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A

Project Report
on
SMART SENSORS/TRANSDUCERS
FOR THERMAL POWER PLANT

Submitted By:
Upendra Pratap Singh (PG-103)
Sudhir Singh (PG-106)
Vivekanand Kherwar (PG-111)
Ashwin John Tirkey (PG-113)
Amit Kumar Das (PG-117)

Under the guidance of

Mr. D. K. Dey
Asst. Professor
JINDAL INSTITUTE OF POWER TECHNOLOGY (JIPT)
O. P. Jindal Super Thermal Power Plant (4X250 MW)
Vill & PO: Tamnar, Dist.: Raigarh Pin-496107 (CG)

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Upendra Pratap Singh (PG-103), Sudhir Singh


(PG-106), Vivekanand Kherwar (PG-111) , Ashwin John Tirkey (PG-113)
and Amit Kumar Das (PG-117), students of JINDAL INSTITUTE OF
POWER TECHNOLOGY has completed the project work entitled Smart
Sensors/Transducers for Thermal Power Plant as
a
partial
requirement for completion of Post graduate Program in Thermal Power
Plant Technology. This work has been carried out by them under my
guidance and supervision.
For completion of this project they have worked with their
determination & dedication. We wish them best of luck for their bright
future.

Mr .D. K. Dey
(Project Guide)

Dr. K. C. Yadav
(Director)
Jindal Institute of Power Technology
Tamnar, Raigarh (CG)

Date:

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It gives a great sense of pleasure to present the report during PG


Program in Thermal Power Technology. We owe our heartiest thanks to Mr. D.
K. Dey for giving us full guidance and support during the completion of our
project.
We wish to express our profound sense of gratitude to Director Dr.
K. C. Yadav sir, Principal S. K. Nag sir & all the faculty members of Jindal
Institute of Power Technology, Tamnar for their delightful guidance and
constant encouragement throughout the process; they have always been a great
motivator for us.
We also take this opportunity to express our whole hearted thanks to
the employees of JPL who made it possible by providing necessary documents
and field experience to achieve the completion of our project with success.

Upendra Pratap Singh


Sudhir Singh
Vivekanand Kherwar
Ashwin John Tirkey
Amit Kumar Das
PGPTPT (2011-12)

Date: -

Jindal Institute of Power Technology


Tamnar, Raigarh (CG)

ABSTRACT
The SMART concept provides a standard modular platform for the complete
range of power plant sensor. It enables the sensor to stand alone with the processing power
normally associated with much larger data acquisition systems. The intelligence built into the
Smart Sensor allows measurement, storage and processing of raw data on multiple channels
within a compact, rugged and technically advanced recording unit, able to withstand harsh
environmental conditions.
The processing power of the system is powerful enough to include complete
linearity correction and temperature stability over a wide range, thereby maintaining its
factory accurate calibration while in the field. Each sensor is band run in a temperature
controlled oven which establishes the sensitivity of the individual parameters to ambient
temperature variations. The data collected during this process is used as a basis to provide
software error correction for parameters over the specified temperature range.
This process provides error correction of an order of magnitude better than
traditional technologies. This Smart Sensor includes a special low power sleep mode to
conserve battery power and reduce battery physical size. An interface software application
called SmartCom is supplied with the sensor to enable setting up, manipulation and retrieval
of data. Processing of data files for graphing and analysis is provided by Aqua graph.
Various alarm and triggering functions can be selected to activate external
equipment such as water samplers, modem phone connections and warning alarms.
The following range of sensors or combination of sensors can be optioned with
the smart system









Pressure Sensors
Temperature Sensors
Flow sensors
Vibration Sensors
Dissolved Oxygen Sensors
Electrical Conductivity
pH Value Sensors
I/P Converter

List of Figures:

Fig. 1.1
Fig. 3.1.1
Fig. 3.1.2
Fig. 3.1.3
Fig. 3.1.4
Fig. 3.1.5 (i) & (ii)
Fig. 3.1.6
Fig. 3.1.7
Fig. 3.1.8
Fig 3.1.9
Fig. 3.1.10
Fig. 3.1.11
Fig. 3.2.1
Fig. 3.2.2
Fig. 3.2.3
Fig. 3.2.4
Fig 3.3.1
Fig 3.3.2
Fig 3.3.3
Fig 3.3.4
Fig 3.3.5
Fig 3.3.6
Fig 3.3.7
Fig 3.3.7
Fig 3.3.8
Fig 3.4.1
Fig 3.4.2
Fig 3.4.3
Fig 3.4.4
Fig 3.4.5
Fig 3.4.6
Fig 3.5.1
Fig 3.5.2
Fig 3.5.3

Smart Sensor Network


Types of Pressure
Pictorial View of Bourdon-Tube Gauge
2600T Pressure Transmitter
Functional Block Diagram of Pressure Transmitter
Various Parts of Pressure Transmitter
PS 310 Pressure Sensor
Differential Pressure Transmitter EJA-A
Digital Sensor Design of DPR
Ceramic process isolating diaphragm used in PMC51
Level Measurement
Cerabar M-Pressure Transmitter with Ceramic Sensor
Thermocouple
Resistance Temperature Detector
Bimetallic Thermometer
Rosemount 644 Temperature Transmitter

Fig 3.5.4

Vibration Monitoring System

Fig. 3.6.1
Fig. 3.6.2
Fig. 3.6.3
Fig. 3.6.4
Fig. 3.6.5
Fig. 3.6.6
Fig. 3.6.7
Fig. 3.6.8
Fig. 3.6.9

Overview of Power Plant


Pressure Reducing Element
Back Pressure Regulator
Thermal Shut-Off Valve
Working of pH Sensor
Liquiline M CM42
Dissolved O2 Sensor
Conductivity Measurement
Various Models of Conductivity Sensors

Promass 80F
Functional block diagram of Promass 80F
Proline Promass 80
Promass 80F
Pictorial view of Level Switches
Float operated level switch

Ash Slurry Tank


BFP with Vibration Sensor
Vibration Sensor RN-LP202 Series
CW Pump with Vibration Sensor

Fig. 3.6.10
Fig. 3.6.11
Fig. 3.6.12
Fig. 3.6.13
Fig. 3.7.1
Fig. 3.7.2
Fig. 3.7.3
Fig. 3.7.4
Fig. 3.7.5
Fig. 3.8.1
Fig. 3.8.2
Fig. 3.8.3
Fig. 3.8.4
Fig. 4.1
Fig. 4.2
Fig. 4.3
Fig. 4.4
Fig. 4.5
Fig. 4.6

Duplex Type Cation Column


Rosemount Solu Comp II
Rosemount Analytical Analyzer
Liquiline M CM42 Conductivity and pH Sensor
Application of I/P Converter
Watson I/P Converter
Characteristic Graph of I/P converter
Watson I/P Converter
ABB I/P Converter
Sensor Assembly
Schematic diagram of Field Amplifier Module
Field Amplifier Unit
Schematic diagram of Signal Processing Module
Simultaneous Analog and Digital Communication
Point -to-Point Mode of Operation
Multidrop Mode of Operation
Examples of Device Parameter Sent to Control Room
4-20 mA Loop with a Zener Barrier
4-20 mA Loop with Isolator

List of Tables:

Table 3.1.1
Table 3.1.2.
Table 3.1.3 (i)
Table 3.1.3 (ii)
Table 3.1.4
Table 3.2.1
Table 3.2.2
Table 3.2.3
Table 3.2.4
Table 3.2.5
Table 3.3.1
Table 3.3.2
Table 3.5.1
Table 3.6.1
Table 3.6.2
Table 4.1

Specifications of Bourdon Type Gauges


Description of DPR EJA-A
Measuring Range of Cerabar M
Measuring Range of Cerabar M
Specifications of Cerabar M PMC51
Types of Thermocouple
Types of Resistance Thermometers
Comparison between RTD and Thermocouples
Specifications of Bimetallic Thermometer
Specifications of Rosemount 644 Temperature Transmitter
Technical Specifications
Measuring ranges for liquids for Proline Promass 80
Specifications of RN-LP202 Vibration Sensor

Table of Aqueous Conductivities


Characteristics of Rosemount Solu Comp II
HART Communication Layers

Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION
Smart Sensor & Its Networks

 Smart sensors are wireless or wired computing devices that sense information in much
variety of environments to provide a multidimensional view of the environment.
 For eg: sensors can sense light, some can sense temperature, pressure and flow
simultaneously.
 Smart Sensors are connected to Sensor networks. Sensor network is a collection of
some (sometimes even hundreds & thousands) smart sensor nodes which collaborate
among themselves to form a sensing network.
 The main task of a sensor network can be divided into three categories. Sensing,
processing and acting.
 After sensing the environment based on the query provided by the sensor node the
networks can process the sensed data, may even sometimes aggregate it with other
nodes data and send it to the base station.
 It enables the sensor to stand alone with the processing power normally associated
with much larger data acquisition systems.
 The intelligence built into the Smart Sensor allows measurement, storage and
processing of raw data on multiple channels within a compact, rugged and technically
advanced recording unit, able to withstand harsh environmental conditions.
 The Smart Sensor includes a special low power sleep mode to conserve battery power and
reduce battery physical size. An interface software application called Smart Com is supplied
with the sensor to enable setting up, manipulation and retrieval of data.

Smart Grid Sensors & Networks:


A smart grid sensor is a small, lightweight node that serves as a detection station
in a sensor network. Smart grid sensors enable the remote monitoring of equipment such as
transformers and power lines and the demand-side management of resources on an energy
smart grid.
Smart grid sensors can be used to monitor weather conditions and power line
temperature, which can then be used to calculate the lines carrying capacity. This process is
called dynamic line rating and it enables power companies to increase the power flow of
existing transmission lines. Smart grid sensors can also be used within homes and businesses
to increase energy efficiency.

A sensor network is a group of specialized transducers with a communications


infrastructure intended to monitor and record conditions at diverse locations. Commonly
monitored parameters are temperature, humidity, pressure and speed, illumination intensity,
vibration intensity, sound intensity, power-line voltage, chemical concentrations, pollutant
levels and vital body functions.
A sensor network consists of multiple detection stations called sensor nodes,
each of which is small, lightweight and portable. Every sensor node is equipped with a
transducer, microcomputer, transceiver and power source. The transducer generates electrical
signals based on sensed physical effects and phenomena. The microcomputer processes and
stores the sensor output. The transceiver, which can be hard-wired or wireless, receives
commands from a central computer and transmits data to that computer. The power for each
sensor node is derived from the electric utility or from a battery.

Fig. 1.1

Chapter 3: System Description


3.1.1 Pressure Sensor and its Transmitters
A device for measuring the magnitude
gnitude of a physical variable.
variable All
sensing is using physical measurement of phenomena. Pressure measurements are the
most common measurements taken and recorded in the power station. It ranges from
very low i.e. condenser vacuum to very high
high i.e. hydraulic pressure in some actuator
systems. Between these two limits of 30-40
30 40 milibar to 300 bar are to be the
measurements of different process media-stream,
media stream, water, oil, gas etc. and each with
varying degree of accuracy and reliability.
The commonn pressure measuring devices are:are:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Manometer using water and mercury


Diaphragm, Capsule bellow
Bourdonn Tube Gauges
Transducers of different types for all range of telemetric purposes.

3.1.2 Types of Pressure:

Fig. 3.1.1 Pictorial Representation of Different types of Pressure

3.1.3 Bourdon Type Pressure Gauges


Bourdon pressure gauges are used for measurement of pressure and vacuum and
are suitable for all clean and non-clogging
non
liquid and gaseous media.
a. The Bourdon Tube is a
thin walled tube of oval cross section which may be of C form or spirally wound. This tube
expands when pressure is applied internally. This expansion is converted into rotation of a
concentric pointer with a gear movement. The reading
reading indicated on a dial by the pointer is
proportional to the pressure applied. C-type
C type Bourdon tubes are used for low pressure ranges
and helical / spiral tubes for higher pressure ranges.

Fig. 3.1.
1.2 Pictorial View of Bourdon-Tube Gauge

3.1.4 Specifications of Bourdon Type Gauges:


Gauges
Company
Dial Size
Range
Standard Accuracy
Sensing Element
Bourdon Tube Material
Connection
Shape of Bourdon Tube
Joint Between Bourdon Tube Connection
Connection Size

AN Instruments
50mm, 100mm, 150 mm, 200 mm
60, 100, 160, 250, 400 & 600 kg/cm2
0.25% of FSD
Bourdon Tube
Stainless Steel
Screwed
In C P< 100kg/cm2, Coil P> 100kg/cm2
Argon Arc Welded
BSP, NPT, BSPT, API; M 20 x 1.5 (1/4"
NPT (M) for 50 mm dial)

Table 3.1.
1.1 Specifications of Bourdon Type Gauges

3.1.5 Protection in Pressure Sensing


S
Instruments
Snubber: - It is a protection device for pressure sensing instrument from violent
pressure surges and pulsation. Snubbers are also known as deadners reduce the effect of
pulsating pressure. They result in the instrument indicating or recording an average pressure,
instead of recording each individual surge or pulse. Snubbers are used in pipe lines leading to
the instrument.

3.1.6 Necessity of Smart Pressure


P
Transmitters
In the trend of modern plant, the distance between the field instruments and
centralized control rooms increases too many hundred yards. Hence it becomes very difficult
to watch these many instruments and supervise the operation of such large number of
equipments. To overcome this problem Smart Transmitters came into the field and become
popular for their reliability andd accuracy.

3.1.7 A General 2600T Series Pressure Transmitter


The 2600T series is a modular range of field mounted; microprocessor based
electronic transmitters, using a unique inductive sensing element. The models have a pressure
transmitter with "single port" process connection. This provides accurate and reliable
measurement of gauge and absolute pressure, in the even most difficult and hazardous
industrial environments.

Fig. 3.1.3
3.
A 2600T Pressure Transmitter

Fig. 3.1.44 Functional Block Diagram of Pressure Transmitter

This instrument consists of two functional units:


Primary Unit
Secondary Unit
Primary Unit includes the process interface and the sensor, the Secondary Unit
includes the electronics, the terminal block and the housing. The two units are mechanically
coupled by a threaded joint. Electronics of Secondary Units is based on custom integrated
components (Application Specific Integrated Circuit ASIC). The principle of operation of
the Primary Unit is The process fluid (liquid, gas or vapour) exerts pressure on to the
measuring diaphragm via flexible, corrosion-resistant isolating diaphragm and the fill fluid.
The other side of the measuring diaphragm is either at atmosphere, for gauge measurement,
or at vacuum, for absolute measurement. As the measuring diaphragm deflects in response to
input pressure changes, it simultaneously produces variations in the gap between the
magnetic disc and the magnetic core of the coil, which is mounted rigidly on to the primary
body.
As a result, the inductance of the coil changes. The inductance value of the
coil is compared to that of a reference inductor carried by the primary electronics. The unit
also includes a temperature sensor. The two inductance values and the sensor temperature are
combined in the primary electronics to provide a proprietary standard signal. The measured
value and the sensor parameter are transferred to the secondary unit, where a microprocessor
computes precise primary output.

Fig. 3.1.5(i) Various Parts of Pressure Transmitter

Fig. 3.1.5(ii) Various Parts of Pressure Transmitter

3.1.8 Features of 2600T Smart Transmitter:


Transmitter
The 2600T
0T Smart series transmitter includes an Analog Version plus HART digital
communication, a Profibus DP-PA
DP
Version and a Fieldbus FOUNDATION Version.
Digital communication protocols allow remote re-ranging,
re
calibration and diagnostics.
Profibus has a complete digital only communication, as well as Fieldbus FOUNDATION.
With respect to HART, the bidirectional digital communication does not have any
interference with the standard 4-20
4
mA analog output signal.
This manual describes the features, the installation and calibration procedures related to
the 2600T Series Transmitter with HART Communication Protocol.
The 2600T series also gives the opportunity
opportu
to utilize ceramic and silicon sensing
elements, depending on measuring range and measured variable.

3.1.9 PS 310 Pressure Sensors


The PS310 Pressure Sensor utilises a ceramic based capacitive element as the
transducer. This is designed to be of rugged construction and incorporates active electronics
as an integral part of the transducer substrate to enhance reliability and accuracy.
The onboard microprocessor converts the transducer output voltage to a 16 bit
digital signal and also measures the transducer temperature. This information is used to
temperature compensate the sensor over the range 0 - 50C. Both pressure and temperature
are displayed in SmartCom in real units i.e. metres of depth and degrees centigrade.
centi

Fig. 3.1.6 PS 310 Pressure Sensor

3.1.10 PS 310 Sensor Specifications


Standard Ranges Available:
Pressure: 0-1m, 0-2.5m, 0-5m, 0-10m, 0-20m, 0-40m, 0-75m, 0-100m,
0-200m (Gauge)
0-10m, 0-20m, 0-40m, 0-75m, 0-100m (Absolute)
Temperature: 0-50C
Operational Parameters:
Over Range Pressure: 1-10m 10x minimum
20-100m 4x minimum
100+m 2x minimum
Linearity:
Pressure: +/- 0.02% FS (Combined linearity, hysteresis and
repeatability)
Temperature: +/- 0.2C
Accuracy:
Pressure: +/- 0.12% FS (over temp range 0-50C)
Temperature: +/-1C
Temperature Stability:
0.002%/C FS @ offset

Supply Voltage:
8-15V
Reverse polarity protected
Surge current protected to 2kV
Quiescent Current:
130A to 30mA

3.1.10 Differential Pressure Transmitter


The EJA-A
A range is Yokogawas differential pressure transmitter. First released in
1991, it continues to offer high performance and high reliability for almost any application.
With an installed base of over 4-1/2
4
million EJA-A
A transmitters worldwide, it has a proven
track record of exceptional mean-time-between-failure
mean
failure that is unmatched in the industry.

1.7 Differential Pressure Transmitter EJA-A


Fig. 3.1.

Table 3.1.2.
3
Description of DPR EJA-A

3.1.11 Measuring principle


Silicon resonant sensors are fabricated from single crystal silicon using
proven 3-D semi-conductor
conductor micromachining techniques. Two "H" shaped resonators are
patterned on the sensor, each operating at a high frequency output. As pressure is applied, the
bridges are simultaneously stressed, one in compression and one in tension. The resulting
change in resonant frequency produces a high differential output (kHz)
(kHz) directly proportional
to the applied pressure. This simple time-based
time based function is managed by a microprocessor.

Micro-machined
machined from a single silicone crystal to provide superior stability and repeatability
while eliminating hysteresis.
Temperature effects
cts are less than 1/10th of other silicon technologies (10 ppm/deg C),
making this extremely stable in the most demanding process applications. The output
produces a much higher signal to noise ratio as compared to analog sensors. Compared to
piezoresistance
ce silicon sensors, the silicon resonant sensor's immediate predecessor, the
output is at least four times greater. Errors resulting from temperature and static pressure are
insignificant in relation to total output.
This advanced sensor technology is applied
applied to Yokogawa's DPharp pressure transmitter.
transmitter

DPharp stands for:


Differential
Pressure
High
Accuracy
Resonant
Pressure sensor

Fig. 3.1
.1.8 Digital Sensor Design of DPR

3.1.12 CERABAR M PMC51


Process pressure measurement Pressure transmitter with ceramic sensors; Modular
design and easy operation; with analog or HART electronics The Cerabar M pressure
transmitter is used for the following measuring tasks:
Absolute pressure and gauge pressure measurement in gases, steams or liquids in all
areas of process engineering and process measurement technology.
Level, volume & mass measurements in liquids.
High process temperature without diaphragm seals up to 125C (257F), with
diaphragm seals up to 400C (752F).
High pressure up to 400 bar (6000 psi)

Measuring principle

Fig 3.1.9 Ceramic process isolating diaphragm used in PMC51


Ceramic sensor
1 Air pressure (gauge pressure sensors)
2 Ceramic substrate
3 Electrodes
4 Ceramic process isolating diaphragm
The ceramic sensor is a dry sensor, i.e. the process pressure acts directly on the
robust ceramic process isolating diaphragm and deflects it. A pressure-dependent change in
capacitance is measured at the electrodes of the ceramic substrate and the process isolating
diaphragm. The measuring range is determined by the thickness of the ceramic process
isolating diaphragm.

Fig. 3.1.10 Level Measurement

Level measurement
h Height (level)
p Pressure
Density of the medium
g Gravitation constant
Communication protocol
4 to 20 mA without communication protocol (analog electronics)
4 to 20 mA with HART communication protocol
Input
Measured variable
Analog electronics: Absolute pressure and gauge pressure
HART electronics: Absolute pressure and gauge pressure, from which level (level, volume
or mass) is derived
Output
Output signal
4 to 20 mA analog, 2-wire
4 to 20 mA with superimposed digital communication protocol HART 6.0, 2-wire
Signal range 4 to 20 mA analog, 4 to 20 mA HART: 3.8 to 20.5 mA

Table 3.1.3
3.1. (i) Measuring Range of Cerabar M

Table 3.1.3
3.1. (ii) Measuring Range of Cerabar M

M Pressure Transmitter with Ceramic Sensor


Fig 3.1.11 Cerabar M-Pressure

Field of application

Process
connections

Measuring ranges
OPL
Process
temperature range
Ambient
temperature range

Reference accuracy

Specialties

Gauge pressure and absolute pressure


Level
Thread
EN flanges DN 25 DN 80
ANSI flanges 1" 4"
JIS flanges 50 A 100 A
From 100/0 to 100 mbar (1.5/0 to 1.5 psi)
to 1/0 to 40 bar (15/0 to 600 psi)
Max. 60 bar (900 psi)
20 to +100 C (4 to +212F)
Without LCD display: -40 to +85C (40 to +185 F)
With LCD display: 20 to +70C (4 to +158F) (extended
temperature application range (-40 to 85C (-40 to 185F)) with
restrictions in optical properties such as display speed and contrast)
Separate housing: 20 to +60C (4 to +140F)
Diaphragm seal systems depending on the version
Up to +0.15% of the set span
PLATINUM version: up to +0.075% of the set span.
Metal-free measurement with PVDF
Connection.
Special cleaning of the transmitter to
remove paint-wetting substances, for use
in paint shops.
Table 3.1.4 Specifications of Cerabar M PMC51

3.2.1 Temperature Measurement and its Transmitters


Temperature rise in a substance is due to the resultant increase in modular
activity of the substance on application of heat which increases the internal energy of the
material. The temperature measurement based on this very fact that there exist some
observable properties of the substance which with its energy content. The change can be
observed in the substance which itself or in a subsidiary system in thermal equilibrium with
it. The subsidiary system is called the testing body while the system itself is called the hot
body.

3.2.2 Types of Temperature Measuring Devices


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Thermocouples
Resistance Thermometers
Thermistors
Bimetallic Thermometers
Acoustic Pyrometers
Local Instruments.

3.2.3 Thermocouples:
Thermocouples are based on Seeback effect which says that when heat is applied to a
junction of two dissimilar metals, an emf is generated which can be measured at the other
junction.

Fig. 3.2.1 Thermocouple

3.2.4 DDC Cards:


For thermocouples input EA404 card is used which is taking mV as input.
Total 8 input channels are available. For RTDs EA03 cards are used which takes resistance
as input. Total 4 input channels are available in EA03 DDC cards.

Type
K
Ni chromium
Ni aluminium

Range
0 TO 1100
-180 TO 1350

Notes
widely used because of range
and cheapness

T
Copper
Copper nickel

-185 TO 300
-250 TO 400

Excellent for low


temperature and cryogenic
applications

R
Platinum-13%rhodium
platinum

0 TO 1600
-50 TO 1700

Used in high temperature


applications

J
Iron
Copper nickel

20 TO 700
-180 TO 750

Commonly used in plastic


moulding industry

N
Nickel chromium-si
Ni-si-magnesium

0 TO 1100
-270 TO 1300

Very stable at high


temperature and good
oxidation resistance

E
Nickel chromium
Copper nickel

0 TO 800
-40 TO 900

Maximum output change for


per degree C

S
Platinum-10%rhodium
platinum

0 TO 1550
-50 TO 1750

Continuous use for high


temperature

B
Platinum-30%rhodium
Platinum-6%rhodium

100 TO 1600
100 TO 1820

Generally used in glass


industry

Table 3.2.1 Types of Thermocouple

3.2.5 Resistance Thermometers:


Thermometers
Resistance Thermometers works on the principle of change of resistance of a
conductor when its temperature is changed.
Rt = Ro (1+dT)
Where = Temp. co-efficient
efficient of resistance
dT = Temperature
emperature difference

Fig. 3.2.2 Resistance


R
Temperature Detector

METAL

RANGE

PLATINUM

-200 TO 600

COPPER

-100 TO 100

NICKEL

-60 TO 180

Table 3.2.2 Types of Resistance Thermometers

Factors
Accuracy
Range
Cost
Sensitivity
Speed of response
Power Supply
Size
Long term stability
Vibration effects

Resistance Thermometers
More accurate
Narrower -200 to 650
More expensive
Stem sensitive
Slower
Required 2 mA
Larger
Excellent
Less suitable

Thermocouples
Less accurate
Wider -200
200 to 2000
Less expensive
Tip sensitive
Faster
Not required
Smaller
Less satisfactory
Suitable

Table 3.2.3 Comparison between Resistance Thermometers and Thermocouples

3.2.6 Bimetallic
imetallic Thermometers:
Thermometers
All types of metal contract or expand with change in temperature. The temperature
coefficient of expansion for every metal is different. Hence their rate of expansion or
contraction is not same.
Bimetallic Thermometers uses this concept to measure the temperature of materials in
many industries. It is also used as overload cut out switch in electrical apparatus by
monitoring current flow.

Fig. 3.2.3 Bimetallic Thermometer


The measuring element of a bimetallic thermometer is a fast response bi-metallic
bi
helix. Iti is manufactured from two cold-welded
cold welded strips of metal with different thermal
coefficients of expansion and it becomes twisted as a function of temperature. The rotary
rotar
motion is transferred with low friction to pointer.

Table 3.2.2 Specifications of Bimetallic Thermometer

3.2.7 Temperature Transmitter (Rosemount Model 644)


The Rosemount Model 644 Smart Temperature Transmitter is a microprocessormicroprocessor
based instrument that accepts inputs from a wide variety of sensors, and transmits
temperature data to a HART--Based
Based control system or transmitter interface. The transmitter
combines Rosemount reliability with the flexibility of digital electronics, and is ideal for
applications that require high performance or remote communication.
The transmitter is designed to communicate with a Rosemount HART-based
HART
communicator.. Communicators can be used to interrogate, configure, test, or format the
transmitter, as well as other products in the Rosemount family of microprocessor-based
microprocessor
instruments. Moreover, HART-based
HART based communicators can communicate with a transmitter
from the control
ntrol room, from the transmitter site, or from any other wiring termination point in
the loop where there is between 250 and 1100 ohms resistance between the transmitter power
connection and the power supply.
Electrical temperature sensors,
sensors, such as RTDs and thermocouples, produce lowlow
level signals proportional to their sensed temperature. The Model 644 converts the low-level
low
sensor signal to a standard 420
20 mA dc signal that is relatively insensitive to lead length and
electrical noise. This current signal is then transmitted to the control room via two wires.

Fig. 3.2.4 Rosemount 644 Temperature Transmitter

Digital Accuracy

+ 0.15 C (+0.27 F) for Pt100 RTD

D/A Accuracy

+0.03% of span

Ambient Temperature
Effects

0.003C per 1.0C (1.8F) change in ambient (Pt100 RTD)

Stability

.15% of Reading or .15C for 2 years

Input

2-, 3-, and 4-wire


wire RTDs, thermocouple, millivolt, ohm

Supply Voltage

12 - 42.2V in HART Protocol

Form Factor

DIN A Head Mount or Rail Mount

Table 3.2.2 Specifications of Rosemount 644 Temperature Transmitter


ansmitter

3.3.1 FLOW MEASUREMENT


Most widely used differential pressure flow meters are:





Orifice Plates
Flow Nozzles
Venturi Tubes
Variable Area flowmeters, i.e. Rotameters

Over 40% of all liquid, gas, and steam measurements made in industry are still
accomplished using common types of differential pressure flowmeter; that is, the orifice
plate, Venturi tube, and nozzle. The operation of these flowmeters is based on the observation
made by Bernoulli that if an annular restriction is placed in a pipeline, then the velocity of the
fluid through the restriction is increased. The increase in velocity at the restriction causes the
static pressure to decrease at this section, and a pressure difference is created across the
element. The difference between the pressure upstream and pressure downstream of this
obstruction is related to the rate of fluid flowing through the restriction and therefore through
the pipe. A differential pressure flowmeter consists of two basic elements: an obstruction to
cause a pressure drop in the flow (a differential producer) and a method of measuring the
pressure drop across this obstruction (a differential pressure transducer).One of the major
advantages of the orifice plate, Venturi tube, or nozzle is that the measurement uncertainty
can be predicted without the need for calibration, if it is manufactured and installed in
accordance with one of the international standards covering these devices.

3.3.2 Bernoullis Equation


The Bernoulli equation defines the relationship between fluid velocity (v),
fluid pressure (p), and height (h) above some fixed point for a fluid flowing through a pipe of
varying cross-section, and is the starting point for understanding the principle of the
differential pressure flowmeter. Bernoullis equation states that:

Thus, the sum of the pressure head (p/pg), the velocity head (v/2g), and
potential head (h) is constant along a flow streamline. The term head is commonly used
because each of these terms has the unit of meters.
Bernoullis equation can be used to show how a restriction in a pipe can be used
to measure flow rate. Consider the pipe section shown below. Since the pipe is horizontal,
h1=h2, then equation reduces to

The conservation of mass principle requires that:

Fig 3.3.1

Rearranging previous equations and substituting for v2 gives:

This shows that the volumetric flow rate of fluid Q can be determined
by measuring the drop in pressure (p1 p2) across the restriction in the pipeline the basic
principle of all differential pressure flowmeters. This equation has limitations, the main ones
being that it is assumed that the fluid is incompressible (a reasonable assumption for most
liquids), and that the fluid has no viscosity (resulting in a flat velocity profile). These
assumptions need to be compensated when equations are used for practical flow
measurement.

Fig 3.3.2

Fig 3.3.3

Fig 3.3.4

3.3.3 DPHARP LOW FLOW TRANSMITTERS


DPharp low flow transmitters are designed to measure infinitesimal flow rates
(water-equivalent flow rates ranging from approximately 0.016 to 33 litres per minute
[L/min] or air-equivalent flow rates from0.45 to 910 L/min) and transmit a 4 to 20 mA DC
signal responsive to the flow rate. A DPharp low flow transmitter consists of a differential
pressure transmitter and an integral flow orifice manifold. The orifice plate can be replaced
by removing only the manifold from the piping without removing the transmitter. The
integral flow orifice manifold is directly mounted in-line on a nominal 0.5-inch (25 mm)
process pipe, and hence there is no need of a separate detector or of lead pipes.
The upstream and downstream pressures across the orifice are directed to the
low- and high-pressure side chambers, respectively, and the differential pressure is converted
into an electric signal of 4 to 20 mA DC. Six orifice plates are available in different bore
sizes from 0.508 to 6.530 mm in diameter. A choice from these six different orifice plates and
the variable settings of the measurement range of the differential pressure transmitter enables
a wide range of extremely low flow rates to be measured. The difference between the
upstream and downstream pressures across the orifice, P1 P2, has the following relationship
with the flow rate Q:

Q =  (1 2)/


Where,
k = Proportionality factor
P1 P2 = Differential pressure
= Specific density of the process fluid
d = Diameter of the orifice bore
Differential pressure flowmeters are also known as Head type flowmeters. They
are the most prevalent type of flowmeters in use today. It has been projected that more than
50 percent of all liquid flow measurement applications make use of this type of unit. The
basic Working principle of differential pressure flowmeters is based upon the Bernoullis
Equation which states the fact that the pressure drop across the meter is directly proportional
to the square of the flow rate. The flow rate is calculated by measuring the pressure
differential and extracting its square root.
This differential pressure is then transmitted to the pressure transducer.
The resonant-wire pressure transducer is a device generally employed for measurement of
pressure in industrial applications. It was brought out in the late 1970s. The figure below
shows a typical resonant wire type differential pressure transducer. In this design there are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Resonant wire
High-pressure diaphragm
Low-pressure diaphragm
Magnets
Metal tube
High side backup plate

7. Low side backup plate


8. Electrical insulator
9. Preload spring
10. Fluid transfer port
11. Oscillator circuit

Fig 3.3.5
In a resonant wire pressure transducer, a wire is fixed by a static member at
one end, and by a pressure sensing diaphragm at the other (under tension). The process
pressures are detected by high pressure and low pressure diaphragms on the right and left of
the unit. The wire is positioned in a magnetic field and allowed to oscillate. The oscillator
circuit results in the oscillation of wire at its resonant frequency. The variations in process
pressure affect the wire tension, due to which the resonant frequency of the wire also gets
changed. For instance, as the pressure is increased, the element increases the
th tension in the
wire, thus raising its resonant frequency. A digital counter circuit is used to detect the shift.
Since this change in frequency can be detected accurately to a certain extent, this type of
transducer can be employed for low differential pressure
pressure applications as well as to detect
absolute and gauge pressures.

3.3.4 MASS FLOW METERS


CORIOLIS MASS FLOW MEASURING SYSTEM
Coriolis flowmeters were developed in the 1980s to fill the need for a flowmeter that
measures mass directly, as opposed to those that measure velocity or volume. Because they are
independent of changing fluid parameters, Coriolis meters have found wide application. Many
velocity and volumetric meters are affected by changes in fluid pressure, temperature, viscosity,
and density. Coriolis meters, on the other hand, are virtually unaffected by these types of changes.
By measuring mass directly as it passes through the meter, Coriolis meters make a highly accurate
measurement that is virtually independent of changing process conditions. As a result, Coriolis
meters can be used on a variety of process fluids without recalibration and without compensating
for parameters specific to a particular type of fluid. Coriolis flowmeters are named after Gaspard
G. Coriolis (17921843), a French civil engineer and physicist for whom the Coriolis force is
named.
Coriolis meters typically consist of one or two vibrating tubes with an inlet and an
outlet. While some are U-shaped, most Coriolis meters have some type of complex geometric
shape that is proprietary to the manufacturer. Fluid enters the meter in the inlet, and mass flow is
determined based on the action of the fluid on the vibrating tubes. Common to Coriolis meters is a
central point that serves as the axis of rotation. This point is also the peak amplitude of vibration.
What is distinctive about this point is that fluid behaves differently, depending on which side of
the axis of rotation, or point of peak amplitude, it is on. As fluid flows toward this central point,
the fluid takes on acceleration due to the vibration of the tube. As the fluid flows away from the
amplitude of peak vibration, it decelerates as it moves toward the tube outlet. On the inlet side of
the tube, the accelerating force of the flowing fluid causes the tube to lag behind its no-flow
position. On the outlet side of the tube, the decelerating force of the flowing fluid causes the tube
to lead ahead of its no-flow position. As a result of these forces, the tube takes on a twisting
motion as it passes through each vibrational cycle; the amount of twist is directly proportional to
the mass flow through the tube. The Coriolis tube (or tubes, for multi tube devices) is vibrated
through the use of electromagnetic devices. The tube has a drive assembly, and has a predictable
vibratory profile in the no-flow position. As flow occurs and the tube twists in response to the
flow, it departs from this predictable profile. The degree of tube twisting is sensed by the Coriolis
meters detector system. At any point on the tube, tube motion represents a sine wave. As mass
flow occurs, there is a phase shift between the inlet side and the outlet side.
The most significant advantage of Coriolis meters is high accuracy under wide flow
ranges and conditions. Because Coriolis meters measure mass flow directly, they have fewer
sources of errors. Coriolis meters have a high turndown, which makes them applicable over a
wide flow range. This gives them a strong advantage over orifice plate meters, which typically
have low turndown. Coriolis meters are also insensitive to swirl effects, making flow conditioning
unnecessary. Flow conditioners are placed upstream from some flowmeters to reduce swirl and
turbulence for flowmeters whose accuracy or reliability is affected by these factors. Coriolis
meters have a low cost of ownership. Unlike turbine and positive displacement meters, Coriolis
meters have no moving parts to wear down over time. The only motion is due to the vibration of

the tube, and the motion of the fluid flowing inside the tube. Because Coriolis flowmeters are
designed not to be affected by fluid parameters such as viscosity, pressure, temperature, and
density, they do not have to be recalibrated for different fluids. Installation is simpler than
installation for many other flowmeters, especially orifice plate meters, because Coriolis meters
have fewer components. Coriolis meters can measure more than one process variable. Besides
mass flow, they can also measure density, temperature, and viscosity. This makes them especially
valuable in process applications where information about these variables reduces costs. It also
makes it unnecessary to have a separate instrument to measure these additional Variables.

Fig 3.3.6 Promass 80F

1. Flow meter type

Direct mass flow

2. Measuring principle

Coriolis mass flow

3. Measuring material

Stainless steel

4. Power supply

85-260V AC

5. Local display

WEA, 2-line display, push buttons

6. Flow accuracy

+/- 0.15%

7. Density accuracy

+/- 0.001g/cc

8. Temperature accuracy

+/- 0.5 deg C

Table 3.3.1 Technical Specifications

The measuring device described in these Operating Instructions is to be used only for
measuring the mass flow rate of liquids and gases. At the same time, the system also measures
fluid density and fluid temperature. These parameters are then used to calculate other variables
such as volume flow. Fluids with widely differing properties can be measured.

Fig 3.3.7 Functional block diagram of Promass 80F

3.3.5 PROLINE PROMASS 80


Coriolis Mass Flow Measuring System
The universal and multivariable flowmeter for liquids and gases
Application
The Coriolis measuring principle operates independently of the physical fluid properties, such
as viscosity and density.
Extremely accurate measurement of liquids and gases such as oils, lubricants, fuels,
liquefied gases, solvents, foodstuffs and compressed gases (CNG)
Fluid temperatures up to +350 C
Process pressures up to 350 bar
Mass flow measurement up to 2200 t/h

Features and benefits


The Promass measuring devices make it possible to simultaneously record several
process variables (mass/density/temperature) for various process conditions during measuring
operation.
The Proline transmitter concept comprises:
Modular device and operating concept resulting in a higher degree of efficiency.
Software options for batching and concentration measurement for extended range of
application.
Diagnostic ability and data back-up for increased process quality.
The Promass sensors, offer:
Multivariable flow measurement in compact design.
Insensitivity to vibrations thanks to balanced two-tube measuring system.
Immune from external piping forces due to robust design.
Easy installation without taking inlet and outlet runs into consideration.
Measuring principle
The measuring principle is based on the controlled generation of Coriolis forces.
These forces are always present when both translational and rotational movements are
superimposed.
FC = 2 m (v )
FC = Coriolis force
m = moving mass
= rotational velocity
v = radial velocity in rotating or oscillating system

The amplitude of the Coriolis force depends on the moving mass m,


m, its velocity v in the
system, and thus on the mass flow. Instead of a constant angular velocity , the Promass
sensor uses oscillation.
In the Promass F and M sensors, two parallel
parallel measuring tubes containing flowing
fluid oscillate in anti phase, acting like a tuning fork. The Coriolis forces produced at the
measuring tubes cause a phase shift in the tube oscillations (see illustration):
At zero flow, in other words when the fluid
fluid is at a standstill, the two tubes oscillate in
phase (1).
Mass flow causes deceleration of the oscillation at the inlet of the tubes (2) and
acceleration at the outlet (3).

The phase difference (A-B)


(A B) increases with increasing mass flow.
Electrodynamics sensors register the tube oscillations at the inlet and outlet. System balance
is ensured by the anti phase oscillation of the two measuring tubes. The measuring principle
operates independently of temperature, pressure, viscosity,
viscosity, conductivity and flow profile.
Density measurement
The measuring tubes are continuously excited at their resonance frequency. A
change in the mass and thus the density of the oscillating system (comprising measuring
tubes and fluid) results in a corresponding, automatic adjustment in the oscillation frequency.
Resonance frequency is thus a function of fluid density. The microprocessor utilizes this
relationship to obtain a density signal.
Temperature measurement
The temperature of the measuring tubes is determined in order to calculate the
compensation factor due to temperature effects. This signal corresponds to the process
temperature and is also available as an output.

Fig 3.3.7 Proline Promass 80

Measured variable
Mass flow (proportional to the phase difference between two sensors mounted on the
measuring tube to register a phase shift in the oscillation).
Fluid density (proportional to resonance frequency of the measuring tube).
Fluid temperature (measured with temperature sensors).

DN

Range for full scale values (liquids) mmin(F) to mmax(F)

8
15
25
40
50
80
100 (only Promass F)
150 (only Promass F)
250 (only Promass F)

0 to 2000 kg/h
0 to 6500 kg/h
0 to 18000 kg/h
0 to 45000 kg/h
0 to 70000 kg/h
0 to 180000 kg/h
0 to 350000 kg/h
0 to 800000 kg/h
0 to 2200000 kg/h

Table 3.3.2 Measuring ranges for liquids for Proline Promass 80


Input signal
Status input (auxiliary input):
U = 3 to 30 V DC, Ri = 5 k, galvanically isolated.
Configurable for: totalizer reset, positive zero return, error message reset, zero point
adjustment start, batching start/stop (optional).
Output signal
Current output:
Active/passive selectable, galvanically isolated, time constant selectable (0.05 to 100
s), full scale value
selectable, temperature coefficient: typically 0.005% of full scale value/C, resolution:
0.5 A
o Active: 0/4 to 20 mA, RL < 700 (for HART: RL 250 )
o Passive: 4 to 20 mA; supply voltage US 18 to 30 V DC; Ri 150
Pulse/frequency output:
Passive, open collector, 30 V DC, 250 mA, galvanically isolated.
Frequency output: end frequency 2 to 1000 Hz (fmax = 1250 Hz), on/off ratio 1:1,
pulse width max. 2 s
Pulse output: pulse value and pulse polarity can be selected, pulse width adjustable
(0.5 to 2000 ms).

Power consumption
AC: <15 VA (including sensor)
DC: <15 W (including sensor)
Switch-on current:
Max. 13.5 A (< 50 ms) at 24 V DC
Max. 3 A (< 5 ms) at 260 V AC
Power supply
Lasting min. 1 power cycle
EEPROM saves measuring system data if the power supply fails
HistoROM/S-DAT:
DAT: exchangeable data storage chip with sensor specific data
(nominal diameter, serial number,
number, calibration factor, zero point, etc.)
Mass flow (liquid):

Promass 80 F, M:
0.15% [(zero point stability: measured value) 100]%

Mass flow (gas):

Promass 80/83 F:
0.35% [(zero point stability: measured value) 100]%

Volume flow (liquid)

Promass 80 F:
0.20% [(zero point stability: measured value) 100]%

Ambient temperature range

Standard: 20
20 C to +60 C (sensor, transmitter)
Optional: 40
40 C to +60 C (sensor, transmitter)

Storage temperature

40
40 C to +80 C (preferably +20 C)

Degree of protection Standard:

IP 67 (NEMA 4X) for transmitter and sensor.

68
Vibration resistance: Acceleration up to 1 g, 10 to 150 Hz, following IEC 68-2-6.

Fig 3.3.8 Promass 80F

3.4.1 LEVEL MEASUREMENT

3.4.1FLOAT OPERATED LEVEL SWITCHES


Floats are similar to displacers, but are swimming on the liquids surface due to the
buoyancy. Hence, the density of the float must be lower than the density of the liquid.
MLS series level switch has a float moving up and down with liquid level inside the
cage. When the float rises with liquid level, a magnetic sleeve attached to the float by an
extension rod moves up inside the sleeve pipe. The sleeve attracts a magnet located outside the
sleeve pipe. When the magnet moves in, it tilts the switch mechanism operating switches
mounted on it. When liquid level goes down again the sleeve goes down with the float and the
magnet, operated by return spring, goes back to original position there by re-operating the
switches. the normal differential in liquid level between make and break switch is 12 mm
approx. instead of standard single magnet spring return switch , two magnet type switch is more
suitable under conditions of vibration and the differential between make and break of switch can
adjusted externally by shifting the positions of the magnets along the slots provided.
By providing 2 sleeves and 2 switch carriages (2-magnet type) it is possible to have
switch operations at two different levels. The operating levels can also be adjusted to some extent
by moving the switch carriages up and down along the pipe.
Depending upon the application, the float and extension rod can be in stainless steel.
The sleeve is normally of magnetic stainless steel.

Fig 3.4.1 Pictorial view of Level Switches

FLOAT OPERATED LEVEL SWITCH

Fig 3.4.2
3.4 Float operated level switch

3.4.2 ULTRASONIC LEVEL SENSOR


SEN
Time-of-Flight
Flight Measurements
An indirect measurement of level is evaluating the time-of-flight
time flight of a wave propagating
through the atmosphere above the liquid or solid. This is primarily a distance measurement; the
level can then be calculated accordingly.
Ultrasonic waves are longitudinal acoustic waves with frequencies above 20 kHz.
Ultrasonic waves need a propagation medium, which for level measurements is the atmosphere
above the product being measured. Sound propagates with a velocity of about 340 m s1in
s
air;
but this value is highly dependent on temperature and composition of the gas, and also on its
pressure. In vacuum, ultrasonic
onic waves cannot propagate. In practice, the reflection ratio is nearly
100% at the products surface (e.g.,
(e.g., at transitions gas/liquid or gas/solid). Piezoelectric
transducers are utilized as emitter and detector for ultrasonic waves, a membrane coupling it to
the atmosphere. Level gaging is, in principle, also possible with audible sound 16 Hz to 20 kHz or
infrasonic waves less than 16 Hz. Another procedure is to propagate the waves within the liquid
by a sensor mounted at the bottom of the tank. The velocity
city of sound in the liquid must be known,
considering the dependence on temperature and type of liquid. This method is similar to an echo
sounder on ships for measuring the water depth.
The sensor transmits ultrasonic pulse in the direction
direction of the product surface. There they
are reflected back and received by the sensor. The transmitter Prosonic S measures the time t
between pulse transmission and reception. From t (and the velocity of sound c) it calculates the
distance D from the sensor membrane to the product surface:


From D results the desired measuring value:
Level L
Volume V
Flow Q across measuring weirs or open channels.

. 
2

Fig 3.4.22
In order to compensate for temperature dependent time-of-flight
time
changes, a temperature sensor is integrated in the ultrasonic sensors. The interference echo
suppression feature of the Prosonic S ensures that interference
interference echos (e.g. from edges, welded
joints and installations) are not interpreted as a level echo.
Special functions
limit detection
rake control
alternating pump control or control according to pump rate
totalising of the flow volume with (resettable)
(resetta
counters and (non-resettable)
resettable) totalisers
triggering of a sampler by time or quantity pulses
low flow cut off
backwater detection in flumes
sludge detection in flumes
trend detection

Fig 3.4.3

Fig 3.4.4

Fig 3.4.5

PROSONIC M (ULTRASONIC) SENSOR

Fig 3.4.6 Ash Slurry Tank

3.5.1 Vibration Sensing & Monitoring


Vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about
an equilibrium point. The oscillations may be periodic such as the motion of a pendulum
or random such as the movement of a tire on a gravel road.
Vibration is occasionally "desirable". For example the motion of a tuning
fork, the reed in a woodwind instrument or harmonica, or the cone of a loudspeaker is
desirable vibration, necessary for the correct functioning of the various devices.
More often, vibration is undesirable, wasting energy and creating
unwanted sound noise. For example, the vibrational motions of engines, electric motors, or
any mechanical device in operation are typically unwanted. Such vibrations can be caused
by imbalances in the rotating parts, uneven friction, the meshing of gear teeth, etc. Careful
designs usually minimize unwanted vibrations.
The study of sound and vibration are closely related. Sound, or
"pressure waves", are generated by vibrating structures. These pressure waves can also
induce the vibration of structures. Hence, when trying to reduce noise it is often a problem in
trying to reduce vibration.

3.5.2 Types of Vibration:


1. Free vibration:
It occurs when a mechanical system is set off with an initial input and then
allowed to vibrate freely. Examples of this type of vibration are pulling a child back on a
swing and then letting go or hitting a tuning fork and letting it ring. The mechanical system
will then vibrate at one or more of its "natural frequency" and damp down to zero.
2. Forced vibration:
It occurs when an alternating force or motion is applied to a mechanical system.
Examples of this type of vibration include a shaking washing machine due to an imbalance,
transportation vibration (caused by truck engine, springs, road, etc.), or the vibration of a
building during an earthquake. In forced vibration the frequency of the vibration is the
frequency of the force or motion applied, with order of magnitude being dependent on the
actual mechanical system.

3.5.3 Vibration Testing & Analysis:


Vibration testing is accomplished by introducing a forcing function into a
structure, usually with some type of shaker. Alternately, a DUT (device under test) is
attached to the "table" of a shaker. For relatively low frequency forcing, servo hydraulic
(electro hydraulic) shakers are used. For higher frequencies, electro dynamic shakers are
used. Generally, one or more "input" or "control" points located on the DUT-side of a fixture
are kept at a specified acceleration. Other "response" points experience maximum vibration
level (resonance) or minimum vibration level (anti-resonance).

Two typical types of vibration tests performed are randomrandom and sine test.
Sine (one-frequency-at-a-time)
time) tests are performed to survey the structural response of the
device under test (DUT). A random (all frequencies at once) test is generally considered to
more closely replicate a real world environment, such as road inputs to a moving automobile.
The fundamentals of vibration analysis can be understood by studying the
simple massspringdamper model. Even a complex structure such as an automobile body
can be modelled as a "summation" of simple massspringdamper
mass
damper models. The massspring
mass
damper
er model is an example of a simple harmonic oscillator. The mathematics used to
describe its behaviour is identical to other simple harmonic oscillators such as the RLC
circuit.

3.5.4 Vibration Sensor RN-LP202


RN
Series
RN-LP202
LP202 Series vibration sensors are provided by Shinkawa Sensors Technology.
Shinkawa Sensor Technology develops and manufactures high-precision
high precision high-resolution
high
displacement/vibration sensors and transducers. It also develops vibration monitors as well as
analytical and diagnostic systems with
with excellent resistance to excessive conditions such as
high/ low temperature (-250
250 to 600oC) and high pressure (50mpa). Shinkawa Technologies
play a vital role in a wide range of industrial applications from small rotating machinery to
large turbine generators
ators used in thermal power plant.

Vibration Sensor
connected to the motor
of BFP

Fig 3.5.1 BFP with Vibration Sensor

Fig 3.5.2 Vibration Sensor RN-LP202


RN
Series

Vibration Sensor
connected to the CW
Pump

Fig 3.5.3 CW Pump with Vibration Sensor

Output

4-20 mA

Setting time (Turn On time)

< 60 seconds

Power Requirement

18-30 VDC

Electrical Case Isolation

108 ohm

Temperature Range

-40 to 1850F

Sealing

Welding, hermetic

Sensing Element

PZT Ceramic

Sensing Structure

Shear Mode

Weight

90 gms.

Case Material

316L Stainless Steel

Table 3.5.1 Specifications of RN-LP202


RN LP202 Vibration Sensor:

3.5.5 Vibration Monitoring System:


Forbes Marshall-Shinkawa
Marshall Shinkawa vibration monitoring systems are equipped with
the latest technology to maintain plant safety and asset protection, with reduced downtime
and avoiding untimely shutdowns. Till recently, plant maintenance
maintenance was predominantly time
based and was preventive in nature. But with the advent of time, maintaining the systems
with minimum cost and high throughput was emphasised. This introduced a new era of
protection- Online vibration monitoring systems. Online systems
systems are the need of hour today
and offer the user indirect payback in the form of protection of critical machinery and
reduced maintenance costs.
Vibration monitoring is essential to keeping rotating equipment running
smoothly for years. Shinkawa Vibration Monitors are an indispensable complement to
equipment like pumps, motors, fans, compressors, and turbine supervisory systems in the
Power, Cement, Process and Refinery industries. Monitors are available in single channel,
fourr channel or multichannel versions.

Fig 3.5.4 Vibration Monitoring System

3.6.1 Steam Water Analysing System (SWAS)


In any power plant running on steam, the purity of boiler feed water and steam is
absolutely crucial; especially to steam turbine, steam boiler, super heater, condenser and
other steam equipment. To prevent damage of steam turbine, steam boiler and other apparatus
due to scaling and corrosion, on line steam and water analysis of critical parameters such as
pH, Conductivity, Dissolved Oxygen, Silica, Sodium, Phosphate etc. is a must. The steam can
be as hot as 560C.The pressures can be as high as 250 bar. To keep the power plant up and
running, with
th minimum erosion and corrosion of steam turbine, steam boiler and condenser,
we have developed fully integrated Steam and Water Analysis Systems (SWAS) that provide
exact, precise measurements on all these critical parameters.
A good SWAS
S necessitates efficient sample cooler for water sampling, steam
sampling or process sampling problems. We also have a broad experience in compact heat
exchangers and boiler blow down heat recovery systems.

Fig. 3.6.1 Overview of Power Plant


SWAS works in two stages:
1. Sample Conditioning or Wet panel.
2. Sample Analysis or Dry Panel.

Sampling System
Designed with critical components from SENTRY such as
Sample coolers,
Pressure Reducing Element (VREL),
Back Pressure Regulator / Relief Valve (BPR / RV)

Thermal Shut off Valve (TSV)

3.6.2 Sample coolers


A sample cooler, as the name implies, is used to cool a sample from a process
stream. A sample cooler is a small shell and coil heat exchanger. The sample to be cooled
flows through the tube side of the cooler. The cooling fluid, usually water, flows through the
shell side of the cooler. The typical range of flow rates are:
Sample: 50 3300 cc/min
Cooling Water: 3 12 gpm
The cooled sample is then taken to a laboratory for analysis or, in some cases,
piped to in-line process instrumentation for continuous monitoring of certain properties such
as conductivity, pH or chemical constituents. For steam samples, flow rates are generally
lower due to the high velocity of the steam as it flows to the sample panel. Generally, flow
rates of between 500 1000 cc/min are found to be adequate. The cooler size is determined
by the required flow rate and the steam inlet pressure. As the source pressure decreases, the
cooler performance decreases and a larger cooler is required. This is due to the relative
densities of different steam pressures. Pressure drop is also a major consideration when sizing
a cooler for a steam application.
Two-Stage Cooling
If the sample is to be fed to an in-line analyzer, rough cooling may not be sufficient.
Some analyzers, particularly conductivity and pH, are very sensitive to temperature.
Temperature compensation can be built into the instrument, but this can be inaccurate since
the required compensation will vary with the different ions that could be present in the
sample. As a result, when high accuracy is desired, the sample must be cooled to 77 F (25
C).
To achieve this, two-stage cooling of the sample is often used. In the first stage, the
hot sample is rough cooled using plant cooling water. In the second stage, mechanical
refrigeration is used to obtain the required temperature control. Since the first stage cooling is
much less expensive than the second stage, Sentry close approach coolers offer a great
advantage over less efficient coolers. The more heat removed in the first (or primary) stage,
the less heat remains to be removed in the second stage by the expensive refrigeration system.
For example, if a sample line flow is 1200 cc/min, a reduction of 20 F (11 C) in the sample
temperature to the second stage results in a load reduction on the chiller of about 3200 BTU
per hour (.9 kilowatt-hour). In a sample panel with ten such lines, the load reduction would
equal three tons of refrigeration.
For the second stage coolers (often called secondary or finishing coolers), Sentry
close approach coolers are again recommended. To achieve precise temperature control of
samples, the most effective system employs a Temperature Control Unit (TCU) in
conjunction with close approach sample coolers. (For detailed discussion on precise
temperature control, see Application Note APP 5.8.2). With the TCU approach, the chilled
water to the coolers is maintained at 76 F (24 C) .5 F. By using sample coolers that can
hold an approach temperature of less than 1 F (-17 C), all samples can then be cooled to 77
F (25 C), 1 F.

3.6.3 Pressure Reducing Element (VREL)


The Variable Pressure Reducing Element (VREL)
(VREL is used to reduce the pressure
and control the flow of high-pressure
pressure liquid samples.
The VREL is an adjustable rod-in-tube
rod tube pressure reducing device. The pressure of
the incoming sample is reduced as the liquid is forced to travel through the narrow gap
between the tapered rod and the rod opening. Because the work is done over the entire length
of the rod, localized wear is held to a minimum. The result is a very long service life
compared with devices in which the pressure drop is taken over a very short distance (fixed
orifice, pressure regulator, etc.). Other devices erode frequently causing function
func
loss and
down time

How it works
The VREL consists of two stainless steel tubes joined to a large tube or barrel.
A tapered rod assembly is provided and inserted into precision holes in the barrel. The high
pressure fluid enters,, flows past one rod, turns and flows past the other rod, then out. Pressure
drop is a function of the length of the rods inserted into the barrel. The pressure is reduced
smoothly under laminar flow conditions, minimizing dissociation of any components through
discontinuous pressure drops. The rod position is controlled externally by turning the knob,
and can be adjusted while the sample is flowing. If blockage occurs, the rods can be retracted
so that system pressure can blow the solid matter through.

Fig. 3.6.2 Pressure Reducing Element

3.6.4 Back Pressure Regulator/Relief


egulator/Relief Valve
A back pressure regulator is a control valve which maintains a set pressure on the
upstream side of the valve. If the pressure increases, the regulator opens to allow additional
flow through the device. As the pressure decreases the regulator closes to restrict
res
flow. This
automatic adjustment of flow stabilizes the upstream pressure. During fluid sampling the
objective is to maintain as constant a pressure and flow rate to the on line analyzers as
possible. Even small upsets in flow or pressure can cause fluctuations
fluctuations in analyzer readings.
To maintain conditions as constant as possible, Sentry recommends that the discharge of the

back pressure regulator be used for the grab sample. This ensures that no minor upsets occur
due to opening or closing of separate grab sample valves. The economic benefits of this
practice are the elimination of separate tubing and grab sample valves. The regulator made by
Sentry is designed specifically for sampling. It is intended to be operated in series with a
VREL or needle valve,
e, which is used as the primary flow control device. Sentry's standard
model is provided with a fixed set point of 20 psig (1.4 barg). This is low enough for almost
all analytical analyzers but sufficiently high to maintain desired flow through restrictive flow
passages.
The fixed pressure design is considered superior because it:
1) Forces the operator to adjust flow with the primary flow control valve.
2) Maintains the finest pressure control for on-line
on
analyzers.
3) Prevents closure of the device to allow
allow use of the full relieving capacity. The flow
passages, diaphragm and spring have been matched to provide extremely sensitive operation
throughout the normal sampling range. Other springs are available to provide higher or lower
pressure settings.

Fig. 3.6.3 Back Pressure Regulator


Safety considerations dictate that the pressure of the system not exceeds
the design limits of any components. Normally this would require the addition of a relief
reli
valve to the system. A back pressure regulating valve operates in the same manner as a relief
valve. Specifically, a spring pushes against a device, which in turn holds a valve closed. An
increase in pressure above a set point compresses the spring allowing
allowing fluid to flow through
the device. Considerations include the flow capacity versus pressure and the consequences of
a diaphragm rupture. The Sentry regulator has enlarged flow orifices which provide flow
capacity equal to a comparable " tube relief valve.
valve. Bleed holes have been provided which
can handle a comparable flow should the diaphragm rupture. Sentry uses a Viton
diaphragm, which has been pressure tested to 650 psi (44.8 barg) without failure. This far
exceeds the pressure rating of the components
components in the sample line (flow meters, analyzers,
gauges, etc.). This required relief valve capacity is a function of the system pressure and
temperature and the sample supply line size and length. Each system should be evaluated for
these parameters. If in doubt,
oubt, consult Sentry Equipment for recommendations.

3.6.5 Thermal Shut-Off Valve


The Sentry Thermal Shut-off Valve (TSV) is a self contained unit which
automatically interrupts sample flow when the sample temperature reaches a preset limit.
High sample temperature can result from a number of causes:
1. Loss of cooling water
2. Insufficient cooling water pressure or flow
3. High cooling water temperature
4. High sample flow rate
5. Ruptured coil in the sample cooler
6. Fouled or plugged sample cooler
Whatever the cause, the line must be shut
down quickly to prevent damage to
equipment or serious injury to personnel.
The Sentry TSV is the solution because the
line will close in less than five seconds after
the sample temperature reaches the set point,
normally120F (49C).
The Sentry TSV is a self contained device
that requires no external source of
electricity, air, or hydraulics. The
sensor/actuator is directly exposed to the
sample
medium
providing
near
instantaneous reaction to an upset. The
tripping temperature is set at the factory and
cannot be readily altered by plant personnel.
The standard set point temperature is120F
(49C) but other temperature settings are
available upon request.
The TSV provides positive closure. It must
be manually reset after a trip - ensuring that
sample flow is not resumed before the cause
of the upset has been corrected. A red
indicator gives visual evidence of which
valve has tripped. An optional position
indicating dry contact is available to provide
a signal for a remote alarm. Wetted
materials are 316 stainless steel and
elastomers which are compatible with boiler water and steam. Consult factory on other
sample media if in doubt.
Fig. 3.6.4 Thermal Shut-Off Valve

Prior to the introduction of the Sentry TSV, the most common means of high
temperature protection was a sensor (RTD or thermocouple) and a solenoid valve.
The solenoid valve has several drawbacks for this service:
1. Requires electricity which is not always available and presents an explosion hazard in
hydrocarbon sampling
2. Prone to sticking
3. Prone to burning out

4. Very large and expensive for high pressure lines


5. Alarm signal is by electrical contact rather than valve movement
6. Magnetic field attracts corrosion products (magnetite) which leads to sticking and plugging of
the valve
7. In high pressure applications, the Cv is low and the line draw required to hold the valve open is
large
8. Waterproof enclosure is required in many power plant sample panel installations
Another alternative uses pneumatic actuators instead of electrical solenoids. This
eliminates many of the undesirable features of the solenoid, but air is not always available or
reliable. The actuator is quite large and outdoor lines can freeze if the air is not properly dried.
Commercially available wax operated valves, similar to the Sentry TSV, can be used. But when
the valve cools down it will reopen. This can present greater hazards than the initial trip. A fourth
and rather rare approach is the use of fusible wax operators. Upon tripping, the wax is lost and
must be replaced.

3.6.7 pH Measurement
pH is used to specify the degree of acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Historically, pH was first defined as the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion
concentration.

pH = log[H+]
A relatively recent development in pH measurement is the introduction of systems
based on the use of ion-selective field-effect transistors (ISFETs) as the sensing element.
ISFETs, of which the hydrogen ion sensitive pHFET is one variant, are derived from the
metal-oxide-semiconductor FET (MOSFET), the basic building block of integrated circuits.
These silicon chips combine a pH-responsive membrane much like that of the glass
electrode with the amplification of a field-effect transistor. The integral amplification and
small size have led to the development of inexpensive, battery-powered, pocket-sized pH
measurement systems.
Liquiline M CM42, Two-wire transmitter for pH measurement with digital ISFET
Sensors are a type of sensor used for pH measurement in JPL.

Fig. 3.6.5 Working of pH Sensor

pH measurement using an ion-selective


ion selective field effect transistor, including an amplifier circuit
for constant drain current operation.
A schematic cross-section
cross
of a pH-sensitive ISFET is shown above.
above The
pHFET differs from a MOSFET in that the metal gate of the MOSFET is replaced by a pHpH
responsive
esponsive membrane material such as silicon nitride, aluminium oxide, or tantalum oxide,
which contacts the sample solution directly. As with the glass electrode, electrical contact
cont is
made to the sample through a reversible reference electrode. A suitable voltage applied to the
reference electrode (relative to the silicon substrate) will charge the capacitor formed by the
solution, insulating layers, and silicon substrate, and create
create mobile charge in the channel
region. The developed current in the ISFET is dependent on the pH.

LIQUILINE M CM42
pH Measurement

Fig. 3.6.6
3.6. Liquiline M CM42

3.6.8 Trace Dissolved Oxygen Sensor


The Model 499A TrDO sensor is intended for the determination of trace (ppb)
levels of dissolved oxygen in steam power plants and high purity cooling water. The 499A
TrDO is a membrane-covered
covered amperometric sensor. The sensor consists of a gas-permeable
g
Teflon1 membrane stretched tightly over a gold cathode. A silver anode and an electrolyte
solution complete the internal circuit. During operation, oxygen diffuses from the sample
through the membrane to the cathode. A polarizing voltage applied
appli to the cathode converts all
the oxygen entering the sensor to hydroxide ions. The reaction produces a current, which the
analyzer measures. The current is directly proportional to the rate at which oxygen reaches
the cathode, which is ultimately proportional
proportional to the concentration of oxygen in the sample.
Because the rate of diffusion of oxygen through the membrane depends on temperature,
sensor response must be corrected for changes in membrane permeability caused by
temperature. A Pt100 RTD in the sensor measures the temperature, and the analyzer
automatically performs the correction. The analyzer also uses the temperature measurement
during automatic air calibration

Pressure changes have little influence on sensor response. A flexible bladder in


the sensor prevents distortion of the membrane by keeping the pressure inside the sensor
equal to the sample pressure.

Fig. 3.6.7 Dissolved O2 Sensor


Pressure: 0 to 65 psig
Temperature:
Operating: 5 to 45C (41 to 113F)
Storage: 0 to 60C (32 to 140F)
Sensor Life: 2 years (approx.)
Temperature Sensor: Pt 100 RTD

3.6.9 Conductivity Measurement


Electrical Conductivity is the ability of a solution to transfer (conduct) electric
current. It is the reciprocal of electrical resistivity (ohms). Therefore conductivity is used to
measure the concentration of dissolved solids which have been ionized in a polar solution
such as water. The unit of measurement commonly used is one millionth of a Siemens per
centimetre (micro-Siemens per centimetre or S/cm). When measuring more concentrated
solutions, the units are expressed as milli-Siemens/cm (mS/cm) i.e. - 10-3 S-cm (thousandths
of a Siemen). For ease of expression, 1000 S/cm are equal to 1 mS/cm. Often times
conductivity is simply expressed as either micro or milli Siemens. However this unit of
measurement is sometimes (incorrectly) referred to as micro-mho's rather than microSiemens. The expression "mho" was simply the word ohm spelled backwards.
Several means of conductivity expression have been adopted by various
industries as a way of making the units of expression into whole numbers. The water
softening industry refers to "grains" of hardness and uses TDS or total dissolved solids as a
measurement scale. While TDS is really a gravimetric measurement, because in solution the
solids are predominately present in ionic form, they can be approximated with
conductivity. The TDS scale uses 2 S/cm = 1 ppm (part per million as CaCO3). It is also
expressed as 1 mg/l TDS. While the method of measurement is the same, some conductivity
meters can make the conversion and express the results of a measurement in many different
units. This is helpful for users who are accustomed to one particular unit of measurement.

Solution
Totally pure water
Typical DI water
Distilled water
RO water
Domestic "tap" water
Potable water (max)
Sea water
Brackish water

S/cm
0.055
0.1
0.5
50-100
500-800
1055
56,000
100,000

mS/cm

ppm

0.5-0.8
1.055
56
100

25-50
250-400
528
28,000
50,000

Table 3.6.1 Table of Aqueous Conductivities


3.6.10 Resistivity versus Conductivity
When the ionic concentration is very low (such as in high purity water), the
measured conductivity falls below a value of one micro Siemens per centimetre. In order to
express these numbers as whole numbers as opposed to fractions, the resistivity scale is often
used. The numbers are exactly the inverse of each other. For example: the reciprocal of 0.10
S/cm [or 1/ (0.10 x 10-6 S/cm)] is then 10 x 106 ohms-cm (10 M-cm). This is also
commonly referred to as "mega-ohms". Either unit of measurement can be used to state
exactly the same value. Commonly the conductivity scale is more versatile as it can be used
for a broader range of measurements.
Because air is soluble in ultra high purity water (18.3 M-cm), the reading will
not be stable in an open container.

3.6.11 Temperature Compensation


Temperature plays a role in conductivity. Because ionic activity increases with
increasing temperature, conductivity measurements are referenced to 25C. The coefficient
used to correct for changes in temperature, is expressed as a percentage per degree
Celsius. For most applications, beta has a value of two. In order to establish the true value of
beta a solution is measured at the elevated temperature (without temperature
compensation). Then the solution is cooled and re-measured. can then be exactly
calculated for that particular solution. Advanced meters allow for custom reference
temperatures.
3.6.12 Probe Types and Polarization Errors
Amperometric
The probe used to measure conductivity was originally an amperometric system
which had two electrodes spaced one centimetre* apart from each other. [* Probes with
different electrode spacing allow measurement of various conductivities.]

The amperometric method applies a known potential (voltage, V) to a pair of


electrodes and measures the current (I). According to Ohm's law: I=V/R where R is the
resistance. The higher the current so obtained, the greater the conductivity. The resistance in
this method unfortunately is not constant even though the distance may be fixed. Salt
deposition on the electrodes due to electrolysis can vary the resistance. For low to medium
levels of conductivity (< 2 mS/cm) this may be sufficient, but for greater accuracy and for
higher levels, a different method is required.
3.6.13 Potentiometric
A potentiometric method is based on induction and eliminates the effects of
polarization common to the amperometric method. The potentiometric method employs four
rings: the outer two rings apply an alternating voltage and induce a current loop in the
solution while the inner rings measure the voltage drop induced by the current loop. This
measurement is directly dependent upon the conductivity of the solution. A shield around the
rings maintains a constant field by fixing the volume of solution around the rings.
Because a potentiometric (4-ring) conductivity sensor is not limited by
electrolysis which commonly affects amperometric probes, it can be used to measure a much
wider range of conductivities. Practically, stainless steel rings can be used. But, the
preferred metal is platinum because it can withstand higher temperatures and produces a
more stable reading. Platinum sensors are also easier to clean. Advanced microprocessor
conductivity instruments can vary the voltage applied to the sensor which enables them to
extend the range of a potentiometric probe even further. This technique allows advanced
meters to be able to measure both high and low conductivities as well as the ultra low
conductivity of deionized water with one probe.
Inductive or Toroidal
Another method of conductivity measurement uses an inductive probe
(sometimes referred to as a toroidal sensor). Typically these are found in industrial process
control systems. The sensor looks like a donut (toroid) on a stick. The advantage of this
technology is measurement without any electrical contact between the electrode and the
process fluid. The probe uses two toroidal transformers which are inductively coupled side
by side and encased in a plastic sheath. The controller supplies a high frequency reference
voltage to the first toroid or drive coil which generates a strong magnetic field. As the liquid
containing conductive ions passes thru the hole of the sensor, it acts as a one turn secondary
winding. The passage of this fluid then induces a current proportional to the voltage induced
by the magnetic field. The conductance of the one turn winding is measured according to
Ohm's law. The conductance is proportional to the specific conductivity of the fluid and a
constant factor determined by the geometry and installation of the sensor. The second toroid
or receiving coil also is affected by the passage of the fluid in a similar fashion. The liquid
passing thru the second toroid also acts as a liquid turn or primary winding in the second
toroidal transformer. The current generated by the fluid creates a magnetic field in the
second toroid. The induced current from the receiving coil is measured as an output to the
instrument. The controller converts the signal from the sensor to specific conductivity of the
process liquid. As long as the sensor has a clearance of at least 3 cm the proximity of pipe or
container walls will have a negligible effect on the induced current.

Calibration
Most conductivity meters can be calibrated using a standard of a known
value. Often a value of 1413 S/cm is used. Some meters will allow the user to select from a
wide range of pre-selected values. Calibration should be performed using a standard which is
as close to the solution being measured as possible. More advanced meters will allow
calibration at two, three, four or even five points. This results in good accuracy over a wider
range of measured values. Some meters will even recognize the value a standard when the
probe is immersed during calibration similar to auto buffer recognition in pH meters. This
simply is another way a making a conductivity meter easier to use. Temperature is so
important in conductivity measurement, it should also be calibrated at least one and
preferably two different points.
US Pharmacopoeia and European Pharmacopoeia Standards
USP <645> with Stage 1, 2 and 3 compliance is required for purified water and WFI
(water for injection). Only a few resistivity/conductivity meters conform to these
requirements. Some of these requirements are:
Resolution of 0.1S/cm or greater
Accuracy at 1.3S/cm of 0.1S/cm
Must be able to read with or without automatic temperature compensation
Verifiable cell constant +/- 2%
The advanced HI 98188 will easily meet or exceed these criteria.
Portable and Bench Meters
Instruments which measure conductivity are available as portable field instruments
which are hopefully waterproof since they are to be used in wet environments. Depending
upon the model, the meters can:
Used in various ranges of conductivities
Incorporate a temperature sensor in the probe
Auto-range to automatically express the results in the proper units
Allow data logging of measurements with computer output port and data capture
software
Rechargeable batteries
Offer automatic calibration from the keypad
Include a potentiometric (4-ring) conductivity sensor
Laboratory bench meters normally will have all of the features available in the
portable meters. Additionally, they often can express measurements in micro Siemens, milli
Siemens, mega Ohms, TDS: ppm or ppt, and salinity in PS, % or ppt. Look for features such
as automatic time interval logging and log on demand plus automatic standard recognition
during calibration. GLP (good laboratory practice) features allow the user to store and
retrieve data regarding the status of the system. And for those on a tight budget, some
conductivity bench meters will even include a pH meter with two separate electrodes. These
combination meters share the same display.

Process Conductivity/TDS Controllers


For continuous measurement systems, a controller is used. These instruments are
typically panel mounted and offer a host of excellent features including but not limited
to: auto-ranging,
ranging, control output relay(s), analog recorder output, in-line
in line probe cleaning,
c
diagnostic features and even a computer digital output with SMS (Short Messaging Service)
or modem capabilities. Process controllers can also be divided into three general types
depending upon the type of probe they employ. The first uses an amperometric
erometric probe for
applications where cost is a consideration. The second uses a standard potentiometric type
temperature compensated probe similar to those used with bench or portable meters. These
are good work horses for most applications. However, the third type of controller uses an
inductive probe. This probe has many advantages in an industrial setting. Common
problems like contamination or polarization factors are eliminated because the sensor is has
no electrodes in contact with the process fluid.
f
Depending upon the application, users should
select a controller and a compatible sensor suitable to the type of fluid and physical
environment of use.
The Principle of Conductivity measurement
When the electrical resistivity of a conductive
conductive polymer sheet is high(R>10K),
high(R>10K
its
conductivity can be obtained by Two electrodes measurement. On the other hand, Four
electrodes measurement with guard electrodes is applied when that of conductive polymer
sheet is low (R<10K).
). This method is effective
effective to eliminate fault resistivity of the lead wire
or its contact point with the sample. Actual layout of four electrodes measurement is shown
in Figure1. Constant current [I]
[ from the constant-current power supply [S
S] runs through the
sample via the two electrodes for current [C
[ 1], [C2]. Its potential difference [U
[ P1P2] between
the other two electrodes for potential-difference
potential
[P1], [P2] is measured by POT - the potential
difference detector with high input impedance. In this measurement, the impedance [Z
[ P1P2] of
[UP1P2] = [P1P2], potential difference [U
[ P1P2] and constant current [I]] are linked by the
relation:UP1P2 = IZP1P2. Therefore, the conductivity can be calculated from the formula
mentioned below:

Fig. 3.6.8 Conductivity Measurement


S: constant-current
constant
power supply,
POT conductivity meter Model1116,
POT:
RS standard adjustable resistor,
RS:
C1,C2: electrodes for current,
P1,P2: electrodes for potential difference

3.6.14 ENDURANCE General Purpose Conductivity Sensors


The Model 400/400VP, 401, 402/402VP, and 404 sensors are intended for the
determination of electrolytic conductivity in applications ranging from high purity water to
cooling water. The sensors are ideal for use in clean, non-corrosive, samples having
conductivity less than about 20,000 S/cm. For dirty or corrosive samples or for samples
having high conductivity, a toroidal sensor such as the Model 228 or 226 is recommended
ENDURANCE sensors are contacting conductivity sensors. They are available
in cell constants of 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10/cm. The choice of cell constant depends on
conductivity. High conductivity samples require larger cell constants. Consult the analyzer
Product Data Sheet for recommended ranges and accuracy. Sensors with 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0/cm
cell constants have concentric titanium electrodes separated by a PEEK insulator. EPDM Orings seal the internal parts of the sensor from the process liquid. A Platinum RTD in the
centre electrode measures the solution temperature. Electrolytic conductivity is a strong
function of temperature. The temperature measurement is used for correcting the conductivity
readings to a reference temperature. Sensors with 10/cm cell constants have graphite
electrodes and an epoxy body. The RTD is enclosed in a titanium capsule protruding from the
end of the sensor.
Model 400 sensors are designed for direct screw-in insertion into process piping
using a 3/4-inch MNPT fit-ting. The Model 400 sensor can also be used in side-stream
samples. A 1-inch pipe tee with a 3/4-inch bushing is a suitable flow cell. A 3/4-inch pipe tee
can be used with 0.1 and 1.0/cm cells. A transparent plastic flow cell is also available (PN
24091-02).
Model 401 sensor is intended for measuring clean, non-corrosive samples having
conductivity between about 500 and 200,000 S/cm. The sensor has a 10/cm cell constant.
SPECIFICATIONS (Models 400 and 400VP)
Cell constants:
Wetted materials:

0.01, 0.1, and 1.0/cm


Electrodes: titanium
Body: 316 stainless steel
Insulator: PEEK
O-rings: EPDM

Process connection:
Temperature:
Temperature (option -60):
Pressure:
Vacuum:
Cable length (Model 400 only):

3/4 inch MNPT


32 221F (0 105C)
32 392F (0 200C)
250 psig (1825 kPa abs) maximum
7.4 psia (51 kPa abs)
10 ft (3.1 m) standard;
50 ft (15.2 m) optional

SPECIFICATIONS (Models 401)


Cell constant:
Wetted materials:

Process connection:
Temperature:
Pressure:
Cable length:

10/cm
Electrodes: graphite
Connector: PVDF (Kynar)
Insulator and body: epoxy
O-rings: EPDM
RTD capsule: titanium
3/4 inch MNPT
(32 212F) (0 100C).
200 psig (1481 kPa abs) maximum
10 ft (3.1 m) standard;
50 ft (15.2 m) optional

Fig. 3.6.9 Various Models of Conductivity Sensors

3.6.15 Cation Column


When sampling water and steam in the power plant cycle, it is often desirable to
enhance conductivity reading by the use of a hydrogen ion exchange unit, commonly called a
cation column. Very simply, the cation column converts positive ions in the solution into
hydrogen ions. This reduces the conductivity effect of alkalizing species (such as hydrazine
and amines) and increases the reading due to dissolved mineral salts (which are converted
into their corresponding acids). Carbon dioxide, in the form of carbonic
carbonic acid, passes through
unchanged. Thus, a condenser leak or air intrusion can be detected more quickly and reliably.
In many applications a conductivity reading of a sample is measured before it enters the
cation column and immediately after it exits the
the column. This technique provides enough
information to obtain both the cation conductivity and specific conductivity of a sample. In
order to obtain the accuracy required by modern standards, a resin column with high
performance is required.
The tube is made from virgin polycarbonate. The removable end caps are made of
Delrin. The porous distribution disk is polyethylene, and the sealing gasket is made from
nitrile. There are no glues or PVC used in the cartridge that could leach contaminants back
into the samples. The standard design has 1/8" barbed quickly disconnect fittings which allow
very easy removal of the cartridge. The Cation column features a long, slim design which
produces higher velocities and a better flow distribution at low flow
flow rates. These design
features achieve optimum resin efficiency with superior performance at typical flow rates
required by conductivity analyzers.

Fig. 3.6.10
3.6.
Duplex Type Cation Column

3.6.16 ROSEMOUNT SOLU COMP II MODEL 1055


Conductivity, pH / ORP, Amperometric Family of analyzers
The Solu Comp II analyzers offer the choice of single or dual sensor input with
measurement choices of pH/ORP, resistivity/conductivity/TDS, % concentration, ratio
conductivity, total and free chlorine, dissolved oxygen, dissolved ozone, flow and
temperature. Dual measurement analyzers offer a wide choice of measurement combinations
thus reducing the cost per loop and needed panel space.
Features:
Broad selection of measurement choices include pH/ORP, Resistivity/Conductivity,
% Concentration,
Total and Free Chlorine, Dissolved Oxygen, Dissolved Ozone, Flow, and
Temperature.
Single or dual measurement with dual 4-20 mA outputs.
Full complement of measurement combinations can be commissioned in the field.
Three fully programmable alarms.
Clear, easy-to-read, two-line back-lit display easily customized to read in English,
French, German, Italian, Spanish, or Portuguese.
Choice of enclosures for pipe, surface, and panel mounting meet NEMA 4X/CSA 4
(IP 65) requirements.
Dual Sensor Input and Output: The Solu Comp II accepts single or dual sensor input. The
two 4-20 mA outputs can be independently programmed to correspond to any selected
measurement or temperature. Output damping and linear or log output might also be field
selected.
Alarms: The Solu Comp II has three fully programmable alarm relays that can be assigned to
any selected measurement or temperature. Alarms can be configured as high, low, or USP
231. The third relay has the additional choice of fault alarm operation when selected; a fault
alarm will activate the relay when a sensor or analyzer fault occurs.
Temperature: Most measurements (except ORP and flow) require temperature
compensation. The Solu Comp II will automatically recognize either a Pt100 orPt1000 RTD,
normally built into the sensor. When this RTD is present, the Solu Comp II can be set up to
display the temperature in C or F as well as set anyone or more of the alarms and/or outputs
to respond to this sensor input. If two measurements with temperature are present either can
be chosen for each alarm and output selected.

Contacting Conductivity:
Measures conductivity in the range of 0 to 20,000uS/cm. Display choices are
conductivity, resistivity, and TDS (total dissolved solids). Three temperature corrections are
available; high purity water (dilute sodium chloride), cation conductivity (dilute hydrochloric
acid), and adjustable linear temperature coefficient (0to 5.00%/C). Temperature correction
can be disabled, allowing the analyzer to display raw conductivity.
PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS
Accuracy (Resistivity) **:

0.9% of reading

Accuracy (Temperature) **:

0.1C between 5C and


100C; 1C between 101C and 200C

Stability:

0.5% of reading/month

Ambient Temperature Effect:

0.05% of reading/C

Output Accuracy:

0.1 mA

Temperature correction:

High purity water (dilute sodium


chloride), cation conductivity (dilute
hydrochloric acid), linear temperature
coefficient (0.0 to 5.00%/C), or none.
High
purity
water
and
cation
conductivity temperature correction
apply between 0 and 100C. Linear
temperature coefficient can be applied
between -5 and 200C.

Measurement Range:

0.0 to 20,000 S/cm, 0.05 to


20 M-cm, or 0 to 10,000 ppm TDS

Temperature Range:

-5C to 200C (23F to 392F)

Toroidal Conductivity
When used with Model Series 200 Toroidal Conductivity Sensors, display
choices are conductivity, resistivity, and percent concentration. The percent concentration
selection includes the choice of four common solutions (0-12% NaOH, 0-15% HCl, and 025% or 96-100% H2SO4). The conductivity-concentration algorithms for these solutions are
fully temperature compensated. For other solutions, a simple to use menu allows the
customer to enter his own data. The analyzer accepts as many as five (5) data points and fits
either a linear (two points) or a quadratic function (three or more points) to the data.
Reference temperature and linear temperature slope may also be adjusted for optimum
results.
Accuracy: 1% of reading and 0.01 uS/cm

Back side
de of SWAS Dry
Panel consisting
Rosemount Solu Comp II

Fig. 3.6.11 Rosemount Solu Comp II


PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS
Accuracy:
Repeatability:
Stability:
Ambient Temperature Effect:
Temperature Compensation:
Temperature correction:

1% of reading and 0.01 mS/cm


0.5% of reading and 0.005 mS/cm
0.25% of reading and 0.005 mS/cm/month,
Noncumulative
0.05% of reading/C
-15 to 200C (5 to 392F) automatic or manual.
Automatic requires a Pt100/1000 RTD
Linear temperature coefficient (0.0
( to 5.00%/C)
neutral salt (dilute sodium chloride) or none

Performance Characteristics

Table 3.6.2 Characteristics of Rosemount Solu Comp II

3.6.17 PH/ORP
For use with any standard pH or ORP sensor and all Uniloc sensors and
junction boxes with built in diagnostic style preamplifiers. Display choices are pH, ORP, and
Redox. The automatic buffer values and their temperature curves for the most common buffer
standards available worldwide. The analyzer will recognize the value of the buffer being
measured and perform a self-stabilization check on the sensor before completing the
calibration. Manual or automatic temperature compensation is keypad selectable. Change in
pH due to process temperature can be compensated using a programmable temperature
coefficient or isopotential point. Measurement and display of pH glass and reference
impedance helps alert the user to sensor maintenance needs.
Accuracy: 0.01 pH unit
PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS -ANALYZER (pH INPUT)
Measurement Range [pH]:
Accuracy:
Repeatability:
Stability:
Temperature Coefficient:
Temperature Compensation:

Temperature Correction:

0 to 14 pH
0.01 pH
0.01 pH
0.01 pH/month, non-cumulative
0.003 pH/C
Pt100/Pt1000 RTD,
Automatic or Manual -15 to 100C (5 to
212F)
Choose from standard measurement
compensation, solution temperature
correction for high purity or dilute base
solutions, and custom temperature
correction.

PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS -ANALYZER (ORP INPUT)


Measurement Range [ORP]:
Accuracy:
Repeatability:
Stability:
Temperature Coefficient:
Temperature Measurement:
Temperature Correction:

-1400 to +1400 mV
2.0 mV
1.0 mV
1.0 mV/month, non-cumulative
0.2 mV/C
-15 to 100C (5 to 212F)
none required

Free and Total Chlorine:


The Solu Comp II is compatible with the Model 499ACL-01 free chlorine
sensor and the Model 499ACL-02 total chlorine sensor. The Model 499ACL- 02 sensor must
be used with the Model SCS921 sample conditioning system. Both sensors are membrane
covered amperometric sensors. For more information concerning the use and operation of
chlorine amperometric sensors, refer to the sensor product data sheets.

The Solu Comp II fully compensates free and total chlorine readings for
changes in membrane permeability caused by temperature changes. A Pt 100 RTD in the
sensor measures temperature.
For free chlorine measurements, both automatic and manual pH
corrections are available. pH correction is necessary because amperometric chlorine sensors
measure only hypochlorous acid. To measure free chlorine (hypochlorous acid plus
hypochlorite ion) most competing analyzers add acid to the sample. Acid lowers the pH and
converts hypochlorite to hypochlorousacid. The Solu Comp II eliminates messy and
expensive chemicals by using the measured pH to correct the chlorine sensor signal. If the pH
is relatively constant, a fixed pH correction can be used. If the pH is greater than 7 and
fluctuates more than about 0.2 units, continuous measurement of pH and automatic pH
correction is necessary. Corrections are valid to pH 9.5. For automatic pH corrections select
code -32 and an appropriate pH sensor. An input filter allows the user to configure the
analyzer for rapid response or low noise. The low noise option is recommended for samples
containing less than 0.1ppm chlorine.
PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS
Measurement Range:
0-20 ppm (mg/L) chlorine (as Cl2)
Resolution:
0.001 ppm
Automatic pH Correction:
5.0 to 9.5 pH
Temperature Correction:
Automatic (with Pt100 RTD in sensor) or manual 050C. Can be disabled if desired.
Input filter:
time constant 1 - 999 sec

Fig. 3.6.12 Rosemount Analytical Analyzer

3.6.18 LIQUILINE M CM42


Two-wire
wire transmitter for Ex and non-Ex
non
areas
Analog sensors: pH/ORP / Conductivity / Concentration / Resistivity
Digital sensors: pH/ORP / Oxygen / Conductivity

Fig. 3.6.13 Liquiline M CM42 Conductivity and pH Sensor

Application
Liquiline M CM42 is a modular two-wire
two wire transmitter for all areas of process
engineering. Depending on the ordered version, Liquiline has one or two analog current
outputs or it can be connected to field buses as per FOUNDATION Fieldbus, PROFIBUS PA
and Hart protocol.
The extremely robust, corrosion-resistant
corrosion
plastic version and
the hygienic stainless steel version are designed for the
following applications:
Chemical processes
Pharmaceuticals industry
Foodstuff technology
Applications in hazardous locations

Advantages:
Cost-saving:
Simple commissioning with Quick Setup and Navigator
(multifunction button)
Thanks to Memosens technology, a calibration in the plant
is not required
Predictive maintenance system detects when a sensor has
to be cleaned, calibrated or replaced
Less storage thanks to modular design
Safe:
Active display of cable interruption
rruption with Memosens version
User-guided
guided commissioning, graphic display and plain text
guidance.

Approvals: ATEX, FM, CSA, NEPSI


Code-protected commissioning and calibration
Industry solutions:
Modular concept: sensor module replaceable
Asset management (Fieldcare)

Liquiline M CM42 device offers two different user administration modes:


Standard
There are 3 fixed user roles (Operator, Maintenance, and Expert).
The expert can only change the maintenance password (factory setting: 0000). To do so, the
expert must log onto the device with a fixed password (4685) that cannot be changed.
No other users can be created.
Advanced
You can create and manage a maximum of 15 user accounts. You need to be logged on as
the expert to do so.
You can assign each user one of four user roles (View, Operator, Maintenance, Expert).
Several "Experts" are possible.
One user ("Administrator") is already created at the factory (password: 4685).
Different types of sensors available in Liquiline M CM 42:

pH & ORP Sensors:


Analog and digital glass electrodes
Analog and digital ISFET sensors
Analog and digital ORP sensors
Pfaudler electrodes
Analog single electrodes (glass or antimony)

Conductivity Sensors:
Analog and digital conductive sensors:
Two-electrode sensors
Four-electrode sensors
Analog and digital inductive sensors

Oxygen Sensors:
Analog and digital conductive sensors:
Two-electrode sensors
Four-electrode sensors
Analog and digital inductive sensors

3.7.1 WATSON SMITH I/P CONVERTER


The 422 proportional I/P Converter use advanced electronic control to achieve
outstanding performance. It offers Fail Freeze operation in addition to conventional I/P characteristics and
its rugged construction, minimum vibration effect and total weatherproofing makes it ideal for field
application.

Fail freeze operation (output pressure retained on signal failure)


The Type 422's unique characteristic of freezing the output pressure when power to the unit
fails, in an I/P, is an essential feature in maintaining safety critical aspects of the temperature chamber. 420mA control signal and reaching output pressures up to 8bar (120psig), the 422is compact, closed loop
and therefore offers a high level of accuracy output. If there is a power failure, fail freeze is important
as large costs would be incurred for the re-purging of pipelines. The damper valves are used to
maintain a level of temperature in combustion of the water in creating steam and therefore power and
failure of this could be catastrophic. The 422 is an individual effective method of maintaining the integrity
of the damper valve.

Operating Values and Specifications


Output Pressure

0.2 to 1bar (3 to 15psi) standard low pressure unit


0.2 to 8bar (3 to 120psi) standard high pressure unit

Air Supply

Oil free, dry air, filtered to 5 microns; at least 0.7bar above maximum
required output Pressure

Temperature Sensitivity

Typically < 1% span between -10C and +60C

Operating Temperature

-20C to +70C

Material of Construction

Zinc die-casting passivated and epoxy painted, Verton glass/nylon


cover; Nitrile diaphragms

Vibration Effect

Negligible effect for vibration level up to 3g, 5-500Hz

Input Signal

4-20mA (two wire); load presents 6 volts (0.5V) constant voltage


drop to the current source at 20mA

Failure Mode

Output pressure held at previous value when input signal fails; drift
rate 0.02% in 30 seconds

Fig.3.7.1Application of I/P
/P Converter
Fig. 3.7.2 Watson I/P Converter

Fig. 3.7.3 Characteristic Graph of


I/P converter

Fig. 3.7.4 Watson I/P Converter


Fig. 3.7.5 ABB I/P Converter

3.8.1 BHELSONIC- ACOUSTIC STEAM LEAK DETECTION SYSTEM


Early detection of steam leakage in a boiler due to tube leakage in steam coils
will avoid secondary damage to great extent. Tube failure in a boiler is considered to be one
of the major causes for boiler shut down. This
This problem is more pronounced in pulverized coal
fired boilers, due to ash erosion and combustion being vigorous. Tube failures are bound to
increase in present day boilers, where steam generation at high temperature is attempted to
maximize combustion efficiency,
ficiency, outstripping the metallurgical developments. Sonic tube
leak detection system developed by BHEL, address this issue.
3.8.2 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
The Sonic tube leak detection system works on the principle of detecting the
sound waves emanating from the steam leak, process the same and indicate the quantum of
steam leak and the location, within approximately 5M radius in the boiler from where the
steam leaks. Boiler is divided into 18 number of zones for identifying the zone in which tube
leakage likely to occur. However, facility exists in this system to cater up to 24 zones. In each
zone, a sonic tube is mounted on the stub provided in that zone. The sonic tube is installed at
an angle of 45 degree to the vertical axis of the
the water wall panel and is welded to the seal box
filled with refractory. Sonic tube houses the components required for air purging
arrangement, isolation valve, heat insulated spacer & heat insulated coupling. This coupling
issued to avoid heat conduction to the sensor assembly.
The BHELSONIC system consists of acoustic sensors mounted in sonic tubes that
are connected to field amplifier units at the boiler side, and further processed with signal
processing electronics, giving output to PC through decibel scanner in addition to 4-20mA
4
DC output of each channel. Signal processing modules and PC are installed in the control
room.
3.8.3 SYSTEM COMPONENTS:
1. SENSOR ASSEMBLY
The sensor assembly consists of a sonic transducer capsule
capsule and a test sound source.
They are protected from dust and heat by a special arrangement in the sensor assembly. The
sensor assembly also houses a preamplifier circuit board. The acoustic sensor is located at
one end of Sonic tube assembly. The steam leak noise reaching the sensor is converted into
electric signal and is amplified in the pre-amplifier
pre
board which is housed in the sensor
assembly.

Fig. 3.8.1 Sensor Assembly

2. SONIC TUBE AND SENSOR ASSEMBLY:


Sensor assembly indicated in the above picture is fitted to the sonic tube assembly.
Sonic tube is mounted to the water wall at an angle of 45 degrees upwards. The sensor
assembly must be mounted at least 1.5meters away from the side of the boiler. For isolation
purpose, ball valve is provided as part of tube assembly, such that during maintenance, the
sensor assembly is to be taken out. Teflon coupling is used to protect the sensor from the high
temperature environment. Manual purging is provided in order to evacuate the residues
available in the stub pipe. Customer must do periodical purging in order to avoid any fly ash/
dust particles entry to the sonic tube.

Fig. 3.8.2 Schematic diagram of Field Amplifier Module


3. FIELD AMPLIFIER UNIT
Field amplifier unit further amplifies the signal received from sensor assembly
and filters the low frequency combustion noise. The filtered signal is converted into 0-20mA,
AC signal
(Adjust Coarse potentiometer P1 & Fine potentiometer P2 to achieve 20mA AC)
for transmission up to control room. This field amplifier also contains a test push button to
energize a sound source in the sensor assembly, to quickly test the function of the system.
Circuit has been built in the field amplifier to indicate the healthiness of DC supply from
main panel at control room to sensor assembly. The healthiness can be identified from main
panel by the indication provided in the Alarm Processing module.
The field amplifier PCB is mounted in the field amplifier box of size 300(B) x
200 (H) x 155(D) protected to IP55. Cable entries via gland plate are provided where the
sensor connector lead is connected. To protect the electronics, the door must be kept closed
all the times. Field amplifier box must be mounted very near to the sensor assembly. For
calibration and site tuning, approach platform for each sensor is provided.

Fig. 3.8.3 Field Amplifier Unit

4. MAIN PANEL
Main panel is located in the control room. This panel houses the following equipments.
A) Electronics module rack
B) Power supply unit
C) Decibel scanner
D) Personal computer and monitor
E) Audio channel selector
5. ELECTRONICS MODULE RACK: It consists of the following:
1) Mother board
2) Signal processing module
3) Alarm processing module
1) MOTHER BOARD:
Motherboard is provided with connectors to hold alarm processing module and
signal processor modules. 25 pin D connector provided for field interconnection, 15 pin for
Audio channel selector37 pin for decibel scanner are also mounted in the motherboard of size
426 mm x 355mm. This mother board and modules are assembled in 19 double euro rack.
Unused modules are covered with dummy blank plates. Mother board accommodates
accommoda
the
signal processing modules which are interchangeable and an alarm processing module.

2) SIGNAL PROCESSOR MODULE:


One signal processor module caters to three channels. The number of signal
processor modules required is dependent on the number of channels for which the system is
configured. The AC current signal from the field amplifier unit is converted into AC voltage
and is passed through a band pass filter whose mid frequency is tuned for characteristic steam
leakage frequency. The band pass filter output is precision rectified and a DC voltage
proportional to the sound level in the required band is generated. This is converted into
decibel in the dB converter circuit. The background noise is subtracted from the decibel
decibe
output and signal above the background noise is taken for further processing like alarm
generation, 4-20 mA current output generation and 0-5V
0 5V DC generation for feeding to dB
scanner

Fig. 3.8.4 Schematic diagram of Signal Processing Module


3) ALARM PROCESSING MODULE:
In this module, alarm delay value in time and alarm value in dB are set. Alarm
delay is set by adjusting VR1. Alarm set value is set by adjusting VR2. If any channel
receives steam leak sound more than the alarm set value for a time greater than the alarm
delay set, alarm relay contact is generated. This is normally wired to Plant annunciator. This
module has a special provision. If a contact input is given to this panel from soot blower
control system to indicate any soot blower is in operation, then the steam leak alarm contact
will be inhibited during the duration of any soot blower is in operation.
During soot blower operation, the channels nearby will pick up sound from soot
blower steam spray and show sound level in dB. In case, if this sound exceeds the alarm set
value for the duration of alarm delay, the contact output will be initiated, leading to alarm. To
avoid this, the above facility is given. If wired, alarm will be inhibited during any soot blower
is in service. Alarm set value can be adjusted from 0 to 40dB. Recommended set value is
20dB. Alarm delay range is 1 min., (nominal) to 10min. (nominal). This timing will not be
accurate. Alarm set value and alarm delay set time can be seen in PC in Set up screen.
Adjustment can be carried out by watching this screen.
B). POWER SUPPLY UNIT
Power supply unit is provided to derive +12V DC, -12V DC from the incoming
230V AC supply. Power supply redundancy is envisaged with diode auctioneering circuit so
that when one power supply fails, another will take over automatically, without affecting the
system performance.

1. Type of POWER SUPPLY


2. Input voltage
3. Output voltage DC
4. Output current
5. Load regulation
6. Line regulation
7. Residual ripple
8. Over voltage protection
9. Short circuit protection
10. Ambient temperature
11. Input/ Output Connector

Linear power supply. Two nos. of 12Vpower


supply with diode auctioneering built internally
230 V, +/- 10%, 1 Ph, 50 Hz
12V ( 10% voltage adjustable)
3 Amps maximum on each rail.
better than 0.2%
better than 0.1 %
< 10 mV (peak to peak)
13.8 V DC
Fold back current limiting with automatic
recovery.
above 55 C
Terminal blocks suitable for 1.5 sq. mmcopper
conductors with screw type connections.

C) DECIBEL SCANNER.
From the signal processor modules 5V DC is fed to decibel scanner. From decibel
scanner, the signals are sent to PC through serial port. In the front facia of scanner, channel
number and sound level in dB are displayed channel by channel automatically. This facility
will be quite useful, in case of PC failure. The hardware & software customisation details are
given in section-6.
D) PERSONAL COMPUTER AND MONITOR
Personal computer is provided in the panel. Data from decibel scanner is used to
generate different types of monitoring displays like, Bar graph, mimic, Trend, Group trend
and History. The display modes are user selectable. The hardware & software customisation
details are given insection-5.
E) AUDIO CHANNEL SELECTOR:
By pressing the Test button in the audio channel selector, the sound generators
kept in all Sensor assemblies get activated and produce sound above 20dB, as long as the
Test push button is kept pressed. These sounds are processed in the system and in PC display,
it can be seen that all channels show more than 20dB sound. This can be easily visualized in
Bargraphmode or Mimic display mode of display. By this, functioning of entire system
right from sensor assemblies can be quickly checked in one go. This test may be performed
as and when needed to crosscheck the healthiness of the system. During this test, 4-20mA
output of all channels will be more than 12mA. ( Exact output is not important but it should
be more than 12mA).Since alarm contact is initiated after a set time delay, Test push button is
to be pressed preferably for a short period say 3 to 5 seconds.
Sometimes, it may become necessary to hear the actual sound picked up by the
sonic sensor corresponding to a particular channel (after removal of combustion noise). This
helps the operator to ascertain whether steam leak is present in that location. To get the sound
from a particular sensor, switch on ON& VOL switch, set the 3 position rotary switch
SELECTOR in the appropriate position (Position-1 for channels 1 to 8, Position 2 for
channels 9-16, Position3 for17 to 24).Depress the Push button corresponding to the channel
needed. LED, corresponding to that channel goes ON now. Increase or decrease volume
control to hear the sound from the location selected in the boiler in the speaker. To hear

another location, keep the selector switch in appropriate position and depress the
corresponding push button. Only one switch at a time in a group (Ch 1-8, Ch 9-16, Ch 17-24)
should be pressed. When another switch in the same group is depressed, the earlier switch
gets released through mechanical interlock. Pressing more than one switch at a time is to be
avoided, as this may damage the switch assembly.
Box details:
1. Colour: Light grey.
2. Mounting: Panel mounting
3. Box Material: 2mm thick CRCA sheet steel
4. Overall Dimension: L 180mm x H 135mm x D 100mm
F). CALIBRATOR:
One no. hand held calibrator is provided with the system. Calibrator contains a power supply
and sound source. This calibrator is pre-calibrated for a particular dB. See the value in the
calibrator name plate. Calibrator will be useful during commissioning of the system. If the
sensor or field amplifier or signal processor module is changed due to any reason, then also,
re-calibration is recommended. Periodic calibration, say once in 3 months is recommended
for all channels.

Chapter 4. HART- Protocols


4.1 Introduction to HART
 HART- HIGHWAY ADDRESSABLE REMOTE TRANSDUCER
 Emerged in 1980s based on the same technology that brought caller ID to analog
telephony.
 Global standard for sending and receiving digital information across analog wires
between smart devices and control or monitoring.
 Bi-Directional communication protocol.
 Data access between intelligent field instruments and host systems.
 4-20mA analog wiring.
 HART communication lets a host system send data to the smart instrument.
 Wireless HART communication.
 HART protocol version 7.3
 HART protocol implements 1,2,3,4 and 7 layers of OSI.
 FSK (Frequency shift keying) based to communicate at 1200 bps, signal frequency
representing bit values of 0 & 1 are 2200 and 1200 Hz respectively.
 HART protocol makes use of Bell 202 FSK standard to impose digital communication
signals at a low level on top of the 4-20 mA.
 HART technology is a master/slave protocol, which means that a smart field device
only speaks when spoken by a master. It can be used in various modes such as pointto-point or multidrop configuration.
 The HART protocol provides two simultaneous communication channels: the 420mA analog signal and a digital signal. The 4-20mA signal communicates the
primary measured value (in case of field instrument) using the 4-20mA current loop,
additional device information is communicated using a digital signal that is
superimposed on the analog signal..

4.2 HART-DETAILS
In todays competitive environment, all companies seek to reduce operation costs,
deliver products rapidly, and improve product quality. The HART (highway addressable
remote transducer) protocol directly contributes to these business goals by providing cost
savings in:
Commissioning and installation
Plant operations and improved quality
Maintenance

4.3 MASTER-SLAVEMODE
HART is a master-slave communication protocol, which means that during normal
operation, each slave (field device) communication is initiated by a master communication
device. Two masters can connect to each HART loop. The primary master is generally a
distributed control system (DCS), programmable logic controller (PLC), or a personal
computer (PC). The secondary master can be a handheld terminal or another PC. Slave
devices include transmitters, actuators, and controllers that respond to commands from the
primary or secondary master.

4.4 BURST MODE


Some HART devices support the optional burst communication mode. Burst mode
enables faster communication (34 data updates per second). In burst mode, the master
instructs the slave device to continuously broadcast a standard HART reply message (e.g., the
value of the process variable).The master receives the message at the higher rate until it
instructs the slave to stop bursting.

4.5 FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING


The HART communication protocol is based on the Bell 202 telephone communication
standard and operates using the frequency shift keying (FSK) principle. The digital signal is
made up of two frequencies1,200 Hz and 2,200 Hz representing bits 1 and 0, respectively.
Sine waves of these two frequencies are superimposed on the direct current (dc) analog signal
cables to provide simultaneous analog and digital communications (Figure 1). Because the
average value of the FSK signal is always zero, the420 mA analog signal is not affected.
The digital communication signal has a response time of approximately 23 data updates per
second without interrupting the analog signal. A minimum loop impedance of 230 W is
required for communication.

imultaneous Analog and Digital Communication


ommunication
Fig. 4.1 Simultaneous

OSI LAYERS
APPLICATION
PRESENTATION
SESSION
TRANSPORT
NETWORK
DATA LINK
PHYSICAL LAYER

HART LAYERS
HART COMMANDS

HART PROTOCOL RULES


BELL 202
Table 4.1 HART Communication Layers

The HART protocol utilizes the OSI reference model. As is the case for most of the
communication systems on the field level, the HART protocol implements only the layers 1,
2 and 7 of thee OSI model. The layers 3 to 6 remain empty since their services are either not
required or provided by the application layer 7.
Data transmission between the masters and the field devices is physically realized
by superimposing an encodedd digital signal on the 4 to 20 mA current loop. Since the coding
has no mean values, an analog signal transmission taking place at the same time is not
affected. This enables the HART protocol to include the existing simplex channel
transmitting the current
nt signal (analog control device field device) and an additional halfhalf
duplex channel for
communication in both directions.
HART devices can operate in one of two network configurations
configurations
point-to point
multidrop.

4.6 POINT-TO-POINT
In point-to-point
point mode, the traditional 420
4 20 mA signal is used to communicate
one process variable, while additional process variables, configuration parameters, and other
device data are transferred digitally using the HART protocol (Figure 2). The 420
4
mA
analog signals are not affected by the HART signal and can be used for control in the normal
way. The HART communication digital signal gives access to secondary variables and other
data that can be used for operations, commissioning, maintenance, and diagnostic purposes.

Fig. 4.2 Point -to-Point Mode of Operation


4.7 MULTIDROP
The multidrop mode of operation requires only a single pair of wires and, if
applicable, safety barriers and an auxiliary power supply for up to 15 field devices (Figure 3).
All process values are transmitted digitally. In multidrop mode, all field device polling
addresses are >0 and the current through each device is fixed to a minimum value (typically 4
mA).
Multidrop connection is used for supervisory control installations that are widely spaced,
such as pipelines, custody transfer stations, and tank farms

Fig. 4.3 Multidrop Mode of Operation

4.8 BENEFITS OF HART COMMUNICATION


COM
The HART protocol is a powerful communication technology used to exploit the
full potential of digital field devices. Preserving the traditional420
traditional4 20 mA signal, the HART
protocol extends system capabilities for two-way
two way digital communication with smart field
instruments.
nts. The HART protocol offers the best solution for smart field device
communications and has the widest base of support of any field device protocol worldwide.
More instruments are available with the HART protocol than any other digital
communications technology.
hnology. Almost any process application can be addressed by one of the
products offered by HART instrument suppliers.
Unlike other digital communication technologies, the HART protocol provides a
unique communication solution that is backward compatible
compatible with the installed base of
instrumentation in use today. This backward compatibility ensures that investments in
existing cabling and current control strategies will remain secure well into the future.
Benefits outlined in this section include:
Improved plant operations
Operational flexibility
Instrumentation investment protection
Digital communication

Fig. 4.4 Examples


xamples of Device Parameter Sent to Control Room
oom

4.9 INTRINSIC SAFETY


Intrinsic safety (IS) is a method of providing safe operation of electronic process-control
process
instrumentation in hazardous areas. IS systems keep the available electrical energy in the
system low enough that ignition of the hazardous atmosphere cannot occur. No single field
device or wiring is intrinsically safe
s
by itself (except for battery-operated,
operated, self-contained
self
devices), but is intrinsically safe only when employed in a properly designed IS system.

4.10 INTRINSIC SAFETY DEVICES


HART-communicating
communicating devices work well in applications that require IS operation.
IS devices (e.g., barriers) are often used with traditional two-wire
two
420
20 mA instruments to
ensure an IS system in hazardous areas. With traditional analog instrumentation, energy to
the field can be limited with or without a ground connection
connection by installing one of the
following IS devices:
Shunt-diode
diode (zener) barriers that use a high-quality
quality safety ground connection to
bypass excess energy.
Isolators, which do not require a ground connection, that repeat the analog
measurement signal across an isolated interface in the safe-side
safe side load circuit
Both zener barriers and isolators can be used to ensure an IS system with HARTHART
communicating devices, but some additional issues must be considered when engineering
engi
the
HART loop.

Fig. 4.5 4-20


4
mA Loop with a Zener Barrier

Fig. 4.6 4-20 mA Loop with Isolator