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The link

across Storeblt
two bridges and a tunnel

CONTENTS
The Link across Storeblt

Milestones

Architecture and design

The East Bridge

13

The West Bridge

19

SPROG

23

The East Tunnel

24

Railway engineering

29

Toll station

30

Operation and maintenance

35

Road safety

40

Rail safety

41

Navigation under the bridges

42

Environment

44

Working environment

47

Key figures

48

The worlds largest bridges

50

A/S Storeblt is responsible for the operation and maintenance


of the Storeblt fixed link and, therefore, for a wide range of
tasks. A/S Storeblt organises operations and ensures that
users experience a fast, flexible and safe passage across the link.
A/S Storeblt is responsible for maintaining the infrastructure
in the best possible condition to ensure a lifetime of more than
100 years.
A/S Storeblt is responsible for increasing turnover and minimising financing and operation costs in order to repay its debts
as early as possible, but with due consideration for safety, the
working environment, the environment and society in general.

SUND & BLT THE LIN K ACROSS STOREBLT

The link across Storeblt


Denmarks connecting link
Denmark is a country of bridges. As Danes we are
blessed with many beautiful coastal areas and regions
separated by water. This makes bridges an integral part
of our infrastructure.
The Storeblt link is the jewel in the crown of Danish
bridges. As a proud monument it connects the islands of
Zealand and Funen and is a crucial traffic artery between
East and West. The links importance to society means
that the road and rail link across Storeblt must be
open 24 hours a day 365 days a year.

The 18 km long fixed link across Storeblt between East


and West Denmark comprises two bridges and a tunnel.
The state-owned Sund & Blt Holding A/S owns the link
through the subsidiary A/S Storeblt. The rail link
opened in 1997 and the following year the motorway
across Storeblt was inaugurated. The link replaced
three ferry routes across the belt although ferries
continue to ply the waters across Kattegat and between
Lolland and Langeland. The Storeblt link however
remains the dominant traffic route between East and
West Denmark.

The Storeblt link is a unique engineering feat that


ranks among the worlds largest bridge and tunnel
structures as this publication illustrates and
documents.

East tunnel

Korsr
station

Wind turbines

Toll station
East Bridge
West Bridge
Nyborg
station

Sprog

Knudshoved

Motorway 17,538 m from coast to coast


Railway 18,570 m from coast to coast

T H E L I NK AC R OSS STOR E B LT SU N D & BLT

Construction work
The construction of the Storeblt link took place
between 1988 and 1998 and involved thousands of
engineers craftsmen semi-skilled workers and others.
At the peak of construction in the early 1990s more
than 4000 people worked at the construction sites in
and around Storeblt.
In June 1987 the Danish parliament Folketinget passed
the Public Works Act for the Construction of a Fixed Link
across Storeblt. Ahead of the vote had gone decades
of discussions for and against the project. On 12 June
1986 however the governing parties Conservatives
Liberals Centre Democrats and the Christian Peoples
Party signed an accord with the Social Democrats for
Storeblt.
According to the Public Works Act the Storeblt link
was to be built in two stages so that the rail link could
open three years before the motorway. This sprang from
the political desire to give public transport a headstart
over car traffic.
As construction work progressed however it gradually
emerged that the three-year interval was unrealistic
largely because two incidents during the boring of the
tunnel delayed construction considerably. As a result
the rail link opened in June 1997 with the motorway link
following twelve months later in June 1998.
Traffic
It is now considerably easier faster and cheaper to cross
Storeblt compared to the era of the ferries. During the
bridges first years of operation traffic across Storeblt doubled while the number of train passengers
increased by more than 50 per cent.

Ten years after the opening of the bridge traffic averages 30000 vehicles a day. By comparison the figure for
1997 the last full year of ferry services the ferries
transported around 8300 vehicles per day.
Rail traffic has also benefited significantly from the
fixed link. Today ten years after the links opening 130
trains cross Storeblt every day against the previous 40
to 45. The number of daily rail passengers now totals
22000 against 12000 in the days of the ferries.
Financing
Total construction costs for Storeblt project amounted to DKK 26.5 billion in current prices. The costs were
largely split fifty-fifty between the road and rail link. In
addition to the construction costs were interest expenses so that the overall debt at the time of the opening of
the bridge in 1998 totalled approx. DKK 36 billion. The
debt increased during the first few years after the opening of the road link but is now falling. In order to cover
the costs A/S Storeblt has continually raised loans in
Danish and international capital markets. All loans are
guaranteed by the Danish state which allows for more
favourable borrowing terms.
A/S Storeblts loans including interest are serviced
from the revenue from motorists and from Rail Net Denmark which pays a fixed fee to A/S Storeblt for using
the railway. Revenue from the road link is dependent on
traffic volumes on the bridge.

T H E L I NK AC R OSS STOR E B LT SU N D & BLT

Milestones
Throughout history the main traffic link between East
and West Denmark has been via Storeblt. For centuries
ships carried people and goods across the belt and from
the 1880s freight was mainly transported by rail-ferries
in the form of paddle steamers. Only in the 1930s did the
first proposals for a fixed link materialise. Over the next
50 years a number of bridge proposals were put forward
but it was not until 10 June 1987 that the Danish parliament passed the bill that made a fixed road and rail link
possible. Amongst other things the Act determined that
there should be a three year interval between the opening of the rail and road link.

The East Tunnel was designed and built between 1988


and 1996 with subsequent installation of the rail engineering installations and test runs up until the opening
of the rail line on 1 June 1997. A flood and a fire in one of
the boring machines however delayed completion by
two years. The design of the West Bridge began in 1989
and the bridge was completed in 1994.
The construction phase of the East Bridge began in 1991
and the bridge opened on 14 June 1998.

12 June 1986

10 June 1987

30 August 1990

12 April 1991

14 October 1991

22 April 1993

11 June 1994

Political decision to

The Public Works

Tunnel boring begins

The Swan positions

Flooding in two

The first caisson for the

Fire breaks out in one of

build a fixed link

Act is passed

the first caisson for

tunnel tubes

East Bridge is lowered

the boring machines

on to the seabed

which damages the tunnel

across Storeblt

the West Bridge

26 June 1994

7 April 1995

8 October 1995

1 August 1996

1 June 1997

14 June 1998

The contractor hands

Tunnel boring is

The substructure

The contractor hands

The rail link is opened

The road link opens

over the West Bridge

completed

for the East Bridge

over the East Tunnel

by Queen Margrethe

port inaugurates 7 wind

of Denmark

turbines north of Sprog

is handed over

4 December 2009
The Minister of Trans-

T H E L I NK AC R OSS STOR E B LT SU N D & BLT

Architecture and design


In architectural terms the main objective was to create a
visually defined and easily identifiable entity which is in
harmony with the surrounding landscape.
The architectural firm of Dissing + Weitling and landscape architect Jrgen Vesterholt were commissioned to
transform the vision into reality. The artist Ole Schwalbe
was appointed artistic consultant to the architects who
worked closely with the consulting engineers throughout
the design and construction phases.
The main architectural work took place in the early planning phase where no single solution was taken for granted and statistical principles and current contractor
methods were put to the test. Through extensive outlines and model constructions the main architectural
line and the co-ordination of the projects component
parts were developed creating the overview needed
for ensuring the projects integrity.
Landscape
One of the objectives of the project was to create coherence between the natural and man-made elements. The
large artificial terrain complex abutments and tunnel
ramps were designed as geometrical shapes one convex
and the other concave.
On the Zealand side the complex is part of the local archetypical landscape the hills towards the north the
cliffs the pebble coast and the stony points. The tunnel
ramp is sited on the bed of an old fjord south of the hills.
The ramp is surrounded by a high water dike planted with
a snow belt dominated by oak like many of the regions
hedgerows. The motorway follows a natural ridge to the
abutment which preserves the natural coastline with its
location set back above the southern cliff.

As part of the extension of the island of Sprog in the


middle of Storeblt the motorway marks the boundary
between the old and the new. The bridge embankments
and the new backfilled areas are protected by a 5 m high
stone perimeter of Bornholm and Swedish granite while
the railway ramps high water dikes and the slopes are
planted with snow fences. The landscape at the abutment at Funen is formed by a series of beach ridges and
is therefore distinct from Funens cultivated landscape.
Along the northern coastline which is characterised by
coniferous growth the West Bridge ramp was constructed
from backfilled sand. The abutment is sited slightly
north of the entrance to the former ferry port. The areas
vegetation is characterised by lamella fir tree plantations which frame the views of Funen and dramatise the
introduction to the bridge.
East Bridge
The almost 7 km long East Bridge consists of two types of
bridge with entirely different static impressions a suspension bridge at the centre and simply supported box girder
bridges as approach spans on either side. With its proportions and fully exposed location the East Bridge silhouette
is of crucial importance to the experience. The long main
span and the high pylons make it the most spectacular element of the link the jewel of the Storeblt link.
Via the 254 m high pylons the bridge cables extend from
anchor block to anchor block. By placing the enormous
mass required for securing the cables below the surface
of the sea it was possible to make the anchor blocks into
open constructions.
The design of the pylons with their lower swing unimpeded by artificial islands and bases forms a dynamic
encounter with the water emphasising the movement of

Architectural sketches: Dissing + Weitling

SUND & BLT THE LIN K ACROSS STOREBLT

the forces from the main cable saddles to the seabed.


Moreover the traditional cross beam under the bridge
deck has been eliminated. This creates an impressive
sculptural expression of the pylons and a clear sense of
the bridge and pylons static impression. The approach
bridge piers harmonise with the design of the pylons to
complete the impression. The bridges crash barriers
have been specially designed to provide motorists with a
panoramic view.
Lighting
To warn aircraft and shipping and to enhance the architectural experience of the bridge lighting has been installed on the pylons and anchor blocks. In addition the
shape of the suspension cables is marked with a series
of individual fixtures. While the outer surfaces of the
bridge structure are not illuminated the anchor blocks
are lit from within to emphasise the open design.
The lighting at the front and inner sides of the pylons taper
upwards while the intensity of the lighting on the underside
of the bridge deck diminishes towards the centre of the
bridge. Thus the lighting emphasises the bridges dimensions and sculptural qualities. As an energy saving measure
some of the lighting is turned off between midnight and
06:00.
West Bridge
With its vast horizontal curve (with a radius of 20 km) the
otherwise rather monotonous West Bridge provides an
architectural tension which not only improves the safety
of motorists but also offers a varied view of the East
Bridge in an easterly direction.
The West Bridge is a contractor-alternative which was not
designed by the selected architects. This has impacted on
the perception of the link as an integrated entity.
Constructed as two parallel box girder bridges for the
road and the railway the bridge is built by concrete ele-

ments that extend from the middle to the middle of the


bridge spans. They are cast into one km long sections.
East Tunnel
In its alignment the bored tunnel curves in a northerly
direction to follow a submerged lateral moraine where
the sediment is suitable and where at the same time
there is the least ascending gradient for the rail track.
The tunnel consists of two tunnel tubes in a purely technical construction. The tunnel mouths sloping walls harmonise with the ramp slopes and provide a fine aerodynamic design to safeguard against high air pressure
when the trains enter the tunnel.
At the tunnel ramps portal buildings have been built for
the technical installations. With their horizontal disposition the buildings adhere to the tunnels longitudinal direction. In the buildings central lines there are overhead
lights that illuminate a longitudinal corridor and completed with a glass entrance.
Wind turbines
In the sea some 800 m north of Sprog seven 3MW wind
turbines were installed in 2009.
The arrangement of the turbines has to a significant extent been determined by the need for harmony with the
East Bridges imposing structures and the visual impression from the surrounding coastline. In-depth visual studies
resulted in the choice of a turbine line that runs parallel
with the East Bridges longitudinal direction. Resting on
concrete foundations extending 3.5 m above the surface of
the sea the turbines are 70 m high and have a blade diameter of 90 m. The foundations are designed to withstand ice
formations in Storeblt and the design helps to give the
turbines the required robustness that will ensure the production of green energy over the planned lifetime of 25
years. The turbine towers are painted a light grey colour
that complements the fixed links grey concrete structures
and gives the turbines a light airy appearance.

11

SUND & BLT THE LIN K ACROSS STOREBLT

The East Bridge


Geometry
The East Bridge which carries a four-lane motorway
from Zealand to Sprog is 6.8 km long and comprises
two approach spans and one suspension span. The
bridge girders are designed as closed box profiles in
steel while bridge piers anchor blocks and pylons are
made from reinforced concrete.
The approach spans extend from the abutments on Zealand
and Sprog to the anchor block. The two approach spans
are 2518 m and 1556 m long and rest on 21 bridge piers.
The suspended span is suspended from the two main cables and extends from anchor block to anchor block. It is
2694 m long and the main span between the two pylons
is 1624 m. The navigational clearance is 65 m.
To safeguard against collisions shipping is monitored by
radar and a traffic separation system has been established
for north and south-going shipping between the pylons.
Pylons
At 254 m the East Bridges concrete pylons are Denmarks
highest points and offer stunning panoramic views of
Zealand Sprog and Funen.
The design of the pylons was determined in close partnership between the consulting engineers and the architects.
Stairs and lifts have been installed in the two pylon legs
the lifts which can accommodate 12 people take six minutes to transport service crews to the top of the pylons.
Anchor blocks
The function of the East Bridges anchor blocks is to embed the very considerable forces from the main cables.

This in part is achieved through the enormous deadweight of the concrete structure and in part through a
ballast consisting of sand and iron ore to provide a combined weight of 325000 tonnes.
Anchor blocks are usually designed as massive structures that contrast with the slender structure of the suspension bridge. In the case of the East Bridge however a
very light structure has been created which reflects the
distribution of the forces.
The main cables which comprise a total of 37 wire
strands are anchored to the bottom of the splay chambers in the back slanting leg of the anchor block. There is
access from the road level via stairs.
In order to lower heavy maintenance equipment into the
anchor block hoisting gear with a capacity of 2 tonnes
has been installed. All enclosed areas in the anchor block
are dehumidified to prevent corrosion of cable wires and
other steel components.
Bridge piers
The bridge piers are hollow in the upper section and
there is access from the pier top to the interior of the
pier through a hatch.
The bridge piers nearest each anchor block and the anchor blocks themselves are protected against collisions
by artificial islands. The islands prevent off-course vessels from colliding with the piers.
Ramps and abutments
To ensure a sufficiently low gradient on the road deck
and an appropriate height under the bridge on land
ramps have been built at both Sprog and Zealand to

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14

T H E L I NK AC R OSS STOR E B LT SU N D & BLT

provide the foundation for the bridge abutment. The


abutments have been partially planted and carefully
integrated into the landscape to retain the bridges light
and airy appearance.
The abutments provide access to the interior of the
bridge girders. Wide doors and hoists allow for the
handling of large and heavy equipment into and out of
the bridge.
Main cables and suspension cables
Each of the bridges two main cables has a diameter of
827 mm and consists of 18648 parallel steel wires. The
galvanised wires are further protected against corrosion
by a zinc paste applied to the cables outer wires before
being wrapped with a 3 mm thick steel wire. The exterior
of the cable is protected by three coats of paint.
A hand-rope has been mounted on each side of the main
cables. Access to the cables for maintenance and inspection is from the pylon tops from the anchor block
houses and the centre of the main span.
Every 24 meters the suspension bridges girders are
suspended from a pair of hangers. The suspension
cables have a diameter of 65 mm 75 mm or 98 mm and
are constructed from circular and Z-shaped galvanised

wires. By way of further protection polyethylene sheathing has been placed over the suspension cables.
To prevent oscillation the suspension cables are connected in pairs by separators placed at varying heights.
The longest suspension cables closest to pylons are
equipped with hydraulic oscillation absorbers to counteract oscillations caused by high winds.
Bridge girders
The East Bridges girders are designed as closed boxprofiles in steel. As all stiffeners are placed inside the
outer surfaces are smooth without stiffening ribs. As a
result only 20-25 per cent of the overall steel surface
has been painted because the insides of the girders are
protected against corrosion by dehumidification measures.
The design of the bridge girders has been optimised
in accordance with stress analysis and aerodynamic
conditions. To protect the girder against oscillation due
to vortex shedding from winds flaps have been mounted
on the suspension bridges underside in the main span.
Between the two anchor blocks the girder for the
suspension bridge has a total length of 2692 m without
expansion joints. The girder thus passes uninterruptedly

Pylon

Ramp

Abutment
143 m

Approach span
7 x 193 m
1,567 m

Side span
Anchor block

Main span

62 m 11 m
535 m

1,624 m

Pylon
Side span
Anchor block
11 m 62 m
535 m

Approach span
12 x 193 m

Abutment
140 m

2,529 m

Ramp

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T H E L I NK AC R OSS STOR E B LT SU N D & BLT

between the pylon legs - which further emphasises the


light structure. The expansion joints at the anchor
blocks therefore have to absorb significant movement
i.e. +/-1m.

central crash barriers in both directions. The outer crash


barriers are twice as strong as the conventional crash
barriers on Danish bridges and can withstand collisions
with for instance modular vehicles.

In order to minimise sudden movements in the joints


e.g. from many cars braking at the same time hydraulic
shock-absorbers have been mounted between the anchor blocks and the bridge girders.

Installations and equipment


To protect the inner surfaces of the bridge girders
against corrosion seven dehumidification systems have
been installed inside the girders. The systems prevent
humidity from exceeding 50 per cent. Similar systems
have been installed in the anchor blocks splay chambers
and in the pylon saddles.

Each bridge girder in the two approach spans has also


been welded into one piece with each fixed to the central pier. This means that any longitudinal expansions
due to variations in temperature or traffic volume are
distributed evenly to the expansion joints located at the
anchor blocks and abutments. At the time of assembly
the East Bridges expansion joints were the largest of
their type in the world. Today however they have been
superseded by larger bridges in China. Overall the four
expansion joints on the 6.8 km long East Bridge allow for
movements of up to 6.5 m. Bearings mounted on top of
each bridge pier support the bridge girders and allow
angular and horizontal displacement of the girders.
Road surface and crash barriers
The road surface of the East Bridge has a water proofing
membrane (mastic) of 4 mm at the bottom and 55 mm
mastic asphalt in two layers at the top. To ensure friction crushed stone has been rolled into the surface. The
surface is similar in type to the road surfacing previously
used on the Lilleblt Bridge and other recent Danish
steel bridges. It is designed for a lifetime of more than
25 years.
1.3 m high fencing and crash barriers have been installed
along the edges of the bridge girders together with

During periods of strong winds the approach spans


bridge girders may be subject to oscillation. To keep
these oscillations at an acceptable level so-called tuned
mass dampers TMDs have been installed in the girders.
A TMD consists of approximately 8 tonnes steel suspended in a number of springs. When the bridge begins
to oscillate the suspended mass begins to oscillate too.
Slowing down these oscillations reduces the bridges oscillation.
Hydraulic buffers have been installed between the anchor blocks and the suspension bridges girders. These
have a similar function as shock absorbers in cars in that
they prevent fast movements and allow slow movements.
For the bridge this means that slow movements caused
by temperature fluctuations are not prevented while minor sudden movements arising from traffic are not
transmitted to bearings and joints. This significantly reduces wear on these components.

A
B
C
D

Cable clamp

A
B
C
D
E
F

One coat of polyurethane


Two coats of epoxy primer
Wrapping wires
Zinc paste
18648 steel wires in the main cable
Hangers

Cross section of the bridge girders in the main span


A Railing and crash barriers
B Monorail for personnel
C Flaps for wind

D Handrope
E Main cables
F Hangers

SUND & BLT THE LIN K ACROSS STOREBLT

West Bridge
Geometry
The 6.6 km West Bridge is a combined road and rail
bridge resting on 63 bridge piers and two abutments.
Both the super and sub-structures are cast in reinforced
concrete. The West Bridge curves horizontally with a
radius of 20 km. Chosen for aesthetic and safety
reasons the curved design gives motorists a varied
experience while crossing the West Bridge.
The West Bridge has two passage spans for north and
south bound shipping with a navigational clearance of
18 m. The limit of 1000 GRT (Gross Register Tonnage) is
dictated by the bridge piers resistance to collisions.
The passage spans are marked with double leading lights
and red/green buoyage (beacons and lights). In addition
the navigation spans are equipped with automatic fog
detectors and foghorns. The distance between the north
and south channels is 260 m.
To further enhance safety a radar system monitors
shipping to prevent large vessels from entering the West
Channel instead of the East Channel.
Bridge girders bridge piers and abutments
The West Bridges superstructure has been executed in
pre-stressed reinforced concrete and comprises two
separate single-celled box girders for the double-track
railway and the four-lane motorway.
The two box girders each rest on pier shafts placed on a
joint caisson below the surface of the sea. The distance
between the piers in the bridge alignment is 110 m. The
bridge therefore is supported by 2 x 63 piers and two

abutments at Knudshoved and Sprog. The abutments


are located at the end of planted ramps built from sand
from Storeblt.
Bearings and expansion joints
The bridge is divided into six approximately 1.1 km long
expansion sections. Expansion joints have been installed
between each section to absorb the bridges movements
during changes in temperature.
The expansion joint for the road girder comprises a
number of transverse steel profiles separated by rubber
profiles which can absorb movements of up to 0.60 m.
In total the seven expansion joints can move up to 7.0 m.
The expansion joint of the rail girder consists of two
tongue rails. To restrict sudden movements in the rail
bridges superstructure in the event of a train braking
suddenly each expansion joint has been equipped with
two hydraulic shock absorbers. This limits immediate
movements between the individual bridge sections to a
maximum of 30 mm.
Each expansion section is fixed to the sections centre
pier. In the case of the remaining piers the superstructure rests on bearings mounted on the pier shafts.
These bearings are equipped with sliding teflon surfaces which allow for longitudinal motion and with ductile
plates allowing for angle changes. Manholes in the underside of the bridge girders provide access via ladders
to the top of the piers and thus to the bridge bearings.

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T H E L I NK AC R OSS STOR E B LT SU N D & BLT

Road surfacing and crash barriers


The road surface has a total thickness of approx. 100
mm and rests on a membrane of fully welded polymer
bitumen plates which insulate the concrete deck against
moisture. Above the membrane is a 15-20 mm drainage
layer of open asphalt concrete and a further 40 mm base
of asphalt concrete. At the top is a 40 mm wearing
course of stone mastic asphalt.
Along the outer side of the emergency lane the road
bridge girder has a 60 cm high edge beam on which a 60
cm high steel crash barrier has been mounted. The total
height of the crash barrier is therefore 1.2 m and is
designed to withstand collisions with modular vehicles.
Rock ballast with a minimum thickness of 350 mm has
been laid on the rail girder as a base for the sleepers.

The rail bridge is part of the electrified section of the


Danish rail network. The bridge is therefore equipped
with masts which carry the catenary system. As the
system uses a voltage of 25kV AC all steel parts are
earthed. This is partly a safety precaution against falling
catenary wires and partly to protect against sudden
power surges.
Passages between the rail and road girders have been
established at 550 m intervals. These passages serve as
escape routes in the event of accidents necessitating
the evacuation of train passengers.

A Road girder
B Rail girder
A

C Bearings

B
C

D In-situ joint
C

E Caisson
F Erosion protection
G Sand fill
H Stone bed

F
H

SUND & BLT THE LIN K ACROSS STOREBLT

Sprog
The tunnel boring and the compensation dredging in the
East Channel generated very substantial amounts of soil.
The dredged material was deposited at areas immediately
north of the original Sprog Old Sprog.
Before the construction of the fixed link Sprog covered
an area of approximately 40 hectares. By the end of
the construction works however this had quadrupled.
Todays Old Sprog is separated from New Sprog by a
fence to protect wildlife on the old island.
Approx. 17 km gravel roads were laid at New Sprog for
the operation and maintenance of the coastal protection abutments technical installations etc. 90 per cent
of Sprogs approx. 9 km long shoreline is revetment.
Together with the authorities A/S Storeblt has drawn
up a conservation plan for the natural areas on the protected Old Sprog.
The main objective is to preserve the areas salt meadows
allowing Old and New Sprog to form a coherent natural
landscape. An important part of the plan is to provide
grazing alongside the shore and in the salt meadows.
During the summer therefore around 60 cattle and 200
sheep graze on Sprog.

The buildings on Old Sprog have been carefully


restored inside as well as outside and are continually
maintained. The 24 m high Fyrbakke with its listed lighthouse is of some historical interest. The lighthouse from
1868 was erected on the ruins of an ancient fortification
built by King Valdemar the Great in 1167. The ruins the
oldest fortifications in Denmark can still be seen. All
four walls have been restored by Denmarks National
Museum although only three are visible because little of
the west wall remains. The National Museum has left the
wall as a grassy earth mound instead.
In 1997 the light in the lighthouse was switched on for
the first time since 1980. Today however the lighthouse
is of no practical significance to shipping. The original
characteristic white flashes are used.

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The East Tunnel


Geometry
The 8 km rail link under Storeblts East Channel comprises two separate tunnel tubes with a diameter of 7.7
m. The tunnel tubes are connected to 31 cross passages
at 250 m intervals. The cross passages have an inner
diameter of 4.5 m. The tunnel tubes consist of 63000
elements bolted together. The service life of the tunnel
elements is secured through reinforcement which
following welding has been treated with epoxy and
prepared for subsequent cathodic protection.
In part the cross passages serve as escape routes with
a maximum of six minute escape time to the opposite
tube and in part as access routes for rescue teams and
as a location for railway installations such as generators
cooling and ventilation systems as well as computer and
radio equipment. The tunnel has a maximum gradient of
16.5 per thousand i.e. the steepest gradient of any rail
section in Denmark. There is a minimum of 12 m soil
covering above the two tunnel tubes.
To ensure fast evacuation in the event of a train accident
signs leading to the nearest emergency exit via the cross
passages have been placed at short intervals. The constructions and the levelling in the bored tunnel are inspected regularly and thorough corrosion and tension
checks of the tunnel elements are carried out.
Cut and cover tunnel
The sections between the bored tunnel and the open
ramps consist of a double reinforced concrete tunnel
which was cast in situ in an open structure pit the socalled cut and cover tunnel. These sections are 227 m
long at Halsskov and 278 m long at Sprog.

Portal buildings
Portal buildings are sited at the tunnel ramps at Halsskov and Sprog for rail engineering equipment power
supplies pumping and ventilation systems as well as
computer control and monitoring equipment etc.
Ramps
The open ramps cover a 1500 m long section from
ground level down to the tunnel mouths. The ramps
are protected against damage from high groundwater
pressure in the underlying strata through an extensive
system of permanent bleeder wells combined with longitudinal sub-soil drains under the ramps and portal buildings. The inflowing groundwater is conducted by the help
of gravity to collecting pipes to a pumping station at
each ramp and then into Storeblt.
On both sides of the tracks there are access roads to the
tunnel entrance and to the portal building.
Technical installations
The East Tunnels railway engineering components for
supply control and monitoring are located in the 31
cross passages which also serve as escape routes.
The cross passages contain 10 kV high-voltage transformers switchboards emergency generators radio
communication systems cooling systems and control
monitoring and regulation systems (SRO) as well as train
safety and train radio systems.

The tunnel tubes


The tunnels internal diameter is 7.7 m.
The main tunnels are lined with 40 cm thick
A

and 7 tonne heavy reinforced concrete


elements a total of 63000. The elements
are bolted together (to facilitate assembly)
and the interspaces are equipped with
B

waterstop which prevents water from


penetrating the tunnel.

A Concrete elements

B Ventilators at 1200 m intervals.


Diameter: 780 mm
C Lighting every 20 m
D Discharge pipe
E Fire main pipe
F Compressed air
G Pre-cast concrete element
H Drainage channel

L
K
M
J
I
G

Crushed stone ballast

J Concrete sleeper
K Cable duct
L Precast walkway
M Rails

Principle for cross passage

4.5 m

16.5 m
25 m

SUND & BLT THE LIN K ACROSS STOREBLT

Along both sides of the rail tracks there are concrete


walkways containing a large number of power and communication cables for the tunnel and the cross passages
installations. As a result the cables are well protected
against fire.
At the main tunnels deepest point pump sumps have
been installed under the track. These enable drain water
and water from cleaning the tunnel or fire extinguishing
and any liquid from train accidents to be pumped away.
The pumps have a capacity of 100 l/s as has the fire
water system.

27

In both tunnel tubes the fire water system consists of


a 220 mm fire water tube along the full length of the
tunnel. There are hose connectors every 125 m.
The tunnels ventilation system comprises 80 two-way
jet ventilators to supply fresh air for maintenance work
and remove smoke and toxic gases in the event of fire
and other accidents. The ventilators start automatically
if a train stops for a red signal for any length of time.
In normal service situations the trains themselves generate air exchange through a piston effect.

The tunnel under the seabed

A Moraine clay
B Marl
C Lime

- 50 m

A
B

- 75 m

SUND & BLT THE LIN K ACROSS STOREBLT

Railway engineering
The rail girder carries two tracks that are part of the
electrified section of the Copenhagen-Fredericia rail
line. The trains top speed is 180 km/hour along the
entire section. The track construction is UIC 60 on
concrete sleepers placed on granite rock ballast of a
minimum thickness of 350 mm. The system is equipped
with masts which carry the catenary system which has
a traction tension of 25 kV AC.
Extensive grounding of all steel components and steel
reinforcement of the concrete structures have been
established in part to safeguard against falling catenary
wires and in part to protect against sudden power surges.
Moreover an exchange block system enables trains to
operate in both directions on both tracks at up to 180
km per hour. This provides great flexibility for Rail Net
Denmarks regional remote control centre in Roskilde
from where train traffic is monitored and controlled.

STATIONS
Electronic interlocking systems have been established
at Korsr Sprog and Nyborg stations. The tunnels
rail signalling system is constructed in four blocks and
designed so that each tunnel tube can be used for traffic
in both directions with the same top speed. Owing to the
design of the IC3 and IR4 trains however the maximum
speed in the tunnel is restricted to 140 km per hour.
The signalling system is supplemented by automatic
train control and line-side hot axle box detection on both

sides of the link. Transmission on the rail section


between the rail engineering systems is via fibre
optic technology. The rail line is thus equipped with
state-of-the-art rail engineering equipment.
Nyborg and Korsr stations
As both Nyborg and Korsr stations have four tracks and
330 m long platforms they can each accommodate five
train sets with a combined length of 350 m.
The outer tracks function as overtaking track for freight
trains. Facilities for changing drivers have been established at one of these tracks.
A freight area with eight tracks has been established at
the stations. This allows freight operators to carry out
freight shunting including loading and offloading
freight.
One extra track with water and electricity has been
established for the use of maintenance contractors.
Sprog Station
Sprog Station has short overtaking tracks. The station
is primarily used as a crossing station if track is closed in
the tunnel. An extra track has been established for use in
the event of accidents. A treatment area for casualties
has been established here.

29

30

T H E L I NK AC R OSS STOR E B LT SU N D & BLT

Toll station
The Storeblt toll station incorporates A/S Storeblts
administration building and the traffic facilitys monitoring room the O-room.
The toll station has 13 westbound lanes and 11 eastbound with three different lane types:
To the left are the BroBizz lanes which motorists can
pass through at a suggested 30 km per hour. At the centre are the card lanes designed for self-service while
furthest to the right are the manual lanes with service
personnel.
The capacity of the individual lanes varies. A BroBizz
lane can accommodate approx. 375 vehicles per hour
while a card lane handles up to 250 vehicles per hour and
the manual lanes 150. The toll stations total capacity is
between 5000 and 5500 vehicles per hour depending on
the traffic composition.
Above the lanes dynamic signs with coloured pictograms
and LEDs display the method of toll collection for the individual lanes. Depending on traffic volume the lanes
can rapidly change from self-service to serviced lanes.

Toll booths
The toll booths have been designed to provide optimum
conditions for both customers and the personnel working there. Ergonomics the changeable Danish weather
noise and safety have all been addressed.
The toll stations computer system has been built for maximum reliability. Should the link to the main computer be
down for an extended period computers in the lanes will
remain operational to sustain operations. An emergency
generator ensures that all key functions at the toll station
remain operative in the event of a power cut.
The booths are equipped with a ventilation system
which generates excess pressure in the booths and thus
protects personnel from exhaust fumes.
The pneumatic dispatch between the O-room and the individual booths allows for the rapid dispatch of items
from the O-room to the booths and back again.
Computer monitors and video screens in the O-room give
the duty manager a complete overview of the individual
lanes and the condition of the technical equipment.

F
I
B
A
E

P Exit barrier

A Fog light

B Entry traffic light

J Stereoscopic classification

Q Exit traffic light

C Entry barrier

R Display

D BroBizz antenna

K Video cameras

E Buffer

L Dynamic signs

F Midway traffic light

M Catwalk

G BroBizz

N Card readers/printers

H Height sensor

O Toll booth

IR curtains
system

S Diode bar

J
J
K
L
M

D
P

I
K

N
O

I
K

32

T H E L I NK AC R OSS STOR E B LT SU N D & BLT

The duty manager can open/close lanes and change their


payment mode. Assisted by CCTV cameras and computer
data the duty manager can help customers in the selfservice lanes and for example release a card stuck in the
card reader.
Automatic classification
Vehicle classification is determined on the basis of a vehicles length and height. Each lane operates two independent classification systems one is a light curtain
system based on infra-red light which is transmitted
from light emitters in posts on one side of the lane to
sensors in posts on the other side. When a vehicle breaks
the light beams its category is automatically determined. The other classification system is a stereoscopic
camera system which via two sets of cameras in the toll
stations canopy structure measures the vehicles three
dimensions and transmits the information to the toll
stations computer.
Each lane has up to four CCTV cameras which can all be
configured to photograph the vehicle and its registration number. The images form important evidence to ensure efficient collection.
The technology behind the BroBizz system is based on
antennae positioned 5.5 m above the road. The antennae
emit microwaves to the BroBizzes and exchange all
transaction data in less than a second. The system complies with European standards and supports BroBizzes
and similar systems under the joint Scandinavian project
EasyGo.

All lanes have exit lights and barriers as well as a display


that informs motorists about the category of the vehicle
the toll fee and whether payment has been approved.
Concrete buffers between the lanes protect personnel
and equipment against collisions. The buffers can withstand impact from even large trucks.
Manning in the lanes
Manning of the toll station is managed according to an
hourly traffic forecast. The forecasts are based on years
of experience of traffic build-up and payment methods
for particular days. Traffic across the bridge fluctuates
significantly and considerable insight into traffic flow is
required to ensure that the number of duty personnel
match expected traffic volumes i.e. so that there are
neither too few nor too many service personnel at the
toll stations.
The number of personnel at the lanes may vary between
3 to 30 depending on the season and time of day.

Storeblt operates the following types of vehicles on the railway:


Two

55 tonne working vehicles with two cranes with man basket and scissor lift

Two

25 tonne trailers with flex pavilions for transporting casualties

Two

25 tonne trailers with 20 tool and parts containers

Three 10 tonne working vehicle trailers used to transport hoists and tools
Two

25 tonne working vehicle trailers with flex pavilions equipped with

staff facilities

One

40 tonne self-emptying working vehicle for transport of ballast

Two

25 tonne container wagons

Two

26 tonne preparedness vehicle with rescue container

One

33 tonne service vehicle with washing unit

SUND & BLT THE LIN K ACROSS STOREBLT

Operation and maintenance


The focus areas for operation and maintenance of the
fixed link are:
To meet customer requirements as regards safety
accessibility and convenience
To protect and enhance the companys infrastructure
facilities
To ensure optimum administration and high quality
throughout the companys activities
To engage in proactive measures in relation to environmental impact working environment and traffic safety
and to demonstrate corporate social responsibility

Road
The O-room is also equipped with a number of facilities
for the technical monitoring of the road link. These include a number of information systems including service
boards and other systems for the provision of traffic information.

Meeting these objectives requires continually updated


documentation procedures and plans as well as the appropriate organisation. In addition effective control and
analysis tools and equipment accessible spare parts for
critical components and continually updated knowledge
of the condition of the facilities are important.

For safety reasons all areas are covered by a local radio


system based at the O-room. The O-room is linked to
Storeblts central network which for instance includes
access to the maintenance system and to updates of the
O-rooms duty report.

TECHNICAL MONITORING
Railway
All monitoring of the traffic facilitys technical installations is conducted from the monitoring room otherwise
known as the O-room located at Storeblts administration centre at Halsskov.
The tunnel is equipped with a control and safety system
which continually monitors all functions. The so-called
SRO system (control regulation and monitoring) monitors power supply the water level in pump sumps pump
operations ventilators and access control.
The SRO systems monitoring of the technical installations
is centred in the O-room which is manned 24/7 365 days a
year.

The Storeblt link is also equipped with a range of CCTV


cameras used by the police in Southern Zealand and
Lolland Falster as well as by personnel in the O-room.
There is also a direct phone line to the police.

Monitoring of traffic and transactions at the toll station


is via networked PCs in a separate network. LED displays
on the bridge and the on-line link to the Danish Road
Directorates Traffic Information Centre TIC is also
controlled from here. Weather stations are used for
monitoring the condition of the roads during winter and
to warn against high winds.
All doors and access routes including gates and barriers
which are opened with access cards are controlled and
monitored from the O-room. In addition internal phones
between the O-room and the toll booths loudspeaker
systems printers and a pneumatic dispatch system burglar and fire-alarms are integrated into the SRO system
so that all information first reaches the O-room which
then determines the course of action.

35

SUND & BLT THE LIN K ACROSS STOREBLT

Traffic information
Motorists are informed about wind road and traffic
conditions by signs on the motorway and large monitors.
Information can also be obtained from Storeblts
service phone (70 15 10 15) or from www.storebaelt.dk
and from text TV.
In the event of strong winds or other types of extreme
weather information is also provided on the radio.
Motorists can also sign up to a free SMS service where
information is available via the users mobile phone.
Customers with new GPS receivers can also receive information on traffic conditions directly to their GPS screen.

MAINTENANCE
Equipment at the bridges
Settlement and angle changes to the structures are continually monitored through GPS measurements and levelling procedures in an established fixed point system.
The condition of the concrete structures is regularly
monitored by embedded sensors. These measurements
can reveal the extent to which chloride has penetrated
the outer layers of the concrete and whether additional
measures should be taken to avoid corrosion of the reinforcement. Owing to the high quality of the concrete the
lifetime of the structure is expected to be between 100
and 500 years depending on the distance to the splashzone around level 0.
Besides the regular monitoring specific measurements
are carried out on selected components. These include
wind-induced oscillations in the bridge girders hangers
and hand rails.

The length of the bridges necessitates the use of special


means of transport for inspections and maintenance of
the links structures and installations.
Three monorail vehicles are used on the East Bridge: one
for the suspension bridge and one for each of the two
approach spans. The vehicles move along suspended
rails and are powered by batteries. They can carry two
people and the required equipment back and forth in the
bridge girder.
Inside one of the legs of each of the two pylons there is
a rack lift for transporting people and equipment up and
down the pylons.
In the West Bridges girders small three-wheeled motorcycles (ATV) carry people and equipment to the bridge
girder from the access gates in the abutments.
Equipment yard
The equipment yard is the base of Storeblts contractors who maintain the technical systems and are responsible for road operations maintenance of all installations
including mechanical facilities and high voltage systems
interlocking systems and the catenary system. They also
maintain the tracks and carry out logistical duties (e.g. coordination of vehicles on the railway).
These tasks require a team of around 100 who by and
large work dayshifts on the roads and work on the railway at night.
In connection with the rail section at the equipment yard
four tracks for loading and unloading of vehicles have
been installed some of which are covered. As these
tracks are linked to track 12 at Korsr Station they have
direct access to Storeblts rail section.

37

38

T H E L I NK AC R OSS STOR E B LT SU N D & BLT

Vehicles
To optimise the competitive parameters in respect of
the maintenance tenders Sund & Blt makes rail vehicles available to maintenance contractors. All contractors who perform maintenance tasks on Storeblts rail
section may use these vehicles. The emergency services
also make use of some of the vehicles in the event of accidents.
Inspection platforms
There is limited scope for establishing work areas for
operation and maintenance along the trafficked road areas on the Storeblt bridges. A significant part of these
works therefore is carried out from platforms or lifts.
East Bridge
The East Bridges main cable is serviced from a so-called
cable inspection vehicle which runs on top of the main
cable. The inspection vehicle is designed as a 7 m high
cage from where it is possible to examine and repair the
main cable at several levels.
Platforms are suspended from the bridge girders to
provide unimpeded access to the bridge girders outer
surfaces and to the exterior sides of the pier shafts.
There are two platforms one for the suspension bridge
and one for the approach spans.
Both platforms are self-operating and run on the upper
side of the bridge girder outside the crash barrier. The
platforms are equipped with hinge joints which enable
passage of piers and pylons without time-consuming
dismantling.
Access to exterior surfaces on pier shafts and pylons is
from self-hoisting platforms. These are suspended in
lines fixed to the pylon top or in a rail system below the
inspection platform in the approach span.

West Bridge
For inspecting the West Bridges girders and pier shafts
a multi-platform is employed which through the use of
in-built lifts and platforms provides access to all exterior
concrete surfaces from the road bridges southern edge
beam to the rail bridges northern edge beam. The platform is self-operating and suspended in rails mounted
between the two bridge girders at the road girders north
wall and the rail girders south wall.
Climbing
Climbing is an alternative to lifts and platforms for inspecting tall structures. This is undertaken with the help
of ropes and climbing equipment not unlike the equipment used for mountaineering. The advantage of the
climbing method is that the equipment is simple and
easy to transport and assemble. Likewise the equipment
can be quickly dismantled and moved to a better position should hazardous weather conditions etc. arise.
Garaging at the West Bridge
Inspection and maintenance work is usually carried out
between April and October to ensure that the tasks are
performed under favourable weather conditions. As a
result the inspection platforms are used only rarely
during the winter months.
To protect them against the elements the platforms
go into winter storage. In the case of the East Bridge
platforms they are covered with tarpaulin etc. while
important parts are dismantled and stored on land.
The West Bridges platform is housed in a garage located
between the bridge girders at the bridges abutment at
Sprog. For aesthetic reasons the garage is partially
embedded in the ramp surrounding the abutment.

40

T H E L I NK AC R OSS STOR E B LT SU N D & BLT

Traffic safety on the road


The motorway across Storeblt should be at least as
safe as Denmarks other motorways. Intensive monitoring of traffic and weather conditions on the bridge is
crucial for traffic safety. Monitoring takes place from
the previously named O-room at Halsskov where duty
personnel are able to keep motorists informed by
dynamic signs. They can also dispatch road patrols to assist on the bridge to protect and help remove stranded
vehicles from the emergency lane as quickly as possible.

Traffic accidents
In the event of traffic accidents a special emergency
service is called out together with the police. The alarm
is raised by calling 112 or by using the emergency telephones.

Dynamic signs have been erected on the motorway


sections leading to the bridge and on the bridge itself.
These keep motorists updated on conditions on the
bridge e.g. wind icy conditions and queues.

Road patrols
During their daily road patrols across the bridge the
operations contractor checks that the link is clean and in
good condition that signs other markings as well as
drainage are functioning as they should and any damage
on the facility is attended to.

Seven weather stations have been set up along the link


to gather information on wind conditions and warnings
about icy conditions.
In the event of particularly strong cross-winds over 15
m/sec A/S Storeblt recommends that high-sided vehicles wait in the specially reserved emergency parking
areas on each side of Storeblt until the wind has subsided. When wind speeds reach 25 m/sec the bridge is
closed to road traffic for safety reasons.
A/S Storeblts Drive Safely Across Storeblt is available (in Danish only) at www.storebaelt.dk/omstorebaelt/faerdsler. The leaflet offers good advice on safe
driving on the Storeblt link.

Should an accident close a carriageway for some time


emergency crew can with the consent of the police
redirect traffic to the opposite lane.

The road patrol can be called out at short notice to assist with any emergencies such as removing stray items
on the carriageway.

Traffic safety on the railway


The link is equipped with a large number of precautionary measures to ensure that traffic safety is second to
none.
CCTV cameras on the road section and on the rail link for
instance warn if a train has stopped in the tunnel or if
systems are malfunctioning.
Agreements with the emergency services are fully in
place along the entire Storeblt link. These are set out
in a separate emergency plan for the fixed link.

In the event of a serious accident the emergency services


arrive fast at the scene to begin their rescue and remedial
work. If necessary traffic is stopped to ensure that
emergency work is carried out safely.
The emergency services on the Storeblt link have vehicles
and special equipment at their disposal. In the event of
any incident in the tunnel a special rail-based vehicle
can be despatched from the equipment yard into the
tunnel.

42

T H E L I NK AC R OSS STOR E B LT SU N D & BLT

Navigation under the bridges


The fixed link across Storeblt is the most important
traffic link between East and West Denmark. Storeblt
is also the key transport route for shipping to and from
the Baltic Sea. In excess of 26000 ships pass under the
East Bridge every year.
Shipping in the Storeblt area is monitored from the
VTS centre at Korsr Naval Station. A/S Storeblt has
entered into an operations agreement with Admiral
Danish Fleet with regard to the operation and maintenance of the VTS system.
Vessel Traffic Service Storeblt abbreviated to VTSStoreblt is based on a radar system which monitors
shipping in Storeblt round-the-clock from 12 nautical
miles north to 12 nautical miles south of the bridge
alignment.
Monitoring helps shipping avoid collisions with the
bridges or other incidents that may endanger the bridge
or shipping.
Navigation under the East Bridge
The East Bridge extends over Storeblts Eastern channel an international waterway with depths of up to 60 m.
The East Bridge has a navigational clearance of 65 m.
To minimise the risk to shipping the East Bridges free
span was designed on the basis of extensive manoeuvre
simulations. At the same time pylons anchor blocks
and bridge piers closest to the passage span have been
designed so as to ensure that any collision will not seriously damage the bridge.

Navigation under the West Bridge


The Western Channel has a restricted navigational clearance of 18 m which limits it to vessels of a maximum of
1000 GRT.
The passage spans for north and south-going shipping
are marked with double leading lights and red/green
buoyage. In addition the passage spans have been
equipped with automatic fog detectors and foghorns.
As an additional safety measure a system that monitors
shipping in Storeblt has been set up. The system prevents large vessels from entering the Western Channel
instead of the Eastern Channel.

Asns
Kalundborg

Rut
eT
Roms
D

Enebjerg
C

T
te
Ru

Kerteminde

Odense

Slagelse
WEST BRIDGE

C
Sprog

Nyborg

Halsskov
E
EAST BRIDGE
Korsr
D

e
Rut

Knudshoved

T
Nstved
Agers

Hov

Om
B

F
Svendborg

Spodsbjerg

A Northern report boundary

C Radar station without camera

E VTS Centre

B Radar station with camera

D Camera

F Southern report boundary


Structure of the VTS system


The VTS system comprises:
Three radar stations at Enebjerg on Northern Funen
at Sprog and at Hov at the northernmost point of
Langeland as well as two radars on the East Bridges
pylons in quota +21
TV cameras placed at Roms Hov and on the West
Bridge
A VTS centre sited at Korsr naval base
All radar and sensors are linked to the VTS Centre
through a radio link which is independent of other data
networks.

Maribo

Risk analyses for the bridges show that with the VTS
system on the Storeblt link there is very little like
lihood of a ship colliding with the West Bridge.
The entire VTS system is based on preventing ship
collisions by raising an early alarm to road and rail traffic
if a vessel is on a collision course with one of the bridges.
According to instructions the alarm must sound at least
10 minutes before a potential collision with the West
Bridge.
A VHF radio and two radio direction finding antennae are
placed at each radar station. Infrared TV cameras on
Roms and Hov enable ships to be identified at night.

44

T H E L I NK AC R OSS STOR E B LT SU N D & BLT

Environment
Consideration for the environment was an integral part
of the construction work and played a crucial role in the
chosen alignment and in the design of the facility.
Political requirements meant that the construction
should not change the flow of salt water from the North
Sea to the Baltic. This so-called zero-solution was
achieved through extensive dredging of the sea bed.
All dredged material was recycled and incorporated into
the completed traffic facility.
During the construction works however the biological
effects in Storeblt were fairly extensive as regards
mussels and eider. A comprehensive environmental
monitoring programme during the construction work
helped to ensure that all environmental requirements
were complied with and that work was carried out with
all possible due care and attention for the surrounding
environment so that permanent impact was kept to a
minimum.
Ongoing investigations following the opening of the link
have demonstrated that flora and fauna have been
re-established in Storeblts marine environment.
The link
Although car traffic across Storeblt has trebled the
fixed link has resulted in energy gains for society.
To a great extent cars and trains have replaced energydemanding forms of transport such as planes and ferries
and some domestic flight and ferry routes have shut
down because of the link. Lower emissions of CO2 have
positively impacted on the environmental accounts.
Changes in traffic patterns across Storeblt have
resulted in substantial energy savings for transport

between Eastern and Western Denmark. In 2005 these


savings exceeded the energy consumed to build the
fixed link. The seven wind turbines at Sprog Wind Farm
contribute to reducing CO2 emissions in Denmark by
producing sustainable energy.
Sprog
Sprog is a unique natural area containing rare plants
animals and birds. Sprog and the surrounding waters
are designated as EU bird protection areas to protect
the eiders which forage in the reefs around Sprog and
the sandwich tern which breed on the island.
No fertiliser is used on Sprog and sheep and cattle are
put out to graze to keep vegetation and bushes under
control. This in turn promotes the development of
meadows and grass-covered areas which attract birds
and green toads.
Nature on Sprog is regularly monitored not just the
green toad but also plants birds butterflies beetles and
other insects. The information is actively used to create
the best possible conditions on the island which is subject to a conservation plan approved by Slagelse municipality.
Rest areas
In partnership with Slagelse municipality Sund & Blt
has established a recreational rest area south of the
motorway immediately east of the toll station in Halsskov.
As it has been proved that taking breaks during long
drives increase traffic safety the rest area functions as
a recreational facility for drivers. At the same time the
rest area also serves as a recreational facility for local
residents.

46

T H E L I NK AC R OSS STOR E B LT SU N D & BLT

The natural rest area contains lakes forests parking


facilities and an exhibition building which showcases the
construction of the Storeblt link. The area contains a
range of facilities and other attractions that encourage
activity and an enjoyment of nature.
Wind turbines
Sund & Blt has installed seven offshore wind turbines
north of Sprog with a combined effect of 21 MW. Power
from the turbines which is transmitted to the public grid
on Funen covers more than the combined electricity consumption for Sund & Blts operation and maintenance
of its own facilities.
The turbines were constructed in accordance with the
Danish Governments Climate Agreement from 2008 and
the Government and Parliaments energy policy going forward to 2025 under which 30 per cent of overall energy
consumption must derive from the production of sustainable energy. The wind turbines also comply with the EU
Parliaments resolution of December 2008 to reduce CO2
emissions in the whole of the EU by 20 per cent by 2020
compared to 1990 levels.
Noise abatement plans
In accordance with Noise Regulation no. 717 of 13 June
2006 A/S Storeblt has conducted a review of noise
conditions for Storeblts road and rail sections. The
result of the review and the subsequent action plans have
been subject to a public hearing.
As during the construction of the Storeblt link a number of noise barriers were established the outcome of
the review is that only a few homes are affected by noise
over and above the acceptable level.

In the short and long-term A/S Storeblts


most important plan for the road section is to
replace and maintain the wearing course with a
noise reducing type. Most recently a noise reducing wearing course was applied to the carriageway from exit 45 on Funen to the West
Bridge. Regular rail polishing has reduced the
noise from the railway.

SUND & BLT THE LIN K ACROSS STOREBLT

Working environment
The health and safety of the many individuals employed
on the link is a crucial part of its daily operations. The
size and design of the fixed link as well as the traffic that
drives across it require constant focus on the employees
and the contractors working environment. It should be
safe and secure to conduct inspection and maintenance
work on the motorway at the wind turbines on the structures on the railway and at the toll station so that the
facility maintains the high standard and accessibility
expected by customers.
It is obligatory for all employees working on the link to
attend one or more safety courses depending on their
responsibilities. Sund & Blt organises 40-50 different
safety courses per year with regard to access to the
facility. To maintain focus on a good working environment Sund & Blt is certified in accordance with DS/
OHSAS 18001 working environment standards. The certification means that twice a year Sund & Blt is measured on the standards of the working environment at
the facilities and in its administrative departments.
A number of safety regulations must be complied with
during working situations. Should an accident occur
however it is important that employees know exactly
what to do for help to reach them quickly.
Special measures have been introduced to protect employees during work on the motorway where the requirements for blocking off working areas have been drawn up
with the police.

In the Storeblt tunnel a special effort aimed at co-ordinating maintenance work on the railway is required. Such
work takes place at night and the work sites extend over
a considerable distance with several crews working in
one of the two 8 km long tunnel tubes. The railway is
monitored technically and in terms of communication in
the same way as the road structures and toll station to
ensure close contact between the workplace and the
surrounding area.
Maintenance on the Storeblt links road facility has
been moved from night to day in order for the work to
be visible to the bridges users and therefore increase
traffic safety and improve working conditions for the
maintenance personnel.

47

48

T H E L I NK AC R OSS STOR E B LT SU N D & BLT

Key facts
Road link
Opened on 14 June 1998
Length: approx. 23 km motorway with approx. 18 km
from coast-to-coast
Carriageways: 2 x 2 lanes each 3.5 m wide and
2 x 1 emergency lanes each 2.5 m wide.
Rail link
Opened on 1 June 1997
Approx. 26 km double track railway with approx. 18 km
from coast-to-coast
3 stations
Main volumes construction works:
118 km of rail were used for the track 52800 concrete
sleepers and 115000 tonnes granite ballast
Train speed on the section is 180 km per hour.
East Bridge
Motorway bridge
Built: 1991 - 1998
Length: 6790 m - of which 1624 m free span
Navigational clearance: 65 m
Main dimensions:
Length of free span: 1624 m
Span length in approach spans: 193 m
Pylon height: 254 m. Weight of pylon with ballast:
190000 tonnes
Weight of anchor block with ballast: 325000 tonnes
Diameter of suspension bridges main cables: 85 cm
Each main cable consists of 18648 wires
Main volumes construction works:
259000 m3 concrete and 44000 tonnes reinforcement
steel were used for the substructure i.e. 2 pylons
2 anchor blocks and 19 bridge piers
80000 tonnes structural steel and 20000 tonnes cable
steel were used for the superstructure i.e. bridge deck
and cables.
West Bridge
Motorway and rail bridge
Built: 1989 - 1994

Length: 6618 m
Navigational clearance: 18 m
Main dimensions:
62 caissons complete with concrete bridge piers
63 bridge spans in concrete with 51 spans at 110 m and
12 spans at 82 m
Each bridge span comprises one rail girder and one road
girder
Main quantities construction works:
540000 m3 concrete
102000 tonnes reinforcement steel
East Tunnel
Rail tunnel
Built: 1988-1996
2 tunnel tubes with one track in each
Length: 8067 m
Main dimensions:
Inner diameter of main tunnel: 7.7 m
Inner diameter of cross passage: 4.5 m
Maximum track depth below sea level: 75 m
Distance to sea bed above tunnel: between 10 m and 40 m
Cross passages: 31 of approx. 16 m length 250 m
between each cross passage
Main quantities construction works:
205000 m3 concrete
19000 tonnes reinforcement steel
900000 m3 bored and excavated material
Wind turbines
Start of feasibility studies: 1 July 2008
Construction permission: 29 December 2008
Foundations cables and turbines assembled on Sprog
from 10 August to 4 December 2009
Wind turbines are Vestas 3 MW
Hub height: 70 m
Length of blades: 45 m
Top concrete foundation: + 3.5 m
Foundation depth: 5-17 m
Placement: on a straight line parallel to the East Bridge
at a distance of 450 m and a minimum distance to
Sprogs north side of 650 m.

Height comparisons of bridges and towers in Denmark and abroad

The Eiffel Tower Paris

The Akashi

The Store-

The Golden

Big Ben

The Lean-

Esbjerg Power

The Lilleblt Copenhagen The Far The

The Round

300 m

Kaikyo Bridge

blt links

Gate Bridge

UK

ing Tower of

Station

Bridge

City Hall

Bridges

Aalborg

Tower

(plus 20 m antennae)

Japan

East Bridge

USA

103 m

Pisa Italy

250 m

118 m

106 m

96 m

Tower

Copen-

294 m

254 m

210 m

55 m

hagen

54.5 m

36 m

50

T H E L I NK AC R OSS STOR E B LT SU N D & BLT

The worlds largest bridges and tunnels


The most important function of any bridge or tunnel is to
overcome an obstacle. The structures are built to make
it easier to get from one place to another. Such a task
requires unique and complex solutions which is undoubtedly one of the reasons why engineers and architects the world over are attracted by the prestige of the
challenge.

The largest bridges:


1 Akashi Kaikyo

Japan

2 Xihoumen

China

1650 m 2009

Denmark

1624 m 1998

3 East Bridge
4 Runyang Bridge

China

1490 m 2005

5 Humber Bridge

UK

1410 m 1981

6 Jiangyin Bridge

China

1385 m 1999

Tsing Ma Bridge

Hong Kong

1377 m 1997

USA

1298 m 1964

USA

1280 m

8 Verrazano-Narrows

From a technical point of view the free bridge spans are


the most interesting. In other words the length of the
free span is a yardstick for how far bridge building has
progressed.
On a global scale the 1990s reached new heights as
regards the free span. Five of the worlds ten largest
bridge spans were constructed during the decade. The
longest is the almost 2 km long span of the Japanese
Akashi Kaikyo Bridge while the Danish East Bridge with
its 1.6 km free span comes third.
The worlds most famous bridge is undoubtedly the
American Golden Gate which has become the symbol
of San Francisco - not least because the bridge has
featured in so many American films.
The recipient of several international awards the Danish
East Bridge also belongs among the elite. One of its
special architectural features is its light yet supple
structure. The bridges two slim pylons and anchor
blocks where architects and engineers have succeeded
in combining form and function contribute to this
effect.

1991 m 1998

9 Golden Gate
10 Yangluo Bridge
11 Hga Kusten Bridge
12 Mackinac Bridge

1280 m 2007

Sweden

1210 m 1997

USA

13 Minami Bisan-Seto

1937

China

1158 m

1957

Japan

1100 m 1988

Turkey

1090 m 1988

14 Fatih Sultan Mehmet


(Second Bosporus Bridge)

15 Bogazici Bridge

(First Bosporus Bridge)

Turkey

16 George Washington Bridge

USA

1074 m

1973

1067 m 1931

17 Third Kurushima-Kaikyo Bridge

Japan

1030 m 1999

18 Second Kurushima-Kaikyo Bridge

Japan

1020 m 1999

19 Pointe 25 de Abril (Targus Bridge)

Portugal

1013 m 1966

20 Forth Road Bridge

Scotland

1006 m 1964

(*footnote: figures from 2010)

The longest tunnels:


1 Seikant Tunnel

Japan 53850 m 1988

2 Euro Tunnel

France/UK 50300 m 1994

3 Storeblt Tunnel

Denmark

8000 m 1997

4 North Sean Tunnel

Faroe Islands

6300 m 2006

5 Trans-Bay Tube Bart Tunnel

San Francisco

5700 m 1974

Denmark/Sweden

4000 m 2000

6 resund Tunnel

(*footnote: figures from 2010)

Akashi Kaikyo

Xihoumen Bridge

Seikan Tunnel

VIRONMEN

T
LAB

EL

NORD

IC

EN

AL

Sund & Blt Holding A/S


Vester Sgade 10
DK-1601 Copenhagen V
Tel. +45 33 93 52 00
Fax +45 33 93 10 25
www.sundogbaelt.dk/uk
CVR no. 15694688

541
395
Printed matter

The link across Storeblt


Published by Sund & Blt 2010
Design: Bysted A/S
Print: PrinfoHolbk