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Intze tank

MAIN PROJECT REPORT


ON

DESIGN AND ESTIMATION OF INTZE TANK

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the award of the


degree of Bachelor of Technology in Civil Engineering
By
M.LOKESH

09241A0175

K.NAGA RAJU

09241A0178

R.RAJASHEKAR

09241A0188

J.RAJEEV

09241A0190

Under the esteemed guidance of


G.V.V SATYA NARAYANA
(Associate professor of Civil Engineering Department)
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
GOKARAJU RANGARAJU INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND
TECHNOLOGY
(Affiliated to JNTU)

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ABSTRACT
Due to enormous need by the public, water has to be stored and supplied according
to their needs. Water demand is not constant throughout the day. It fluctuates hour
to hour. In order to supply constant amount of water, we need to store water. So to
meet the public water demand, water tank need to be constructed.
Storage reservo irs and overhead tanks are used to store water, liquid petroleum,
petroleum products and similar liquids. The force analysis o f the reservoirs or tanks
is about the same irrespect ive o f the chemical nature of the product. All tanks are
designed as crack free structures to eliminate any leakage.
This pro ject gives in brief, the theory behind the design of liquid retaining structure
(Elevated circular water tank wit h domed roof and conical base) using working
stress method. Elements are design in working stress method.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We would like to express our gratitude to all the people behind the screen who
helped us to transform an idea into a real applicat ion. We would like to express our
heart-felt grat itude to our parents wit hout whom we would not have been privileged
to achieve and fulfill our dreams. We are grateful to our principal
Dr.JandyalaN.Murthi who most ably run the inst itutio n and has had the major
hand in enabling us to do our project.
We pro foundly t hank Dr. G.Venkataramana, Head of the Depart ment of CIVIL
ENGINEERING who has been an excellent guide and also a great source o f
inspirat ion to our work.
We would like to thank our internal guide Sri. G.V.V.Satyanarayana Associate
Professor for his technical guidance, constant encouragement and support in
carrying out our project at college.
The sat isfact ion and euphoria that accompany the successful co mplet ion of t he task
would be great but incomplete wit hout the ment ion of the people who made it
possible wit h their constant guidance and encouragement crowns all t he efforts wit h
success. In this context, We would like thank all the other staff members, both
teaching and non-teaching, who have extended their t imely help and eased our task.

M.LOKESH

09241A0175

K.NAGA RAJU

09241A0178

R.RAJASHEKAR

09241A0188

J.RAJEEV

09241A0190

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INDEX
CONTENTS:

PAGE NO.

1 SYMBOLS

2 INTRODUCTION

2.1 SOURCE OF WATER


3 WATER DEMAND

6
7

3.1 WATER QUANTITY ESTIMATION

3.2 WATER CONSUMPTION RATE

3.3 FIRE FIGHTING DEMAND

3.4 FACTORS EFFECTING PER CAPITA DEMAND

3.5 FLUCTUATION IN RATE OF DEMAND

4 POPULATION FORECASTING

10

4.1 DESIGN PERIOD OF POPULATION

10

4.2 POPULATION FORECASTING METHODS

10

5 WATER TANKS
5.1 CLASSIFICATION OF WATER TANKS
6 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS OF CONCRETE
6.1 JOINTS IN LIQUID RETAINING STRUCTURES

11
11
12
12

6.1.1 MOVEMENT JOINTS

13

6.1.2 CONTRACTION JOINTS

14

6.1.3 TEMPORARY JOINTS

15

7 GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

16

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7.1 PLAIN CONCRETE STRUCTURES

16

7.2 PERMISSIBLE STRESSES IN CONCRETE

16

7.3 PERMISSIBLE STRESSES IN STEEL

16

7.4 STRESSES DUE TO DRYING SHRINKAGE OR


TEMPERATURE CHANGE

17

7.5 FLOORS

17

7.6 WALLS

19

7.7 ROOFS

20

7.8 MINIMUM REINFORCEMENT

21

7.9 MINIMUM COVER TO REINFORCEMENT

21

8 DOMES

22

9 MEMBERANE THEORY OF SHELLS OF REVOLUTION

23

10 WATER TANK WITH SPHERICAL DOME

25

11 DESIGN OF RCC DOME

26

12 OVER HEAD WATER TANK AND TOWERS

29

13 DESIGN

32

13.1 DETAILS OF DESIGN


14 ESTIMATION

32
53

14.1 DETAILED ESTIMATION

53

14.2 DATA SHEET

58

15 CONCLUSION

66

16 REFERENCES

67

17 REFERENCE BOOKS

69

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1. SYMBOLS
A = Total area o f sect ion
A b = Equivalent area of helical reinforcement.
A c = Equivalent area of sect ion
A h = Area of concrete core.
A m = Area of steel or iron core.
A sc = Area of lo ngitudinal reinforcement (comp.)
A st = Area of steel (tensile.)
A l = Area of longitudinal torsional reinforcement.
A sv = Total cross-sect ional are of st irrup legs or bent up bars wit hin distance Sv
A w =Area o f web reinforcement.
A = Area o f cross sect ion of one bars.
a = lever arm.
a c = Area of concrete.
B =flange width of T-beam.
b = width.
b r =widt h of rib.
C =co mpressive force.
c = compressive stress in co ncrete.
c= stress in concrete surrounding co mpressive steel.
D = depth
d = effect ive depth
d c = cover to compressive steel
d s = depth of slab
d t = cover to tensile steel

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e = eccentricit y.
d c /d = compressive steel depth factor
F =shear characterist ic force.
F d = design load
F r = radial shear force.
f= stress (in general)
f ck = characterist ic compressive stress o f concrete.
F y = characterist ic tensile strength of steel.
H = height.
I = mo ment of inertia.
I e =equivalent mo ment of intert ia.
j= lever arm factor.
K a =coefficient of act ive earth pressure.
K p =coefficient of passive earth pressure.
k = neutral axis depth factor (n/d).
L=length.
L d =devolopment length.
l = effect ive length of column or lengt h or bond length.
M = bending mo ment or moment.
Mr=mo ment of resistance or radial bending moment.
M t =torsional moment.
M u =ult imate bending moment
M =circumferent ial bending mo ment
m = modular rat io.
n = depth of neutral axis.

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n c =depth of crit ical neutral axis.
P a =act ive earth pressure.
P p = passive earth pressure.
P u = ult imate axial load on the member(limit state design).
P = percentage steel.
P= reinforcement ratio.
P a =act ive earth pressure indencit y.
P e =net upward soil pressure.
Q= shear resistance.
 = shear stress.
q=shear stress due to torsion
R= radius.
s= spacing of bars.
s a = average bond stress.
s b = local bond stress.
T=tensile force.
T u =ult imate torsional moment.
st or t= tensile stress in steel.
tc= compressive stress in co mpressive steel.
V u =ult imate shear force due or design load.
V u s =shear carried by shear reinforcement.
W= po int load.
X= coordinate.
x u = dept h of neutral axis.
Z= distance.

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= inclinat ion.
= surcharge angle.
= unit weight of so il
f = part ial safet y factor appropriate to the loading.
m = part ial safet y factor appropriate to the material.
c c = permissible stress in concrete.
c b c = permissible co mpressive stress in concrete due to bending.
sc = permissible compressive stress in bars.
st = permissible stress in steel in tensio n.
st = permissible tensile strss in shear reinfo rcement.
sy = yield point compressive stress in steel.
= co efficient of frict ion.

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2. INTRODUCTION
A water tank is used to store water to tide over the daily requirement. In the
construction of concrete structure for the storage of water and other liquids the
impervio usness of concrete is most essent ial .The permeabilit y o f any uniform and
thoroughly compacted concrete of given mix proportions is mainly dependent on
water cement rat io .The increase in water cement rat io result s in increase in t he
permeabilit y .The decrease in water cement rat io will t herefore be desirable to
decrease t he permeabilit y, but very much reduced water cement rat io may cause
compact ion difficult ies and prove to be harmful also. Design o f liquid retaining
structure has to be based on t he avo idance of cracking in the co ncrete having regard
to its tensile strength.Cracks can be prevented by avo iding t he use of thick t imber
shuttering which prevent the easy escape of heat of hydrat ion fro m the co ncrete
mass the risk of cracking can also be minimized by reducing the restraints onfree
expansio n or contraction of the structure.

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1. Objective:
1. To make a study about the analysis and design o f water tanks.
2. To make a study about the guidelines for the design o f liquid retaining Structure
according to is code.
3. To know about the design philosophy for the safe and eco no mical design o f water
tank.
4. To develop programs for the design o f water tank of flexible base and rigid base
and the under ground tank to avo id the tedious calculat io ns.
5. In the end, the programs are validated with the results o f manual calculat io n
given in concrete Structure.

2.1 Sources of water supply :


The various sources of water can be classified into two categories:
Surface sources, such as
1. Ponds and lakes,
2. Streams and rivers,
3. Storage reservoirs, and
4. Oceans, generally not used for water supplies, at present.
Sub-surface sources or underground sources, such as
1. Springs,
2. Infiltrat ion wells, and
3. Wells and Tube-wells.

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3. WATER DEMAND
3.1 Water Quantity Estimation: The quantit y o f water required for municipal uses
for which the water supply scheme hasto be designed requires fo llowing data:Water
consumpt ion rate (Per Capita Demand in litres per day per head)Populat io n to be
served.
Quant it y= Per demand x Populat ion
3.2 Water Consumption Rate: It is very difficult to precisely assess the quant it y
of water demanded by t he public, sincethere are many variable factors affect ing
water consumpt ion. The various t ypes o f waterdemands, which a cit y may have,
may be broken into fo llowing class

Water Consumption for Various Purposes:


Types of Co nsumpt io n
1

Domest ic Consumpt ion

Industrial and
Co mmercial Demand
Public including Fire
Demand Uses
Losses and Waste

3
4

Normal Range
(lit/capita/day)
65-300

Average

160

35

45-450

135

30

20-90

45

10

45-150

62

25

3.3 Fire Fighting Demand :The per capita fire demand is very less on an
average basis but the rate at which the wateris required is very large. The rate of
fire demand is somet imes treated as a function o fpopulat ion and is worked out fro m
following empirical formulae:
Authorit y
1
2
3
4

American
InsuranceAssociat ion
Kuchling'sFormula
Freeman'sFormula
Ministry
ofUrbanDevelopmentManual
Formula

Formula (P in
thousand)
Q(L/min)=4637P(1-0.01
P)
Q(L/min)=3182 P
Q(L/min)=1136.5(P/5+10)
Q(kilo liters/d)=100P for
P>50000

Q for 1 lakh
Populat ion)
41760
31800
35050
31623

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3.4 Factors affecting per capita demand:
Size of the city: Per capita demand for big cit ies is generally large as compared
tothat for smaller towns as big cit ies have sewered houses.
Presence of industries.
Climatic conditions.
Habits of economic status.
Quality of water: If water is aesthet ically $ people and their
. Medically safe, the co nsumpt io n will increase as people will not resort to
privatewells, etc.
Pressure in the distribution system.
Efficiency of water works administration: Leaks in water mains and
services;and un aut horised use of water can be kept to a minimum by surveys.
Cost of water.
Policy of metering and charging method: Water tax is charged in two
different ways on the basis o f meter reading and o n the basis of certain fixed
mo nthly rate.

3.5 Fluctuations in Rate of Demand:


Average Daily Per Capita Demand
= Quant it y Required in 12 Months/ (365 x Populat ion)
If this average demand is supplied at all the times, it will not be sufficient to meet
thefluctuations.
Seasonal variation:The demand peaks during summer.Firebreak outs are generally
more in summer, increasing demand. So,there is seasonal variat io n
. Daily variation depends on the act ivit y. People draw out more water on
Sundaysand Fest ival days, thus increasing demand on these days.
Hourly variations are very important as they have a wide range. During
act ivehouseho ld working hours i.e. from six to ten in the morning and four to eight
int he evening, the bulk o f the daily requirement is taken. During other hours
therequirement is negligible. Moreover, if a fire breaks out, a huge quant it y o f

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wateris required to be supplied during short duration, necessitat ing the need for
amaximum rate of hourly supply.So, an adequate quant it y of water must be
available to meet the peak demand. To meet allt he fluctuatio ns, the supply pipes,
service reservoirs and distribut ion pipes must beproperly proportioned. The water is
supplied by pumping direct ly and the pumps anddistribut ion system must be
designed to meet the peak demand. The effect of mo nt hlyvariat io n influences t he
design o f storage reservo irs and the hourly variat io ns influencesthe design of pumps
and service reservoirs. As the populat ion decreases, the fluctuationrate increases.
Maximum daily demand = 1.8 x average daily demand
Maximum hourly demand of maximum day i.e. Peak demand
= 1.5 x average hourly demand
= 1.5 x Maximum daily demand/24
= 1.5 x (1.8 x average daily demand)/24
= 2.7 x average daily demand/24
= 2.7 x annual average hourly demand

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4. POPULATION FORECAST

4.1 Design Periods & Population Forecast:


This quant it y should be worked out with due provision for the est imated
requirements ofthe future. The future period for which a provisio n is made in the
water supply scheme isknown as the design period.
Design period is est imated based on the following:
Useful life of the component , considering obsolescence, wear, tear, etc.
Expandabilit y aspect.
Ant icipated rate of growth of populat io n, including industrial, co mmercial
developments& migrat ion-immigrat ion.
Available resources.
Performance of the system during init ial period.

4.2 Population Forecasting Methods:


The various methods adopted for estimat ing future populat ions are given below.
Theparticular method to be adopted for a particular case or for a particular cit y
dependslargely on the factors discussed in the met hods, and the select io n is left to
the discrect ionand intelligence of the designer.
1. Incremental Increase Method
2. Decreasing Rate of Growth Method
3. Simple Graphical Method
4. Comparat ive Graphical Method
5. Ratio Method
6. Logist ic Curve Method
7. Arit hmet ic Increase Method
8. Geometric Increase Method

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5. WATER TANKS

5.1 CLASSIFICATIONS:
Classificat ion based on under three heads:
1. Tanks rest ing on ground
2. Elevated tanks supported on stagging
3. Underground tanks.
Classificat ion based on shapes
1. Circular tanks
2. Rectangular tanks
3. Spherical tanks
4. Intze tanks
5. Circular tanks wit h conical bottom

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6. DESIGN REQUIREMENT OF CONCRETE (I. S. I)


In water retaining structure a dense impermeable concrete
is requiredtherefore,proportion of fine and course aggregates to cement should
besuch as to give highqualit yconcrete.Concrete mix lesser than M 2 0 is not used. The
minimum quant it y ofcement in t he co ncrete mix shall be not less than 30 kN/m 3 .The
design of the concretemix shall be such that the result ant concrete issu efficient ly
impervio us. Efficientcompact ion preferably by vibrat ion is essent ial. The
permeabilit y o f the thoroughlyco mpacted concrete is dependent on water cement
ratio. Increase in water cement ratio increases permeabilit y, while co ncrete wit h low
water cement ratio is difficult to compact.Other causes o f leakage in concrete are
defects such as segregat ion and honey combing.All jo int s should be made watertight as these are potent ial sources of leakage. Design o fliquid retaining structure is
different from ordinary R.C.C. structures as it requires thatconcrete should not
crack and hence tensile stresses in concrete should be wit hinpermissible limits. A
reinforced concrete member o f liquid retaining structure is designedon the usual
principles ignoring tensile resistance of concrete in bending. Addit ionally itshould
be ensured t hat tensile stress on t he liquid retaining ace of the equivalent
concretesect ion does not exceed the permissible tensile strength o f concrete as
given in table 1. For calculat ion purposes the cover is also taken into concrete area.
Cracking may be caused due to restraint to shrinkage, expansio n and contract ion o f
concrete due to temperature or shrinkage and swelling due to moisture effects.
Such restraint may be caused by .
(i) The interact ion between reinforcement and concrete during shrinkage due to
drying.
(ii) The boundary condit ions.
(iii) The different ial condit ions prevailing through the large thickness of massive
concrete Use of small size bars placed properly, leads to closer cracks but o f
smaller width. The risk of cracking due to temperature and shrinkage effects may
be minimized by limit ing the changes in moisture content and temperature to which
the structure as a whole is subjected. The risk of cracking can also be minimized b y
reducing the restraint on the free expansio n of the structure with long walls or slab
founded at or below ground level, restraint can be minimized by t he provisio n o f a
sliding layer. This can be provided by founding the structure on a flat layer
ofconcrete with interposit ion o f so me material to break the bond and facilit ate
mo vement.Incaselength o f structure is large it should be subdivided into suitable
lengths separated by movement jo ints, especially where sect ions are changed the

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mo vement jo ints should be provided.Where structures have to store hot liquids,
stresses caused by difference in temperature between insideand outside of the
reservo ir should be taken into account.The coefficient of expansio n due to
temperature change is taken as 11 x 10 -6 / C and coefficient of shrinkage may be
taken as 450 x 10 -6 for init ial shrinkage and 200 x 10 -6 for drying shrinkage.

6.1 JOINTS IN LIQUID RETAINING STRUCTURES:


6.1.1 MOVEMENT JOINTS. There are three types o f mo vement joints.
(i)Contraction Joint. It is a movement jo int wit h deliberate discont inuit y wit hout
init ial gap between the concrete on eit her side o f the jo int. The purpose o f this jo int
is to accommodate contraction of the concrete. The joint is shown in Fig. (a)

Fig (a)
A contraction jo int may be eit her complete contraction joint or partial contractio n
joint. A complete contraction jo int is one in which both steel and concrete
areinterrupted and a part ial contract ion jo int is one in which only the concrete is
interrupted, the reinforcing steel running through as shown in Fig.(b)

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Fig (b)
(ii)Expansion Joint. It is a jo int wit h complete discont inuit y in both reinforcing
steel and concrete and it is to accommodate eit her expansion or contractio n o f the
structure. A typical expansion joint is shown in Fig.(c)

Fig(c)
This t ype of joint is provided between wall and floor in some cylindrical tank
designs.

6.1.2 CONTRACTION JOINTS:


This t ype o f joint is provided for convenience in construct ion. This t ype of joint
requires the provisio n of an init ial gap between thead jo ining parts of a structure
which by closing or opening acco mmo dates the expansion or contraction o f the
structure.

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Fig (d)
(iii) Sliding Joint. It is a jo int wit h complete discont inuit y in both reinforcement
and concrete and wit h special provisio n to facilitate movement in plane o f the jo int.
A t ypical joint is shown in Fig. This t ype of jo int is provided between wall and
floor in some cylindrical tank designs.

Fig (e)

6.1.3 TEMPORARY JOINTS:


A gap is somet imes left temporarily between the concrete o f adjo ining parts of a
structurewhich after a suitable interval and before the structure is put to use, is
filled wit h mortaror concrete co mpletely with suitable joint ing materials. In t he
first case width of the gap should be sufficient to allow the sidesto be prepared
before filling.Figure (g)

Fig (g)

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7. GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS (I.S.I)


7.1 Plain Concrete Structures:
Plain concrete member of reinforced concrete liquid retaining structure may be
designed against structural failure by allowing tensio n in plain concrete as per the
permissible limit s for tension in bending. This will automat ically take care o f
failure due to cracking. However, no minal reinforcement shall be provided, for
plain concrete structural members.

7.2. Permissible Stresses in Concrete:


(a) For resistance to cracking: For calculat ions relat ing to the resistance o f
members to cracking, the permissible stresses in tensio n (direct and due to bending)
and shear shall confirm to the values specified in Table 1.The permissible tensile
stresses due to bending apply to the face of the member in contact with the liquid.
In members less than 225mm thick and in contact with liquid o n one side t hese
permissible stresses in bending apply also to the face remote fro m the liquid.
(b) For strength calculations: In strength calculat io ns the permissible concrete
stresses shall be in accordance wit h Table 1. Where the calculated shear stress in
concrete alone exceeds the permissible value, reinforcement act ing in conjunct ion
with diagonal compression in the concrete shall be provided to take the who le o f the
shear.

7.3 Permissible Stresses in Steel:


(a) For resistance to cracking. When steel and concrete are assumed to act
together for checking the tensile stress in concrete for avo idance o f crack, the
tensile stress in steel will be limited by the requirement that the permissible tensile
stress in the concrete is not exceeded so the tensile stress in steel shall be equal to
the product of modular rat io of steel and concrete, and the corresponding allowable
tensile stress in concrete.
(b) For strength calculations:
In strengt h calculat ions the permissible stress shall be as fo llows:
a) Tensile stress in member in direct tensio n 1000 kg/cm 2 .

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b) Tensile stress in member in bending on liquid retaining face o f members or face
away from liquid for members less than 225mm thick 1000 kg/cm2 .
c) On face away from liquid for members 225mm or more in thickness 1250 kg/cm 2 .
d) Tensile stress in shear reinforcement For members less than 225mm thickness
1000 kg/cm2 for members 225mm or more in thickness 1250 kg/cm 2 .
(v)Compressive stress in columns subjected to direct load 1250 kg/cm2 .

7.4 Stresses due to drying Shrinkage or Temperature Change :


(i)Stresses due to drying shrinkage or temperature change may be ignored provided
that .
(a) The permissible stresses specified above in (ii) and (iii) are not otherwise
exceeded.
(b) Adequate precaut io ns are taken to avo id cracking o f concrete during the
construction period and unt il t he reservoir is put into use.
(c) Reco mmendat ion regarding jo int s given in art icle 8.3 and for suitable sliding
layer beneath the reservo ir are complied wit h, or the reservoir is to be used only fo r
the storageof water or aqueous liquids at or near ambient temperature and the
circumstances aresuch that the concrete will never dry out.
(ii)Shrinkage stresses may however be required to be calculated in special cases,
when ashrinkage co-efficient of 300 10 may be assumed.
(iii) When the shrinkage stresses are allowed, the permissible stresses,tensile
stresses to concrete (direct and bending) as given in Table 1 may be increased by
33.33 per cent.

7.5 Floors:
(i) Provision of movement joints.
Movement joints should be provided as discussed in art icle 3.
(ii) Floors of tanks resting on ground.
If the tank is rest ing direct ly o ver ground, floor may be constructed of concrete
with nominal percentage of reinforcement provided that it is certain t hat the ground
will carry the load wit hout appreciable subsidence in any part and that the concrete
floor is cast inpanels wit h sides not more than 4.5m.wit h contract ion or expansio n
joint s between. Insuch cases a screed or concrete layer less than 75mm thick shall

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first be placed on theground and covered with a sliding layer of bitumen paper or
other suit able material todestroy the bond between the screed and floor concrete. In
normal circumstances the screed layer shall be of grade not weaker than M 1 0 ,where
injurious soils or aggressivewater are expected, the screed layer shall be of grade
not weaker than M 1 5 and if necessary a sulphate resist ing or other special cement
should be used.
(iii) Floor of tanks resting on supports
(a) If the tank is supported on walls or other similar supports the floor slab shall
bedesigned as floor in buildings for bending mo ments due to water load and self
weight.
(b)When the floor is rigidly connected to the walls (as is generally t he case) the
bending mo ments at the junct io n between the walls and floors shall be taken into
account in the design o f floor to gether wit h any direct forces transferred to the
floor from the walls orfrom the floor to the wall due to suspensio n of the floor fro m
the wall.If t he walls are non-mono lit hic wit h the floor slab, such as in cases, where
mo vement joints have been provided between the floor slabs and walls, the floor
shall be designed only for the vert ical loads on the floor.
(c) In cont inuous T-beams and L-beams with ribs on the side remote fro m the
liquid, t he tension in concrete on the liquid side at the face o f the supports shall not
exceed the permissible stresses for controlling cracks in co ncrete. The widt h o f the
slab shall be determined in usual manner for calculat io n of the resistance to
cracking of T-beam, L beam sect ions at supports.
(d)The floor slab may be suit ably t ied to the walls by rods properly embedded in
both the slab and the walls. In such cases no separate beam (curved or straight) is
necessary under the wall, provided the wall of the tank it self is designed to act as a
beam over the supports under it.
(e)Somet imes it may be econo mical to provide the floors of circular tanks,in the
shape of dome. In such cases the dome shall be designed for the vert ical loads o fthe
liquid over it and the rat io of it s rise to its diameter shall be so adjusted that the
stresses in the do me are, as far as possible, who lly compressive. The do me shall be
supported at its bottom o n the ring beam which shall be designed for resultan
tcircumferent ial tension in addit ion to vertical lo ads.

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7.6 Walls:
(i)Provision of joints
(a)Where it is desired to allow the walls to expand or contract separately fro m the
floor, or to prevent moments at the base of t he wall owing to fixit y to the floor,
sliding joints may be employed.
(b)The spacing of vert ical movement jo ints should be as discussed in article 3.3
while the majorit y of these joint s may be of the part ial or complete contractio n
type, sufficient jo ints of the expansio n type should be provided to sat isfy the
requirements given in art icle
(ii) Pressure on Walls.
(a) In liquid retaining structures with fixed or float ing covers the gas pressure
developed above liquid surface shall be added to the liquid pressure.
(b)When the wall of liquid retaining structure is built in ground, or has earth
embanked against it, the effect of earth pressure shall be taken into account.
(iii) Walls or Tanks Rectangular or Polygonal in Plan.
While designing the walls of rectangular or po lygonal concrete tanks, the follo wing
points should be borne in mind.
(a) In plane walls, the liquid pressure is resisted by both vert ical and horizontal
bendingmoments. An est imate should be made o f t he proportio n o f the pressure
resisted by bending moments in the vertical and horizontal planes. The direct
horizontal tension caused by the direct pull due to water pressure on the end walls,
should be added to that result ing from horizontal bending mo ments. On liquid
retaining faces, t he tensile stressesdue to the combinat ion o f direct horizo ntal
tensio n and bending act ion shall sat isfy the following condit io n:
(t./t )+ ( c t . /ct ) 1
t. = calculated direct tensile stress in co ncrete
t = permissible direct tensile stress in concrete (Table 1)
c t = calculated tensile stress due to bending in concrete.
c t = permissible tensile stress due to bending in concrete.
(d)At the vert ical edges where the walls of a reservo ir are rigidly joined, horizontal
reinforcement and haunch bars should be provided to resist the horizontal bending

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mo ments even if the walls are designed to wit hstand the who le load as vert ical
beams or cant ilever wit hout lateral supports.
(c) In the case of rectangular or polygonal tanks, the side walls act as two way
slabs,where by the wall is cont inued or restrained in the horizontal direct ion, fixed
or hinged atthe bottom and hinged or free at the top. The walls thus act as t hin
plates subjected triangular loading and wit h boundary condit io ns varying between
full restraint and freeedge. The analysis of mo ment and forces may be made on the
basis o f any recognizedmet hod.
(iv) Walls of Cylindrical Tanks.
While designing walls of cylindrical tanks the following po ints should be borne in
mind:
(a)Walls of cylindrical tanks are eit her cast mo no lit hically wit h the base or are set
in grooves and key ways (mo vement jo ints). In either case deformat io n of wall
under influence o f liquid pressure is restricted at and above the base. Consequent ly,
only part ofthe triangular hydrostatic load will be carried by ring tension and part of
the load at bottom will be supported by cantilever act ion.
(b)It is difficult to restrict rotation or settlement of the base slab and it is advisable
toprovide vertical reinforcement as if the walls were fully fixed at the base, in
addit io n to the reinforcement required to resist horizontal ring tensio n for hinged at
base, condit ions of walls, unless the appropriate amount of fixit y at the base is
established by analysis wit h due consideration to the dimensions of the base slab
the t ype of joint between the wall and slab, and , where applicable, the t ype o f soil
supporting the base slab.

7.7 Roofs;
(i) Provision of Movement joints:
To avoid the possibilit y o f sympathet ic cracking it is important to ensure that
mo vement joints in the roof correspond wit h those in the walls, if roof and walls are
mo no lit hic. It, however, provisio n is made by means o f a sliding jo int for movement
between the roof and the wall correspondence of jo int s is not so important.
(ii) Loading:
Field covers of liquid retaining structures should be designed for gravit y loads,
such ast he weight of roof slab, earth cover if any, live lo ads and mechanical
equipment. They should also be designed for upward load if the liquid retaining
structure is subjected to internal gas pressure. A superficial lo ad sufficient to

Intze tank
ensure safet y wit h the unequalint ensit y o f loading which occurs during the placing
of the earth cover should be allowedfor in designing roo fs. The engineer should
specify a lo ading under these temporaryco ndit ions which should not be exceeded. In
designing the roof, allowance should bemade for the temporary condit io n of so me
spans loaded and other spans unlo aded, event hough in t he final state the load may
be small and evenly distributed.
(iii) Water tightness: In case o f tanks intended for the storage of water for
domest ic purpose, the roof must be made water-tight. This may be achieved by
limit ing the stresses as for the rest of the tank, or by the use o f the covering o f the
water proof membrane or by providing slopes to ensure adequate drainage.
(iv) Protection against corrosion: Protection measure shall be provided to the
underside of the roof to prevent it from corrosion due to condensat ion.

7.8 Minimum Reinforcement:


(a)The minimum reinforcement in walls, floors and roofs in each o f two direct ions
atright angles shall have an area o f 0.3 per cent of the concrete sect ion in that
direct ion for sect ions up to 100mm, thickness. For sect io ns o f thickness greater than
100mm, and lessthan 450mm the minimum reinforcement in each o f the two
direct ions shall be linearly reduced from 0.3 percent for 100mm thick sect ion to 0.2
percent for 450mm, thicksect ions. For sections o f thickness greater than 450mm,
minimum reinforcement in eachof the two direct ions shall be kept at 0.2 per cent. In
concrete sect ions of thickness225mm or greater, two layers of reinforcement steel
shall be placed one near each faceo f the sect ion to make up the minimum
reinforcement.
(b)In special circumstances floor slabs may be co nstructed with percentage o f
reinforcement less than specified above. In no case the percentage of reinforcement
inany member be less than 0.15% of gross sect ional area of the member.

7.9 Minimum Cover to Reinforcement:


(a)For liquid faces of parts of members either in contact wit h the liquid (such as
innerfaces or roof slab) the minimum cover to all reinforcement should be 25mm or
the diameter of the main bar whichever is grater. In the presence of the sea water
and so il sand water of corrosive characters the cover should be increased by 12mm
but thisaddit ional cover shall not be taken into account for design calculat io ns.
(b)For faces away fro m liquid and for parts of the structure neit her in contact wit h
theliquid on any face, nor enclosing the space above the liquid, the cover shall be as
forordinary concrete member.

Intze tank

8. DOMES
A do me may be defined as a thin shell generated by the revo lut io n of a regular
curve about one o f it s axes. The shape o f t he dome depends on t he t ype o f the curve
and the direct ion of the axis of revolut ion. In spherical and conoidal do mes, surface
is described by revo lving an arc of a circle. The centre of the circle may be o n the
axis o f rotation (spherical dome) or outside the axis (cono idal dome). Both types
may or may not have assymmetrical lantern opening through the top. The edge o f
the shell around it s base isusually provided with edge member cast integrally wit h
the shell.
Domes are used in variet y of structures, as in the roof of circular areas, in circular
tanks, in hangers, exhibit ion halls, auditoriums, planetorium and bottom o f tanks,
bins andbunkers. Domes may be constructed of masonry, steel, t imber and
reinforced concrete.However, reinforced domes are more co mmo n nowadays since
they can be constructed over large spans membrane theory for analysis o f shells o f
revo lut ion can be developed neglect ing effectof bending moment, twist ing mo ment
and shear and assuming that the loads are carriedwho lly by axial stresses. This
however applies at points of shell which are remo ved so medistance away fro m the
discont inuous edge. At the edges, the result s thus obtained maybe indicated but are
not accurate.

The edge member and the adjacent hoop of the shells must have very nearly the
same strain when they are cast integrally. The significance of this fact is usually
ignored and the forces thus computed are, therefore, subject to certain
modificat ions.Stresses in shells are usually kept fairly low, as effect of the edge
disturbance, as ment iioned
above is usually neglected. The shell must be thick
enough to allow space and protection for two layers o f reinforcement. Fro m t his
point of view 80 mm is considered as the minimum thickness o f shell.

Intze tank

9. MEMBRANE THEORY OF SHELLS OF


REVOLUTION
Fig shows a t ypical shell o f revolut ion, on which equilibrium of an element,
obtained by intersect ion o f meridian and lat itude, is ind icated. Forces alo ng t he
circumference are denotted by Nf and are called meridian stresses and forces at
right angles to the meridian plane and alo ng the lat itude are horizo ntal and called
the hoop stresses, denoted by N .Neglect ing variat io ns in the magnitudes o f Nf and
N , since they are very small.the state of stress in the element is shown in fig (b).

Shell o f Revo lut ion.

Intze tank
two forces N (rd ) have the result ant N (rd )d as shown in Fig.(c) and the
resultant acts normal to the surface po inted towards the inner side. Forces N (r1d )
again have horizontal resultant of magnit ude N (r1 d ) d as shown in Fig (d). It
has a compo nent N (r1d )d sin directed normally to the shell and point ing
towards the inner side. These two forces and the external force normal to the
surface and a magnitude Pr(rd ) must bein equilibrium.
Thus,Nf (rd)df++N (r1df)dsinf+Pr(rd)(r1d )= 0
Combining and as r = r2 sinf from Fig. ((a)
N f /r1+N/r 2 = -Pr = pressure normal to the surface In this equat ion pr is considered
posit ive when act ing towards the inner side and negat ive when act ing towards the
outerside of the shell.Value
s and N f and N will be posit ive when tensile andnegat ive co mpressive.
The equat ion is valid not only for shells in thform o f a surface of revo lut ion, but
may be apped to allshells, when the coordinate lines for = constant and =
constant, are the linesof curvature of the surface.
Forces in shell Force N f act tangent ially to the surface aall around the
circumference. Co nsidering thequilibrium of a segment of shell cut alo ng the
parallel to lat itude defined by the angle as shown in Fig
2prN f sin f + W= 0,
Where W= total load in the vert ical dirct ion on the surface o f the shell abo ve t he
cut.
This gives,
N f = -W/2prsinf
Eq. is readily so lved for N f and N may then be detrminedby Eq. This theory is
applicable to a shell of any material as only t he condit iio ns o f equilibrium have
been applied and no compat ibilit y relat io nsships in terms o f deformat ion have been
introduced. It is, therefore, immaterial whetherr Hooke's law is applicable or not.

Intze tank

10. WATER TANK WITH SPHERICAL BOTTOM


Referring to the tank in Fig.(a),supported alo ng the circumference as shown,the
magnitude of Na may be obtained fro m considerat ion o f equilibriu m. If it is
required to obtain Na at sect ion 1 - 1 fro m calculat ion o f the total downward lo ad,
there are two possibilit ies. The downward load may be taken to be the weight of
water and tank of the annular part i.e. W1 shown in Fig.(b)

Fig (a)

Fig (b)

Fig. Water tank with spherical bottom.


Alt errnat ively, the downward load may be calculated from the weight o f water and
tank bottom of t he part i.e W 2 less upward react ion o f the support as shown in Fig.
For sect ion which cuts the tank bottom inside the support, the react ion has to be
considered wit h the weight of water and tank of t he annular part. Simillar is t he
case wit h Intze reservo ir as in Fig. (a), which combines a truncated dome wit h a
spherical segment. Pattern of the two forces Nf1 and Nf 2 at point A are shown in Fig
(b). To eliminate horizo ntal forces on the supporting ring girder, it is necessary that
Nf1 cos a 1 = Nf2 cos a 2 .

Intze tank

11. DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE DOMES


The requirements of thickness of dome and reinforcement from the po int of view o f
induced stresses are usually very small. However, a minimum o f 80 mm is provided
so as to accommodate two layers of steel with adequate cover. Similarly a minimu
m of steel provided is 0.15% of the sectio nal area in each direct io n alo ng the
meridians as well as along the lat itudes. This reinforcement will be in addit ion to
the requirements for hoop tensile stresses.
The reinforcement is provided in t he middle of the thickness o f the do me shell Near
the edges usually so me ring beam is provided for taking the horizontal co mpo nent
of the meridian stress. Some bending mo ment develops in the shell near the edges.
As shown in Fig. it is normal to thicken the shell near the edges and provide
increased curvature. Reinforcements near the top as well as near the bottom face o f
the shell are also provided. The size o f the ring beam is obtained on basis o f the
hoop tensio n developed in the ring due to the horizontal component o f the meridian
stress. The concrete area is obtained so that the result ing tensile stress when
concrete alone is considered does not exceed 1.1N/mm 2 to 1.70 N/mm 2 for direct
tensio n and 1.5 N/mm 2 to 2.40 N/mm 2 for tension due to bending in liquid resist ing
structure depending on the grade o f concrete.
Reinforcement for the hoop stress is also provided wit h the allowable stress in steel
as 115 N/mm2 (or 150N/mm 2 ) in case of liquid retaining structures and 140 N/mm 2
(or190 N/ mm 2 ) in other cases. The ring should be provided so that the central line
of the shell passes through the centroid of the ring beam. Reinforcement has to be
provided in both the direct ions. If the reinforcement alo ng the meridians is
cont inued upto the crown, there will be congest ion of steel there. Hence, fro m
pract ical considerat ions, the reinforcement along the meridian is stopped below the
crown and a separate mesh, as shown in Fig (a), is provided. Alternat ively, the
arrangement of the bars may be made as shown in plan in Fig (b)
In case of domes wit h lantern opening with concentrated load act ing there, ring
beam has to be provided at the periphery of the opening. The edge beam there will,
however, be subjected to hoop compressio n in place of hoop tension.
Openings may be provided in the do me as required from other funct ional or
architectural requirements. However, reinforcement has to be provided all around
theopening as shown in Fig. (c). The meridian and hoop reinforcement reaching the
opening should be well anchored to such reinforcement.

Intze tank

The allowable stresss specified in IS 3370 for such tanks are as fo llows:
Type o f stresses: Permissible stress in N/mm 2 High yield strengt h Plain bars
confirming to deformed bars as per Grade-I of IS 432-1966. IS 1786-1966 or is
1139-1966. Tensile stress in members under no table o f contents entries found
direct load.
Direct tensile stress in concrete a may be taken as 1.1 N/mm 2 , 1.2. N/mm 2 ,1.32
N/mm 2 , 1.5 N/mm 2 , 1.6N/mm 2 and 1.7 N/mm 2 for M 1 5 , M 2 0 , MM 2 5 , M 3 0 , M 3 5 and
M4 0
respect ively,
the
value
in
tension
due
to
bending
2
2
2
2
2
i.e.,being1.5N/mm ,1.7N/mm ,1.82N/mm ,2.0 N/mm ,2.2 N/mm and 2.4 N/mm 2 .
When steel and concrete are assumed to act together for checking thetensile stress
in concrete for avoidance of cracks, the tensile streess in the steel will be limited b y
the requirements that the stress as ment ioned above should not be exceeded. The

Intze tank
tensill stress in steel will be modular ratio mult iplied by the corresponding
allo wable tensile stress in concrete.
Stresses due to shrinkage or temperature change may be ignored if the permissible
stresses in concrete and steel are not exceeded and adequate precaut ions are taken
to avoid cracking of concrete during construction period, unt il t he reservo ir is put
into use and if it is assured that the concrete will never dry out. If it is required to
calculate shrinkage stresses, a shrinkage strain o f 30010 -6 may be assumed.
When shrinkage

stresses are co nsidered,

the permissible

stresses

may

be

increasedby 33 %.

When shrinkage stresses are considered it is necessary to check the thickness for no
crack.
Minimum reinforcement of each of two directions at right angles shall have an areo f
0.3% for 100 mm thick concrete to 0.2% for 450 mm thick concrete wall. In floor
slabs, minimum reinforcement to be provided is 0.15%. The minimu m
reinforcement as specified above may be decreased by 20%), if high strength
deformed bars are used.
Minimum cover to reinforcement on the liquid face is 25 mm or diameter of the bar,
whichever is larger and should be increased by 12 mm for tanks for sea water or
liquid o f corrosive character.

Intze tank

12. OVERHEAD WATER TANKS AND TOWERS


Overhead water tanks of various shapes can be used as service reservo irs, as a
balancing tank in water supply schemes and for replenishing the tanks for various
purposes. Reinforced concrete water towers have dist inct advantages as they are not
affected by climat ic changes, are leak proof, provide greater rigidit y and are
adoptable for all shapes.
Components o f a water tower consists of(a) Tank portion wit h
(1) Roof and roof beams (if any)

(2) sidewalls

(3) Floor or bottom slab

(4) floor beams, including circular girder

(b)Staging portion, consist ing of


(5) Columns

(6) Bracings and

(7)Foundat ions

Types of water Tanks may be


(a) Square open or wit h cover at top
(b) Rectangular open or with cover at top
(c) Circular open or with cover at which may be flat or domed.
Amo ng these the circular t ypes are proposed for large capacit ies. Such circular
tanks may have flat floors or domical floors and these are supported on circular
girder.
The most common type of circular tank is the one which is called an Intze Tank. In
such cases, a domed cover is provided at top wit h a cylindrical and conical wall at
bottom. A ring beam will be required to support the domed roof.A ring beam is also
provided at the junct io n of the cylindrical and conical walls.The conical wall and
the tank floor are supported on a ring girder which is supported on a number o f
columns.
Usually a do med floor is shown in fig a result of which the ring girder supported on
the co lumns will be relieved from the horizontal thrusts as the horizonal t hrusts of
the conical wall and the domed floor act in opposite direct ion.

Intze tank
Somet imes, a vert ical hollow shaft may be provided which may be supported on the
domed floor.
The design of the tank will invo lve the follo wing.
(1) The dome: at top usually 100 mm to 150 mm thick wit h reinforcement along
themeridians and lat itudes. The rise is usually l/5th o f the span.
(2) Ring beam supporting the dome: The ring beam is necessary to resist
thehorizontal co mponent of the thrust of the dome. The ring beam will bedesigned
for the hoop tension induced.
(3) Cylindrical walls: This has to be designed for hoop tension caused due
tohorizontal water pressure.
(4) Ring beam at the junction of the cylindrical walls and the conical wall:This
ring beam is provided to resist the horizontal co mponent of the react ion of the
conical wall on the cylindrical wall.The ring beam will be designed for
theinducedhoop tensio n.
(5) Conical slab: This will be designed for hoop tensio n due to water pressure.The
slab will also be designed as a slab spanning between the ring beam at top and the
ring girder at bottom.
(6)Floor of the tank.The floor may be circular or domed. This slab is supportedon
the ring girder.
(7) The ring girder: This will be designed to support the tank and it s
contents.Thegirder will be supported on co lumns and should be designed for
result ing bending mo ment and Torsion.
(8) Columns: These are to be designed for the total load transferred to them. The
columns will bebraced at intervels and have to be designed for wind pressure or
seismic loads whichever govern.
(9)Foundations: A combined footing is usuals provided for all supporting columns.
When this is done it is usual to make the foundat ion consist ing of a ring girder and
acircular slab.
Suitable proportions for the Intze.
for case(1) suggested by Reyno lds. Total volume ~0.585D 3
for case (2), the proportion was suggested by Grey and Total Vo lume is g iven by

Intze tank


V 1 = p   = 0.39 . for H = D/2.


V2 =
V3 =

.


( +   + ) = 0.102D 3 .




(3  +  ) = 0.017D 3 .

Wit h h 1 = 3/25D and r = 0.0179D 3 .


Volume V = 0.4693D 3 .
Wit h h 1 = D/6 and r = 3/10D.
Volume V = 0.493D 3 .

Intze tank

13. DESIGN
13. DETAILS OF DESIGN:
Design of tank:
Design o f an intze tank for a capacit y of 300000 lts .
Assuming height of tank floor above the ground level is 17.3m.
Safe bearing capacit y of so il 200kn/m 2
Wind pressure as per IS875 1200N/m 2
Assuming M 2 0 concrete
For which cbe = 7N/mm2 , cc = 5N/mm 2
Direct tension t = 5N/mm 2
Tensio n in bending = 1.70 N/mm2
Modular rat io m = 13
For Steel stress,
Tensile stress in direct tension =115 N/mm 2
Tensile stress in bending on liquid face =115 N/mm2 for t < 225 mm
and 125 N/mm 2 for > 225 mm.
Solut ion: Taking the volume as 0.585 D3 for proportio n given in Fig.
D = 9.0 m. The dimensio n of the Tank is shown in fig.

Intze tank
Design of Roof Dome:

Considering a rise o f 1.80 m, radius of the roof dome is given fro m


1.80(2R-1.80) = (4.75) 2
R = 6.525m.
Sin = (4.5)/6.525= 0.7241
and = 43.36< 51.8
Hence no tension
Assuming t = 100mm.
Hoop stress @ level of springing:
f=
=




[cos "#$ % ]

&&'&&
' &

[0.72 .)]

f =0.0298 N/mm 2
Hoop stress @ Crown:
=0

Intze tank
f=

+,&'.&&
'. &

[1 ]


f =0.107 N/mm2
Meridional thrust @ level of sprining:
T=
=


-"#$ %

+,&'.&&
-'.)

=18778.34 N/m
Compressive stress
.)).. +

= &' '''
=0.125 N/mm 2 provo ide 8mm
Ring beam @ top :
Horizontal component of T= Tcos
=13520.40 N/m
Hoop stress in the ring beam
,

=14339.82 
=60841.82
Area of steel required
+&,.

= '., '

=311.73 mm 2
We have to provide 12 mm ,4 bars o f 452.38 mm
Size of the ring beam:
Let the area of the ring beam sect ion = A mm 2
Equivalent concrete area = /0 +(m-1)/1
=/0 +(13.33-1)452.38

Intze tank
= /0 +5577.8454
Limit ing tensile stress on the eqvivalent concrete area to 2 N/mm2
Cylindrical wall:
Pressure intensit y at the bottom of cylindrical wall = 49810
=39240 N/mm2
Consider bottom strip of the wall as 1 mm.
Hoop tensio n = 39240

,


= 176580 N
A st =

)&'
 ''.,

= 853.04 mm 2
Provide 8 bars of 12 mm diametre of 142.85 mm distance.
Thickness of the wall may be kept as 200 mm.

Distribut ion steel =

'+
''

[2001000]

= 480 mm 2
Provide 8 mm diametre bars.
=

+.'
 . 

Provide 10 mm diametre bars of spacing 100 mm between them.


Check for compressive stress at the bottom of the cylindrical wall.
Vertical component of T 1 = V 1 = T 1 sin
= 24917 0.68
= 17184.137 N/m.
Weight of the wall = 0.2425000
= 20000 N/m.

Intze tank
Weight of ring beam = 0.20.225000
= 1000 N/m.
Total load V 2 =38184.137 N/m.
Compressive stress =

. .+. )
'' '''

= 0.19 N/mm 2
Nominal vert ical stress is equql to 0.24% of gross area.
Vertical steel =

'.+
''

200 100

= 480 mm 2
Provide 10 bars of 8 mm diametre of spacing 100 mm.

Ring beam at B :
Let T 2 be the thrust /m run exerted by the conical wall at the junct ion B.
Resolving vert ically at B
T 2 sin 6= V 2
tan 6=

.&
.&

=1
6 = 45.
T2 =

9
$:; <
. .+. )
$:; +&

= 54000.52 N/m.
Resolving horizontally at B
H 2 =T 2 cos 6=54000.52 cos 45
= 38184.137 N/m

Intze tank
This horizontal load H 2 will produce a hoop tension in ring beam B
?

=H 2 

Hoop tensio n due to H 2

=38184.137 N


=171828.6165N
Let the rinmg beam be 500mm deep
Water pressure on the ringh beam
=9810 4

&''
'''

=19620 N/m
Hoop tensio n due to water

= 19620

,


=88290 N
Total hoop tension

= 88290 +171828.61
= 260118.61 N

Steel for hoop tensio n =

' ..
 ''.,

= 1256.611mm 2
Provide 6 bars 18 mm
A st = 1526.81 mm 2 .
Let A be the area of ring beam
Equivalent concrete area

= A+(m-1)A st
= A+(13.33-1) 1526.81
= A+18825.61

Limit ing the tensile stress on the equivalent concrete area to 2 N/mm2
' ..
B- &...' +

=2
A c =11233.688 mm 2

Intze tank
Provide 250 500 mm size
Design of conical slab:
Conical slab should be designed for
a) Hoop tension
b) Bending as it spans on a sloping slab from the ring beam @ B at the ring
girder @ c
Design for hoop tension:
CD -CE
F

CD
F

tan 6

Where
W w = weight of water resting on the conical slab.
W s = weight of the conical slab.
6 = inclinat ion of the conical slab wit h the horizontal.
Area of water sect ion standing on the co nical slab
=
X=

-[

&.&-+

.G
]
H

). &

1.5 = 7.125 m2 .

= 0.52 m.

Weight of water resting on the conical slab W w = 98107.1252J[3.52]


= 1545882.24 N
Length o f conical slab = 2.121 m.
Take thickness of the slab as 200 mm.
Weight of the conical slab W s = 0.22.121250002J[
Hoop tensio n =

&+&...+-+,.)+.+- &+&..
F

=531838.349 N.
Hoop steel on the ent ire sect ion =

& . ..+,
 ''.,

).&


] = 249874.42 N.

Intze tank
= 2569.267 mm 2 .
Provide 14 bars of 6 mm
=14 J 64 = 2814.86 mm 2 .
Design for bending moment:
Load per metre width of the conical slab =
=

&+&...+-+,.)+.+
F .)&

D -E
F KLMN OM?PQ1

= 76214.279 N.

Maximum bending moment =

R
.

) +.), .&


.

= 14290.177 Nm.
Axial co mpression V 2 = T 2 sin 6 =

. .+. )
$:; +&

= 54000.52 N.
Providing 16 mm diametre bar at clear covers of spacing 25 mm.
Effect ive dept h = 20025 8 = 167 mm.


Distance between centre of sect ion and cent re of steel x = d  = 167100


= 67 mm
Resultant bending moment = M+T 2 .x =14290.177 10 + 54000 67
= 17908212.15 Nmm.
A st =

),'. . &
) ''.,

= 518.04 mm2

Spacing of 16 mm diameter bars = 333.33 mm and provide 3 bars.

Intze tank

The bottom dome:

Let R be the radius of the dome,then 3 2 = 1.2(2R1.2)


= 4.35 m.
Let 2 be the angle subtended by the dome.

sin = + & = 4336


cos = 0.68
Thickness of dome = 200 mm.
Loads:
Dead load = 250000.2 = 5000 N/mm 2 .
Weight of water resting on the dome = VC [J  h
=9810[155.50817.869] = 1350234.872
Area of dome surface = 2JRh = 2J 4.315 1.2

FW

(3R0 )]

Intze tank
= 32.79 m2 .
Load intensit y due to weight of water =

&' +..)
.),

= 41178.25 N/m2 .

Total load intensit y = 5000+41178.25 = 46178.25 N/m2 .




Meridional thrust =

+ )..&+. &

-"#$ %

-'.)

= 116788.016 N/m.
Meridional compressive stress =
Hoop stress =
=




[cos

+ )..&+. &
'.''


-"#$ %

)... 
'' '''

= 0.583 N/mm 2 .

[0.72 .)]

= 0.139 N/mm 2 .
Hoop stress at the crown = 0.
Maximum hoop stres =




[cos -"#$ %] = 502188.46


= 0.502 N/mm 2 .

These stresses are low and hence provide nominal 0.3% steel.
Provide 8 mm bars @100 mm spacing.
Circular girder:
The total load on the circular girder consist s of the fo llowing;
Total weight of water W 1 = weight of water on conical slab + weight o f water on
dome.
= 1545882.24+1350234.872 = 2896117.112.
Weight of dome + cylindrical wall + ring beam at A W 2 = 38184.1372J 4.5
= 1079631.039 N.
Weight of ring beam at B W 3 = 0.250.525000 2J 4.5
= 88357.29 N.
Weight of conical wall W 4 = 249874.42 N.

Intze tank
Weight of lower dome W 5 = 500032.79 = 163950 N.

= 0.00754560396.6683 = 102608.925 N.
Torsion = 0.0015Wr = 20521.785 N.

(from table 2)

Angular distance for maximum torsion = 1244.


Let us provide 8 coloumns.
Bending mo mment at the support = 0.0083Wr = 0.00834591027.1973
= 114316.577 Nm.

Bending mo ment at centre = 0.00416Wr = 0.004164591027.1973


=57296.01 Nm.
Torsion = 0.00064591027.1973 = 8263.84 Nm.
Angular distance for maximum torsion = 933.
Load at each support =


.

+&,+& .++..
.

= 573878.39 N.
Shear force at the support =




, V = 286939.199.

Design at support section:


Equating moment of resistance to the bending moment at support
0.913bd 2 = 114316.5771000,
0.913400d 2 = 114316.5771000,
Then d 2 = 278458.26, d =560 mm.
Let the clear cover be 40 mm.
Over all depth of beam = 600 mm.
Actual effect ive depth = 600 mm.

Intze tank
X

Equivalent shear force = V+1.6 = 286939.199+1.6 .


Y
Y
= 287160.093+(

..)'. '''
+''

).

V c = 319994.559.
Equivalent nominal shear stress v e =

9Z
Y?

&&..
+''&'

= 1.42 N/mm 2 .

Maximum shear stress ma x > v .


ma x = 1.8 N/mm 2 .
c < v.
Provide longit udinal and transverse reinforcement according to B-6.4

Longitudinal reinforcement:
^
_

X( - )

M e = M+M t , M t =

.)

`aa
] '''
aa

. ..+[ -

.)

= 12152705.88 Nmm.
M = moment at crosssect ion.
M e r = 1000114316.577+12152705.88 = 126469282.9 Nmm.
A st =

bZc
 ''.,&'

& & 

 ''.,&'

= 1080.187 mm 2 .
Transverse reinforcement:
A sv =

X1d
Y ? eEd

A sv = [

91d

+ .&?

 eEd

. ..+ '''


'&' '

, b 1 = 40080 = 320 mm , d 1 = 60080 = 520 mm.


.,. ,,

+ .&&' ' ]S v

Providing 4 legged 10 mm st irrups.


A sv = 315 mm 2 , 315 = 1.175, S v = 267.95 mm.
Take S v as 250 mm.
[

fdZ fW
eEd

]bS v ,

.+'..
 '

400S v = 315 , S v = 158.88 mm.

Intze tank
Provide 150 mm spacing.
&),.' '''

Steel for sagging moment =

 ''.,&'

= 494.27 mm 2 .
Provide 5 bars of 12 mm diameter.
A st = 565.48 mm 2 .
Hoop stress:
T c = thrust exerted by the conical slab o n the girder.
T c sin 6 2Jr = W w +W s +weight of cylindrical wall and upper dome.
T c sin 6 2Jr = 154588.24+249874.42+1079631.039
T c sin 6 2Jr = 2875387.699.
Tc =

.)& .).,,
F $:; +&

= 215729.87 N.

Horizontal component of T c = 215729.87 cos 45, H 1 = 152544.055 N.


Horizontal component due to dome = 11678.016 cos 4336, H 2 = 84574.59,
H 1 H 2 = Net,Net = 67969.46 N. Hoop stress = 67969.463 = 203908.38 N.
Hoop compressive stress =

' ,'.. .
+''''

= 0.849 N/mm 2 .

Coloumns:
Coloumns should be designed for direct loads co ming upon them and for t he
bending moments caused by wind load.
Vertical load on one column at top =

+&, '). ,)
.

= 573878.399 N.
Let 6 be the inclinat ion of the column wit h the vert ical.
tan 6=


'

, 6 = 542 , sin 6 = 0.0995, cos 6 =

'
'

Actual length of co lumn = 10 + 1 = 10.05 m.


Providing 300 mm 300 mm column.

= 0.995.

Intze tank
Wt. Of co lumn =100.30.325000
= 22500 N
Total vert ical lo ad

= 573878.399+22500 N
= 596378.399 N

Corresponding axil load =

&, ).. ,,
'.,,&

= 59375.2754 N
When tank is full = 599375.2754 N
Wt. Of water in tank =

., ). 
.

=3620124.639 N on each column


Vertical load on each co lumn when tank is empt y
= 596378.399362014.239
= 237361.036 N
Corresponding axial load=

+),..
'.,,&

= 238553.805 N
Ignoring wind load effect if the steel requirement is A sc
Then

cA c + tA sc =599375.275 N
5A c + 190 A sc =599375.275
5[400 400 /sc ] +190A sc =599375.275

A sc =807.433 mm 2 .
'..

Min. Requirement of steel = 0.8% = ''[300300]


=720 mm 2
Provide 6 bars of 20mm dia. =1884 mm2
More steel has been subjected since co lumn is subjected to B.M caused by wind
load.

Intze tank

Analysis due to wind pressure:


Wind pr. =1200 mm 2 .
Wind force on the top dome & cylindrical walls =(4+
@Ht=13.95

..


)9.41200

=55272 N

Wind force on the circular wall =

,.+-.+


1.501200

=14220 N
Wind force on circular girder

=0.66.41200
=4608 N

Wind force on column & braces =50.3101200+3

-.


0.31200

=25560 N
Total moment of wind pr. About the base
=5527213.95+142200.8+460810+255605
=10982500Nm.
bj

Vetrical load on any column due to wind load = j^


+

m2 =24 2 +4( ) 2 =64m2




Max. Wind load force in the most leeward side &the most windward side.
=

',.&''.++
+

=68656.275 N

Max. Wind force in columns marked 5


=

',.&''.+
+

Consider the windword column 1


Vertical load due to dead +wind load
=596378.399 +68656.275 N

+


=48547.317 N

Intze tank
=665034.674 N.
Corresponding axial load =

&' +.)+
'.,,&'

=668376.556 N
Horizontal comoponent of the axial forces caused by wind act ion
=268456.2750.0995+448547.317 0.0995

=27285.39 N.
Aactualhorizontal force @ base
= 55272+14220+4608+2556027285.39 = 72374.61
Horizontal shear column =

) )+.
.

= 9046.826 N.

Maximum bending moment for the column = 9046.826

.&


= 11308.532 N.

Analysis of column section:


Direct load = 668376.556 N.
Bending mo ment = 11308.532 Nm.
Provide 300300 column.
Provide 6 bars of 20 mm diameter at effect ive cover of 50 mm.
A st = 1884 mm 2 ,
Equivalent concrete area = A c +(m-1)A st = (300300)+(12.331884)
= 113229.72 N
Polar moment of inert ia of the equivalent concrete sect ion,
=

M


+(mA st effect ive depth fromcentre),


''


+188412.33[150-50] 2 = 1.58210 9 mm 4 .

Equivalent moment of inertia about full sectio n =

.&. 'n


= 791.1410 6 mm4.

Intze tank
Direct stress in concrete =

?POL0 RoM?
LpQPqMRLN 0oN0OLL MOLM

Bending stress in concrete =

&' '..&  '''


), . + '`

= 5.9 mm 2 .

= 2.14 N/mm 2 .

Maximum stress = 5.9+2.14 = 8.04 N/mm 2 .


Design of braces:
Mo ment in brace BC = 2moment for the co lumn sec 45,
= 211308.532 2 = 31985.358 Nm.
Provide 300300 mm bar sect ion and a doubly reinforced beam wit h equal steel at
top and bottom.
A st = A sc =

,.&. &. '''


 '''.,

= 702.357 mm2 .

Provide 4 bars of 18 mmdiameter at top and equal amount at bottom.


Shear force for brace =

YLN?PNs KoKLN toO YOM0L



1MN ot YOM0L


Span of brace =2  sin 2230 = 2.678 m.


Shesr force for brace =

,.&. &.

.).


= 23887.49 N.
Nominal shear stress v =

9
Y?

 ..).+,
'''

= 0.30 N/mm 2 .
Provide nomonal st irrups say 2 legged 10 mmdiameter st irrups at 200 mm clear
cover.

Intze tank

Design of foundation:
Total load on the co lumn = 599375.27548 = 4795002.203 N.
Approximate weight of foundat io n is 10% of co lumn loads.
= 479500.22 N.
Then total load is equal to 5274502.22 N.
Safe bearing capacit y of 200 KN/m 2 ,
Area =

RoM?
uvw

&)+&'.+
'' 'H

= 26.37 m2 .

Let us provide outer dia of 9.5 m and inner dia o f 6.5 m.


F

= + [9.5 2 6.5 2 ] = 37.69 m2 .


Net intensit y =

&)+&'.+
).,

Intze tank
= 139.9 KN/m 2 .
139.9 KN/m 2 < 200 KN/m 2 .
Design of circular girder:
Maximum bending mo ment occurs at support = 0.00416Wr = 11508.005 Nm.
Maximum bending moment occurs at support = 0.0083 4795002.2034
= 159194.073 Nm.
Maximum torsio n = 0.0006Wr = 11508.005 Nm.
Maximum shear force at support =

+),&''.'
.

(fro m table 2)

= 299687.63 N.
Design at support sect ion;
Mo ment of resistence = maximum bending moment at support.
0.913bd 2 = 159194.0731000 , bd 2 = 174363716.30 ,
d = 590 mm ,clear cover = 60 mm , D = 650 mm.
X

Equivalent shear stress V v = V+1.6 = 299687.63+1.6


Y

&'..''& '''
&''

= 336550.0176 N.
Equivalent nominal shear v =

9d
Y?

= 1.14 N/mm 2 , but c = 1.8N/mm 2 ,

Hence c < v .
Longitudinal reinforcement:
M e l = M+M t , M t =

^
_

X( - )
.)

&'..''&[ -

`Ga
] '''
Gaa

.)

= 15569653.82 N ,
M e l = 1000[159194.073+15569.653] = 174763.7261000 N.
A st =

)+) .) '''


 ''.,&,'

= 1430.964 mm 2 ,

Intze tank
Provide 9 bars of 16 mm diameter bars.
Hence area os steel required is A st = 1809.55 mm 2 .
Transverse reinforcement:
A sv =

X1d
Y ? eEd

91d

+ .&?

 eEd

, providing 4 legged 10 mm diamater of st irrups.

A sv = 4J 5 2 = 314 mm2 , b 1 = 500-80 = 420 mm , d 1 = 650-120 = 530 mm,


314 =

&'..''& '''
+'& ' '

,,.)..
.&& ' '

, 314 = S r [0.224+0.983] , S v = 260 mm.

Let us provide 200 mm clear cover spacing.


Steel for hogging momment A st =

),)....  '''
 ''.,&,'

= 653.31 mm 2 ,
Provide 4 bars of 16 mm diameter.

Design of bottom slab:


Provide a cant ilever project ion beyo nd the face of the beam = 0.6 m.
Maximum bending moment for 1 m wide st irup = 139944.346

'.


Nm ,

= 2518.98 Nm.
Equating moment of resistence to bending mo ment ,
0.913bd 2 = 25189.981000 , b = 1000 mm.
Then d 2 = 27590.339 , d = 166.1 mm.
Let us provide 170 mm effect ive depth and 40 mm clear cover.
D = 210 mm. A st =

& .,.,. '''


 ''., )'

= 715.82 mm 2 .

Provide 4 bars o f 18 mm diameter. A st = 1017.87 mm2 ,and spacing o f the bars is


250 mm clear cover.
Distribution steel:

Intze tank
Provide 0.12 % steel and the steel required is =

'.  ' '''


''

= 252 mm 2 .
Provide 6 bars of 8 mm diameter bars and spacing =

'''


= 160 mm clear cover.

Check for sliding:


Total load on the foundat io n when tank is empt y = 5274502.423-2896117.112
= 2378385.311 N
Horizantal force on the base = 72374.61 N.
Let coefficient of frict ion = 0.5
F s=

'.& ). .&.
) )+.

= 16.43.

Intze tank

14. ESTIMATION

14.1 Detailed estimation :


Detailed est imate is an accurate est imate and consist s o f working out the quant it ies
of each item o f works, and working the cost. The dimensio ns, length, breadt h and
height o f each item are taken out correctly from drawing and quant it ies of each item
are calculated, and abstract ing and billing are done.
The detailed est imate is prepared in two stages:
Details of measurement and calculat io n of quant it ies.
The details of measurements of each item o f work are taken out correctly from plan
and drawing and quant it ies under each item are calculated in a tabular form named
as details of measurement form.
Abstract of est imated cost:
The cost of each item o f work is calculated in a tabular form the quant it ies alread y
computed and total cost is worked out in abstract est imate form. The rates of
different items of work are taken as per schedule o f rates or current workable rates
for finished item o f work.
Detailed estimation:

S.
N
o

DECRIPTION
OF WORK

Lm
N
OS

Earthwork in
excavat io n

Earthwork in
1
filling
a)R.C.C work in 1
foundat ion
b)steel in
foundat ion
i )Longit udanal
9
ii)Transverse
4

B
m

A m2

Hor QTY
D
m3
(m)

REMARKS

73.89

/ = J  /4
=J 9.72 /4
=73.89

73.89

64.316
7.068
J 0.008 2
0.008 2 J

0.2

1.4136
0.045
0.02

= J 8

Intze tank
3

R.C.C in columns

Steel in columns

8
6
8

RCC in
Bracings@2.5
Steel in Bracings
@2.5m fro m G.L
a) R.C.C in
bracings @5m
from G.L.
b) Steel

8
8
8

0.3

0.3

J 0.01 2
0.637
5
0.637
5
0.575

8
8
a)RCC in bracings 8
7.5m
b)steel
8
8
Top ring girder
1
a)R.C.C
b)steel
longitudinal
5
transeverse
125
Bottom dome
a)RCC in do me
1

0.575

b) steel

0.3

0.09
J 0.009 2

0.3

0.09

11

J 0.009 2

0.45
JD
6J

0.4

0.24

12

0.6

=22.619

a)RCC conical
slab

b)steel

14

23.56

steel for B.M.


a)RCC ring beam
@B
b)steel
Cylindrical wall

3
1

23.56

a)Main steel

20

6
1

0.2

2.12
1

0.2

28.27

9 J

0.5
4

J 0.006 2
J 0.004 2

4.32

0.2

0.04

A=J 0.009 2
=0.000254

4.523

9.994

A=2Jrh
=2J 31.2
=22.619
j
y = ' 2Jr
=6.62
J[1 + 2]
2
= J(9+6)/2

0.066

J 0.008 2

A=J 0.009 2
=0.000254

4.52

0.443

0.2

0.25

0.414

0.02
0.066

0.067

28.27

=0.459 A=J 0.009 2


=0.000254
=0.01

0.0072

J 0.009 2

6J

7.235
0.151

0.0093
6
0.324

0.45

L=6.6
2
23.56

b)Distribut ion
steel
Ring beam @ A
a)concrete

0.3

J 0.009 2

J 0.008
10

10.0
49
10.0
49
0.3

0.09

0.014
3.534
0.034
22.619
0.098
0.0056

0.2

1.13

L=4+16d
=4+160.012
=4.32
L=JD
=9 J

Intze tank

13

b)Steel
Top dome R.C.C
a) concrete
b) Steel

12

Total RCC work

13
14

Total steel
Plastering in CM
(1:2) for Inner
surface Of conical
dome (12mm)
Plastering in CM
(1:6) for outer
surface Of conical
dome (12mm)
Plastering in CM
(1:2) for Inner
surface Of
cylindrical wall
(12mm)
Plastering in CM
(1:6) for outer
surface Of
cylindrical wall
(12mm)
Plastering in CM
(1:2) for Inner
surface Of domed
roof (12mm)
Plastering in CM
(1:6) for outer
surface Of domed
roof (12mm)
Plastering in CM
(1:6) for columns
(12mm)

15

16

17

18

19

20

J 0.006 2

9 J

1
100

2Jrh
=50.89
9.93

0.012
0.15
0

7.63

J 0.004 2

0.05

50.89

63.795
6
1.017
9.15

55.135

9.92

J D

28.2

112.8

20.354

J D

29.5

118.82

28.349

22

y = ' 2Jr

A=2Jrh
=50.89
A=2Jrh
=55.135

22.619

4.07

A=2Jrh
=2J 31.2
=22.619

26.38

4.74

A=2Jrh
=2J 31.4

0.09

17.28

0.3

0.3

Plastering in CM
1
(1:2) for ring beam
at top (12mm)
Plastering in CM 1
(1:2) for ring beam
at bottom (12mm)

9 J

0.2

5.65
21

A=2Jrh
=

1.01
1.27

Intze tank
23
24
25
26

27

28
29
30
31

Plastering in CM
(1:6) for bracings
at 2.5m ht.(12mm)
Plastering in CM
(1:6) for bracings
at 5m ht.(12mm)
Plastering in CM
(1:6) for bracings
at 7.5m ht.(12mm)
Plastering in
CM(1:2) for inner
surface o f conical
slab(12mm)
Plastering in
CM(1:6) for outer
surface o f conical
slab(12mm)
Total plastering

0.27

0.24

0.19

4.239

4.46

Thick water proof


cement
paint ing
for tank portion
white washing for 8
columns
Total white
washing

105.53
3
85.278
0.312

0.31
2

10.04

7.826
93.104

J[1 + 2]
2
= J(9+6)/2

Intze tank

ABSTRACT

S.NO

DESCRIPTION
OF WORK

QTY OR
NOS

Earth work in
excavat io n

73.89

2
3
4
5

Beldars
Mazdoors
Total
Earth work in
Filling In foundat ion
Beldar
Bhisthi

13
11

Mazdoors
Total
Total earth work in
Filling
Disposal of surplus
earth in a lead 30m
Mazdoor
Total
Total cost of earth
work

6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

RATE
RS
PS

COST
RS PS

250
250

3250
2750
6000

7
2

250
285

1750
570

250

1250
3570

250

1000
1000
10,570

64.316

9.574
4

Intze tank

14.2 DATA SHEET:

RCC M- 20 Nominal mix (Cement:fine aggregate: coarse aggregate) corresponding


to Table 9 o f IS 456 using 20mm size graded machine crushed hard granite metal
(coarse aggregate) from approved quarry including cost and conveyance of all
materials likecement
FOUNDATION
A. MATERIALS

UNIT

QTY

RATERS

20mm HBG graded metal Cum


Sand
Cement
1st Class Mason
2nd Class Mason
Mazdoor (Both Men and Wo men)
Concrete Mixer 10/7 cf
(0.2/0.8cum)capacit y
Cost of Diesel for Miller
Cost of Petrol for Vibrator
Water (including for curing)
Add 20% in Labour (1st Floor)
Add MA 20%
Add TOT 4%
BASIC COST per 1 cum

Cum
Cum
Cum
Day
Day
Day

0.601
1.2
0.4
0.38
1.03
2.33

1076
375
1620
285
285
250

Hour
Liter
Liter
Ki

1
0.52
0.75
1.2

250
45
68
77.0

AMOUNT
RS
646.676
450
648
108.3
293.55
582.5
250
23.4
51
92.4
629.16
629.16
176.166
4580.31

Intze tank
COLUMNS
A. MATERIALS

UNIT

QTY

RATERS

AMOUNT
RS
6623.85
1154.25
3324.24
567.15
1499.1
2990

20mm HBG graded metal Cum


Sand
Cement
1st Class Mason
2nd Class Mason
Mazdoor (Both Men and Wo men)
Concrete Mixer 10/7 cf (0.2/0.8cum)
capacit y
Labour centering
Material hire charges for centering
Water (including for curing)
Add 20% in Labour (1st Floor)
Add MA 20%
Add TOT 4%
BASIC COST per 1 cum

Cum
Cum
Cum
Day
Day
Day

6.156
3.078
2.052
1.99
5.26
11.96

1076
375
1620
285
285
250

Hour
Cum
Cum
Ki

1
1
1
1.2

250
971
89
77.0

250
971
89
92.4
2912.198
2912.198
582.43
20967.816

A. MATERIALS

UNIT

QTY

RATERS

20mm HBG graded metal Cum


Sand
Cement
1st Class Mason
2nd Class Mason
Mazdoor (Both Men and Wo men)
Concrete Mixer 10/7 cf (0.2/0.8cum)
capacit y
Labour centering
Material hire charges for centering
Water (including for curing)
Add 20% in Labour (1st Floor)
Add MA 20%
Add TOT 4%
BASIC COST per 1 cum

Cum
Cum
Cum
Day
Day
Day

0.96
0.48
0.32
0.31
0.83
1.86

1076
375
1620
285
285
250

AMOUNT
RS
1032.96
180
518.4
88.35
236.55
465

Hour
Cum
Cum
Ki

0.26
1
1
1.2

250
971
89
77.0

RCC RING BEAM AT TOP

65
971
89
92.4
747.73
747.73
149.54
5383.66

Intze tank
RCC DOMED ROOF 150mm THICK
A. MATERIALS

UNIT

QTY

RATERS

AMOUNT
RS
6972.48
1215
3499.2
598.5
1596
3150

20mm HBG graded metal Cum


Sand
Cement
1st Class Mason
2nd Class Mason
Mazdoor (Both Men and Wo men)
Concrete Mixer 10/7 cf (0.2/0.8cum)
capacit y
Labour centering
Material hire charges for centering
Water (including for curing)
Add 20% in Labour (1st Floor)
Add MA 20%
Add TOT 4%
BASIC COST per 1 cum

Cum
Cum
Cum
Day
Day
Day

6.48
3.24
2.16
2.1
5.6
12.6

1076
375
1620
285
285
250

Hour
Cum
Cum
Ki

0.267
10
10
1.2

250
971
89
77.0

66.75
9710
890
92.4
5558.33
5558.33
1111.61
40018.6

A. MATERIALS

UNIT

QTY

RATERS

20mm HBG graded metal Cum


Sand
Cement
1st Class Mason
2nd Class Mason
Mazdoor (Both Men and Wo men)
Concrete Mixer 10/7 cf (0.2/0.8cum)
capacit y
Labour centering
Material hire charges for centering
Water (including for curing)
Add 20% in Labour (1st Floor)
Add MA 20%
Add TOT 4%
BASIC COST per 1 cum

Cum
Cum
Cum
Day
Day
Day

8.49
4.25
2.83
2.75
7.34
16.52

1076
375
1620
285
285
250

AMOUNT
RS
9135.24
1593.75
4584.6
783.75
2091.9
4130

Hour
Cum
Cum
Ki

0.26
5
5
1.2

250
971
89
77.0

CONICAL SLAB 200mm THICK

65
4855
445
92.4
5555.328
5555.328
1111.06
39998.35

Intze tank
RCC CYLINDRICAL WALL
A. MATERIALS

UNIT

QTY

RATERS

20mm HBG graded metal Cum


Sand
Cement
1st Class Mason
2nd Class Mason
Mazdoor (Both Men and Wo men)
Concrete Mixer 10/7 cf (0.2/0.8cum)
capacit y
Labour centering
Material hire charges for centering
Water (including for curing)
Add 20% in Labour (1st Floor)
Add MA 20%
Add TOT 4%
BASIC COST per 1 cum

Cum
Cum
Cum
Day
Day
Day

19.23
9.62
6.41
6.23
16.62
37.39

1076
375
1620
285
285
250

Hour
Cum
Cum
Ki

0.26
1
1
1.2

250
971
89
77.0

RCC RING BEAM AT BOTTOM OF


CYLINDRICAL WALL
A. MATERIALS
20mm HBG graded metal Cum
Sand
Cement
1st Class Mason
2nd Class Mason
Mazdoor (Both Men and Wo men)
Concrete Mixer 10/7 cf (0.2/0.8cum)
capacit y
Labour centering
Material hire charges for centering
Water (including for curing)
Add 20% in Labour (1st Floor)
Add MA 20%
Add TOT 4%
BASIC COST per 1 cum

UNIT

QTY

RATERS

Cum
Cum
Cum
Day
Day
Day

3
1.5
1
0.97
2.59
5.84

1076
375
1620
285
285
250

Hour
Cum
Cum
Ki

0.26
1
1
1.2

250
971
89
77.0

AMOUNT
RS
20691.48
3607.5
10384.2
1775.55
4736.7
9347.5
65
971
89
92.4
10352.066
10352.066
2070.432
74534.89

AMOUNT
RS
3228
562.5
1620
267.45
738.15
1460
65
971
89
92.4
1818.7
1818.7
363.74
13094.64

Intze tank
RCC CIRCULAR GIRDER
A. MATERIALS

UNIT

QTY

RATERS

AMOUNT
RS
4131.84
720
2073.6
353.4
946.2
1867.5

20mm HBG graded metal Cum


Sand
Cement
1st Class Mason
2nd Class Mason
Mazdoor (Both Men and Wo men)
Concrete Mixer 10/7 cf (0.2/0.8cum)
capacit y
Labour centering
Material hire charges for centering
Water (including for curing)
Add 20% in Labour (1st Floor)
Add MA 20%
Add TOT 4%
BASIC COST per 1 cum

Cum
Cum
Cum
Day
Day
Day

3.84
1.92
1.28
1.24
3.32
7.47

1076
375
1620
285
285
250

Hour
Cum
Cum
Ki

0.26
1
1
1.2

250
971
89
77.0

65
971
89
92.4
2262.588
2262.58
452.517
16290.61

A. MATERIALS

UNIT

QTY

RATERS

20mm HBG graded metal Cum


Sand
Cement
1st Class Mason
2nd Class Mason
Mazdoor (Both Men and Wo men)
Concrete Mixer 10/7 cf (0.2/0.8cum)
capacit y
Labour centering
Material hire charges for centering
Water (including for curing)
Add 20% in Labour (1st Floor)
Add MA 20%
Add TOT 4%
BASIC COST per 1 cum

Cum
Cum
Cum
Day
Day
Day

0.39
0.19
0.13
0.125
0.33
0.75

1076
375
1620
285
285
250

AMOUNT
RS
419.64
71.25
210.6
35.625
94.05
187.5

Hour
Cum
Cum
Ki

0.26
1
1
1.2

250
971
89
77.0

RCC BRACING AT 2.5m HT.

65
971
89
92.4
447.213
447.213
89.44
3219.93

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RCC BRACING AT 5m HT.


A. MATERIALS

UNIT

QTY

RATERS

20mm HBG graded metal Cum


Sand
Cement
1st Class Mason
2nd Class Mason
Mazdoor (Both Men and Women)
Concrete Mixer 10/7 cf (0.2/0.8cum)
capacit y
Labour centering
Material hire charges for centering
Water (including for curing)
Add 20% in Labour (1st Floor)
Add MA 20%
Add TOT 4%
BASIC COST per 1 cum

Cum
Cum
Cum
Day
Day
Day

0.33
0.17
0.11
0.125
0.33
0.75

1076
375
1620
285
285
250

Hour
Cum
Cum
Ki

0.26
1
1
1.2

250
971
89
77.0

A. MATERIALS

UNIT

QTY

20mm HBG graded metal Cum


Sand
Cement
1st Class Mason
2nd Class Mason
Mazdoor (Both Men and Wo men)
Concrete Mixer 10/7 cf (0.2/0.8cum)
capacit y
Labour centering
Material hire charges for centering
Water (including for curing)
Add 20% in Labour (1st Floor)
Add MA 20%
Add TOT 4%
BASIC COST per 1 cum

AMOUNT
RS
355.08
63.75
178.2
35.625
94.05
187.5
65
971
89
92.4
426.32
426.32
85.264
3069.50

RCC BRACING 7.5m HT.

Cum
Cum
Cum
Day
Day
Day

RATE
RS
0.27
1076
0.13
375
0.09
1620
0.08
285
0.23
285
0.535 250

AMOUNT
RS
290.52
48.75
145.8
22.8
65.55
133.75

Hour
Cum
Cum
Ki

0.26
1
1
1.2

65
971
89
92.4
384.91
384.91
76.98
2771.37

250
971
89
77.0

Intze tank

Plastering with
CM(1:6)&(1:2),12 mm thick
Cement Mortor
1:6
1:2
Mason 1st class
Bhisthi
Mazdoor (unskilled)
Add MA 20%
Add TOT 4%
Grand Total

cum
cum
day
day
day

105.533
65.44
40.09
39
14
39

552
780
285
285
250

36165
31673
11115
3990
9750
18539
3719
114951

Paint ing to new walls of tank portion wit h 2 coats of water proof cement paint of
approved brand and shade over a base coat of approved cement primer grade I
making making 3 coats in all to give an even shade after thourughly brushing the
surface to remove all dirt and remains o f lo ose powdered materials, including cost
and conveyance of all materials to work site and all operational, incidental, labour
charges etc. complete for finished item o f work as per SS 912 for walls
Epoxy primer for Hibond floor &
protective coat ings : Procoat SNP2 or
Zoriprime EFC 2
1st class paint er
Mazdoor
cost of water proof cement paint
1st class paint er
Mazdoor (unskilled)
Add MA 20%
Add TOT 4%
Total cost

Pack

26

548

14250

Day
Day
Cum
Day
Day

4
4
50
2
2

355
250
35
355
250

1420
1000
1750
710
500
3926
786
24342

Intze tank

Paint ing to new co lumns of tank portion wit h 2 coats of water proof cement paint o f
approved brand and shade over a base coat of approved cement primer grade I making
making 3 coats in all to give an even shade after thourughly brushing the surface to
remove all dirt and remains of loose powdered materials, including cost and
conveyance of all materials to work site and all operational, incidental, labour charges
etc. complete for finished item of work as per SS 912 for walls
Cost of cement primer
1st class paint er
2nd class painter
cost of water proof cement paint
1st class paint er
Mazdoor (unskilled)
Add MA 20%
Add TOT 4%
Total cost

Pack
Day
Day
Cum
Day
Day

18
1
1
6
1
1

Total cost of project:


Total cost of R.C.C

= 2,23,930

Total cost of steel

= 5,18,924

Total cost of plastering

= 1,14,951

Total cost of paint ing

= 28,335

Total cost of earthwork

= 10,570
8,96,710

100
355
250
35
355
250

1800
355
250
210
355
250
644
129
3993

Intze tank

15. CONCLUSION
Storage of water in the form of tanks for drinking and washing purposes, swimming
pools for exercise and enjo yment, and sewage sedimentat ion tanks are gaining
increasing importance in the present day life. For small capacit ies we go for
rectangular water tanks while for bigger capacit ies we provide circular water tanks.
Design o f water tank is a very tedious method. Wit h out power also we can
consume water by gravitat ional force.
Intze tank is constructed to minimize the project cost why because lower do me in
this construct ion resists the horizontal thrust.

Intze tank

16. REFERENCES
Table 16.2. Coefficients for moment in cylindrical wall fixed at base (As Per IS3370)

Moment = Coefficient (wH 3 ) Nm/m

H2 Co efficient at points
DT 0.1 H0.2 H 0.3 H0.4 H 0.5 H 0.6 H 0.7 H 0.8H
0.4 + 0.0005 + 0.0014 + 0.0021 + 0.0007 - 0.0042 -0.0150 -0.0302-0.0529
0.8 + 0.0011 + 0.0037 + 0.0063 + 0.0080 + 0.0070 + 0.0023 + 0.0068 -0.0024
1.2 + 0.0012 + 0.0042 + 0.0077 + 0.0103 + 00112 + 0.0090 + 0.0022 -0.0108
1.6+ 0.0011 + 0.0041 + 0.0075 + 0.0107 + 0.0121 + 0.0111 + 0.0058 -0.0051
2.0+ 0.0010 + 0.0035 + 0.0068 + 0.0099 + 0.0120 + 0.0115 + 0.0075 -0.0021
3.0 + 0.0006 + 0.0024 + 0.0047 + 0.0071 + 0.0090 + 0.0097 + 0.0077 +0.0012
4.0 + 0.0003 + 0.0015 + 0.0028 + 0.0047 + 0.0066 + 0.0077 + 0.0069 +0.0023
5.0 + 0.0002 + 0.0008 + 0.0016 + 0.0029 + 0.0046 + 0.0059 + 0.0059 +0.0028
6.0 + 0.0001 + 0.0003 + 0.0008 + 0.0019 + 0.0032 + 0.0046 + 0.0051 +0.0029
8.0 0.0000 + 0.0001 + 0.0002 + 0.0008 + 0.0016 + 0.0028 + 0.0038 +0.0029
10.0 0.0000 + 0.0000 + 0 0001 + 0.0004 + 0.0007 + 0.0019 + 0.0029 +0.0028
12.0 0.0000 + 0.0000 + 0.0001 + 0.0002 + 0.0003 + 0.0013 + 0.0023 +0.0026
14.0 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 + 0.0001 + 0.0008 + 0.0019 +0.0023
16.0 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0001 - 0.0002 -0.0001 + 0.0004 + 0.0013 +0.0019

Table 1:

Intze tank
Permissible stresses in concrete
All values in N/mm 2
Grade
Of concrete

permissible stresses in compression


Direct

permissible stress in bond


for plain bars in tension
(average)

zc bc

zc c

{bd

M 10

3.0

2.5

M 15

5.0

4.0

0.6

M 20

7.0

5.0

0.8

M 25

8.5

6.0

0.9

M 30

10.0

8.0

1.0

M 35

11.5

9.0

1.1

M 40

13.0

10.0

1.2

M 45

14.5

11.0

1.3

M 50

16.0

12.0

1.4

Bending

Table 1.1:
Grade of
Concrete

M10

Tensile
1.2
2
Stress(N/mm )

M15

M20

M25

M30

M35

M40 M45

M50

2.0

2.8

3.2

3.6

4.0

4.4

5.2

4.8

Table 2:
Moments for circular girders
For 8 columns

B.M@
Support
0.0083Wr

B.M@
centre

Torsion

0.00416Wr

0.0006Wr

Intze tank

17. REFERENCE BOOKS


I.S 456:2000 for RCC.
I.S 800:1984 for STEEL.
I.S 872 Part I and Part II.
I.S 3373 (Part IV-1967).
Reinforced concrete structures (M.Ramamrutham).
Element of environmental engineering (BIRIDI).
. Estimat ing, costing and evaluat ion (B.N.Datta).
. Standard schedule of rates (SSR)

Intze tank