij^Sj-.j^

p'-p'ra-ngan

i^^V^

'a place

p'y-:uJii-an

ij^i'^\^

_/b/'

a thing/o;' procession, a trium-

derivatives

these cases, the radical

ployment

in

The same meaning

phal car'.

may perhaps

It

meaning

in the

P>ench pour) and can often be

lyr-ara-kan

i^\^y

',

exceptions

jj/o.

fighting'

for

many

of these derivatives to explain

is

a thing, or place, for

place

repose

English by

in

word.

]>'/

(Latin

sho\^-

peculiarities

certain

conveyed by the

the

but

formation,

llieir

mostly depending upon

that

this

of

particle

is

verbs formed with

traceable

describes an act, the

itself

mostly

that

indicates,

in

If,

it.

em-

the action

does not proceed immediately from the agent, but through, or


by,

some other agent,

himjnm
kan

'

'

to

assemble

do some

act,

p'r-a-7iak-kan

formed ^^CUa&^a^

not expressed,

so,

'

means

from

meaning

present,

But

'

to

if

the radical

'

means

a certain

^^^^\jL*^

state,

m'm-

be with child, or bear

is

either

'

an

obei-

^^a^J

formed

'.

p'r-

do some act (not expressed) respect-

with formal courtesies


tell, offer,

in

of, that object, as

make obeisance

sanibdh-kiin

render

^^^*A

)n'ni-p'r-hi)npnn-

samhah which means

<)Ua*w

'to

or

or

to beget, to cause to

sance 'or

fully,

is

object, then the derivative verb usually

through, by, or by

And

'

named, thus from

to cause to assemble (by messengers)'.

word describes an
to

or means, not

'

or receive &c.'

and hence
'

to submit

it

'

may mean

'

to

"

77

Section

X\'.

SUFFIXED PARTICLES.
113.

must be borne

It

language

whether

to place the accent

is

the radical, or in

in

however,

If,

tendency

in the

derivative word, and,

syllable, the

i\^

the

if

^ii^'vf

'"^r*"

prolongation of sound, will generally

letter ot

found there.

that the

on the penultimate syllable,

the

open

be an

penultimate

madd, or

mind

in

words,

derivative

in

be

the penulti-

mate, or any intermediate syllable, be closed, the long vowel

mostly be found

will

in

the open syllable

NOTE.
added

Though prefixed
words taken from

to

the orthography

of the

and

time to time noted (as

Arabic word

Except

an and

^^f^

suffixes

a closed ultimate

The

CLASS

I.

CLASS

2.

ni,

mate

^^^

consequence of the

in

the

in

particulars

and 162),

it

from

may be taken

their

application.

0^

hLahion

hukuvian

^J*^

'.

^;^

an and

^J

hin.

lak,
3.

alter

however, would render open

/,

may be

suffixed particles

CLASS
115.

Pars. 29

syllable, as

sentence, decree
114.

in

not usual to

it is

word undergoes no change by

that such

The

suffixed particles are freely

Arabic,

tlie

appiiccAion of the particles.

I"

any) immediate-

preceding such closed syllable.

ly

'

(if

s^

Aj^

CJ

hah,
//'/".

With regard

^^
or

and

i^

sjJ^

<r

lo

^^<^

<uh

thus arranged

or
J"

/.-.

i.

or

mu,

tah.

'ndah.

and

^^

i.

if

the

ulti-

syllable of the radical be closed, the application of these

particles

renders

it

open,

and gives

it

iX*

i-^.^

I'O'uf

[78]
homogeneous with the vowel sign

thadd,

and

ja^sm,

to

is

m'ng-g^na-pi

straddle,

astride

of asses

victuals

tuli'San
*

used

'

'

';

all

'

'

name',

hu-wah

to eat

'

is

',

fu-lis

'

to
'

paka-yan

ja-lan

^Ji[s~

perambulate

whereon

a thorn
ij^y^j
s'p'rti

',

(j^*^

'

to

^J^Jt^

(lit.

duri-an

cyiM*

ttt-^

a-j'r

'to

'

teach

'

arrange',

is

formed
f^,^)

^j**^

^'J pa-

from

worn,

Z/^"*^

^y

rjj^j

in

t-

or

fruit

the

atii-ran

/<;^)

fruit of

this

po-hiui hii-ivah

such as

trees

fruit

and hairy

fruit)'.

bearing the mark

i<;'^^

'

kujala-ni

from

thorny, the

initial

maddah, loses that mark

maka-

^^J'iU

{parcou ru)

'

'

thorny

*>y<

',

short,

omitted

is

write, delineate',

^^^^^

j*;*>1

the operation of this rule, an

asses').

becomes

formed

duri-an dan ramhii-tan

durian and rambutan

and

move, proceed', ^^lUr*^ m'n-

have walked

(j^^j'^

'

tungga-ngan

the horsemen

it

which

that

'^'gcd'i

all

it

tunggang

clothes, things

'

^Js-

formed

is

i^

hurufmadd, the same

^jJ^

from

'

those astride of horses and

(X* *-Jj=--

j^.l^'

',

from.

a-tas-ila

a-tur

<^'*'

things delineated, written, drawn

to use

jala-ni

dii-ri

(lit.

^^U ma-kan

thus, from

fCay

'

have a

if it

'

{j^^^

penultimate of the radical be long,

the

and

J^J Ij^

whole

tiingga-ngan

^jS^SJu

',

'

from

',

ku-da dan kaldai

correct)

riders
If

^^liJi"

'

(^UX'

astride

sit

{/'nap

complete

to

'

its

forming with

particle,

uju^

Thus from

distinct syllable.

^^'ox^

on to the

carried

is

letter of

loses

syllable

the closing letter of the

the syllable,

of the first

derivative,
aja-ri

how

"

and from

and from

'arrangement'.

already been explained (Pars. 55 and 56)

By

It

Jl

has

these particles

'

79

a word, having

affect

from

j*JJt>

10

di-yani

*J>J

is

weak

mark being

that

t'shdid,

marked with

letter

the

lost in

formed

Vmpat ka-diya-nmn ma-nusiya a place

of

^^l^^ c:,.XJ
human habitation '.

the ultimate syllable of the radical be open,

J^

^j^

hnruf madd homogeneous with

lowed by the mark


formed ^^'Jd-*

)n'laku-i

laku-an

'

to

behaviour

6.

It

';

be

the Malays, but

This

seems

it

s'k'U-yan

'

d'm'ki-yan

all
'

such,

The

omitted.
to Par. 55

is

use of an

In radicals of

^*^-

j;-S^

praise

'

'.

j.***^

k'srah

might

be re-

tshdjd, and the last mentioned

followed

little

is

have been recognized

'

'

then,

after

bow, or prow

*vhich

>

the

after j as

and

kit-hikn-iran,

tjj^

practice

'

by

sonic

in

t^pf^

'

and

^^j^d

nearly always

is

mentioned

in

which the ultimate syllable


purposes

treated as a closed syllable, the


laid

is

the note

much more common.

thong, and which, for the

above

',

p'r-kata-an

P"-Ji

hamzah

k'nidi-yan

in

so,'

and

case of

in the

to say

'

fol-

la-ku' action',

^_5=-^

x^>Jt>

halu-ivan

^J^

'

to

^i'^

such as,

words,

or

written

ka-pvji-yan.

^^j^sr"

the

ka-ta

',

compliments

JjiJJUj

words might

117.

-.^'

final,

placed by the mark

two

from

vowel sign,

iil

happen

to

should take a

^jViiyi

or

cause

it

its

cui^

and

',

^3

praises,

'

tell

would appear, that

dlammah

<Uwi

or

'

to

'

from

ka-pnji-an

^^^J^s:^

Thus from

m'lig-ata-i

jt^yX*

1 1

speech';

'words,

equivalent

'

^;^^^^ ka-diya-man, iy**JU


'

If

word, thus

derivative

to dwell, remain, stay quiet

'

JjJJiJ

down

as

to

closed

of

this

work,

is

a diph-

has been

same should follow the


syllabi?.-^,

and

^<>'J"

rule

pa-knij

80

to use

',

become

however, not

is,

^;jK

clothes,

'

spellings as

'

This

Malays, and one

the

and

t^^j^

used

things

brightness'.

/jj7ct-?rr/

followed by

strictly

finds such

often

paka-yan

j^.^*

'shining',

ki-hiw

tfL^

kilmv-an

^J^^

&c., even in the best writings.


1 1

Those words containing a diphthong, but consisting

8.

of four letters, the first

2nd and 3rd weak


to

and

letters,

being strong

final

seem, as has been noticed (Par. 92).

undergo no other change, than the carrying

N. B.

between

It

must be remembered that there


an, and

^^^

^f^

and acts as

syllable,

?,

stop,

the

the former

and

the

gr.

but that

j^^

particle,

itself

ki-j'im

^l^y^>

that,

send

',

'there

say

was

though the

particle

^^^

common

practice

is

',

particle

your -words',

by

followed

if

syllable,

another

and

lose

^^iSH.^

^^'oii.*

by him

must

It

letter

employed,

is
it

to

is

also

in Par.

',

be borne

usually
so,

'

AAlSd

m'ng-ata-i,

said'.

referred

m'ng-iri-jni

was sent

there

from

Thus,

concerned.

is

formed

is

di-kirimi-na

ka-ta

will,

'

its

of the radical, so far as the giving

madd

ffiO'uf

of the

or

sub-

of

orthography

in the

p'r'kata-an-mu-lah

open,

a closed

is

addition

point,

become the accented

upon the ultimate

1^* t^^jSf

lah

being

i,

that

to

i^^AJf^^J^J

itself; ex.

effect

word

derivative

difference

is this

that

sequent particles, makes no further change

^^^\^

of the final

on to the particle.

letter

of

and the

letters,

in

written

to

it

^jJO

send

'

and from
di-kataiin

mind,

when

accordance

the

with

46 above, but would

appear to be more correctly represented by the sign

s^

k'smh placed under the


as a consonant, or

seem more correct


j_j-^^

final letter,

under the

hitruf vtadd, and so,

for in these cases

than

^_yj.ii^

would

it

VJT

and

does not appear necessary

it

vowel sound should be prolonged by

that the final

employed

the final vowel has be-

if

^j^

to write

that letter be

if

A^ 'V^

come prolonged by

than

81

,\-

t-J.s*-

huruf madd.

There

119.

one more change

is

these two particles,

ko-tok

'

that

curse

reason

1^

final,

'

is

for

exchanged

formed

is

^^xLe

and

sive),

no

letter

this

A-,

li'

following a

that

viz.,

nearly silent and, in that state, unfit


universal.

It

an and

certainly

writing to find such


instead of

and

kan,

^^^

^J^:^J^

two

widely different

are

means

hut

^^A^M

and

ti/'j^^

p'r-arak-kan

supposition

the

womb

2)'r-ara-kan

form

or

'

tends

to

raise a diffi-

between the particles

common

particles,

Malay

in

^^^^^-{^

find a

and often ren-

such mistakes, for the

ex. gr.,

to engender,

means
carry

'

in

^j

and often

f^^^-^^y

p'r-ana-

the offspring, race, the begotten

2)'r-a-7iak-han,

'

indefinite,

showing that the Malays themselves

der their sentences ungrammatical by

kaii

There seems

words as ka-ham-kaji written

difficulty in distinguishing these

meanings

(pas-

receive a vowel, but

very

is

it

is

to

culty for the student, in discriminating


^J'^

curse

J^S

'

a definite sound with the Malays, whilst

is

is

'

upon the

unless

as used in the primitive words,

the practice

from

thus

curse'.

'to

closed by

syllable

ka-loto-han

^j^y^

change,

CJ

for

m'ng-oto-hl

this

be noted as caused by

to

',

beget, begotten'

procession

',

procession

but
'.

{^f^yj*

Similar

82

made with

mistakes are often


often

written

^^Xib'^x^c*

less, for
1

^Co>.^

finds

there

ka abbreviation of
abbreviation

your',

iS

(expletive),

lah

the ultimate

syllable

'

or

thine,

mu

you,

ye

',

if

word be

derivative

or

radical

yt,

(interrogative),

tnh

no change

closed, these particles cause

',

or

her, they, them, their

she,

the

of

v^

kan,

^J^

thou, thee,

'

and

hah

hi.

me, mine

I,

ka-ma

he, him, his,

'

?Ta

^^

y^^

^<i^

of

^J

to the particles

be meaning,

would

wliich

and one

make good

repair,

to

'

particle as

a-kii

^^

the parliile

)n'in-b(Vjl>-hi,

With regard

20.

m'lii-haij-ki

no so such

is

'

orthography, but

o;

if

such syllable be open, but be preceded by a closed syllab'e,

it

must take a

^^o

and lead

simple,

practice of

to

Malay

S3

fyurnf niahl.

9j!>-

with the ordinary

a spelling consistent

wh^n we come

writers, but

effect of the application

the rules are

far,

to deal with

thv:

these particles to radical words,

of

having both the ultimate and penultimate syllables open,

some

little

The

difficulty occurs.

which has met with

rule

most approval by European writers, and


from Malay writings

support of

in

ultimate should take a

the

cX-o

any), and,

if

consisting of

would seem

j^

penultimate become short and lose


(if

it,

its

han

'

Saj\
child

from

cause to be
a -nak-hi
',

^Ji')'

'

lifted

my

ci^^l
;

child',

(i-nik-na

'

his

be, that

^-c

lose the

hnrnf muld

ijs-

<

"

mark

The

fol-

in

accordance with

(imjlat 'lift",

^^Cikcl aiirjhat-

from

'

to

hnrnf mndd and the

lowing are examples of derivatives formed


the above rules:

easy to quote

is

it

'^i\

^;1
or

a-nah-

or
their

'

child

-Jijl

child

'

CAoJl

a-uak-mn
'
;

from

'

or

your

CI-^vJ

83

^^^}

j-Ah^ follow, accompany'.


SJuL)

i-kut-kah or

request, ask

i-kut-tah

for',

y'jus

inu

'your request',

AiJuS

pinta-ku

pinUi-kaJt

CL.;!^

from

ys^

kuhii-ka

'my

fraud',

kichii-kah

JOjsr**

rule

that

way

it

ki-chu

'

j*)^*

it

tic'A-na

The

quite

a suggestion

is

CJ'oia

yo3Ji

pinta-

asked

?'

for

from

'to create, cause

^^*
'

application

is

of

'

the

the latter in-

and

which are

Malay

should be

almost even.-

rule

writers,
in

has

some
been

writer of autho-

with very great diffidence that

that

offered,

in

the practice of the

But considering that the

it

/^'

or

his or their fraud

satisfactory,

seems necessary, that the rule

on the language,

for',

or his request'

lead to results,

accepted and confirmed by


rity

'is

to cheat'

fraud?'

it

at variance with

modified.

or

^^Ss- jadi-kan

which are not

much

',

pinta

c:^ij

kata-kan 'to say, give out'; from

appears, however, to

?tances,
so

'is

J>i

',

a request

'become'

jii-di

from

?'

pirda-iia 'their

^'^

be';

to

request

(*j'^'

is it

'say'.

/.vf-f(f

^JS\s^

'

my

'

follow

'

^^^^}

'follow',

i-kitt-lah

plnta-kan "to ask

j^^'juS"

or

this

treatment of the radical

words, having both penultimate and ultimate syllables open,

even though supported by such an authority as MarSDEN,


questionable

some instances

in native writings,

more

may occur

but they seem to be more theoretic deduc-

tions than actual phonetic


sent.

of such orthography

is

feasible

spellings of the

deduction

words they repre-

from a general study of

Malay writing, and from the accent given by Malays to such


derivatives,

seems to be

* Questionable.

that,

if

the

vowel sounds of both

'

84

liomogeneous, the accent

are

syllables

penultimate of the derivative word, as


said

cliudiu-na

e)^^

',

^herself', but that,

if

'

however, that the weak

it

would seem

weak

madd

^m'"/

the

^^^

be

considered

still

examples

e)'^'^A

^^^J

hacka-ni

i-tii

d'ra'ki-yan

^^^

hu-lan

the
s'rta

'

i-tii

were

i^'^V^

ijy.

moon

is

not her

m'm-ha-wa

hini-na

^Jji) ^^^y^y
^JJ'*'

*^^

woman

kata-na and

and

j*jli^

should be

ru-pa-ni, these

made

But

gii-naiia,

in the

are

substitute

madd.

for

'

he

and

in

seem

to

di-

by them

ka-ta

chuchu-nt

speak

so

to

',

cWhii-i/a

^^jaJij

wife

^^a^

kjlj.^

with

him

di-U-hat pada shi-na

saw

side (there

b)- his

another

show

that

find

{*)^^j

jA;'a^

raja-ud

a distinction

case of heterogeneous vowels, and

would appear more correct not

',

brightness of

one phrase we

in

i/an[i

read

the

',

In

liomogeneous

Ica-rana

his

j*"^***^ '^^ '^^^1(^'<^

sitting'.

^^^

'

bringing

ada s'o-rang p'r-ampu-an du-duk


was)

as

so

OAvn brightness
'

and that the

hio'itf

{i)J^

is

Par, 46, but

in

grandson

her

truo

should, notwith-

m'nengar

^-U>

tiya-da ch'lia-ija diri-ii

i-iii

diri-na

It is

ha-rang i)^r-hata-an

hear

to

'^^^ *-^^.'

ij^^

i^j*^

vowels

whatever words

^^W' ijt^*^ ii)>?^

>^

A-^i

the

^ J^

vJ'^'^y"'
'

he

of the radical

ultimate of the radical,

suffix,

following

fnt-J^ah.

conventional,

is

only for the vowel sign, and not


the

'

the penultimate,

in

in the ultimate

letter

that this spelling

letter, in the

standing

^,id

',

upon the principle stated

inserted

kita-na

^JS^

her grandson

unless the sound be that of the vowel

commonly

in

the

to

the vowels are heterogenous, the radical

A^ *'7^

preserves the

changed

is

employ the weak

it

letter in tlie

penultimate

educated

Several

latter.

accent should not change

i-ni

and

<t!^l

this

"'

',

{^^})

and

upon

apparently

is

book,

one entire

throughout
^i}

It

i-ta

e:-^J

We

i-*u-lah.

^Jji

but to write ru-pan.i

who were consulted

Malays,

words, held that the


as the

derivative,

the

of

85

'

we

find

that

',

as to these

in

such words

principle

this

that,

derivatives

the

^JJl

written

wmild therefore

of

ini-lak

suggest that

the student will, by preserving the orthography of the radical,


the voivels

unless

be that

penultimate

the

conform

be

well

but not

Or.

8,*<*i

i.

6rah

earlier

iX-<

when

derivai'ves

mi

.*.-

(Par.

ar.d

are

^^^

15)

an-l

the

.vith

change

little

in the

{), is

primitive

their

these

<U^

it.

particles

in

some,

cUammah

^^^

fat-

to them, but, as
of accent

(if

was

any)

is

penultimate of the radical,


first

unjustifiable,

of

it

doubt that the retention

formed by the

writings contain instances

guide,

way

latter to give

hurnf madd

of the

preserve

greater tenacity than

and

class are applied,

be that the vowels

But there can be

very slight.
'

may

is

as often as not shows no

particles of this

always

it

colloquial

be held that the accent changes

have

compel the

remarked

^J^

if it

ui hers, it

in

hah, and

when

should not

orthography.

nearly

definite rule,

ordinary

the

it

followed, which

of the accent,

radicals

and

more

books are so irregular, that

but the

doubted whether,

pronunciation be

the

fat-hah,

<ts'^

down from them any

impossible to lay

change

of

in

to the practice of the better native writers in the use

of these particles,

may

be homogeneous, or the vowel sound

class of particles

though most Malay

The accent
it

is

the

always changes:

safest

thus

86

^^**yw

San

^^ /^^ Fr^

ha-ra.^: (J s'bafiVr

single instant

',

^d\

'^'':^^- y^^"^!

to break

*^^ ^i^^

J^I

y^j9^

for

to-titr

cJ^*^'

maka ada-imn p'-totu-ran-mu

m'mtnjok-kan ka-p'r-chaya-an-mii

'

a
to

'^^

i-tnlah

ado-na

ho-hong

i-tu

off,

h'r-putu-

tiija-da

p'-totu-ran horn

^^^f^s^Js^

^^iK,:L^i} yAJAjkj^-jaS

ju-ga

'

which did not cease even

'

i^jyj^'^'

'

{^>^^'^ 2^((-ttis

U'*'^y-

ju-ga

and

speak, converse,

formed from

piitii-san is

cease'.

furthermore thy conversation also proveth, that wherein thou

be

trusteth, to

false',

^'*'

^^U*^

e>^

'^J^ "^J^

d'ripada p'jd

Wula-cm-fia sampay ka-suda-han-iia 'from the beginning thereof

even unto the end thereof, SJ^}


ki-fa m'lcdu-i ti-tak

commands

ayahanda

^dJ^

',

'

if

^c^y^

JuuCi

ci^j./^Ks- jikalaw

we exceed our august

.axaw (^'Ju*^

ci^SUA^ (w^^A^ly

father's

aJ^j 4^'*^*"

topa-ya bK-Ieh" tii-wan-hamha m'n-da-pat ka-s'na-ngan s'-umiir


hi-dvp
^^i)

my

that

'

i^];*^

master

may

[j*'^y*' ij^'^^ isi?

J"

'complete

d'ra-ni i-tu

obtain comfort for his

life

long',

g^nap hila-ngan s'ra-tus ka-li

was the reckoning

of

the hundred

blows of his castigation.'


121,

kan has the same

^^>

in closing the derivative

Open

ye

At/,

y)

syllables,

subsequent

may
a

in their

S^

child',

mu, and

^x)

would seem

to the ultimate

turn

!j=^l^CsJl

ah (Par. 118)

change therein, but with regard


iia,

to

particles, to lose their

|ti(??// ??iac/rf

^;^

word, and the subsequent addition

of particles causes no further


to

effect as

become

they,

be

like

liable,

power

^c^

thus,

a-nak-hii-lah

from

'my

A^ ^j>-

to give a

syllable of the

radical,

^so\

child!'.

being

by the addition of

long, in which case they

huruf madd

i,

and they

must carry

a-nak-ku

As an

'

my

instance of

87

where the

three suffixed particles,

word,

a^'wUiU^J

From

122.

derivative,

and compound words formed

to

'nda

tX>^

123.

terms of relationship, &c.

tion of

and

derivatives

are

saaj

found

iSla*

and

father

'

mother'.

governed by the same rules as the


ticles,

but

in

formed
c:^.

j^.i!

anda

i-tn

^^/OJj

j^J (J^

royal

infant

mother

'nda.

'

sXi

m'ng-a-dap

is

sometimes

grave

^^d

breast

anak-da

Aill

is left

her

an

orphan

corruption of
Ax^j^

js.U^

SSi

the

%^)

i-hu

tlya-da

'

is

afUi^i-I'ifi,

a-lcan

anik-

roval infant',

d'ngan yitlm-iia

The term

'.

sAxil

su-sii

to

tiiig(i<d

'child'

a-nak

lii

di-hri-rm

-.^j

"she

is

class of suffixed par-

first

AajI a-nau-do, or

eJ^-r^*^

'

llnal

into the presence of the

Thus, from

up.

(inahanda,

s'iiS'

cUCjl

these

most cases a conventional spelling, with abbre-

grown

viation, has

with a

application

Its

abbrevia-

that

fact

da-taug-hh

came

style

uncommon ',

precious,

written

adijlj

fiyahauddh hondah hagindah


royal

the courtly

in

probably an

is

radicals.

supported by the

is

often

iSJu^A

It

caueed by

are

duplication of the

two

of

signifying 'rare,

supposition

this

saKj

indah

ScJjl

the

a suffix applied

is

that the

should be borne

this

comments upon

mind, throughout the

lah,

the penultimate syllable

in

the presence of closed syllables, and

radical,

i^

as to the accent and

rule,

madd being found

word, whether radical or

of

particles

the foregoing the reader will remark,

ij^ }f,uruf

The

are always ultimate.

t<ih,

main exceptions to the general


4>^

closes the derivative

first

di-kata-han-na-lah.

hah, and

sXj

mother

'

'

the

hc>ida

and

J.j

m'na-roh aynltondcb

88

dan honda

'

formed
or

not possessing father or mother

From

'father').

or aunt

J>jUw

same

the

aKj

haginda

'His Highness'

particle

sanda

iiS^
of the

same

'

'

beatitude, majesty

we

I,

,'

appears to be formed

particle to ^c^'*

s^ha-yA

'

used commonly as a pronoun of the


essentially

is

and

',

different

from the other instances given

in

serfirst

in its

them, the

used as a sort of qualifying adjective to the word

is

which

to

h'hagTya

^__J^

(but

composition

elder brother,

'

mamanda.

This term, however,

person).

is

ma-mali 'uncle,

by the application
vant, slave

ka-kak

'

Jf-eU

particle.

'

^'^

From

sister

From

a corruption of

is

younger brother or

a-yak

io}

'

hakanda.

tJo^

'

rt-f?g^-

Jfjl

adinda.

cXJol

sister'

is

it

annexed, but

in

sanda the particle must

iXiwj

be taken to apply to the personage addressed, and not to the

and therefore,

speaker,

translated
'

'

August Father

of the august

slave

though

^^-^jj

61^

'

(person

ayahanda might be

sanda must be rendered

addressed)

',

and not

'

august

slave'.

124.

has

It

words

fining

though,

of which

usually joined to

the
eah,

is

i-ni

^^}.

fixed particles,
syllable

not been

'

and

they
in

ei^j

i-tii

'

that

',

JUx^

fat-fyah

open,

they

its elision

is

marked by

ra-ja-i-tn 'that king',

^^i^^];

s;>o>

'

that

convention.

is

to say, that, that

is

'

is

are
that
hanir

ra-ja-i-ni

'this king', {j^jd^i,^ mariha-i-tu 'they, those people

ya-i-tu

as suf-

follow a radical, the ultimate

the only change which takes place

omitted, and

asci^uia-!^

if

ends

it,

thought necessary to treat the dethis

'

'.

^.^^M.

appears, however, to be a

Similarly

125.

^J^

89

'also'

jnin

employed apparently as an expletive


a word preceding

it,

but in no case

(but
is

is

on

'

'the

i-tii-piin

day eveninged'),

<dLi>-ytc

aiit'JjJ

cXoi

iih

shn-kur hajjada allah

And

God".

107),

%i

preceding
practice

is

yang
it,

as,

thereupon

',

^^^ajuIG^

so also,
'

'

two of them

and the king uttered

maka

sat down',

his

thanksgiving

as has been already remarked (Par.

who, which'

f^)^

\y}S \JLX<

maka ra-ja-pun m'lig-u-chap-

^J)^l; \^X<

icl!'

to

in the ortho-

'

'

l-ada-ica mari-ha-i-tu-pim dti-duk-lah 'the

Jj^

to

maka ha-ri-pun p'tang-lah the night came

^jJb.'jb VifX
(lit.

frequently

commonly joined

any change

graphy of such word caused. As, ^Jy^}


JclijLs

more

is

sometimes joined to a word

o-rang-yang

mere license of the pen, and

person who
is

',

but the

not recommended.

90

Sl-CTIOX XVI.

intp:rposp:d particles.
126.

have no place

'I'lujse

few words

tion, but a

ordinary Malay construc-

in the

which they occur, are

in

Tlicy are mostly taken, or imitated, from the

use.

and must be considered as

They mainly

purposes.

letters

r,

means

by

the penultimate syllable.

tu-pak

out

interposed

of

ples

and the accent,

particles

d^j/

',

k'r'nnat

grimace

'

ka-raw 'second'

around

Mo

',

from

roll'

resounding

^^
in

',

from

several instances

give
^j.^^J

sense

^JJ>^'i

ta-riui

and

fro)

'.

hand

of the

from

',

iirnjok

Jf^"*^

(very

'

to

slip

dry

'the

occur

Vmu-run

',

to point

Cl-^i^

from
season

.=sr*^

'

from

kitli-Uiuf

iy
sound

forms are

reciprocity,
'

'

ji>i^

deep

which both

in

intensity,

^i^

'

i'bni'

U"-^'"!/

ff'hin-roh 'roaring,

s.k-O

gn-roh

^jyi

iS'j'

from

',

rarely heard),

use),

from

J^^^

ku-llng (not used, though

p-J^*^

generation)',
(to

of

',

t'la-puJc

Jr**J"

fi'lincliir

common

is

Exam-

a few districts.

in

knna-r<tw

J^

in

the radicals have

to grind the teeth

j"^^

',

^icAir (not used),


AjS

'

palm

the index, or fore finger

'

k'n-niit

'

some instances

In

sole of the foot, or

'

the

practice of placing the latter on

only survive

fallen into disuse, or

one of the

of

which commonly takes

)n,

common

Javanese,

for orthographical

vo.vel belonging to the initial of the radical,

accordance with the

common

the interposition of a syl-

the radical,

or

/,

words

distinct

consist of

lable, after the initial of

joli

in

or

',

And

used

frequencv,

descending (from generation

(ji-hiuij

(fm'i-hdnj

'

to

as
to

shining, flashing

'

91

may

It

a-JciL

not be

we

I,

he, she, they

'

out of place to notice here, that

Sc]

',

(inglcaw

nasal letter, the letter

forming

/!j

respectively.

in

da-kt(

pada

ha-ri tuwa-ku

(there be to)

^d

^J

di-kaw, and

',

what

of
is

days

^^J ^jCd \J:^^

^J

di-ya

letter or

'

is

^^^iOJiJSJi)

^L^.U^

who

be deserted by him,

in the

Jiimpa-lah ki-tn d'nfjan di-ya

But the form

di-ya,

^JcO'o . ^/l j

my

of

di-p'r-Jaha-ti-iia di-Jcaw '(lest)

them

by

me

cherish

iAjJo'-^^4>

treated

(if)

^^1

an open vowel, or a

di-tinggal-kan-na da-Jai si-apa-hah m'mlihara-hui


'

jd'X*r^.j

old

cannot
of

the

in

general

action

thou be evilly

yuS

the possessive, as
their

'

n'gri-fia

often

used quite irrespectively

it,

shall

and the

meet with him

particle

The

or passive form
j*j^-i>*-'i

iji^

generally be

but

and

in

of expression

so

t^>^

'

di-p'lok-ua

translated

would, however, be

kissed he

ru-mah-iia

,*fc^X)

the

'

invariably used
his

house

common

Malay, as,

in

dan di-chi-ynm-na

more accurately
'.

in

^^

',

peculiar impersonal,

he embraced her and

and embraced he

it

forms the subject

it

It is

'.

ila

^^

however, more idiomatic, and

is,

be employed when

country

h'r-

t'ntii

we

a transitive verb.

of

will

surely

vowel precedes

form

of the latter

age?'

but another euphonic change of the same pronoun.

use

^\
i-ya

often interposed for euphony,

is

^\sjS\j^U^

Ct3

when

thousand

you,

^dj}

du-hi,

^\^ ^Jjo

'

word ending

follow a

',

this

would

kissed her

rendered

then

92

XVU.

Sf.ction

DUPLICATION OF W(3RDS.
The

127.

duplication of the radical

CAcl

by the mark
rcj'i'

may

cjlilcj'i'

and

they,

it

Though such words


length and joined, as

at

seems preferable,

doubled, have the

if

as already noticed, ex. gr.,

are, written

often

vet

ki-dincf 'sometimes'.

hi-danrf
be,

aufjka

most often indicated

is

in

cases in

all

same orthography and pronunby

ciation, to indicate the duplication

but,

whenever the

orthography and accent should change, to write them

and joined. Malays appear

to write

them according

but with a marked preference for the use of

We

128.

shall

F'irstly,

which

proceed to consider how

at length

to caprice,

the isolated radical.

Secondly, the radical with jjreHx,


Thirdly, the radical with

suf^x,

is dealt with.

129.

If

both the syllables of the isolated radical are

each long syllable

J>^(_j^

or

any) becomes short, and

(if

}f,itnif

niadd,

dropped

is

vowel

its

its

thus, from

JK\*

'

J'}

husband, male
from

',

/^-/.i

from

cu[^

rr];

kings

'

a constable, invrmidon

syllable

])(

Dju'U

male

via-ta
'.

It

and long, as

Questicua'ilc. Imt ihimI.

'

formed

is

'

'.

'

?""-J<'

'

l<iiig

the c\r

would
in

j>m

letter,

in the first part of th^^

doubled word, whilst the second part preserves


r

open,

',

'.

lakilu-hi

r-l;^'
CI-jIajI-o

^t^n that,
,s'/7/

orthography;

if

'to call

''"J

'"'(''

-J-

iii'ifniiid-f,'

{he
',

uitini.ii

^^Ji

h"

03

jive

jtained in the

seem

Par.

first

by

idicated
^ould

would require, that the long vowel be

prcnuncialicn

',

i"

part,

and the duplication

as,

t-t.^

also that,

s'ni-s'rii,

therefore better

is

upon the principle stated

in the

those words having heterogeneous

20,

It

h'ri-h'ri.

^^J^>

note to

vowels

in the

ultimate and penultimate syllabL^s should be similarly treated,

and

rjy

that

hn-fla

huAaku-l(, and

dyiSi

hn-da would
''15*-^'

more correct

be

7^"-./'

^^a"

i^":/')

than

es?"^*?^

liuji])H-ji.

130.

so

either of the syllables, of the isolated radical,

If

much

more

the

indicated by

catch

both

k'lii-rd

and

When

^J'^

rJcj^4.^

of the radical

tangkap

iatuikap

is

preserved

in

compose,

indite

luciilirti-itv

tlii-c v.on\<

r.^

or

,<^S

r^^Pj

I'li-ki ior

and

from

so,

strong,

is

^"^^

if

laki-^

a J.ii^

from

>-y

or
i>u-jt

to

kill

the_-

cj-^
'

',

is

applica.

this nasal is

hi-ranrj

V-i

and from

the radical

'

the initial letter

sound (Pars. 96-7),

supplies the principal


See Pars. 6

h\ luimach.

but

and has disappeared by

formed

and

first

kiirahu-ra

or

hn-nolt

i-iy^

ni'.ii-hii-noh-hu-itoh,

'

the

'.

the duplication,

>nin-)-(i)iir,

This

are open,

of the radical

for

tion of a particle with a nasal

people \

'

the radical has a prefixed particle,

repeated,

is

formed

k in

ru__Axij

'forces',

syllables

husband, male

"

132.

ratui

o-rancj o-?vr>ig

? j^^

sometimes formed by merely repeating the

i^

'tortoise',

is

as

'letter,

alone

priksa

When

duplication

la-l,i

ex. gr.,

'.

131.
f

both, be closed, the duplication should be

if

pul.f'.a

r^^J*.ilj

I*

i-

and

'

nt'nrja-

t_J^^

praise

to set,

^^ ?"^'*"*

argument against marking the elision of


and 100 above, and Appendix A.

94

A snailar effect

tfi'mi>ji-mu.Ji.

such a particle

Is

annexed

apparently produced u hen

is

to a radical,

and ends with a vowel sound, and


formed r^Ui* or ^iU,

which both begins

SldX^

with

a vowel sound, but ends with

c-lu is

and from

m^nge-lu-mie-lu,

ada

^]

from

thus,

S\

m'ngada-ngada, but where the radical begins

ja^ni, the radical

alor.c

thus,

from

^1

a-lh

4?V,

and from

c:^?,f

'

repeated, and

is

flow

to

^J^^j

w-^r

is

'

hmifh'r^

should

formed

fear, terror

uj)^

r^lU^

be used,

rn'mi-a-lir'

rv^^yi<

',

^n'ng^

U-fjut-u-gut.

When

^33'
part,

the

particle

be prefixed to the second

to

is

cannot be employed, and both parts of the


dupli,
cated word must be written at
length, and it
r

is

they

be

^^-0

^
a

not joined.

ka-rang

l^j^

tV
<^''^

of

&'t'l((h t'rbit

i-tu

exatr.ples

JC=w/

mataha-ri

t'r-la-lu

^JS
and

JJ

^^

maka

^y

m'ma-lu sa-ma ma-ti-iia

striking,

to-long

quotation contains

^,j ^^
^^>o

c^.^j

^,^j^

'^.^^-

ti-kam m'ni-kam

^^J

^^^^

pursuing,

slapped

in

dan

in'n'ndang

gn-joh

dan im-la

when

the sun rose, there

battle, in

exceeding crowds,

ka-diiiva-ila

were seen the men engaged

and

(ormed

a-mat I'a-mag-na u-sir m'ng-u-sir dan y'rang

m'ng-gu-joh tamp'r in'namp'r t'ndang

and

j!^'

^J^.^

/i;i-

is

ka-liha-tan-lah o-rang b'r-p'rang

m'm'rang tumbuk m'mimbiik

pursued

from

. adAiUl^ y^^
e^-1

better that

ka-rang

The following

^-^j

J"^^-- J-i'

^4j JC^^^

from

m'ng-a-rang,

to-long m'no-long.

number

b'

Thus

attacked

'

and attacking,

and slapping, kicked and

struck
kicking,

95

beaten and beating, dying together, boih parties

When

134.

the duplicated radical

is fo'Iovi/ed

*.

by one or more

suffixed particles, the second part of the duplicated

word should

be subject to change following the rules already laid down for


application

the

particle

suffixed particles, and,

of

causes no change

applied

the

if

first

suffixed

the radical, and the

in

duplication

the radical

of

without the

capabl-^

is

suffixed

particle

being expressed

of

by

preserved, and the particles placed

causes any change

the particle

w ithout
r

as

particle,

mudah-mmJah

rsXc
this

perchance,

aft-^r

the

i*

should

form

not

perhaps

further illustrations

j^'Jl

then, though

be

indicated by

'very easily', yet with

mmlah-mudM-han

^^X^S*JbXt

may be

tt.

-.t

The

'.

following are

n-naTi-a-uak.

a-nah-a-nah-u

ijl

(i-nak-ana-l.a.'..

^LxXiiiiXi'J
p^;!'.?-

I.

di-panggil-piua^il-il

j<i-l<ui-j(i-J in.

di-ja-hxn-j't-lan-n:.

^-jiLs-^2s.

ji-lan-jcdii-Hi.

The more common


,

any) after the ligure.

I.

di-puugg'd-p.incfCfi-li.

jAjP^^'^^-J

th

be ^-rnployed, but the whole

ij]

j*jr (JXijfc)

duplications by

but where

r_ ii\

jfc^r

it

in i.e radical,

particle, the duplication ?night

the

should be written at length, as


'

form should be

thit

practice

is,

hov/ev^r, to indicate thet;e

and to plaee the

suffixed particles

(if

96

Section XVIII.

TWO

UNION OF
135-

rules

lie

be

to

RADICALS.

observed

joining two radical

in

words are nearly the same as those given


of

words (saving the use

a combination preserves
suffixed particle.

If

of
its

The second word

).

<^>-

both syllables of the

'

ci^U

sun', from

'the

of day',

ha-la*

'

'

head

people,

from U ?HAa
j^l^Vc
ina-ra

and

',

soldiers
'

and

^^'-^

Vo\vels of the

first

'

ha-lang

^I'o

',

danger,

'

evil,

(syn.).

It

primitive orthography, retaining the

(if

anv), and
I'jbj-.'Jb

'trouble

',

and

ha-ru
.-i

and

case

it is

ha-ra

ka-ra

joy

'

commander

ha-ri
',

tX-

fron:i

corruption of
'

great

J'^

king

',

ya-ja*k'mg\

-.|^

it

mataJia-ri

^o'jt

',

from

lU
if

the

should preserve

huruf madd

<(;^

better not to join the

'tumult,

retain

would seem that

two words.

^U

disorder',

ha-ru

disorder', (compare Par. 120), but

'

the words ^JL^ii daka-chita 'grief' and


'

^J'^

misfortune

word are heterogeneous,

Its

Ex.

gr.,

not

mdhara-ja

'Tr\i-*

h' ha-ya

in this

word are open,

should

a chieftain,

'

great (superlative)

marah'ha-i/a

first

ma-ta 'the eye',

huluha-lang

j|V*

hu-lu

y^5>

it

macld or long vowel, ex.

hiuri'/

such

of

orthography, unless changed by a

and the vowels are homogeneous,


i\.s>

the duplication

for

c:^vs^'*'

are more correctly written without the j

CJd

have seen (Par. 93) the words

though usually written with

sitka-chita

because as we

duka, and

CA^

suka.

should not properly have a

* This is the etymology giveu by Favre, but there is a kind of two masted vessel
called ba-lang, and it seems more probable that the Malays, being essentially a
maritime nation, called the commanders of vessels by this term, and in time of war
tliey would be important sectional commanders, whether by sea or land.

^7

when

long vowel, even

The modern

isolated.

combined words

assimilate these

l.owever. to

standard, and write vi^>s^j

is,

to the

Malav

\,z^Ji-::^~^

snh(-

and

(Itihachi-tn.

practice

rhi-t(t.

136.

the

If

first

word has a closed


u_*-Xac.'.j

primitive orthography, as
ever*.

columns).
j'jjL

5'jyj

w_^.^J
\

t II -

our servant

'

my master'

^,j*jjJ^jS

'.

but

'

'

'

hall of

(lit.

likely".

(an emphatic

".

me no

buts

'),

hamha-tu-iran

queen

'.

compound may.

its

'whoso-

very

^^yXAAJb

jt'r-niay-sH-vi

The words forming

137.

K'd n-h(tinba

'perhaps,

two negatives

with

for.med

audience

necessarily, must

ta-(hi-pat-t'iii'i-il<i

preserves

it

ha-ratHf-siajut

hall of

'

harnng-ka-U

iJ'*^W

ffirmative

'

ha-hnj-rU'Wang

9*'^i

syllable

as

we have

seen, be joined by submitting to certain changes, but, in most

may remain

cases, thev

and. in that case, they pre-

separate,

serve their primitive orthography, as in j^'^j <y^


sa
'

man

'interpreter,

leadsman, mate

number

yU ^^

'

tanVra

bn-Ui

'

army

ju-ruha-ta

',

combinations of words are

idiomatic

of

of languages

U^ J'^

'

jd-ru h'hn-

large

found

in

Malay, but those, not coming within the above descriptions,


are

mostiv

written

ch'rray b'rray
'

'

toying
torn

and ragged

tnngnanij

^^

others.

'.

',

Ia!

langgong

insignificant

many

hither

and

and chattering

sprawling".

'

'

separately,

'

thither

',

%x*3

",

jy>.y^-

j**^ f*'*^

L^*i

chmhu

'

headlong

ini-hang 'pell-mell'.

topsy-turvy

'.

^'a>

hi-na di-na

In addition to these the

'

.jr^

chu-rn

chumpaiiff champinti

puntimj pantimj

^3

lintaug

^^jJ fjJJb

instance:

for

p\

iXil^J

a-lang kapa-laug

poor and lowly

Malays are very

".

and

partial

98]

to the use of synonyms, and often borrow a foreign word, and

use

port.

combination with a native word of nearly similar im-

in

it

In these cases, however, the

remain
mu-la

as'l

'

origin, source
;,j-^Jy J^-^^

sagacity',

da-ya iipa-ya
I'moJi Viiihut

'naked',

d'ndam
Ji'lu

i'J'

'

h'sah 'sigh

gula-jia

k'ra-ma
'

sad

relatives',

meanmof

',

sweet',

aA^

.^s

hbt.1 bti-di

\^^^^

<Jl:^$

i^a-pa

'

d^ 5^^ j^s-^-^'

^^-^

^ij^

aril

',

d^jUi ^iy^

mana

',

j_^l*l

j>S':d

^^l^

c:,^.**' *^'

Vlanjang

gu-raw

hii-wat kuica-sa

',

intelligence^

'circumspect',

poor and lowly

and sorrowful

'

ways and means

sanda

J^l J^^

examples:

yatlm piyc-ta. 'orphan',

\owg\\\g\

^\ji

prcksa

distil

and

soii

^jUi' *^!ij

'

ij^

(.^t^^J

',

device, stratagem,

'

are

following

the

separate,

two words almost invariably

^sij

'jest',

hii-lai

r'ndn

iuA

power,

abilil\',

^JiS AAi

gonda

'

$ii-ku k'ra-hat

'sense, signification.

99

Section XIX.

CONCLUSION.
governing the Malay
Such are the main principles
pages
remarked earlier in these
Orthography, but, as was
138

writing

ordinarv

place of the
letters to take the

weak

but there

omitted vowel s,gns.

no regularity or estabhshed

absolutely

therein

is

treer use ol

much

rule can be laid down.


usage upon which a definite

noticeable

The most

i",9.

weak

tention of the

after the accent has


particle.

suffixed

The

:-( I)

variations are

re-

penultimate of the radical,

in the

letter

wUh

conformity

in strict

consist in

The departures mainly

them.
the

by no means

is

application of a
been changed by the

(2)

to preserve the

general tendency

in the derivatives formed


orthography of the radical word
on
long vowel in closed syllables
(3) The use of a
from it.

which the accent

The

(4)

and

in

bait

place of their

JU\

for

homogeneous

in

of the proper
of similar

vowel to be applied, mistaken

orthography, as

^^^

n.ight
;.-hich, in the latter form,

7np/.

JU.\

as

the accent does not fall,


closed syllables upon which
indication
being, without some
there be a risk of the word

vowels
if

use of

falls,

and

,^

tn-lns

'

sincere

cations indiscriminately by

Where

,40.

-f .primitives,

the

(5)

jJ

am^un

which,

are

'pardon',

(6)

mo'^tlv
mL>-.Li>

The misuse

found

'

ba,t

the latter form,

The marking

in as
the derivative words are

thPv
tne\

another word

be mistaken for umpan

^W.-..< write-

for

might be read

for

for

of all
of >

common

written

duph-

use as

correctly,

because

\.]\:y

stood the

of iheir formation, but derivatives

are, as often as lot, incorrect,

the rules by which

their

ing passage occurs

in

the

many

naii

U^'y^

J^

^iJ

^Ij

"^

y^\

dan

dan

r'nijk is-k

III

^-.[Q

p'r-k tla-an d'ln

that he merely copied

not

account.
^^S'il

of words,

of words',

derivatives,

pronoun

for

^^j^ ^^yt

of

^'-ic**"

the

first

it

i-aii

of

'

from

words,

and abbreviations

showing tolerably clearly

ortho-

7 peculiarities of

which

for

would read

it

so throughout the

'->-;->"

in aiiiipa-

and did not analyse them.

grammar,

of spelling occur*.

writing of
as

of

^j-f'ay JiyJA.^

And

mistakes

say

{S<

kn-haua-kaii sinipo-lau

many connectings

and unions

Correctly written

^j;b

141.

to

^Ilj

JlLy- J>J.^^ ^^.'-o

otjut-kin p'r-k

This short sentence contains at least


graphy,

^^r^*^

his

p'r-Jatti-nn d:in roif/kii/ p'r-huda-an

iii

of words,

>

Jj

a-kii p'r-o-l'li

and prolongations

of words,

The follow-

luaLa da-lum aliup

the stores mentioned, I obtained

and bindings

governed.

is

'ij>^^ji

^^-^XH,

^y'^

iict-t

xl^h)

JliJ

yatifi Vr-s'hut iui lih

p'f-kafa-uii

from ignorance of

and books he studied, and used as

old writings

JUy ^Oj

formation

formed

the ilikayat Abdullah, after speaking of

models, he says: ^3^^

^'j

have he.Mi handed d jam from thase, who u uler-

jji-iiiciples

by the writer

100

yi\

it

is difficult

^J^*'^

^;1

(''^

c:^._v^i ^;

to

t-lAc

^;'i^

book frequent variations and

Nothing can possibly excuse the


s'Jrx-i/iC

'

person)

'.

servant, slave,

Opening

used

the book

of the errors may have arisen on the reproduction of the book.


edition quoted from is the lithographed one, published under the auspiccof the Stiaitb Brauch of the Royal Asiatic Society in 18.'0.
*

The

Some

[101
0*";^^^

l*^*

cJ^*^

//<'f-Aru/< 7/l/-/<

c^^'*^

//

(?rt

nrnn-lis; here are three words, each jjroperly having the long

wel and accent

open penultimate, and the ultimate

in the

each a closed syllable,

-I

and

what possible reason should the

for

w eak letter

\n

find

two pages
instance,

rii-ja-tla (for

find kd-inhi-dii

later

^^f^SS

\.;:^j<i.*.^^

In this instance, v.hv

Had

b-en used

'

t-

xistence

t.:;:^*.^
is tlv-

'

the

is

^^'j^i

Inma-na.

j*,'^

>

and

Take another

s'mpat

ili---<iinipLt-

inserted in the latter

<-

author

one phrase

written ^'^^

tnji-da

j_a.,

alone have a

for. in

and

instead of

word?

penultimate and accented svllable

in th^^

would not have been

it

,*)'>^^

last

Nor

formation of derivatives,

the

^^l;
one place we

ultimate syllable

the

in

consistent in

we

instances of the thre^ vowels,

with

diflficult

to assign a

reason, even

though an incorrect one.


142.

we

Taking casually the

used

quiescent
at
it

JljJ .Jy

find, l.y'JU-i

the

outside

five

in
5,

can

title

page of a native pamphlet,

uords, and

be

weak

'^^re are 10

^J\j ?^]^f

justified

not more than

by

th.-

J^jj

'i

^t)

Vv-ha-rmi'i

dan

4,

or

pronunciation,

they are considered letters of prolongation of sound.

.kiij.>.

letters

i'r-i'tnr

di

^J^j^

dudam

si-ugnpii-yd.

143.

The student

will

older writings, a large

however

proportion

and consistently written, and

of the

especially in the

words are correctly

will find in tliem authority for

the rules of orthography contained


tions

i\nd. that,

in

this

book, the excep-

mainly tending to show, either a want of knowledge of

rinciple, or a capricious departure

therefrom.

The phrases

102

quoted

this

in

work are nearly

transcribed from books,

all

and, beyond correcting the forms of the

letters, the

orthography

how

words were

has not been changed witliout sho^^ ing

the

spelt in the original.

The following

144.
literally
letters,

is

a sample

followed by

transcribed,

showing where some

of the

of

in

letters

jdi'

in

to

Roman

have been

extract

is re-

lithographed manuscript, and a few other specimens

^^1 ji^

ji^

^^1

^.j.cl

J^5

^'.i^

seem

The same

Malay handwriting have been added:

ml,...)

Malay Orthography

equivalent

its

VvTongly applied, and a translation.

peated

of

lJ:<

'ii}

^'J^

^^ji

^ji\

^j}^ ^^^ ^^:^^^^ Jj^'l

C^ ^^f.

^^^si^ L^^^a

^^'^

^)

Jyi

Ai^O

J^-i

^'i"

J'i ^^y^ji

^^y

^-

^*J

JrS'^

b^-

^-f

j*;'*^'-*

^J^Cjy]

^CJ

^^.1

^i;:^^l

'^v-^

ti;*'^"'^

\j^ xL^y SA^

'

Par. 55)

CJ.

Par. 29) d'ngun

h<(}fk

b'r-ki-lti

eu

i-ft(

pa-ras-rui
n-Jcfin

iicUliijJ

--'^-

})'raniptt-iran

i-tu-piin b((-lif]h-hih s^rtu

o-nnifi h'r-ta-pa

ktj'"^.?^=*

unnecessary,

should be employed,

( -S->

maha

U[

opahi-la

o-hh

di-li-hat

a-tiak-iut t'lah b'sar-lah

mthi

ga-gali b'ra-ni inakx o-ruuj

o-ranfj-ymg b'l'-kiara-si la-gi

b'r-ta-pa i-tu-pnn m'nuin^i n^ >'-'

matdha-ri maka iya-piin da-t'Hig-lah maka ka-ta o-rany V

nmbil-lah tu-ican-hamba a-kin a-nakhamba i-ni m'nja-U

i-tu

'stri

tii-wan-hamba maka jawah-na

<i-wan itii-lnh m'nu-top

pada hamba maka


lali

i-yx

kipatla i-^tri-ni adn-pun a-nak-ka i-ni pqrtitt-

hih ki-t:i jyi'-siiicami-kiu d'ligia

^j"^^

lamn-na <i-nak

Il'ttta b'bra-p(t

jdjL.

103

di-pauggil-iia

i-yalah

b'r-kitira-sa

a-kn

unnecessary)
d'ripada

a-ngin

tiya-da

b'r-knwa-si

i-tii-lah

h'fur

pun di-ia-han

o-leh

gn-nong mika

i-ni

mak

jatc'tb

m'layn-kan a-ngin

kuicasa-ni

hamba maka di-panggil-ni

a-ku tiya-da

d'ri-

a-icau s'rta b'r-kata ka-tcln-

^^J^ Persian) angkatc d'ngan a-nak-ka

o.-(can

ra-ja

a-ku maka

bii-kcin-na a kn kun\i-s(k

(*)'^*^

pii-hi a-ngin

^_$

Par. 120)

maka

ka-ta

b'r-kuna-sa b'bra-pa b'sar a-ngin s'ka-Us'bu-ivah

gu-nong maka di-panggil pu-kt

k ita-na a-kn

tiya-da

kuiva-sa s'-c-kor

104

unnecessary. Par.

(^

m'nfi-0-rek

hti-leJt

90)

ti-htoi

unnecessarv.

unnecessary. Par. 90)

kaim-sa-ni ninka di-pawigU-na-hili

Par. \2\)ra-i(i

ti-kiisin<i',a s'l'lah siidnh pn-tns-laJt hicha-ra (final

Par. 46. j

cu

i-ni
*

of-

a-nak-

ti-kus jikthor inti'i-kn Ja-di

ni-ja

a-kii ha-leh-laJi a-ki( ka-iuln d'ngan-d'tija

ma-nusiyi

i-y:i

Now

unnecessar\,

iiiaka ra-ja ti-kiis itn-lah Itattdak ka-irlu d'n<i:in

maka jawdb

hai-tii

d'ntjaii-di-iju.

woman, and

while the girl grew up to be a

after a

s'}i'}ii

s'kn-rKn;!

)it!(k(i

ka-win

pri-kn

apa-kah.

go

a-kii it/a-luh t'r-thili

aJ'oKjti' J

F*ar.

als(>

ooodly appearance, and when the hermit saw his child was

grown
child

he said to his wife,

up,

to

person

of

'

were well we married our

It

power, strength and courage

who came, and

hermit thereupon called King Sun,


said,

'

replied

can

My

Let
'

It

not

is

me

shut

in,

daughter

'.

I,

In

powerful, but the Clouds, they

and are more

But the Clouds replied,

po.verful, but the

Wind,

caUed the Wind

also, but the

power

thin

powerful

the Clouds,

its

the hermit

servant's child to wife", but

his

who am

summoned

hermit)

(the

Lord take

so the

',

and

said,
is

It

'

So he

'.

Marry m\

who

not we,

greater than ours

is

Wind

said,

'

am

',

an-

so he

not powerful,

however great the Wind mavbe, a single Mountain can arnst


il ',

so he called

King Mountain, who

single

Mouse can rend me,

So he

called

willing

become even

am, then

is
'

her

is

'

have no power,

he whose power

is

greatest

King Mouse, and uhen they had taken

King Mouse was

she

it

said,

as

luinian,

what

to

marry the
could

'.

counsel,

child, but said,

marr\

'

II

she

her. but at preseiu

would m\ circumstance

be.

married

t^

/>sr
I

vij>*

6VVJjl>JC)^<I-iV^

toi

\4

The following

145-

M'la-yu, and with

its

j^',^.3

orthography

LijAi

iXJjl

jyj

^JJ3

^^'^AM.

cJO^

y>

s^^

Cic'^

fc^jJ^-*

Jl^

.a'.A.^

u^"^

^^aj
o'aJ

jJ^

^^C4i

iCj^jiA^

^1

jJU

diULct)

c:^5b

ja

^jU*a!

Jo^

'^^ '^^

j*;:^^;*'^

"ci^jI

^^cj

i-iJLc

j^l

lJj'J

^AJui'

(JUj'J

AJjl

^.J

^^'^^

('^-''^^^

rjj'j

u^^'

parentheses

^^yA^

Jtiwl^

<^^^^ pj
iit)'jajl

Sy

^ju>M.

lJjj

can be found.

^o

^J^J

^;^<;t)J

(V

in

style.

Shajarat

ijs.*^

fault

4^'^^'*'

^Sb

^JJ'.--J

ty

^^.

^_Le

little

Xx*,>^Ji

J^A^

v-lA^

CU>,*^

c^J

'-^^j^'^

LijU

(*"^7^^

^^Sj^*-^

^^J^'^ <D1aS

^jij^j

^^!

an example of a very correct

few suggested corrections are shown

J'.A*jJ 1

an extract from the work known as

It is

is

109

jib

(^

c^^.^'-^^
^^'-.u-*iiJ

^^^C

Jljj.

146.

The Arabic system

strictly phonetic, but

too

is

no

of orlhograpliy

complex

simplicity of sound as the Malay,


in its entirety

has had

for a

intended to he

is

language of such

and the attempt

a result, which

one considers the small opportunities

is

apply

to

not surprising

That a modified form

race.

would have

sufficed

The

formulate one.

earlier

writers

As

made

to

attempted

to

evidently

follow the Arabic, and knew, and understood,

and the necessity

civilization spread,

its

for a

more

particularly as

have

soon

led

difficulty of

to Malay,

omission of the

the

to

seems

of the

system, though the spelling dependent

their use,

has

resulted

in

is

what

upon

Arabic

and

incomplete, continued to be used, and


is

little

a shorthand

than

better

As elementary education becomes more

consonants.

to

vowel signs and

orthographical marks, which are integral parts

which, without them,

of

refined system as the Arabic,

was very unsuited

it

peculiarities.

knowledge

reading and writing became more general, the


teaching such an elaborate and

the

of

Arabic system

the

of

probable, but no attempt was

is

when

for systematic instruction

which have generally been available for the bulk

Malay

it

of

general,

however, the knowledge of the system upon which the Malay

orthography was based does not appear to keep pace with

and

it

may be

said that,

small proportion
principles

of

orthography.
or for the

of

the

From

to

Malays

present day, a comparatively


look

Arabic system

exchange

Malays not

at the

the slight
of

ideas,

it,

upon
as

means

the

part

of

rudimentary
the

Malay

of intercommunication^

and from the tendency

form large communities, and hence

of the

the

111

absence

any recognized seat of native learning, numerous

of

conventions have grown up independently, some of them


!

perhaps depending upon peculiarities of local

accent and

pronunciation, but more arising from independent attempts to

remedy the defects


147.
[

It

of the existing system of orthography.

not

is

understand

to

difficult

whose elementary education

and not having been taught


part

necessarily

sound
of
;

of

'

flower

A*^

the last

in

kambing

'a.

syllable,

goat',

for

supposed to be written,

respectively

in place of their

extent than

may owe
has

its

is

in

place of

origin to a period of

yet been

discovered.

posed to be those used

graphy was applied to

MarSDEN) a

syllable

in
it,

weak

its

that such

letters

to a

jJ^

and

much

and

greater

corresponding vowel,

which no authentic record

the Korinchi characters, sup-

In

Malay before the Arabic Orthoeach consonant

ending

have distinguishing marks are


eliding the inherent vowel

fO

',

for

J^^*^

know

ij-^i

homogeneous vowels,

used

first syllable,

and write

to use the

so,

carpenter bee

the

how can he

words are

The tendency

'

and

to expand, bloom,

in the

kumbang

^^^

for

ff</
^^

k'mbahg
j

presence

the

indicated,
'

not

is

assume that the

unless

means

probably insert a

but will

and write

and

^x^

write correctly

',

that the vowel

letter

by some

vowel be

hears them called

letter, will naturally

the

of

accompanies the

another

he will

who

a person

much beyond

not gone

has

learning the letters of the Alphabet, and


ba, ta, &c.,

that

(fl).

in
i

(according to

The only vowels which

a.

and

is

m,

and there

That the

is

no sign

total omission of

for

vowel

112

signs from a word, the orthography

which

of

other res-

is in

pects correct, produces a very defective representation of the

word,

very apparent from another example

be

will

represents equally well hantang (the


in

name

two-masted

(name

may be

hintang (a

(Craw-

spelling

that can be

done

the

to formulate the principles

We

of a

contradiction,

of

spell entirely

for the assistance

the various styles, to be

fear

little

and

alike,

consistent throughout,

is

before him that which appears,

149.

(name

benteng (battery, ram-

star),

with

said,

no work

of

hinting

of a place), or hunting (pregnant).

two native authors

no

that

the

It

spread out, or over),

vessel),

part), hentong

148.

(to

ilij

houses

of the great

which the wild inhabitants of Borneo congregate

FURD), h'ntang

after careful

have said that the system

it

is

is

all

to lay

consideration of

most consistent, and

upon which

so,

student,

the

of

that

attempt

to

depends.
phonetic and there-

fore, in the formation of derivatives, the ear should be the safest

guide, but the student must bear

spoken

markets

in the

of nationalities,

is

rarely

mind

in

that the language

and trading settlements, by

good Malay, and

that

there

is

and further

that, as

in

sorts

even the well

educated Malays usually assume the dialect, when


to Europeans,

all

speakin;:jj

most Eastern languages,

a considerable difference between the style adopted

writing,

common

and that used


to

colloquially.

In reading

adopt a sort of intonation, with

it is

little

in

much more

emphasis, but

with a more careful articulation and accent than

is

used

in

ordinary speech,
1

50.

It will

be patent to most students that the orthography

113

general

in

use

correspondence,

for

considerably from that employed

may

be surmised that

one

that

has b^en formulated.

course of evolution,

in

is

and regulated by

defined

changes taking place


have reached the stage

To employ

(i.)

vowels
A^b

in

k'ring

closed

in

b'lum

marked

syllable

has the

<^^^

9 y*^

tdoh

^j

calm',

h'nih

that the words of this

vowels

in

(2.)

as

(3.)

the

'

homogeneous

siunj)ah

words

in

Vpong

class

&c.,

show

in

in

*^^*y

is

and

it

J^j

Jt'rut

c J,

flour',

'

'a mortar (for

seed

fJji

",

es-

which the penultimate

vowel open, as

',

to curse

This peculiarity

small'.

'

'

As

falls.

h'hil

'belly',

r'lwng

pounding),

JJjJj

must be admitted

their pronunciation the

Malay language

to the

sound of long

closed syllables.

To similarly employ

of the syllable
22),

The tendency

upon which the accent

cjaJ

',

("song

nearest approach in

these pages, but few

in

'through',

t'rus

mention

'

'meditate',
'

those

indefinite

[^3f

s^but

kichU

in

indications of the

place of their

in

Aa.^yM

not yet',

pecially

'correct',

and

may be

be hereafter

thus briefly summarized

syllables

J^s^

dry',

'

'

be found

it

large

definite

It

will

of general recognition.

may be

of the variations

Some

rules.

will

and

and

been neglected, but no

part of the Arabic system has

modification of that system

varies

the older writings,

in

a state of transition.

in

it is

to-dav

&c.,

in

To

one to which

is

i^j^y

use

or final syllable,

to

if it

Ji'ras

but only

',

</

the

first letter

cannot be joined

'hard',

represent

when

^J^li

{see

Par,

dan 'and'.

initial in

any intermediate

follows a letter to which

it

is

not joined,

whether
in

114

place of the omitted SsS^'i t'shdld {see Par. 55)^

in

which case the practice would appear

ment,

if it

be an

to

improve-

were consistently followed, as conveying a better

i^e^ of the pronunciation of the words, for example


*

^y

fruit',

in

^;1^

tu-an

halu-an

occur together

master

'

'

prow

the

in

'

same

provement, however, to use

',

or in place of

for

jj-**^!^

word.
>

in

^5

in

K-^Jn

hu-ak

hamzah, as

But two

^\jj

alifs

never

would be a great im-

It

all

these

instances {see

Pars. 55, 60, 61 and 116).

To employ

(4.)

or

discretion of the writer, in place of

he may consider that


v/ithout
tu-lus

151.

'

it,

the vowel sign,

possible the

for another, as

sincere
It

it is

any closed syllable

^_/**>Jy

whenever

word may be mistaken,

tii-lis

Svrite'

and

\^^^

'.

follows of necessity that any work, dealing with so

indefinite a subject,
criticism, but

it is

must be open

to a large

amount

hoped that these pages may,

attention to a very

interesting

subject,

and,

of adverse

at least, direct
in

praying for

leniency for their faults and imperfections, the reader


to

at the

remember

that

no one can be more

incompleteness than the author.

THE END.

sensible

is

asked

of

their

115

Appendix A.
The whole question
*

as

after the particles

-elision of

turns

m'ng and

j^

not

or

syllables

following the

If

it

which the fulcrum


53)

this

begins with

'

what we

thus

" or

lost.

Ji

himself de-

is

borne upon

hard

initial

letter,

MarSDEX'S Grammar
:

or

or aspirate,

to support the

" When

vowel

the primitive

followed by a quiescent

term a long vowel, those previous

" hdbis

CI-X;]

Ikat 'to bind' ci^C^-

to finish

',

^^SjU

letter, o*"

letters

commonly denoted by

Favre

in

the vowel of the deleted letter


particle,

the elision

the orthographical

quotes this passage

ng of the

nVng-lkat, from

m'ng-clbis

and that no

of

page

(at

ane

suppressed, and the particle unites with the long vowel,

" from

*'

vowel

contains the following remark

*'

'

is

he,

begins with a vowel sound,

must be used,

follows that a

mav

as the case

he be right, then, whenever the

whether by the deletion of an


then

Are they to be treated as

issue.

particle

whether origjnally, when

of

to denote the

p'rifi

ROBINSON expressed

cidedly in the affirmative.


syllable

iJ>

the hard letter, aspirate or

upon a very simple

closed

employment or omission

to the

a>S

,^^'j^

being

mark hamzah.

'*

support of the contention that


is

properly borne upon the


is

necessary

he,

however,

116

not quite

vowel

concludes his quotation at the words

fairly,

and omits

',

employment

the

mark hamzali

of the

marked with a

is

presence,
ilsik

'

to

tease,

mong-unus
^..jU

to unsheath,

;^j-.j'.

to drive out

vicng-alau

(It is

original w^ork, but from

ever, does not,

when a long
nurse

',

mark the
on?

careful study,

as the

conclusions are more likely to be


of the

Malays themselves, even

if

80 years ago, MarSDEX'S work

works upon the

monument
the Bible

of

\V. Mursclen.

Elout.

to

his

employ the

must be taken as

Grammaire de

la

to

it

the stamp of

of

Malay

writ-

this part of the sub-

Abbe Favre, yet

his

not strictly defensible, and

Though published

stands pre-eminent

and

subject,

>

to

accord with the practice

in

still

genius and

>

lyng-a-soh

any single instance

with them must rest the ultimate decision.

English

<)cJjtJ>

and bears upon

careful theory

from the

Marsdex, how-

and a long and wide examination

much

state that

book, employ the

his

though he may not have treated

ject with so

fair to

if^.)

His work

initial.

highest authority,

of the

ings, and,

/c

vieng-

,^_^ij-^

have quoted

a translation of

nor, to the best of our belief, in

jjeng-addp-an

scatter,

only

follows the particle, as in

elision of

23), in

p'ng, the

jj>

dAwj^-ii.*

to

to

remainder of

in the

long

meng-ahls to consume,

i<

Abbe Favre does not appear

the

'

meng-amhur

.ju.-iU

'

comforter,

jJCWfy-T^Hr

r*:^-*^'

and

^^lt\-^

and

pp. 22

(at

in'ng

f-<

jazm

J~^

(>

'

MarSDEN's remarks upon

state that in

to

every instance of the particles


c

labour.

denote

langue malaie,

among

remains a lasting

The
the

translators

elision of

tracUiite de raiiglaij.

par C.

the
P..J.

117

C-J

by

Malays

the

to the opinion that

incline

and

a very careful

after

given

nunciation

we

and,

initial,

when they

to

the

regretted

should

he

that

suggest

to

doubt as

sound only,

in Par. 132, the initial letter

into

other author,

and

utility,

the

to

in

its
is

"

ej'i*5

to

be

it is

The

authority.'^

re-

being omitted

in

Malay Orthography, than any

and probably had better opportunities


than

are

i^

mdng, but

is itself

pdngarang a composer

fixed particles,

changed

of

of study-

readily available at the

"

C-^

all

takes

into liamzah

a book. "

does he advocate the treatment of these and

that

is

the duplications mentioned

present dav, makes the following observation

pcmg and

and

work

undoubtedly the

of the particle

principles of

ing older native writings

^'

his

ROBlXSON, on the other hand, who went more

the repetition.

deeply

Favre, however,

allowed his attachment to

have

strongest point in favour of his view


petition of the nasal

take the forms

contrary,

one of very careful compilation and great

of the pro-

these derivatives,

to

they are always closed syllables.

makes out a strong case

theory

study

as

So strongly
the other pre-

consisting of two letters, as closed syllables,

he appears to insist that,

The re-arrangement

if

the particle lose

its

second

of the order of the letters of the Alphabet is extremely


student in explaining certain of the euphonic changes, but the basing
of the whole superstructure of Ms Dictionary upon this theoretical classification
impairs the utility of the work, and thro^rs considerable difficulty in the way of
those who consult it. The order of the letters of the Arabic Alphabet is well
known, and is accepted by the Malays, as well by every nation employing the
Arabic system of orthography. Any additional letters foimd to be necessary,
being formed by increasing the number of diacritical points of cognate Arabic
letters, are placed next in order to those letters to which the new letters are affiliated, and any one, knowing the Arabic Alphabet, has little difficiUty in referring to
a work, the arrangement of the references in wliich is based upon that order.
It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that Favbe has committed a, grave error
in judgment in making the change.
*

usefirl to the

118

a closed

letter,

employing a

He

word.
" for

-.

"

'

"

is

used for

man,

of the

the

first

letter

The

prefix."

hamzah would appear


radicals, the

nga-nga

for

lzj

the

of

the
c

letter

formed

is

ral rule

and

"

syllable, with

that

that

"though

it

primitive

no

letter

any

after i5

?i(/

it

fall.

js'n^rt-n^rt

Robinson

of

'

thus,

a gaper

further says

letter

2^'

many

error, into

is

from

^i^d

"

c'^

m'nga-

cU-o

',

It is

a gene-

separate syllables,

a prefix can be joined,

superfluous,

in the

same

This remark,

word.

really necessary, in order

which the Malays themselves

For example

stands here, which

and

ng,

is

letter of the primitive

may seem

is

a person seeing
the

way

in

which

ci^^
it is

fre-

written

commonly

and being

told that

should be pronounced mdngarti would naturally divide the

" syllables thus


" the c
*'

hdr

however, cannot take

" written by careless or ignorant scribes,


it

,j

takes

rejection of
,

the prefixes form so

"to obviate an
" quently

which

cUi'

gape, yawn'.

'to

"

"

for

td

pdr,

*'

few derivatives formed from

to be in the

of

initial

"

" as

or

being succeeded by a vowel sound not borne upon

7?i'

nga

prefix takes

pan

^i'

hd and

(-_>

compensation

as

observe here, once

to

a t'shdld and the only exceptions to the c


A

formed by

be

'

tdr,

the

j^a

'

^^^

" tashdid,
" from

uJ

when

( mcl for

seems proper

It

whenever an abbreviation

*'and

: "

says

" place, as

must nevertheless

syllable

AjAAi' t'sJnhd to double the hiitial of the radical

that

all,

for

who

clj.jU

ma -jigar-ti,

p\a.c\ng the fat-kah

and thus combining that and the

into

one

over

syllable

should know, unless he had been previously informed,

119

'

that there

is

an omission of the hamzah, over which the faU

and that

" hah ought to be placed,


" K:UjitU

mang-ar-Wi

word should be written

this

"

Appendix B.
at the time

There seems to have been a doubt,


Ayrote, as to

particle, or

i-J

whether

an abbreviation of

(slightly abbreviated)

" in Batavia,

He

and

stated that

" and that

when

is

par

is

" as
*

if

affixing

is

^j

^ pd

first letter

of the

strict

propriety to have a tashcUd.

It is

is

the

not always audible in

Thus though from

of

it

0^

formed ^JJ.^ puj-ju-di-yan*, a gambling

uJ

pa, placing a tashdid over the

yet no native,

written with a double

believe, ever pronounces

for

two

^s

{Jims

in the
Apparently a printer's error. If harn^ak be employed
would be paj-jitdi-an.

correct transliteration

scholar.

and especially when the pronouncing

" place, by prefixing

and

good Arabic

the proper prefix to nouns of place,

"would produce any harshness.

note

following

reputed to be the best Malay scholar

however very true that the tashdid

" in pronunciation,

he

person whose opinion was re-

contracted to

it is

"judi, to gamble,

the

gives

also said to be a very

" primitive ought in


"

is

place was a distinct

of

p'r, and, after stating that

: " The

" quested on this point,

nouns

he

authority,

consulted native

"

p' in

ROBINSON

),

^
it

without

final syllable,

the

120

" an intervening vowel, would not only sound very harsh and
" unpleasant to a native ear, but

" culate.
"

It

may be

where harshness

" tashdid

is

also be very difficult to arti-

observed, that in

many

other instances,

sound cannot be an object of dread, the

of

observed

but slightly

in

pronunciation.

This

" discrepancy between the spelling and the pronunciation^


"

may be

partly accounted

from the orthography being

for

" foreign, which perhaps does not,


" accord with the pronunciation. "

to

show the tendency

and

to indicate

graphy have
grapical

how

arisen,

marks

is

in

every case, perfectly

The above note

is

quoted

to follow the rules of Arabic orthography

certain of the peculiarities of

which,

unless

Malay ortho-

the presence of the ortho-

supposed, are entirely misleading, and one


i

is

words as

not surprised to find such

palm,'

commonly

Arabic

rules,

and

it

must be

admitted

would more nearly convey the pronunciation


an English reader than

ni-yo7',

'

coco-

by persons unacquainted with the

written,

jyJ^

jJ>*

i1i-yor,

that

of this

nior

word

to

but a person acquainted with

the Arabic, and not knowing the Malay word, would probably

read j^jj

as

fii-ivar.

'm

/"

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98 3

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