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Cologne

This article is about the German city. For the perfume,


see Eau de Cologne. For other uses, see Cologne
(disambiguation) and Kln (disambiguation).

1.1 Roman Cologne

Cologne (English pronunciation: /klon/, German: Kln


[kln] ( ), Colognian: Klle [k] ( )) is Germanys fourth-largest city (after Berlin, Hamburg, and
Munich), and is the largest city both in the German
Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the
Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.

The rst urban settlement on the grounds of modern-day


Cologne was Oppidum Ubiorum, founded in 38 BC by
the Ubii, a Cisrhenian Germanic tribe. In 50 AD, the
Romans founded Colonia on the Rhine[3] and the city became the provincial capital of Germania Inferior in 85
AD.[4] The city was named "Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium" in 50 AD.[4] Considerable Roman remains
can be found in present-day Cologne, especially near the
wharf area, where a notable discovery of a 1900-yearold Roman boat was made in late 2007.[5] From 260 to
271 Cologne was the capital of the Gallic Empire under Postumus, Marius, and Victorinus. In 310 under
Constantine a bridge was built over the Rhine at Cologne.
Roman imperial governors resided in the city and it became one of the most important trade and production
centres in the Roman Empire north of the Alps.[3]

Cologne is located on both sides of the Rhine River. The


citys famous Cologne Cathedral (Klner Dom) is the seat
of the Catholic Archbishop of Cologne. The University
of Cologne (Universitt zu Kln) is one of Europes oldest
and largest universities.[2]
Cologne was founded and established in the rst century AD, as the Roman Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium in Ubii territory.[3] It was the capital of the Roman
province of Germania Inferior and the headquarters of
the military in the region until occupied by the Franks in
462. During the Middle Ages it ourished as one of the
most important major trade routes between east and west
in Europe. Cologne was one of the leading members of
the Hanseatic League and one of the largest cities north
of the Alps in medieval and renaissance times. Up until
World War II the city had undergone several other occupations by the French and also the British. Cologne was
one of the most heavily bombed cities in Germany during World War II. The bombing reduced the population
by 95% and destroyed almost the entire city. With the
intention of restoring as many historic buildings as possible, the rebuilding has resulted in a very mixed and unique
cityscape.

Maternus, who was elected as bishop in 313, was the rst


known bishop of Cologne. The city was the capital of a
Roman province until occupied by the Ripuarian Franks
in 462. Parts of the original Roman sewers are preserved
underneath the city, with the new sewerage system having
opening in 1890.

1.2 Middle Ages


Early medieval Cologne was part of Austrasia within the
Frankish Empire. Cologne had been the seat of a bishop
since the Roman period; under Charlemagne, in 795,
bishop Hildebold was promoted to archbishop.[3]
In 953, the archbishops of Cologne rst gained noteworthy secular power, when bishop Bruno was appointed as
duke by his brother Emperor Otto I. In order to weaken
the secular nobility, who threatened his power, Otto endowed Bruno and his successors on the bishops see with
the prerogatives of secular princes, thus establishing the
Electorate of Cologne, formed by the temporal possessions of the archbishopric and included in the end a strip
of territory along the left Bank of the Rhine east of Jlich,
as well as the Duchy of Westphalia on the other side of
the Rhine, beyond Berg and Mark. By the end of the
12th century, the Archbishop of Cologne was one of the
seven electors of the Holy Roman Emperor. Besides being prince elector, he was Arch-chancellor of Italy as well,
technically from 1238 and permanently from 1263 until

Cologne is a major cultural centre for the Rhineland; it


is home to more than thirty museums and hundreds of
galleries. Exhibitions range from local ancient Roman
archeological sites to contemporary graphics and sculpture. The Cologne Trade Fair hosts a number of trade
shows such as Art Cologne, imm Cologne, Gamescom,
and the Photokina.

History

Main article: History of Cologne


See also: Timeline of Cologne
1

1803.
Following the Battle of Worringen in 1288, Cologne
gained its independence from the archbishops and became a Free City. Archbishop Sigfried II von Westerburg
was forced into exile in Bonn.[6] The archbishop nevertheless preserved the right of capital punishment. Thus
the municipal council (though in strict political opposition towards the archbishop) depended upon him in all
matters concerning criminal justice. This included torture, which sentence was only allowed to be handed down
by the episcopal judge, the so-called Greve. This legal
situation lasted until the French conquest of Cologne.

HISTORY

Archbishopric of Cologne which was a state of its own


within the Holy Roman Empire. Since the second half
of the 16th century the archbishops were taken from the
Bavarian dynasty Wittelsbach. Due to the free status of
Cologne, the archbishops were usually not allowed to enter the city. Thus they took up residence in Bonn and later
in Brhl on the Rhine. As members of an inuential and
powerful family and supported by their outstanding status
as electors, the archbishops of Cologne repeatedly challenged and threatened the free status of Cologne during
the 17th and 18th century, resulting in complicated affairs, which were handled by diplomatic means and propaganda as well as by the supreme courts of the Holy Roman Empire.

Besides its economic and political signicance Cologne


also became an important centre of medieval pilgrimage,
when Colognes Archbishop Rainald of Dassel gave the
relics of the Three Wise Men to Colognes cathedral in
1164 (after they in fact had been captured from Milan). 1.4 From the 19th century until World
War II
Besides the three magi Cologne preserves the relics of
Saint Ursula and Albertus Magnus.[7]
Cologne lost its status as a free city during the French peColognes location on the river Rhine placed it at the inriod. According to the Peace Treaty of Lunville (1801)
tersection of the major trade routes between east and west
all the territories of the Holy Roman Empire on the left
and was the basis of Colognes growth. By 1300 the city
bank of the Rhine were ocially incorporated into the
population were 50,000.[8] Cologne was a member of the
French Republic (which had already occupied Cologne in
Hanseatic League in 1475, when Frederick III conrmed
1794).
Thus this region later became part of Napoleons
the citys imperial immediacy.[3]
Empire. Cologne was part of the French Dpartement
Roer (named after the River Roer, German: Rur) with
Aachen (French: Aix-la-Chapelle) as its capital. The
French modernized public life, for example by introducing the Napoleonic code and removing the old elites from
power. The Napoleonic code remained in use on the
left bank of the Rhine until 1900, when a unied civil
code (the Brgerliches Gesetzbuch) was introduced in the
German Empire. In 1815 at the Congress of Vienna,
Cologne around 1411
Cologne was made part of the Kingdom of Prussia, rst
in the Jlich-Cleves-Berg province and then the Rhine
province.

1.3

Early modern history

The economic structures of medieval and early modern


Cologne were characterized by the citys status as a major
harbour and transport hub upon the Rhine. Craftsmanship was organized by self-administering guilds, some of
which were exclusive to women.
As a free city Cologne was a sovereign state within the
Holy Roman Empire and as such had the right (and obligation) to maintain its own military force. Wearing a
red uniform these troops were known as the Rote Funken
(red sparks). These soldiers were part of the Army of
the Holy Roman Empire (Reichskontingent) and fought
in the wars of the 17th and 18th century, including the
wars against revolutionary France, when the small force
was almost completely wiped out in combat. The tradition of these troops is preserved as a military persiage
by Colognes most outstanding carnival society, the Rote
Funken.[9]

The permanent tensions between the Roman Catholic


Rhineland and the overwhelmingly Protestant Prussian
state repeatedly escalated with Cologne being in the focus of the conict. In 1837 the archbishop of Cologne,
Clemens August von Droste-Vischering, was arrested
and imprisoned for two years after a dispute over the
legal status of marriages between Protestants and Roman Catholics (Mischehenstreit). In 1874, during the
Kulturkampf, Archbishop Paul Melchers was imprisoned
before taking refuge in the Netherlands. These conicts
alienated the Catholic population from Berlin and contributed to a deeply felt anti-Prussian resentment, which
was still signicant after World War II, when the former
mayor of Cologne, Konrad Adenauer, became the rst
West German chancellor.

During the 19th and 20th centuries, Cologne absorbed


numerous surrounding towns, and by World War I had
already grown to 700,000 inhabitants. Industrialization
changed the city and spurred its growth. Vehicle and
The free city of Cologne must not be confused with the engine manufacturing were especially successful, though

1.5

World War II

heavy industry was less ubiquitous than in the Ruhr area.


The cathedral, started in 1248 but abandoned around
1560, was eventually nished in 1880 not just as a place
of worship but also as a German national monument celebrating the newly founded German empire and the continuity of the German nation since the Middle Ages. Some
of this urban growth occurred at the expense of the citys
historic heritage with much being demolished (for example, the city walls or the area around the cathedral) and
sometimes replaced by present-day buildings.

3
ties. Thereafter Communist as well as Social Democrats
members of the city assembly were imprisoned and
Mayor Adenauer was dismissed by the new holders
of power. However, compared to other major cities,
the Nazis never gained decisive support in Cologne
(signicantly, the number of votes cast for the Nazi
Party in Reichstag elections had always been the national average.[13][14] By 1939 the population had risen
to 772,221 inhabitants.

Cologne was designated as one of the Fortresses of the 1.5


German Confederation.[10] It was turned into a heavily armed fortress (opposing the French and Belgian
fortresses of Verdun and Lige) with two fortied belts
surrounding the city, the remains of which can be seen to
this day.[11] The military demands on what became Germanys largest fortress presented a signicant obstacle to
urban development, with forts, bunkers, and wide defensive dugouts completely encircling the city and preventing expansion; this resulted in a very dense built-up area
within the city itself.
During World War I Cologne was the target of several
but minor air raids and survived the hostilities without
signicant damage. Until 1926 Cologne was occupied
by the British Army of the Rhine under the terms of the
armistice and the subsequent Versailles Peace Treaty.[12]
Contrary to the harsh measures taken by French occupation troops, the British acted with more tact towards the
local population. The mayor of Cologne from 1917 until
1933 and future West German chancellor Konrad Adenauer acknowledged the political impact of this approach,
especially that the British had opposed French plans for a
permanent Allied occupation of the Rhineland.

World War II

The devastation of Cologne, 1945

During World War II, Cologne was a Military Area


Command Headquarters (Militrbereichshauptkommandoquartier) for the Military District (Wehrkreis) VI
of Mnster. Cologne was under the command of
Lieutenant-General Freiherr Roeder von Diersburg,
who was responsible for military operations in Bonn,
As part of the de-militarization of the Rhineland the
Siegburg, Aachen, Jlich, Dren, and Monschau.
fortications had to be dismantled. This was taken as
Cologne was home to the 211th Infantry Regiment and
an opportunity to create two green belts (Grngrtel)
the 26th Artillery Regiment.
around the city by converting the fortications and their
clear elds of re into large public parks. However, During the Bombing of Cologne in World War II,
[15]
this project was not completed until 1933. In 1919 the Cologne endured 262 air raids by the Western Allies,
University of Cologne, closed by the French in 1798, was which caused approximately 20,000 civilian casualties
refounded. This re-foundation was considered a replace- and almost completely wiped out the centre of the city.
ment for the loss of the German University of Strasbourg, During the night of 31 May 1942, Cologne was the tarwhich reverted to France with the rest of Alsace. Cologne get of "Operation Millennium", the rst 1,000 bomber
prospered during the Weimar Republic (191933) and raid by the Royal Air Force in World War II. 1,046
progress was made especially with respect to public gov- heavy bombers attacked their target with 1,455 tons
ernance, city planning, housing and social aairs. Social of explosives, approximately two-thirds of which were
[16]
This raid lasted about 75 minutes, dehousing projects were considered exemplary and copied incendiary.
by other German cities. As Cologne competed for host- stroyed 600 acres (243 ha) of built-up area, killed 486
ing the Olympics a modern sports stadium was erected civilians and made 59,000 people homeless. By the end
at Mngersdorf. When the British occupation ended, the of the war, the population of Cologne had been reduced
prohibition of civil aviation was removed and Cologne by 95 percent. This loss was mainly caused by a masButzweilerhof Airport soon became a hub for national sive evacuation of the people to more rural areas. The
and international air tracsecond in Germany only to same happened in many other German cities in the last
two years of war. By the end of 1945, however, the popBerlin Tempelhof Airport.
ulation had already recovered to approximately 500,000.
The democratic parties lost the local elections in Cologne
in March 1933 to the Nazi Party and other right wing par- By the end of the war, essentially all of Colognes prewar Jewish population of 11,000 had been deported or

GEOGRAPHY

killed by the Nazis.[17] The six synagogues of the city actual construction became easier in times when the mawere destroyed. The synagogue on Roonstrae was re- jority of downtown lots were undeveloped.
built in 1959.[18]
The destruction of 95% of the city centre including the
famous Twelve Romanesque churches like St. Gereon,
Great St. Martin, St. Maria im Kapitol and several other
1.6 Post-war Cologne until today
monuments in World War II meant a tremendous loss of
cultural treasures. The rebuilding of those churches and
other landmarks like the Grzenich event hall was not
undisputed among leading architects and art historians
at that time, but in most cases, civil intention prevailed.
The reconstruction lasted until the 1990s, when the Romanesque church of St. Kunibert was nished.
In 1959, the citys population reached pre-war numbers
again. It then grew steadily, exceeding 1 million for about
one year from 1975. It has remained just below that until
mid-2010, when it exceeded 1 million again.

Cologne in 2013

1.7 Post-reunication

Cologne, seen from the International Space Station

Despite Colognes status as the largest city in the region, nearby Dsseldorf was chosen as the political capital of the federated state of North Rhine-Westphalia.
With Bonn being chosen as the provisional capital (provisorische Bundeshauptstadt) and seat of the government of
the Federal Republic of Germany (then informally West
Germany), Cologne beneted by being sandwiched between two important political centres. The city became
and still is home to a number of federal agencies and organizations. After reunication in 1990, Berlin was made
the capital of Germany.
In 1945 architect and urban planner Rudolf Schwarz
called Cologne the worlds greatest heap of rubble.
Schwarz designed the master plan of reconstruction in
1947, which called for the construction of several new
thoroughfares through the downtown area, especially the
Nord-Sd-Fahrt (North-South-Drive). The master plan
took into consideration the fact that even shortly after the
war a large increase in automobile trac could be anticipated. Plans for new roads had already, to a certain
degree, evolved under the Nazi administration, but the

In the 1980s and 1990s Colognes economy prospered for


two main reasons. Firstly, a growth in the number of media companies, both in the private and public sectors; they
are especially catered for in the newly developed Media
Park, which creates a strongly visual focal point in the
Cologne town centre and includes the KlnTurm, one of
Colognes most prominent high-rise buildings. Secondly,
a permanent improvement of the diverse trac infrastructure made Cologne one of the most easily accessible
metropolitan areas in Central Europe.
Due to the economic success of the Cologne Trade Fair,
the city arranged a large extension to the fair site in 2005.
At the same time the original buildings, which date back
to the 1920s are rented out to RTL, Germanys largest
private broadcaster, as their new corporate headquarters.

2 Geography
The metropolitan area encompasses over 405 square kilometres (156 square miles), extending around a centrepoint that lies at 50 56' 33 latitude and 6 57' 32 longitude. The citys highest point is 118 m (387.1 ft)
above sea level (the Monte Troodelh) and its lowest

5
point is 37.5 m (123.0 ft) above sea level (the Worringer 3 Demographics
Bruch).[19] The city of Cologne lies within the larger area
of the Cologne Lowland, a cone-shaped area of south- Main article: Demographics of Cologne
eastern Westphalia that lies between Bonn, Aachen and
Dsseldorf.
In the Roman Empire the city was large and rich with an
population of 40,000 in 100200 AD.[25] The city was
home to around 20,000 people in 1000 AD, growing to
2.1 Districts
50,000 in 1200 AD. The Rhineland metropolis still had
50,000 residents in 1300 AD.[8][26]
Main article: Districts of Cologne
Cologne is the fourth-largest city in Germany in terms of
inhabitants after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich. As of 30
Cologne is subdivided into 9 districts (Stadtbezirke) and June 2011, there were ocially 1,010,269 residents.[27]
85 city parts (Stadtteile):[20]
Cologne is the centre of the Cologne/Bonn Region with
around 3 million inhabitants (including the neighbouring
cities of Bonn, Hrth, Leverkusen, and Bergisch Glad2.2 Climate
bach).
Cologne is one of the warmest cities in Germany. It has
a temperateoceanic climate with relatively mild winters
and warm summers. It is also one of the gloomiest cities
in Germany, with just 1427 hours of sun a year. Its average annual temperature is 10.3 C (51 F): 14.8 C (59
F) during the day and 5.8 C (42 F) at night. In January,
the mean temperature is 2.6 C (37 F), while the mean
temperature in July is 18.8 C (66 F). Precipitation is
spread evenly throughout the year.

2.3

Flood protection

According to local statistics, in 2006, the population density in the city was 2,528 inhabitants per square kilometre. 31.4 percent of the population has migrated there,
and 17.2 percent of Colognes population is non-German.
The largest group, comprising 6.3 percent of the total
population, is Turkish.[28] As of September 2007, there
are about 120,000 Muslims living in Cologne, mostly of
Turkish origin.[29] Cologne also has the oldest and one of
the largest Jewish communities in Germany.[30]
In the city the population was spread out with 15.5% under the age of 18, 67.0% from 18 to 64 and 17.4% who
were 65 years of age or older.[31]

4 Government
See also: Cologne City Hall
The citys administration is headed by the mayor and the
three deputy mayors. Jrgen Roters of the Social Democratic Party has been mayor since 20 October 2009.[33]

4.1 Political traditions and developments


The 1930 ood in Cologne

Cologne is regularly aected by ooding from the


Rhine and is considered the most ood-prone European city.[22] A city agency (Stadtentwsserungsbetriebe
Kln,[23] Cologne Urban Drainage Operations) manages an extensive ood control system which includes
both permanent and mobile ood walls, protection from
rising waters for buildings close to the river banks,
monitoring and forecasting systems, pumping stations
and programs to create or protect oodplains, and river
embankments.[22][24] The system was redesigned after a
1993 ood, which resulted in heavy damage.[22]

The long tradition of a free imperial city, which long


dominated an exclusively Catholic population and the
age-old conict between the church and the bourgeoisie
(and within it between the patricians and craftsmen) has
created its own political climate in Cologne. Various interest groups often form the basis of societal socialization and therefore beyond party boundaries. The resulting network of relationships, with political, economic,
and cultural links with each other in a system of mutual favors, obligations and dependencies, is called the
Cologne coterie. This has often led to an unusual proportional distribution in the city government and degenerated at times into corruption: in 1999, a waste scandal
over kickbacks and illegal campaign contributions came

TOURISM

to light, which led not only to the imprisonment of the en- 6 Wildlife
trepreneur Hellmut Trienekens, but also to the downfall
of almost the entire leadership sta of the ruling Social The presence of animals in Cologne is generally limited
Democrats.
to insects, small rodents, and several species of birds.
Pigeons are the most often seen animals in Cologne, although the number of birds are augmented each year by a
growing population of feral exotics, most visibly parrots
4.2 Mayor
such as the rose-ringed Parakeet. The sheltered climate in
southeast Westphalia allows these birds to survive through
The Lord Mayor of Cologne is Jrgen Roters of the Social
the winter, and in some cases they are displacing native
Democratic Party. As the joint candidate of the SPD and
species. The plumage of Colognes green parrots is highly
the Greens, he received 54.67% of the vote on 30 August
visible even from a distance, and contrasts starkly with the
2009 at the municipal election. He has been Lord Mayor
otherwise muted colors of the cityscape.[37]
since 21 October 2009.

4.3

Elections

7 Tourism

Cologne had 4.31 million overnight stays booked and


City Councillors are elected for a ve-year term and the
2.38 million arrivals in 2008.[20] The city also has the
Mayor has a six-year term.[34]
most pubs per capita in Germany.[38] The city has 70
clubs, countless bars, restaurants, and pubs.[38]

4.4

Make-up of city council


7.1 Landmarks

Cityscape

7.1.1 Churches
Cologne Cathedral (German: Klner Dom) is the
citys most famous monument and the Cologne residents most respected landmark. It is a Gothic
church, started in 1248, and completed in 1880. In
1996, it was designated a World Heritage site; it
houses the Shrine of the Three Kings, which supposedly contains the relics of the Three Magi (see
also[39] ). Residents of Cologne sometimes refer to
the cathedral as the eternal construction site (die
ewige Baustelle).

Panoramic view of the city centre at night as seen


from Deutz; from left to right: Deutz Bridge, Great St.
Martin Church, Cologne Cathedral, Hohenzollern Bridge
The inner city of Cologne was completely destroyed during World War II. The reconstruction of the city followed
the style of the 1950s, while respecting the old layout and
naming of the streets. Thus, the city today is characterized by simple and modest post-war buildings, with few
interspersed pre-war buildings which were reconstructed
due to their historical importance. Some buildings of the
Wiederaufbauzeit (era of reconstruction), for example
the opera house by Wilhelm Riphahn, are nowadays regarded as classics of modern architecture. Nevertheless,
the uncompromising style of the Cologne Opera house
and other modern buildings has remained controversial.
Green areas account for over a quarter of Cologne which
is approximately 75 m2 (807.29 sq ft) of public green
space for every citizen of the city.[36]

Twelve Romanesque churches: These buildings are


outstanding examples of medieval church architecture. The origins of some of the churches go back
as far as Roman times, for example St. Gereon,
which was originally a chapel in a Roman graveyard. With the exception of St. Maria Lyskirchen
all of these churches were very badly damaged during World War II. Reconstruction was only nished
in the 1990s.
Cologne Cathedral
Great St. Martin Church
Basilica of St. Severin
Church of the Assumption
Holy Trinity Church

7.4
7.1.2

High-rise structures

Medieval houses

Bridge, Hohenzollern Bridge, Zoo Bridge (Zoobrcke)


and Cologne Mlheim Bridge. In particular the iron tied
arch Hohenzollern Bridge (Hohenzollernbrcke) is a dominant landmark along the river embankment. A Rhine
river crossing of a special kind is provided by the Cologne
Cable Car (German: Klner Seilbahn), a cableway that
runs across the Rhine between the Cologne Zoological
Garden in Riehl and the Rheinpark in Deutz.

The Cologne City Hall (Klner Rathaus), founded in the


12th century, is the oldest city hall in Germany still
in use.[40] The Renaissance style loggia and tower were
added in the 15th century. Other famous buildings include the Grzenich, Haus Saaleck and the Overstolzenhaus.
Cologne City Hall

7.4 High-rise structures

Grzenich

Colognes tallest structure is the Colonius telecommunication tower at 266 m or 873 ft. The observation deck
has been closed since 1992. A selection of the tallest
buildings in Cologne are listed below. Other tall struc7.1.3 Medieval city gates
tures include the Hansahochhaus (designed by architect
Jacob Koerfer and completed in 1925it was at one time
Of the once 12 medieval city gates, only the EigelsteinEuropes tallest oce building), the Kranhaus buildings
torburg at Ebertplatz, the Hahnentor at Rudolfplatz and
at Rheinauhafen, and the Messeturm Kln (trade fair
the Severinstorburg at Chlodwigplatz still stand today.
tower).
Overstolzenhaus

Eigelsteintor
Hahnentor

8 Culture

Severinstor

7.2

Streets

Main article: Streets in Cologne

The Cologne Ring boulevards (such as Hohenzollernring, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Ring, Hansaring) with


their medieval city gates (such as Hahnentorburg on
Rudolfplatz) are also known for their night life.
Hohe Strae (literally: High Street) is one of the
main shopping areas and extends past the cathedral
in an approximately southerly direction. The street
contains many gift shops, clothing stores, fast food
restaurants and electronic goods dealers.

Courtyard of the Kolumba museum in 2007, designed by Peter


Zumthor

Cologne has several museums. The famous RomanGermanic Museum features art and architecture from the
citys distant past; the Museum Ludwig houses one of
Schildergasse connects the Neumarkt plaza on its the most important collections of modern art in Europe,
west end to the southern end of the Hohe Strasse including a Picasso collection matched only by the mushopping street at its east end and has been named seums in Barcelona and Paris. The Museum Schntgen
the busiest shopping street in Europe with 13,000 of religious art is partly housed in St. Cecilia, one of
people passing through every hour.
Colognes Twelve Romanesque churches.
Ehrenstrae the shopping area around Apos- Several orchestras are active in the city, among them the
telnstrasse, Ehrenstrasse, and Rudolfplatz is a little Grzenich Orchestra and the WDR Symphony Orchestra Cologne, both based at the Cologne Philharmonic Ormore on the eccentric and stylish side.
chestra Building.[42] Other orchestras are the Musica Antiqua Kln and the WDR Rundfunkorchester Kln, as
well as the Cologne Opera and several choirs, includ7.3 Bridges
ing the WDR Rundfunkchor Kln. Cologne was also an
Several bridges cross the Rhine in Cologne. They important centre of electronic music in the 1950s (Stuare (from South to North): the Cologne Rodenkirchen dio fr elektronische Musik, Karlheinz Stockhausen) and
Bridge, South Bridge (railway), Severin Bridge, Deutz again from the 1990s onward. The public radio and TV

8 CULTURE

station WDR was involved in promoting musical movements such as Krautrock in the 1970s; the inuential Can
was formed there in 1968. There are several centres of
nightlife, among them the Kwartier Latng (the student
quarter around the Zlpicher Strae) and the nightclubstudded areas around Hohenzollernring, Friesenplatz and
Rudolfplatz.

8.2 Rivalry with Dsseldorf

Cologne and Dsseldorf have a erce regional


rivalry,[44] which includes carnival parades, football,
and beer.[44] People in Cologne prefer Klsch while people in Dsseldorf prefer Alt.[44] Waiters and patrons will
scorn and make a mockery of people who order Alt
beer in Cologne and Klsch in Dsseldorf.[44] The rivalry
The large annual literary festival Lit. Cologne features rehas been described as a lovehate relationship.[44]
gional and international authors. The main literary gure
connected with Cologne is writer Heinrich Bll, winner
of the Nobel Prize for Literature.
8.3 Museums
Cologne is well known for its beer, called Klsch. Klsch
is also the name of the local dialect. This has led to the
common joke of Klsch being the only language one can
drink.
Cologne is also famous for Eau de Cologne (German:
Klnisch Wasser; lit: Water of Cologne), a perfume
created by Italian expatriate Johann Maria Farina at the
beginning of the 18th century. During the 18th century
this perfume became increasingly popular, was exported
all over Europe by the Farina family and Farina became
a household name for Eau de Cologne. In 1803 Wilhelm
Mlhens entered into a contract with an unrelated person
from Italy named Carlo Francesco Farina who granted
him the right to use his family name and Mhlens opened
a small factory at Colognes Glockengasse. In later years The Museum Ludwig houses one of the most important collections
and after various court battles his grandson Ferdinand of modern art.
Mlhens had to abandon the name Farina for the company and their product. He decided to use the house number given to the factory at Glockengasse during French
occupation in the early 19th century, 4711. Today, original Eau de Cologne is still produced in Cologne by both
the Farina family, currently in the eighth generation, and
by Murer & Wirtz who bought the 4711 brand in 2006.

8.1

Carnival
Roman excavation in Cologne: Dionysus Mosaic on display at

The Cologne carnival is one of the largest street festi- Rmisch-Germanisches Museum
vals in Europe. In Cologne, the carnival season ocially starts on 11 November at 11 minutes past 11 a.m. Main article: List of museums in Cologne
with the proclamation of the new Carnival Season, and
continues until Ash Wednesday. However, the so-called
Farina Fragrance Museum birthplace of Eau de
Tolle Tage (crazy days) don't start until Weiberfastnacht
Cologne
(Womens Carnival) or, in dialect, Wieverfastelovend, the
Thursday before Ash Wednesday, which is the beginning
Rmisch-Germanisches
Museum
(Romanof the street carnival. Zlpicher Strasse and its surroundGermanic
Museum)

ancient
Roman
and
ings, Neumarkt square, Heumarkt and all bars and pubs
Germanic
culture
in the city are crowded with people in costumes dancing
and drinking in the streets. Hundreds of thousands of vis Wallraf-Richartz Museum European painting
itors ock to Cologne during this time. Generally, around
from the 13th to the early 20th century
a million people celebrate in the streets on the Thursday
Museum Ludwig modern art
before Ash Wednesday.[43]

9
Museum Schntgen medieval art
Museum fr Angewandte Kunst applied art
Kolumba Kunstmuseum des Erzbistums Kln (art
museum of the Archbishopric of Cologne) modern
art museum built around medieval ruins, completed
2007
Cathedral Treasury Domschatzkammer historic
underground vaults of the Cathedral
EL-DE Haus, former local headquarters of the
Gestapo houses a museum documenting Nazi rule Modern oce building at Rheinauhafen
in Cologne with a special focus on the persecution
of political dissenters and minorities
Among the largest media companies based in Cologne
German Sports and Olympic Museum exhibitions
are Westdeutscher Rundfunk, RTL Television (with subabout sports from antiquity until the present
sidiaries), n-tv, Deutschlandradio, Brainpool TV and
Imho-Schokoladenmuseum Chocolate Museum publishing houses like J. P. Bachem, Taschen, Tandem
Verlag, and M. DuMont Schauberg. Several clusters of
Forum for Internet Technology in Contemporary media, arts and communications agencies, TV production
Art collections of Internet-based art, corporate studios, and state agencies work partly with private and
part of (NewMediaArtProjectNetwork):cologne, government funded cultural institutions. Among the inthe experimental platform for art and New Media
surance companies based in Cologne are Central, DEVK,
DKV, Generali Deutschland, Gothaer, HDI Gerling and
Flora und Botanischer Garten Kln, the citys formal
national headquarters of AXA Insurance and Zurich Fipark and main botanical garden
nancial Services.
Forstbotanischer Garten Kln, an arboretum and The German ag carrier Lufthansa and its subsidiary
woodland botanical garden
Lufthansa CityLine have their main corporate headquarters in Cologne.[48] The largest employer in Cologne is
Ford Europe, which has its European headquarters and a
8.4 Music fairs and festivals
factory in Niehl (Ford-Werke GmbH).[49] Toyota Motorsport GmbH (TMG), Toyota's ocial motorsports team,
The city was home to the internationally famous Ringfest, responsible for Toyota rally cars, and then Formula One
and now to the C/o pop festival.[45]
cars, has headquarters and workshops in Cologne. Other
In addition, Cologne is enjoying a thriving Christmas large companies based in Cologne include the REWE
Market Weihnachtsmarkt presence with several locations Group, TV Rheinland, Deutz AG and a number of
Klsch breweries. Cologne has the countrys highest denin the city.
sity of pubs per capita.[38] The largest three Klsch breweries are Reissdorf, Gael, and Frh.

Economy

North entrance to Koelnmesse, 2008

Historically, Cologne has always been an important trade


city, with land, air, and sea connections.[2] The city
has ve Rhine ports,[2] the second largest inland port in
Germany and one of the largest in Europe. CologneBonn Airport is the second largest freight terminal in
Germany.[2] Today, the Cologne trade fair (Koelnmesse)
ranks as a major European trade fair location with over
50 trade fairs[2] and other large cultural and sports events.
In 2008 Cologne had 4.31 million overnight accommodations booked and 2.38 million arrivals.[20] Colognes
largest daily newspaper is the Klner Stadt-Anzeiger.

As the largest city in the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region, Cologne benets from a large market structure.[46]
In competition for location factors with Dsseldorf, the
economy of Cologne is primarily based on insurance and 10 Transport
media industries,[47] while the city is also an important
cultural and research centre and home to a number of Main article: Transport in Cologne
corporate headquarters.

10

10.1

10 TRANSPORT

Road transport

Cologne Stadtbahn at Bensberg station

Major roads through and around Cologne.

Road building had been a major issue in the 1920s under the leadership of mayor Konrad Adenauer. The
rst German limited access road was constructed after 1929 between Cologne and Bonn. Today, this is
the Bundesautobahn 555. In 1965, Cologne became
the rst German city to be fully encircled by a freeway belt. Roughly at the same time a downtown bypass freeway (Stadtautobahn) was planned, but only partially put into eect, due to opposition by environmental groups. The completed section became Bundesstrae
(Federal Road) B 55a which begins at the Zoobrcke
(Zoo Bridge) and meets with A 4 and A 3 at the interchange Cologne East. Nevertheless, it is referred to
as Stadtautobahn by most locals. In contrast to this
the Nord-Sd-Fahrt (North-South-Drive) was actually
completed, a new four/six-lane downtown thoroughfare,
which had already been anticipated by planners like Fritz
Schumacher in the 1920s. The last section south of Ebertplatz was completed in 1972.

Train at Kln Hbf (Cologne Central Station)

10.3 Rail transport


Cologne has a railway service with Deutsche Bahn
InterCity and ICE-trains stopping at Kln Hauptbahnhof (Cologne Central Station), Kln Messe/Deutz and
Cologne/Bonn Airport. ICE and TGV Thalys high-speed
trains link Cologne with Amsterdam, Brussels (in 1h47,
6 departures/day) and Paris (in 3h14, 6 departures/day).
There are frequent ICE trains to other German cities, including Frankfurt am Main and Berlin. ICE Trains to
London via the Channel Tunnel were to be planned for
2013.[50] Channel Tunnel liberalisation is now not expected until 2014 and maybe a Deutsche Bahn service in
2015 if the rolling stock meets the revised requirements
of Eurotunnel.

In 2005, the rst stretch of an eight-lane freeway


in North Rhine-Westphalia was opened to trac on
Bundesautobahn 3, part of the eastern section of the
Cologne Beltway between the interchanges Cologne East
and Heumar.
The Cologne city railway operated by Klner Verkehrsbetriebe (KVB)[51] is an extensive light rail system that is
partially underground (referred to as U-Bahn) and serves
Cologne and a number of neighbouring cities. Nearby
10.2 Cycling
Bonn is linked by both the city railway and Deutsche
Like most German cities, Cologne has a trac layout de- Bahn trains, and occasional recreational boats on the
signed to be bicycle-friendly. There is an extensive cycle Rhine. Dsseldorf is also linked by S-Bahn trains which
network, featuring pavement-edge cycle lanes linked by are operated by Deutsche Bahn.
cycle priority crossings. In some of the narrow one-way There are also frequent buses covering most of the city
central streets, cyclists are explicitly allowed to cycle both and surrounding suburbs, and Eurolines coaches to London via Brussels.
ways.

11

10.4

Water transport

Hfen und Gterverkehr Kln (Cologne Ports and Railways) (HGK) is one of the largest operators for inland
ports in Germany.[52] Ports include Kln-Deutz, KlnGodorf, and Kln-Niehl I and II. Kln-Dsseldorfer offers Rhine river cruises along the entire Rhine.

10.5

Air transport

Colognes international airport is Cologne/Bonn Airport


(CGN). It is also called Konrad Adenauer Airport after
Germanys rst post-war Chancellor Konrad Adenauer,
who was born in the city and was mayor of Cologne from RheinEnergieStadion is the stadium of 1. Bundesliga club 1. FC
1917 until 1933. The airport is shared with the neigh- Kln
bouring city of Bonn. Cologne is headquarters to the
European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). The airport
being one of the best sporting venues in the world.[60]
is also the main hub of the airline Germanwings.
Cologne also hosts FC Viktoria Kln 1904 and SC Fortuna Kln, who play in the Regionalliga West (fourth division) respectively the 3. Liga (third division).

11

Education

The city is also home of the ice hockey team Klner


Haie, in the highest ice hockey league in Germany,
Cologne is home to numerous universities and
[59]
They are based at the
[53][54]
[2] the Deutsche Eishockey Liga.
colleges,
and host to some 72,000 students.
[59]
Lanxess Arena.
Its oldest university, the University of Cologne (originally founded in 1388[3] ) is the largest university in Several horse races per year are held at CologneGermany, as the Cologne University of Applied Sciences Weidenpesch Racecourse since 1897, the annual Cologne
is the largest university of Applied Sciences in the Marathon was started in 1997. From 2002 to 2009, the
country. The Cologne University of Music and Dance Panasonic Toyota Racing Formula One team was based
is the largest conservatory in Europe.[55] Foreigners in the Marsdorf suburb, at the Toyota Motorsport GmbH
can have German lessons in the VHS (Adult Education facility.
Centre).[56]
Cologne is considered the secret golf capital of

12

Media

Within Germany, Cologne is known as an important media centre. Several radio and television stations, including Westdeutscher Rundfunk (WDR), RTL and VOX,
have their headquarters in the city. Film and TV production is also important. The city is Germanys capital
of TV crime stories.[57] A third of all German TV productions are produced in the Cologne region.[57] Furthermore, the city hosts the Cologne Comedy Festival, which
is considered to be the largest comedy festival in mainland Europe.[58]

13

Sports

Cologne hosts 1. FC Kln,[59] who play in the Bundesliga.


They play their home matches in RheinEnergieStadion
which also hosted 5 matches of the 2006 FIFA World
Cup.[60] The International Olympic Committee and Internationale Vereinigung Sport- und Freizeiteinrichtungen e.V. gave RheinEnergieStadion a bronze medal for

Germany.[59] The rst golf club in North RhineWestphalia was founded in Cologne in 1906.[59] The city
oers the most options and top events in Germany.[59]
The city has hosted several athletic events which includes
the 2005 FIFA Confederations Cup, 2006 FIFA World
Cup, 2007 World Mens Handball Championship, 2010
IIHF World Championship and 2010 Gay Games.[4]

14 Notable residents
Notable people, whose roots can be found in Cologne:
Konrad Adenauer (18761967), politician, mayor
of Cologne (191733, 1945) and rst West German
Federal Chancellor
Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa (14861535), alchemist, occultist, and author of Three Books of
Occult Philosophy
Agrippina the Younger (1559), Roman Empress
(wife of Emperor Claudius) and mother of Emperor
Nero

12

14

NOTABLE RESIDENTS

Heinrich Birnbaum (140373), a Catholic monk

Ottmar Liebert (born 1961), musician

Heinrich Boigk (19122003) Knights Cross winner

de:Mariele Millowitsch (born 1955), actress

Robert Blum (180748), politician and martyr of


the 19th century democratic movement in Germany
Heinrich Bll (191785), writer and winner of the
Nobel prize for literature in 1972
Max Bruch (18381920) composer
lex Calatrava (born 1973), Spanish professional
tennis player
Heribert Calleen (born 1924), sculptor

de:Peter Millowitsch (born 1949), actor, playwright


and theatre director
Willy Millowitsch (19091999), actor, playwright
and theatre director
Wolfgang Niedecken (born 1951), singer, musician,
artist and bandleader of BAP
Theodore of Corsica (16941756), briey King
Theodore of Corsica

Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck (born 1973),


Academy Award-winning director and screenwriter

Jacques Oenbach (181980), composer

Max Ernst (18911976), artist

de:Willi Ostermann (18761936) composer

Angela Gossow (born 1974), former lead vocalist of


Swedish melodic death metal band Arch Enemy

Nikolaus Otto (18321891) inventor, 4 cycle internal combustion engine

Amos Grunebaum (born 1950), obstetrician and gynecologist

Kim Petras (born 1992), singer

Britta Heidemann (born 1982), pe fencer and


Olympic medalist

Frederik Prausnitz (19202004), American conductor and teacher

de:Trude Herr (192791), actress and singer

Christa Pgen aka Nico (19381988), model, actress, singer, and songwriter in Velvet Underground
and Warhol Superstar

de:Stefanie Hner (born 1969), actress


Udo Kier (born 1944), actor
Lukas Podolski (born 1985), German footballer

Hedwig Potthast (19121997), secretary and mistress of Heinrich Himmler

Jutta Kleinschmidt (born 1962), o-road automotive racing competitor

Stefan Raab (born 1966), German entertainer and


host of Eurovision Song Contest 2011

Werner Klemperer (19202000), Emmy Awardwinning comedy actor

Jrgen Rttgers (born 1951), Minister-President of


North Rhine-Westphalia (20052010)

Erich Klibansky (19001942), Jewish headmaster


and teacher

Jrgen Fritz (born 1953), musician and composer

Adolf Kober (18701958), Jewish rabbi and medievalist

Markus Stockhausen (born 1957), musician and


composer

Gaby Kster (born 1961), German actress and comedian

Wolfgang von Trips (192861), Formula One racing


driver

Hildegard Krekel (19522013), actress


de:Lotti Krekel (born 1941), actress and singer

Joost van den Vondel (15871679), Dutch poet and


playwright

Uwe Krupp (born 1965), professional (ice) hockey


player

Moshe Wallach (18661957), founder and director


of Shaare Zedek Hospital, Jerusalem

Heinz Khn (191292), Minister-President of


North Rhine-Westphalia (196678)
Heiner Lauterbach (1953), actor
Julia Leischik (born 1970), German editor-in-chief,
television presenter and television producer.

Robert Weimar (19322013), legal scientist and


psychologist
de:Christoph Watrin (born 1988), singer, US5
Carl Wyland (18861972), German blacksmith

13

15

See also

History of the Jews in Cologne

[19] Bezirksregierung Kln: Topograsche Karte 1:50.000


(TK 50), Blatt L 5108 Kln-Mlheim. Kln 2012, ISBN
978-3-89439-422-6.

List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany

[20] Cologne at a glance. City of Cologne. Retrieved 17


April 2011.

Stadtwerke Kln, the municipal infrastructure company, operator of the citys railways, ports, and utilities.

[21] Ausgabe der Klimadaten: Monatswerte.

16

References

[1] Amtliche Bevlkerungszahlen. Landesbetrieb Information und Technik NRW (in German). 4 September 2014.
[2] Economy. KlnTourismus. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
[3] From Ubii village to metropolis. City of Cologne. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
[4] Facts and gures. City of Cologne. Retrieved 17 April
2011.
[5] C.Michael Hogan, ''Cologne Wharf'', The Megalithic
Portal, editor Andy Burnham, 2007. Megalithic.co.uk.
Retrieved 24 July 2009.
[6] Harry de Quetteville. "History of Cologne". The Catholic
Encyclopedia, 28 November 2009.
[7] Joseph P. Human, Family, Commerce, and Religion in
London and Cologne (1998) covers from 1000 to 1300.
[8] Bruce, S.G. (2010). Ecologies and Economies in Medieval
and Early Modern Europe: Studies in Environmental History for Richard C. Homann. Brill. p. 48. ISBN
9789004180079. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
[9] Rote Funken Klsche Funke rut-wie vun 1823 e.V.
Rote Funken Koeln. Rote-funken.de. Retrieved 5 May
2009.
[10] United Services Magazine, December 1835
[11] Festung Kln. Retrieved 1 April 2011.
[12] Cologne Evacuated, TIME Magazine, 15 February 1926
[13] Weimarer Wahlen. Web.archive.org. 11 February
2008. Archived from the original on 11 February 2008.
Retrieved 24 July 2009.
[14] Voting results 19191933 Cologne-Aachen. Wahlenin-deutschland.de. Retrieved 8 August 2010.
[15] koelnarchitektur (15 July 2003). on the reconstruction of
Cologne. Koelnarchitektur.de. Retrieved 24 July 2009.
[16] Tourtellot, Arthur B. et al. Lifes Picture History of World
War II, p. 237. Time Incorporated, New York, 1950.
[17] Kirsten Serup-Bilfeld, Zwischen Dom und Davidstern.
Jdisches Leben in Kln von den Anfngen bis heute.
Kln 2001, page 193
[18] Synagogen-Gemeinde Kln. Sgk.de. 26 June 1931.
Retrieved 8 August 2010.

[22] Martin Gocht; Reinhard Vogt. Flood Forecasting and


Flood Defence in Cologne. Mitigation of Climate Induced Natural Hazards (MITCH). Retrieved 20 March
2009.
[23] Stadtentwsserungsbetriebe Kln : Flood Management.
Steb-koeln.de. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
[24] Flood Defence Scheme City of Cologne. Retrieved 20
March 2009.
[25] van Tilburg, C. (2007). Trac and Congestion in the
Roman Empire. Taylor & Francis. p. 42. ISBN
9781134129751. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
[26] Diego Puga & Daniel Treer (30 November 2009).
International trade and institutional change: A death in
Venice. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
[27] Information und Technik Nordrhein-Westfalen
(IT.NRW) Amtliche Bevlkerungszahlen. It.nrw.de.
Retrieved 16 September 2011.
[28] 2007 Einwohnerdaten im berblick Zahlen + Statistik Bevlkerung Stadt Kln. Web.archive.org. 28
January 2008. Archived from the original on 28 January
2008. Retrieved 24 July 2009.
[29] WDR Article of 15.08.2007. Wdr.de. Retrieved 24
July 2009.
[30] Serup-Bilfeldt, Kirsten (19 August 2005). Cologne:
Germanys Oldest Jewish Community. Deutsche Welle.
Retrieved 6 September 2011.
[31] City of Cologne -> Figures Statistics Population (German)". Web.archive.org. 8 February 2008. Archived
from the original on 8 February 2008. Retrieved 24 July
2009.
[32] Statistisches Jahrbuch Kln 2011. Amt fr Stadtentwicklung und Statistik. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
[33] Der Oberbrgermeister (in German).
April 2011.

Retrieved 15

[34] Wahlperiode (in German). City of Cologne. Retrieved


15 April 2011.
[35] Alle Ratsmitglieder (in German). City of Cologne. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
[36] Green Cologne. KlnTourismus. Retrieved 17 April
2011.
[37] In NRW behaupten sich immer mehr exotische Vgel.
RP Online. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
[38] Nightlife. KlnTourismus. Retrieved 17 April 2011.

14

[39] Ozielle Webseite des Klner Doms | Bedeutende


Werke. Koelner-dom.de. Retrieved 5 May 2009.
[40] Strategic
Management
Society

Cologne
Conference

Cologne
Information.
Cologne.strategicmanagement.net. 14 October 2008.
Retrieved 26 July 2010.
[41] Homepage of the Uni-Center. Unicenterkoeln.de. Retrieved 8 August 2010.
[42] Klner Philharmonie. Web.archive.org. 11 December
2007. Archived from the original on 11 December 2007.
Retrieved 8 August 2010.
[43] Carnival Colognes fth season Cologne Sights &
Events Stadt Kln. Web.archive.org. 26 January 2008.
Archived from the original on 25 January 2008. Retrieved
24 July 2009.
[44] Giving Beer A Home in the Rhineland. The Local. 28
July 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
[45] C/o Pop Ocial Website.
[46] stadt-koeln.de Cologne Business Guide (German) (English)
[47] Cologne on Encyclopdia Britannica Online
[48] Directory: World Airlines. Flight International. 3 April
2007. p. 107.
[49] "ber Ford Standorte. Ford Germany. Retrieved 20
June 2009. (German)
[50] High-speed trains to link England and Germany. Brisbanetimes.com.au. 16 October 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2012.
[51] Klner Verkehrsbetriebe (KVB)". Kvb-koeln.de. Retrieved 24 July 2009.
[52] Hfen und Gterverkehr Kln AG. Hgk.de. Retrieved
8 August 2010.
[53] Hochschulen Wissensdurst Kln Das Klner Wissenschaftsportal. Wissensdurst-koeln.de. Retrieved 26
July 2010.
[54] Forschungsschwerpunkte. Wissensdurst-koeln.de.
[55] goethe.de. goethe.de. Retrieved 8 August 2010.
[56] Cologne Adult Education Centre City of Cologne.
Stadt-koeln.de. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
[57] Productions made in Cologne"". Cologne Tourism. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
[58] Cologne Comedy Festival website. Koeln-comedy.de.
21 October 2007.
[59] Sport and relaxation. Cologne Tourist Information. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
[60] The RheinEnergie Stadium. 1. FC Kln. Retrieved 20
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17

EXTERNAL LINKS

17 External links
City of Cologne, ocial City of Cologne page (German)

15

18
18.1

Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses


Text

Cologne Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cologne?oldid=632152577 Contributors: AxelBoldt, Magnus Manske, MichaelTinkler, The


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German name, Jacksav, Marek69, Dfrg.msc, Tennisuser123, Escarbot, Oreo Priest, Dantheman531, AntiVandalBot, Nicholas0, Seaphoto,
Bcnviajero, Goldenrowley, Thing that goes on feet, Malcolm, Panthere, Crix, JAnDbot, Stevedix, MER-C, Fetchcomms, Mezzofanti,
Leolaursen, Mulgul, Magioladitis, KagamiNoMiko, Eduard Domnech, David Oliver, VKing, Redline2200, JamesBWatson, Lquiroga,
Twsx, Pixie2000, 28421u2232nfenfcenc, Cailil, Bobby H. Heey, Spellmaster, Kgeischmann, John the revelator, Gun Powder Ma, Jtir,
MartinBot, 52 Pickup, BetBot, Qwallis, Eddl, Keith D, R'n'B, CommonsDelinker, Smokizzy, Dsokebin, Tgeairn, J.delanoy, Borsi112,
Numbo3, Jiuguang Wang, WarthogDemon, Kudpung, Maproom, Bot-Schafter, Johnbod, McSly, Koven.rm, Tc5414, GhostPirate, Jjungclaus, Lemsus, Sundar1, Rosenknospe, Ahuskay, Axolotl Nr.733, KylieTastic, Scandydave, Bundesamt, Bonadea, Dorftrottel, Spellcast,
VolkovBot, Shinju, AlnoktaBOT, JustinHagstrom, Fujicolor, Hardeepsingh1, Jacroe, Philip Trueman, TXiKiBoT, Bellwars, Nono le
petit robot, Littlealien182, Der Wolf im Wald, Don4of4, Synthebot, Hughstew, Le Fou, Francis Escort, HiDrNick, Dessymona, Jammycaketin, Dassiebtekreuz, AlleborgoBot, MizziSzabo, Hydrolog, NHRHS2010, Givegains, Donnator, Wschroedter, SieBot, StAnselm,
Scarian, ToePeu.bot, JT72, Vanished User 8a9b4725f8376, Border144, Chamblyen, Extrala, Steve9483, Veddharta, Cameron, Edward
franks, Oxymoron83, Lightmouse, Michelvoss, Kid Jack, Correogsk, Odcdtd45, Ryankaleo1993, JL-Bot, Stillwaterising, Sean111111,
Amazonien, Squash Racket, Sfan00 IMG, ClueBot, The Thing That Should Not Be, Mawzi, Jan1nad, Timatherton, Fiet Nam, Mild Bill
Hiccup, Joao Xavier, Imperium Europeum, Tenterollen, Rambler24, DragonBot, Turkstud, Untitled0, Canis Lupus, Estirabot, NuclearWarfare, Gnickett1, 7, DerBorg, DoctorEric, Midnight Hour, DumZiBoT, Hartheiser, XLinkBot, Colors99, Pichpich, Entrophie, Novid3000,
ProfDEH, Avoided, Ariconte, Kbdankbot, FactStraight, Addbot, Aikclaes, Atethnekos, AlexWangombe, CanadianLinuxUser, Daicaregos,
Sulmues, Paris 16, LinkFA-Bot, Peti610botH, AgadaUrbanit, Numbo3-bot, Lightbot, Romaioi, Avono, Zorrobot, Bermicourt, Gavincato,
Legobot, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Hohenloh, FAURA, Meraser, ArchonMagnus, Nallimbot, Reenem, KamikazeBot, MacTire02, MrBurns,
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Proxy), Omnipaedista, Corbys, Ukaab, Hornymanatee, Haldraper, Eltitomac, MSacerdoti, Aleksa Lukic, Unapiedra, Haeinous, M2545,
Biker Biker, Abductive, Jonesey95, GreenEco, Mekeretrig, Ilovetrain, RedBot, Tim1357, Gerda Arendt, Elekhh, Nw77, TobeBot, Teddycom, Nemesis of Reason, Fayedizard, Elementree, Dbba, IRISZOOM, Innotata, Wikiperson1234, Appforleave, Hoops gza, Steve03Mills,
Maxollendor, EmausBot, Juergenk59, WikitanvirBot, Milkunderwood, Carlotm, Franjklogos, Dewritech, Gbvu, Marrante, CGN2010,
Periodonike, Umumu, AvicBot, ZroBot, Dolovis, Olz2110, Romni, Sf5xeplus, Subtropical-man, Moto53, H3llBot, ZH2010, IIIraute,
Otto Flottmann, 23matthias, Railpedia, KCP88, ChuispastonBot, Crown Prince, Whoop whoop pull up, ClueBot NG, Peter James, Pogwalshe, Arthurcox, Realraj, Satellizer, Dfarrell07, RJFF, Frietjes, Roreo123eurovision, Alphasinus, Stodtmeister, Widr, Traveletti, Bioscorperation, Prawn in the game, Raymond415, Szylla2011, Awesomedude32, Hallows AG, KB9813, =, Militaryartist, Tomatojuicepotato,
RenePaula, Surtalnar, OPolkruikenz, Ruwier, Ldaniel77, ManuManoloManue, Florine Calleen, DarafshBot, Irascheibe, Khazar2, Schelmentraum, JYBot, Dexbot, Webclient101, RJay (ocial), Frosty, Eliza von Waldbrl, Erciveil, Hulohulohhhhhhhhhh, Igorslipknot, Henry
Allison, Urs Enke, Lactasamir,
, Quenhitran, Rswiggs, Yumenosi, Skr15081997, Chrissperl, Antezedenz, Sutonkop, Vmdobrev,
Claradlepore, Rabz&Riri and Anonymous: 761

16

18

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2013-08-10_07-18-55_Ballonfahrt_%C3%BCber_K%C3%B6ln_EH_0626.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0-de Contributors: Own work
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File:4517Bensberg.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1e/4517Bensberg.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Mike Stephan
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Bundesarchiv_Bild_102-10776%2C_K%C3%B6ln%2C_Hochwasser.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0-de Contributors: This image was
provided to Wikimedia Commons by the German Federal Archive (Deutsches Bundesarchiv) as part of a cooperation project. The German
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artist: ?
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Montenegro.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons. Original artist: The original uploader
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Turkish Historical Society (Trk Tarih Kurumu) Original artist: David Benbennick (original author)
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Original artist: U.S. Department of Defense. Department of the Army. Oce of the Chief Signal Ocer. [2]
File:Koeln_Flagge.gif Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/00/Koeln_Flagge.gif License: Public domain Contributors: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bild:Koeln_Flagge.gif Original artist: Stadt Kln
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Innenhof.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Raimond Spekking
File:KlnFromTheISS.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d9/K%C3%B6lnFromTheISS.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: https://twitter.com/Cmdr_Hadfield/status/314744649682145280/photo/1 Original artist: NASA/Chris Hadeld
File:KlnTriangle_(0684).jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f5/K%C3%B6lnTriangle_%280684%29.jpg
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Museum_Ludwig_K%C3%B6ln_-_S%C3%BCdeingang_-_Schriftzug.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-4.0 Contributors: Own work Original
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rhine_w_template_2.png' width='100' height='85' srcset='//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/82/North_rhine_w_
template_2.png/150px-North_rhine_w_template_2.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/82/North_rhine_w_
template_2.png/200px-North_rhine_w_template_2.png 2x' data-le-width='3200' data-le-height='2718' /></a>
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18

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File:South.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cd/South.svg License: Public domain Contributors: DarkEvil.


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on original logo tossed together by Brion Vibber

18.3

Content license

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