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Bridge
Design
Manual
M 23-50

Washington State Department of Transportation


Bridge
Design
Manual
M 23-50

Chapters 1-7

Washington State Department of Transportation


Program Development Division
Bridge and Structures
Persons with disabilities may request this information be prepared and supplied in
alternate forms by calling the WSDOT ADA Accommodation Hotline collect
(206) 389-2839. Persons with hearing impairments may access WA State
Telecommunications Relay Service at TT 1-800-833-6388, Tele-Braille 1-800-833-6385,
or Voice 1-800-833-6384, and ask to be connected to (360) 705-7097.

Engineering Publications
Washington State Department of Transportation
PO Box 47408
Olympia, WA 98504-7408
E-mail: willisr@wsdot.wa.gov

Phone: (360) 705-7430


Fax: (360) 705-6861

http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/fasc/EngineeringPublications/
Foreword

This manual has been prepared to provide Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) bridge
design engineers with a guide to the design criteria, analysis methods, and detailing procedures for the preparation
of highway bridge and structure construction plans, specifications, and estimates.

It is not intended to be a textbook on structural engineering. It is a guide to acceptable WSDOT practice. This
manual does not cover all conceivable problems that may arise, but is intended to be sufficiently comprehensive to,
along with sound engineering judgment, provide a safe guide for bridge engineering.

A thorough knowledge of the contents of this manual is essential for a high degree of efficiency in the engineering
of WSDOT highway structures.

This loose leaf form of this manual facilitates modifications and additions. New provisions and revisions will be
issued from time to time to keep this guide current. Suggestions for improvement and updating the manual are
always welcome.

All manual modifications must be approved by the Bridge Design Engineer.

__________________________________________
M. MYINT LWIN
Bridge and Structures Engineer
Washington State Department of Transportation

V:BDM1

September 1993
BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
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General Information Contents

Page
1.1 Manual Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1.1 Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1.2 Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1.3 Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
B. Chapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
C. Numbering System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.4 Revisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
A. Manual Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
B. Bridge Design Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
C. Record of Manual Revisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2 Bridge and Structures Office Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2-1
1.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2.2 Organizational Elements of the Office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
A. Bridge and Structures Engineer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
B. Bridge Design Engineer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
C. Bridge Preservation Engineer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
D. Bridge Management Engineer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
E. Computer Applications Engineer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
F. Consultant Coordinator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
G. Architect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
H. Staff Support Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
I. Office Administrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.3 Design Procedures and Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3-1
1.3.1 Design/Check Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
A. WSDOT PS&E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
B. Consultant PS&E — Projects on WSDOT Right of Way . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
C. Consultant PS&E — On County and City Right of Way Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.3.2 Design/Check Calculation File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
A. File of Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
B. Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
C. To Be Included . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
D. Not to Be Included . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
E. Upon Completion of the Design Work, Fill Out a Design Completion Checklist . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.3.3 Office Copy Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.3.4 Addenda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.3.5 Shop Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
A. Bridge Shop Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
B. Sign Structure, Signal, and Illumination Shop Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.3.6 Contract Plan Changes (Change Orders and As-Builts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
A. Request for Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
B. Processing Contract Revisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.4 Coordination With Other Divisions and Agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4-1
1.4.1 Preliminary Planning Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

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1.4.2 Final Design Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1


A. Coordination With Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
B. Technical Design Matters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.5 Bridge Design Scheduling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5-1
1.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.5.2 Preliminary Design Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.5.3 Final Design Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
A. Breakdown of Project Man-Hours Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
B. Estimate Design Time Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
C. Monthly Project Progress Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.6 Guidelines for Bridge Site Visits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6-1
1.6.1 Bridge Rehabilitation Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.6.2 Bridge Widenings and Seismic Retrofits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.6.3 Rail and Minor Expansion Joint Retrofits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.6.4 New Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.6.5 Bridge Demolition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.99 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.99-1

Appendix A — Design Aids


1.3-A1 Standard Design Criteria Form
1.3-A2 Exceptions to the Standard Design Criteria Form
1.3-A3 Design Completed Checklist
1.3-A4 Job File Table of Contents
1.3-A5 Office Time Report
1.3-A6 Not Included in Bridge Quantities List
1.3-A7 Special Provisions Checklist
1.5-A1 Breakdown of Project Manhours Required Form
1.5-A2 Monthly Project Progress Report Form

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1.1 Manual Description


1.1.1 Purpose
This manual is intended to be a guide for Bridge Designers and others involved with bridge design for
the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT). It contains design details and methods
that have been standardized and it interprets the intent of specifications. It is not intended to govern design
in unusual situations nor to unduly inhibit the designer in the exercise of engineering judgment. There is
no substitute for good judgment. The following axioms are given as a reminder that simple things make
a big difference.
1. Gravity always works — if something is not supported, it will fall.
2. A chain reaction will cause small failures to become big failures, unless alternate load paths are
available in the structure (i.e., progressive collapse).
3. Small errors, such as a drafting error or a misplaced decimal, can cause large failures.
4. Vigilance is needed to avoid small errors. This applies to construction inspection as well as in the
design phase.
5. A construction job should be run by one person with authority, not a committee. It has been said that
a camel is a horse designed and built by a committee.
6. High quality craftsmanship must be provided by everyone.
7. An unbuildable design is not buildable. An obvious fact often overlooked by the architect or
structural designer. Think about how forms will be built, then removed if necessary.
8. There is no foolproof design.
9. The best way to ensure a failure is to disregard or ignore lessons from past failures.
10. Many problems can be avoided by using a little loving care.
1.1.2 Specifications
The AASHTO publications Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges and LRFD Bridge Design
Specifications are the basic documents guiding the design of highway bridges and structures. This
WSDOT Bridge Design Manual is intended to supplement AASHTO and other specifications by provid-
ing additional direction, design aids, examples, and information on office practices. Where conflicts exist
between this manual and the AASHTO Standard Specifications, this manual will control. When a conflict
exists that is not resolved within the manual, further guidance shall be obtained from the Bridge Design
Engineer or his representative.
The AASHTO publications are not duplicated in this manual. Appropriate specifications and other
references are listed in Section 1.99.
1.1.3 Format
A. General
The Bridge Design Manual consists of two volumes with each chapter organized as follows:
Criteria or other information
Appendix A (printed on yellow paper) Design Aids
Appendix B (printed on salmon paper) Design Examples

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B. Chapters
1. General Information
2. Preliminary Design
3. Analysis
4. Loads
5. Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
6. Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
7. Structural Steel
8. Miscellaneous Design
9. Substructure Design
10. Detailing Practice
11. Quantities
12. Construction Costs
13. Construction Specifications
14. Inspection and Rating
C. Numbering System
1. The numbering system for the criteria consists of a set of numbers followed by letters as required
to designate individual subjects. This format is similar to that used by AASHTO.
Example:
5.0 Reinforced Concrete Superstructures (Chapter)
5.4 Box Girder Bridges (Section)
5.4.2 Girder (Subsection)
C. Shear Resistance
1. The Shear Diagram
a. Shear Reinforcement
(1) Placement
2. Numbering of Sheets
Each section starts a new page numbering sequence. The page numbers are located in the lower
outside corners and begin with the chapter number, followed by the section number, then a
sequential page number.
Example: 5.4-1, 5.4-2, etc.

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3. Appendices are included to provide the designer with design aids (Appendix A) and examples
(Appendix B). Design aids are generally standard in nature, whereas examples are modified to
meet specific job requirements.
An appendix is numbered using the chapter followed by section number and then a hyphen and
the letter of the appendix followed by consecutive numbers.
Example: 5.4-A1 (Box Girder Bridges) designates a design aid required or useful to accomplish
the work described in Chapter 5, Section 4.
4. Numbering of Tables and Figures
Tables and figures shall be numbered using the chapter, section, subsection in which they are
located, and then a hyphen followed by consecutive numbers.
Example: Figure 5.4.2-1 is the first figure found in Chapter 5, section 4, subsection 2.
1.1.4 Revisions
A. Manual Updates
The Bridge Design Manual will change as new material is added and as criteria and specifications
change.
Revisions and new material will be issued with a Publications Transmittal Form. The form will have
a revision number and remarks or special instructions regarding the sheets. The revision number shall
be entered on the Record of Revision sheet in this manual. This allows the user to verify that the
manual is up to date.
B. Bridge Design Instruction
Special instructions regarding interpretation of criteria or other policy statements may be issued using
a Bridge Design Instruction (BDI). The BDI will be transmitted in the same manner as outlined above
for manual revisions. The BDI should be inserted in the appropriate place in the manual and remains
in effect until the expiration date shown or until superseded by a revision to the manual. A sample
BDI is shown on Figure 1.1.4-1.

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February 1997

BRIDGE DESIGN INSTRUCTION 5.1.1 CHAPTER 5

SUBJECT: Use of Concrete Class 5000 and Class 4000D

ACTION: Place this instruction in your manual and note the instruction number in your
Record of Manual Revisions, 1.1.4.

TEXT There is confusion regarding the availability of Concrete Class 5000. This
class of concrete is available within a 30-mile radius of Seattle, Spokane and
Vancouver, Washington. “Available” means that there are concrete suppliers
in these urban areas capable of supplying Concrete Class 5000 in accordance
with WSDOT specifications. Outside this 30-mile radius (or near the fringe),
the concrete suppliers generally do not have the quality control procedures
and expertise to supply this higher strength concrete. The Construction Office
or Materials Lab should be contacted for availability for project sites outside
these areas.

In general, Class 4000D Concrete would be specified for bridge roadway decks
outside this 30 mile radius. Class 4000D Concrete specifications require a
14-day wet cure and flyash as an additive. Typically, Class 4000 Concrete would
be specified for other bridge concrete members above ground. This mix was
developed by the Materials Lab to be at least as durable as Class 5000 Concrete.

By utilizing the above guidelines, WSDOT will receive the most durable bridge
deck at the least cost.

Approved: _________________________
C. C. Ruth
Bridge Design Engineer

CCR/db
RTS

Figure 1.1.4-1

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C. Record of Manual Revisions


In order that a ready means be available to check whether a manual is up to date, each manual holder
is requested to keep his copy up to date and to record Bridge Design Instructions or Revisions as
material is added or changed. The form below is intended for use in keeping this record. At any time,
a manual holder will be able to check his list with the list in the “master” manual.

Revision Entry By Revision Entry By Revision Entry By


Number Date (Initial) Number Date (Initial) Number Date (Initial)

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1.2 Bridge and Structures Office Organization


1.2.1 General
The document defining the responsibilities for bridge design within the Washington State Department of
Transportation (WSDOT) is the Organization Handbook. In that document, the responsibilities of the
Bridge and Structures Office are stated as follows:
Provides structural engineering services for the department. Provides technical advice and assistance
to other governmental agencies on such matters.
The WSDOT Design Manual states the following:
Bridge design is the responsibility of the Bridge and Structures Office in Olympia. Any design
authorized to be performed at the regional level is subject to review and approval by the Bridge
and Structures Office.
1.2.2 Organizational Elements of the Office
A. Bridge and Structures Engineer
Responsible for structural engineering services for the department. Manages staff and programs for
structure design, contract plan preparation, and inspections and assessments of existing bridges.
B. Bridge Design Engineer
The Bridge Design Engineer is directly responsible to the Bridge and Structures Engineer for
structural design and review, and advises other divisions and agencies on such matters.
1. Structural Design Units
The Structural Design Units are responsible for the final design of bridges and other structures.
Final design includes preparation of plans. The units provide special design studies, develop
design criteria, check shop plans, and review designs submitted by consultants.
Each design unit normally consists of individuals including a section supervisor and a bridge
specialist. Organization and job assignments within the unit are flexible and are related to the
projects underway at any particular time as well as to the qualifications of individuals. The
emphasis in the design sections is on providing sound designs, checking, reviewing, and
detailing in an efficient manner.
A bridge specialist is assigned to each design unit. Each specialist has a particular area of
responsibility. The three areas are concrete, steel, and expansion joints and bearings. The
specialist acts as a resource person for the bridge office in his specialty and is responsible for
keeping up-to-date on current AASHTO criteria, new design concepts, technical publications,
construction and maintenance issues.
The design units are also responsible for the design and preparation of contract plans for
modifications to bridges in service. These include bridge rail replacement, deck repair, seismic
retrofits, emergency repairs when bridges are damaged by vehicle or ship collision or natural
phenomenon, and expansion joint and drainage retrofit. They review proposed plans of utility
attachments to existing bridges.

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General Information Bridge and Structures Office Organization

2. Bridge Projects Unit


The Bridge Projects Engineer directs preliminary design work, specification and cost estimates
preparation, falsework review, and coordinates scheduling of bridge design projects with the
Bridge Design Engineer and the Design Unit Supervisors.
The Preliminary Design engineers are responsible for bridge project planning from design studies
to preliminary project reports. They are responsible for preliminary plan preparation of bridge
and walls including assembly and analysis of site data, preliminary structural analysis, cost
analysis, determination of structure type, and drawing preparation. They also review highway
project environmental documents and design reports and handle Coast Guard liaison duties.
The Specifications and Estimate (S&E) engineers develop and maintain construction
specifications and cost estimates for bridge projects originating in the Bridge and Structures
Office. They also review the specifications and cost estimates for bridge contracts prepared by
consultants and other government agencies which are administered by WSDOT. They assemble
and review the completed bridge PS&E before submittal to the Plans Branch. They also coordi-
nate the PS&E preparation with the regions, Plans Branch, and maintain bridge construction
cost records.
The Construction Support engineers are responsible for checking the contractor’s falsework,
shoring, and form plans. Shop plans review and approval are coordinated with the design
sections. Actual check of the shop plan is done in the design section. Field requests for plan
changes come through this office for a recommendation as to approval. As built plans are
prepared by this unit at the completion of a contract.
The Scheduling Engineer monitors the design work schedule for the Bridge and Structures Office
and maintains records of bridge contract costs.
In addition, the unit is responsible for the Bridge Design Manual, design standards, professional
activities, and AASHTO support.
C. Bridge Preservation Engineer
Directs activities and develops programs to assure the structural and functional integrity of all state
bridges in service. Directs emergency response services when bridges are damaged.
1. Bridge Preservation Unit
The Bridge Preservation Unit is responsible for planning and implementation of an inspection
program for the more than 3,000 fixed and movable state highway bridges. In addition, the unit
provides inspection services on some local agency bridges and on the state’s 21 ferry terminals.
All inspections are conducted in accordance with the National Bridge Inspection Standards
(NBIS).
The unit maintains a statewide computer inventory Washington State Bridge Inventory System
(WSBIS), of current information on more than 7,300 state, county, and city bridges in accordance
with the NBIS. This includes load ratings for all bridges. It prepares a Bridge List of the state’s
bridges which is published every two years.
The unit is responsible for the bridge load rating and risk reduction (SCOUR) programs. It
provides damage assessments and emergency response services when bridges are damaged or
lost due to vehicle or ship collision or natural phenomenon such as floods, wind, or earthquakes.

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D. Bridge Management Engineer


This Bridge Management Unit is responsible for program development, planning, and monitoring of
all H-Program activities. These include HBRRP funded bridge replacements and rehabilitation, bridge
deck protection, major bridge repair, and bridge painting.
In addition, this unit manages the bridge deck protection program including the deck testing program
and the bridge research program. It is responsible for the planning, development, coordination, and
implementation of new programs (e.g., Seismic Retrofit and Preventative Maintenance), experimental
feature projects, new product evaluation, and technology transfer.
E. Computer Applications Engineer
The Computer Support Unit is responsible for computer resource planning and implementation,
computer user support, liaison with Management Information Systems (MIS), and computer aided
engineer operation support. In addition, the unit is responsible for Standard Plan updates.
F. Consultant Coordinator
The Consultant Coordinator prepares bridge consultant agreements and coordinates consultant PS&E
development activities with those of the department.
G. Architect
The Principal Architect is responsible for approving preliminary plans, preparing renderings, model
making, and other duties to improve the aesthetics of our bridges and other structures. The Principal
Architect works closely with staff and regions. During the design phase, designers should get the
Architect’s approval for any changes to architectural details shown on the approved preliminary plan.
H. Staff Support Unit
The Staff Support Unit is responsible for many support functions, such as: typing, timekeeping,
payroll, receptionist, vehicle management, mail, inventory management, and other duties requested
by the Bridge and Structures Engineer. Other duties include: of field data, plans for bridges under
contract or constructed, and design calculations. This unit also maintains office supplies and provides
other services.
I. Office Administrator
The Office Administrator is responsible for coordinating personnel actions, updating the
organizational chart, ordering technical materials, and other duties requested by the Bridge
and Structures Engineer. Staff development and training are coordinated through the Office
Administrator. Logistical support, office and building maintenance issues are also handled by
the Office Administrator.

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1.2.3 Design Unit Responsibilities and Expertise


The following is an updated summary of design responsibilities/expertise within the Bridge Design
Section. Contact the unit manager for the name of the appropriate staff expert for the needed specialty.
Unit Manager Responsibility/Expertise
K. N. Kirker Expansion Joint Modifications
Retaining Walls (including MSE, Tie-Back, and Soil Nail)
Seismic Retrofit
Y. A. Mhatre Noise Walls
Bridge Traffic Barriers
Standard Plans for Prestressed Concrete
R. T. Shaefer Coast Guard Permits
Cost Estimates
Standard Plans (other than Prestressed Concrete)
Bridge Design Manual
J. A. VanLund Sign Supports, Light Standards, Traffic Signal Supports
Repairs to Damaged Prestressed Girder Bridges
P. T. Clarke Floating Bridges
Special Structures

P65:DP/BDM1

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1.3 Quality Control/Quality Assurance (QC/QA) Process for WSDOT Bridge Designs
1.3.0 General
A. The QA/QC process for bridge designs is a critical element of quality structure plan preparation.
The overall goals of the structural design process are:
• The structural design maximizes the safety of the traveling public and is in accordance with
State Law.
• The structural design is in accordance with the WSDOT Bridge Design Manual, AASHTO
Bridge Design Specifications, good structural engineering practice, and geometric criteria
provided by the Region.
• Designed structures are durable, low-maintenance, and inspectable.
• The structural design facilitates constructibility and minimizes overall construction costs, while
exhibiting a pleasing architectural style.
• The structural design contract documents are produced in accordance with customer’s needs
(schedule, construction staging, and available program funding).
• Structural design costs are minimized.
• A well-organized and readable structure calculation record is produced.
• Plan quality is maximized.
• Design process allows for change, innovation, and continuous improvement.
The overall goals are listed in order of importance. If there is a conflict between goals, the more
important goal takes precedence.
The design unit manager determines project assignments and the QC/QA process to be used in
preparation of the structural design. The intent of the QC/QA process is to facilitate production
efficiency and cost-effectiveness while assuring the structural integrity of the design and maximizing
the quality of the structure contract documents.
1.3.1 Design/Check Procedures
A. PS&E Prepared by WSDOT Bridge and Structures Office
1. Design Team
The design team, consisting of the Designer(s), Checker(s), Structural Detailer(s), and Specifica-
tion and Estimate engineer are responsible for preparing a set of contractible, clear, and concise
structural contract documents by the scheduled date and within the workforce hours allotted for
the project. On large projects, the design unit manager may assign a designer additional duties
as a Design Team Leader to assist the manager in planning, coordinating, and monitoring the
activities of the design team. In this case, the team leader would also coordinate with the Region
and the Geotechnical Branch.
The QC/QA process will likely vary depending on the type and complexity of the structure being
designed, and the experience level of the design team members. More supervision, review, and
checking are required when the design team members are less experienced. In general, it is good
QC/QA practice to have some experienced members on each design team. All design team
members should have the opportunity to provide input for maximizing the quality of the design
being produced.

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2. Designer Responsibility
The designer is responsible for the structural analysis, completeness, correctness, and quality
of the plans. The designer shall provide quality control in the process of plan preparation. That
is, errors and omissions need to be caught and corrected before subsequent checking and review
of plans. A good set of example plans to follow, representative of bridge type, is indispensable
in this regard.
During the design phase of a project, the designer will need to communicate with other
stakeholders. This includes acquiring, finalizing or revising roadway geometrics, soil reports,
hydraulics recommendations, and utility requirements. Constructibility issues may also require
that the designer communicate with the Region or Construction Office. The bridge plans must
be coordinated with the PS&E packages produced concurrently by the Region.
The designer or team leader is responsible for project planning which involves the following:
a. Prepare a Design Time Estimate Bar Chart (see Section 1.5.2).
b. Identify tasks and plan order of work.
c. Prepare design criteria, which should be included in the design calculations. Use Standard
Design Criteria Form, 1.3-A1-1 for routine projects. A project specific design criteria should
be made when appropriate. Compare tasks with BDM office practice and AASHTO bridge
design specifications.
(1) Sufficient guidelines?
(2) Deviation from BDM/AASHTO?
(3) Any question on design approach?
(4) Deviation from office practices regarding design and details?
(5) Other differences.
d. Meet with the Region design staff and other project stakeholders early in the design process
to resolve as many issues as possible before proceeding with final design and detailing.
e. Identify coordination needs with other designers, units, and offices.
f. Early in the project, determine the number and titles of sheets. For projects with multiple
bridges, each set of bridge sheets should have a unique set of bridge sheet numbers.
The bridge sheet numbering system should be coordinated with the Region design staff.
g. At least monthly or as directed by the design unit manager:
(1) Update Project Schedule and List of Sheets.
(2) Estimate percent complete.
(3) Estimate time to complete.
(4) Work with design unit manager to adjust resources, if necessary.
h. Develop preliminary quantities for 90 percent complete cost estimate.

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i. Near end of project:


(1) Keep track of sheets as they are completed.
(2) Develop quantities and special provisions checklists that are to be turned in with
the plans.
(3) Prepare Bar List.
(4) Enter information into the Bridge Design Record.
(5) Coordinate all final changes, including review comments from the checker, managers,
specialists, the Region, and the Construction Office.
(6) Meet with Region design staff and other project stakeholders at the constructibility
meeting to address final project coordination issues.
The designer shall advise and get the design unit manager’s approval whenever details
deviate from the BDM office practice and AASHTO Bridge Design Specifications. The
designer shall provide documentation of the structural design deviations in the calculations.
The designer should inform the design unit manager of any areas of the design which should
receive special attention during checking and review.
The design calculations are prepared by the designer and become a very important record
document. Design calculations will be a reference document during the construction of the
structure and throughout the life of the structure. It is critical that the design calculations be
user friendly. The design calculations shall be well organized, clear, properly referenced,
and include numbered pages along with a table of contents. The design calculations shall
be archived. Computer files should be archived for use during construction, in the event that
changed conditions arise. Archive-ready design and check calculations shall be bound and
submitted to the design unit manager within 30 days of submitting the 100 percent PS&E.
Calculations shall be stored in the design unit until completion of construction. After
construction, they shall be sent to archives.
The designer is also responsible for resolving construction problems referred to the Bridge
Office during the life of the contract. These issues will generally be referred through the
Bridge Technical Advisor, the design unit manager, the Construction Support Unit, or the
OSC Construction Unit.
3. Design Checker Responsibility
The checker is responsible to the design unit manager for “quality assurance” of the structural
design, which includes checking the design and plans to assure accuracy and constructibility.
The design unit manager works with the checker to establish the level of checking. The checking
procedure for assuring the quality of the design will vary from project to project. Following are
some general checking guidelines:
a. Design Calculations
(1) For designs checked by an experienced checker, a review and initialing of the designer’s
calculations by the checker is acceptable. If it is more efficient, the checker may choose
to perform his/her own calculations to check. All the designer and checker calculations
shall be placed in one design calculation set.

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(2) For designs checked by an inexperienced checker, a more thorough check should be
performed by the checker to enhance his/her understanding of structural design. In this
case, the design unit manager should provide the checker with a design example.
(3) Revision of design calculations, if required, is the responsibility of the designer.
b. Structural Plans
(1) The checker’s plan review comments are recorded on the structural plans, including
details and bar lists, and returned to the designer for consideration. If the checker’s
comments are not incorporated, the designer should provide justification for not doing
so. If there is a difference of opinion that cannot be resolved between the designer and
checker, the unit manager shall resolve the issue.
(2) If assigned by the design unit manager, the checker shall perform a complete check of
the geometry using CADD, hand calculations, or a geometric program.
(3) Revision of plans, if required, is the responsibility of the designer.
4. Structural Detailer Responsibility
The structural detailer is responsible for the structural plan sheets. The plans shall be neat,
correct, and easy to follow and drawn to scale. The structural detailer may also assist the designer
and design checker in such areas as determining control dimensions and elevations, geometry,
and calculating quantities.
Some detailing basics and principles:
a. Refer to BDM, Chapter 10, for detailing practices.
b. Provide necessary and adequate information. Try to avoid repetition of information.
c. Avoid placing too much information into any one sheet.
d. Plan sheets should detailed in a consistent manner and follow accepted detailing practices.
e. Provide clear and separate detail of structural geometrics. Use clear detailing such as “stand
alone” cross sections or a framing plan to define the structure.
f. Avoid reinforcing steel congestion.
g. Check reinforcement detail for consistency. Beware of common mistakes about placement
of stirrups and ties (such as: stirrups too short, effect of skew neglected, epoxy coating not
considered, etc.). Check splice location and detail, and welding locations.
h. Use cross references properly.
i. Use correct and consistent terminology. For example, the designation of Sections, Views,
and Details.
j. Check for proper grammar and spelling.
k. On multiple bridge contracts, the structural detailing of all bridges within the contract shall
be coordinated to maximize consistency of detailing from bridge to bridge. Extra effort
will be required to assure uniformity of details, particularly if multiple design units and/or
consultants are involved in preparing bridge plans. This is a critical element of good quality
bridge plans.

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l. Refer to the Bridge Book of Knowledge for current special features and details used on
other projects.
5. Specialist Responsibility
There are currently four specialist positions in the Bridge and Structures Office. There is a
specialist assigned to each of the three design sections and one to the Bridge Preservation
Section. The primary responsibility of the specialist is to act as a knowledge resource for this
office. The Specialists maintain an active knowledge of their specialty area along with a current
file of products and design procedures. Proactive industry contacts are maintained by the Special-
ists. Specialists also provide training in their area of specialty. As contract plans are prepared by
other designers, the Specialists are expected to review and initial drawings covered by their
specialty area. Plans produced directly by Specialists in their specialty area should be prepared
with their own stamp and signature. Specialists also assist the Bridge Engineer in reviewing and
voting on amendments to AASHTO specifications. They also are responsible for keeping their
respective chapters of the Bridge Design Manual up to date. The secondary responsibility of the
Specialist is to serve as design section supervisor when the supervisor is absent.
There are three specialty areas in the Design Section: Concrete, Expansion Joints and Bearings,
and Steel.
6. Design Unit Technical Responsibilities
Each Design Unit is responsible for maintaining a resource of technical knowledge and leader-
ship. As described in the previous Section (5.), each unit has a Design Specialist (Concrete, Steel,
Expansion Joints and Bearings). In addition, each Design Unit maintains a resource of technical
knowledge in several technical areas. Following, is a list of all technical subjects for which a
resource is maintained:
• Coast Guard Permits
• Cost Estimates
• Bridge Special Provisions
• Sign Supports, Light Standards, Traffic Signal Supports
• Repairs to Damaged Prestressed Girders
• Expansion Joint Modifications
• Retaining Walls (Including MSE, Tie-Back, and Soil Nail)
• Seismic Retrofit
• Noise Walls
• Traffic Barrier Retrofits/Standards
• Bridge Standard Plans (BDM)
The resource/leadership responsibility for these technical areas does not necessarily include
responsibility for performing all of the work relating to the technical area. For many of the
technical areas, the Design Unit acts as a resource for the technical area, only, and as a contact
for industry and stakeholders.

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7. Specification and Estimating Engineer Responsibilities


The S&E Engineer is responsible for compiling the PS&E package for bridge and/or related
highway structural components. This PS&E package includes Special Provisions (BSPs and
GSPs as appropriate), construction cost estimate, construction working day schedule, test hole
boring logs and other appendices as appropriate, and the design plan package.
The S&E Engineer begins work after the design unit submits copies of the 90 percent design
plans. This normally occurs on or before the date specified in the Bridge Design Schedule.
A set of quantities, a copy of the “Not Included in Bridge Quantities,” and a S&E Checklist
are included in the PS&E package.
As a first order of business, the S&E Engineer distributes the 90 percent design plans for review
by the Region and other offices. While other offices are reviewing the plan package, the S&E
Engineer attends to the following duties.
• Review the job file, foundation report, and design plans to make sure that materials specified
in the plans are consistent with the current Standard Specifications.
• Check the plans for engineering accuracy, completeness, and constructibility.
• Create a run list of BSPs, GSPs, and appropriate Standard Specification amendments.
• Compile a cost estimate file using the quantities submitted by the designers and current Unit
Cost figures for the various materials used in the bridge.
• The S&E Engineer develops a construction working day schedule which is also based on the
quantities submitted by the designers.
At the same time, the S&E Engineer coordinates the Bridge and Structures Office review of the
Review PS&E and responds with comments to the Region. The S&E Engineer also receives all
Region review comments and distributes them to the appropriate designer for action. The S&E
Engineer also participates in the Region Review Roundtable Meeting. After the Review
Roundtable Meeting, all comments are addressed by the designers.
The S&E Engineer has the following responsibilities during coordination of the Final Bridge
PS&E turn in.
• Make Special Provision reviews to the Bridge Special Provision word file.
• Inform the appropriate Region PS&E contact when the word file is complete and ready for
transfer.
• Complete Cost Estimate and Quantity revisions to the cost estimate files.
• Electronically distribute all cost estimate file revisions to the appropriate Region PS&E
contact.
Once the final Bridge Sheet mylars are printed, stamped, and signed, the S&E Engineer arranges
for 11 by 17 paper prints for submittal to the appropriate Region PS&E contact. The original
stamped and signed mylars are turned in to the Construction Plans Unit for storage.
During the Advertising period many questions are funneled into the Bridge Office by the Project
Engineers and the communications are generally distributed to the S&E Engineer. The S&E
Engineer will ascertain the query, answer the question from the Contractors, or seek advice or
help from the design engineer. The S&E Engineer will then respond back to the PE. Revisions
to the Plans or Specs are sometimes needed as a result of these questions from Contractors.

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Addendum’s are created to augment the original advertised document to make sure all
Contractors are advised prior to Bid Openings. These Addendum’s are coordinated with the
Region and OSC Plans.
The S&E Engineer attends the award meetings to justify bids and advise whether or not to award
the contract.
Other responsibilities included are:
• Special Provisions and Estimates for Change Order Work
• Cost estimates in the scoping stage of a project
• Working Day information during Stage Construction planning
• Initiates/Coordinates Amendment and GSP Updates
• Maintains BSP Library
8. Design Unit Manager Responsibility
a. The design unit manager is responsible to the Bridge Design Engineer for the timely
completion and quality of the bridge plans.
b. The design unit manager works closely with the design team (designer, checker, and
structural detailer) during the design and plan preparation phases to help avoid major
changes late in the design process. Activities during the course of design include:
(1) Evaluate the complexity of the project and the designer’s skill and classification level
to deliver the project in a timely manner. Determine both the degree of supervision
necessary for the designer and the amount of checking that will be required by the
checker.
(2) Assist the design team in defining the scope of the project, identifying the tasks to be
accomplished, developing a project work plan and schedule, and assigning resources to
achieve delivery of the project.
(3) Review and approve design criteria before start of design.
(4) Help lead designer conduct face-to-face project meetings, such as: project “kick-off”
and “wrap-up” meetings with Region, geotechnical staff, bridge construction, and
consultants to resolve outstanding issues.
(5) Assist the design team with planning, anticipating possible problems, collectively
identifying solutions, and facilitating timely delivery of needed information, such as
geometrics, hydraulics, foundation information, etc.
(6) Interact with design team regularly to discuss progress, problems, schedule, analysis
techniques, constructibility and design issues. Always encourage forward thinking,
innovative ideas and suggestions for quality improvement.
(7) Arrange for and provide the necessary resources and tools for the design team to do the
job right the first time. Offer assistance to help resolve questions or problems.
(8) Help document and disseminate information on special features and lessons learned for
the benefit of others and future projects.

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(9) Mentor and train designers and detailers on state-of-the-art practices and through the
assignment of a variety of structure types.
c. The design unit manager works closely with the design team during the plan review phase.
Review efforts should concentrate on reviewing the completed plan details and design
calculations for completeness and for agreement with office criteria and practices. Review
the following periodically and at the end of the project:
(1) Design Criteria
• Seismic “a” value
• Foundation report recommendations, selection of alternates
• Deviations from AASHTO, BDM, Documentation
(2) Design Time
d. Review designer’s estimated time to complete the project. Plan resource allocation to
complete the project to meet the scheduled Ad Date. Monitor monthly time spent on the
project. Prepare and submit to the Bridge Projects Engineer monthly time reports for each
project. Estimate time remaining to complete project, percent completed, and whether
project is on or behind schedule. Arrange and plan resources to ensure a timely delivery
of the project within the estimated time to complete the project.
e. Advise Region of project scope and cost-creep. Use quarterly status reports to update Region
and Bridge Projects Engineer.
f. Use appropriate computer scheduling software or other means to monitor time usage and to
allocate resources and to plan projects.
g. Fill out Office Time Report (see Appendix 1.3-A5).
h. Review of constructibility. Any problems unique to the project?
i. Check the final plans for the following:
(1) Scan the job file for unusual items relating to geometrics, hydraulics, geotechnical,
environmental, etc.
(2) Overall check/review of sheet #1, the bridge layout for:
• Consistency — especially for multiple bridge project
• Missing information
(3) Check footing layout for conformance to Bridge Plan and for adequacy of information
given. Generally, the field personnel should be given enough information to “layout”
the footings on the ground without referring to any other sheets. Details should be clear,
precise, and dimensions tied to base reference such as survey line or defined center line
of bridge.
(4) Check the sequence of the plan sheets. They should adhere to the following order:
layout, footing layout, substructures, superstructures, miscellaneous details, barriers,
and bar list. Also check for appropriateness of the titles.

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(5) Check overall dimensions and elevations, spot check for compatibility. For example,
check compatibility between superstructures and substructure. Also spot check bar
marks.
(6) Use one’s training, common sense, and experience to “size-up” structural dimensions
and reinforcement, etc., for structural adequacy. When in doubt, prepare for a line of
questioning to the designer/checker.
j. Stamp and seal the plans.
9. Bridge Design Engineer’s Responsibilities
The Bridge Design Engineer is the coach, mentor, and facilitator for the WSDOT QC/QA Bridge
Design Process. The leadership and support provided by this position is a major influence in
assuring bridge design quality for structural designs performed by both WSDOT and consultants.
The following summarizes the responsibilities of the Bridge Design Engineer relative to QC/QA:
a. When the structural contract plans are sealed by the Bridge Design Engineer, a structural/
constructibility review of the plans is performed. This is a quality assurance (QA) function
as well as meeting the “responsible charge” requirements of the laws relating to Professional
Engineers.
b. Review and approve the Preliminary Bridge Plans. The primary focus for this responsibility
is to assure that the most cost-effective and appropriate structure type is selected for a
particular bridge site.
c. Participate in coordination, scheduling, and project-related discussions with stakeholders,
customers, and outside agencies relating to major structural design issues.
d. Facilitate resolution of major project design issues.
e. Review unique project special provisions and major Standard Specification modifications
relating to structures.
f. Facilitate partnerships between WSDOT, consultant, and construction industry stakeholders
to facilitate design quality.
g. Encourage designer creativity and innovation.
h. Exercise leadership and direction for maintaining a progressive and up to date Bridge Design
Manual.
i. Create an open and supportive office environment in which Design Section staff are empow-
ered to do high quality structural design work.
10. General Bridge Plan Signature Policy
The sealing and signature of bridge plans is an important element of the Bridge QC/QA process.
It signifies review and responsible charge of the design and details represented in the plans. The
Bridge and Structures Office intends to have at least one Licensed Structural Engineer seal and
sign each contract plan sheet (except the bar list). For major projects, the Design Unit Manager
and the Bridge Design Engineer will typically review, seal, and sign the bridge plans. For routine
bridge designs and transportation structure designs, the Design Unit Manager (SE License) and
designer with a Civil Engineer License will typically review, seal, and sign the contract plans
(except the bar list).

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B. PS&E Prepared by Consultant


This section is yet to be developed, but it will include the following elements:
• Consultant Coordinator Responsibilities
Scope of Work
Negotiate Contract (Task Assignments)
Coordinate/Negotiate Changes to Scope of Work
• WSDOT Design Reviewer/Coordinator Responsibilities
Review consultant’s design criteria and standard details early in the project
Identify resources needed to complete work
Early agreement on structural concepts/design method to be used
Identify who is responsible for what
Monitor progress
Facilitate communication
Review for design consistency with WSDOT practices and other bridge designs in project
Resolve differences
Assure that consultant’s QC/QA plan was followed during design
• Design Unit Manager Responsibilities
Encourage/Facilitate communication
Early involvement to assure that design concepts are appropriate
Empower Design Reviewer/Coordinator
Facilitate resolution of problems beyond ability of Reviewer/Coordinator
• S&E Unit Responsibilities
Prepare Specials and Estimate based on Consultant’s special provision checklist and quanti-
ties
Review plans for consistency
Forward Special Provisions and Estimate to consultant for review and comment
• Bridge Design Engineer Responsibilities
Cursory review of design plans
Signature approval of S&E bridge contract package
C. Consultant PS&E — On County and City Right of Way Projects
Consultants are frequently used by counties and cities to design bridges. The Highways and Local
Programs Office determines which projects are to be reviewed by the Bridge and Structures Office.
Where a review is required, the PS&E is sent by Highways and Local Programs to the Bridge Projects
Engineer for assignment. The Bridge and Structures Office Consultant Coordinator does not become
involved.
A Review Engineer will be assigned to the project and will review the project as outlined for
Consultant PS&E — Projects on WSDOT Right of Way (see Section 1.3.1.B).
The plans with the reviewers’ comments should be returned to the Bridge Projects Unit where the
comments will be transferred to a second set of plans which will be returned to Highways and Local
Programs. The original set will be filed in the Bridge Projects Unit.

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Review is made of the Preliminary Plan first and the PS&E second. Comments are treated as advisory,
although major structural problems must be corrected. An engineer from the county, city, or consultant
may contact the reviewer to discuss the comments.
1.3.2 Design/Check Calculation File
A. File of Calculations
The Bridge and Structures Office maintains a file of all pertinent design/check calculations for
documentation and future reference.
B. Procedures
After an assigned project is completed and the bridge is built, the designer should turn in to the
manager a bound file containing the design/check calculations.
C. File Inclusions
The following items should be included in the file:
1. Index Sheets
Number all calculation sheets and prepare an index by subject with the corresponding sheet
numbers.
List the name of the project, SR Number, designer/checker initials, date (month, day, and year),
and supervisor’s initials.
2. Design Calculations
These should include design criteria, loadings, structural analysis, one set of moment and shear
diagrams and pertinent computer input and output data (reduced to 8 1 2 inch by 11 inch sheet
size).
3. Special Design Features
Brief narrative of major design decisions or revisions and the reasons for them.
4. Construction Problems or Revisions (As They Develop)
Not all construction problems can be anticipated during the design of the structure; therefore,
construction problems arise that require revisions. Calculations for revisions made during
construction should be included in the design/check calculation file when construction is
completed.
D. File Exclusions
The following items should not be included in the file:
1. Geometric calculations.
2. Irrelevant computer information.
3. Prints of Office Standard Sheets.
4. Irrelevant sketches.
5. Voided sheets.

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6. Preliminary design calculations and drawings unless used in the final design.
7. Test hole logs.
8. Quantity calculations.
E. Upon completion of the design work, fill out a Design Completed Checklist (Form 230-035).
(See Appendix 1.3-A3.)
1.3.3 Office Copy Review
Office Copy is the compiled contract documents (plans/specials) of all involved disciplines (Region,
service center, and Bridge Office). It is normally distributed for final review for compatibility,
completeness, and accuracy before final printing and going to Ad with the contract.
a. Note the due date to determine priority.
b. Review the comments from any previous reviews of the Region PS&E and check to see if the items
have been corrected.
c. Review all indexes for items related to traffic signals, illumination, signs, retaining walls, traffic
barrier, and other structural items.
d. Review the index and verify that no bridge plans have been omitted.
e. Review pertinent sections of the special provisions for consistency with the plans, design criteria,
and specifications.
f. Verify that Standard Plans and preapproved plans are called out where applicable.
g. Review pertinent plan sheets.
h. Verify consistency between Region plans and bridge plans; particularly geometry, drainage,
guardrail, and other pertinent items.
i. Determine if any nonstandard designs are shown or specified. If so, a structural review of them may
be necessary. Note any missing specifications, Standard Plans, etc.
j. Return plans and comments to the unit manager.
1.3.4 Addenda
Plan or specification revisions during the advertising period require an addendum. The Bridge Projects
Engineer will evaluate the need for the addendum after consultation with the OSC Bridge Construction
Engineer, Region, and the Plans Branch. The Bridge Design Engineer or the design unit manager must
initial all addenda.
For addenda to contract plans, obtain the original drawing from the Bridge Project Unit. Use shading to
mark all changes (except deletions) and place a revision note at the bottom of the sheet (Region and Plans
Branch jointly determine addendum date) and a description of the change. Return the original and an
11 × 17 reduced copy to the Bridge Project Unit who will submit the reduced copy to the Plans Branch
for processing. See Chapter 10, Section 10.1.1I, for additional information.
For changes to specifications, submit a copy of the page with the change to the Bridge S&E Unit for
processing.

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1.3.5 Shop Plans


The following is intended to be a guide for checking shop plans.
A. Bridge Shop Plans
1. Mark one copy of each sheet with the following, near the title block, in red pencil or with a
rubber stamp:
Office Copy
Contract (number)
(Checker’s initials) (Date)
2. On the Bridge Office copy, mark with red pencil any errors or corrections. Yellow shall be
used for highlighting the checked items, and ordinary lead (gray) pencil for other comments,
arithmetic, etc. (Only the red pencil marks will be copied onto the other copies to be returned
to the contractor.)
3. Items to be checked are typically as follows: Check against Contract Plans, Special Provisions,
and Standard Specifications.
a. Material specifications (ASTM specifications, hardness, alloy and temper, etc.).
b. Size of member and fasteners.
c. Length dimensions if shown on the Contract Plans.
d. Finish (surface finish, galvanizing, anodizing, painting, etc.).
e. Weld size and type and welding procedure if required.
f. Strand or rebar placement, jacking procedure, stress calculations, elongations, etc.
g. Fabrication — reaming, drilling, and assembly procedures.
h. Adequacy of details.
i. Erection procedure.
The following items pertain only to post-tensioning shop plans:
j. Center of gravity of post-tensioning (P/T) strands matches contract plans.
k. Seating loss.
l. Friction losses.
m. Time-dependent losses.
n. Steel stress diagram.
o. Elongation of strands in all tendons. These will be compared with the field measurements.
(See WSDOT Construction Manual.) For curved bridges where the lengths of the exterior
webs vary by more than 2 percent, separate elongations should be provided for each web.
p. Anchor plate size. If nonstandard, check bearing stress on concrete and flexural stress
in plate material. Test data must be on file to substantiate the adequacy of internal type
anchorages.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
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General Information Design Procedures and Processes

q. Vent conduit at all high and low points in the spans.


r. Adequate room in the concrete members for the system.
s. Interference with other reinforcement. Special attention to this item if post-tensioning (P/T)
supplier proposes a different number of tendons than shown on the plans.
t. Offsets from soffit to bottom of conduits. Watch for sharp curvature of tendons near end
anchorages (see minimum radius requirements in Chapter 6 of BDM Criteria).
u. Strand positions in conduit in sag and summit tendon curves.
v. Stressing sequence.
w. Geometric details such as size of blockouts.
Note: Manufacturer’s details may vary slightly from contract plan requirements but must be
structurally adequate and reasonable.
4. Items Not Requiring Check:
a. Quantities in bill of materials.
b. Length dimensions not shown on Contract Plans except for spot checking.
5. Project Engineer’s Copy
If one copy has been marked by the Project Engineer (in green), do not use this as the office
copy. Transfer his corrections, if pertinent, to the office copy using red pencil.
6. Marking Copies
When finished, mark the office copy with one of three categories (in red pencil, lower
right corner).
a. APP’D
(Approved, No Corrections required.)
b. AAN
(Approved as noted — minor corrections only. Do not place written questions on an
approved as noted sheet.)
c. RFC
(Return for correction — major corrections are required followed by resubmittal.)
If in doubt between AAN and RFC, check with the unit manager. An acceptable detail may
be shown in red. Mark the plans Approved-As-Noted provided that the detail is clearly noted
Suggested Correction — Otherwise Revise and Resubmit.
Do not mark the other copies. This will be done in the Construction Support Unit. The reviewer
may be asked to proof the other copies after they have been marked.
Notify Project Engineer of any approved changes to the contract plans. Also notify the OSC
Bridge Construction Engineer, who may have to approve a change order and provide justification
for the change order.

1.3-14 July 2000


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
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General Information Design Procedures and Processes

If problems are encountered which may cause a delay in the checking of the shop plans or
completion of the contract, notify the unit manager and the Construction Support Unit.
Return all shop drawings and Contract Plans to the Construction Support unit when checking is
completed. Include a list of any deviations from the Contract Plans which are allowed and a list
of any disagreements with the Project Engineer’s comments (regardless of how minor they may
be). If deviations from the Contract Plans are to be allowed, a Change Order may be required.
Alert the Construction Support Unit so that their transmittal letter may inform the Region and
the OSC Bridge Construction Engineer.
B. Sign Structure, Signal, and Illumination Shop Plans
In addition to those instructions described under “Bridge Shop Plans,” the following instructions
apply:
1. Review the shop plans to ensure that the pole sizes conform to the Contract Plans. Determine if
fabricator has supplied plans for each pole or type of pole called for in the contract.
2. The Project Engineer’s copy may show shaft lengths where not shown on Contract Plans or
whether a change from Contract Plans is required. Manufacturer’s details may vary slightly
from contract plan requirements, but must be structurally adequate to be acceptable.
1.3.6 Contract Plan Changes (Change Orders and As-Builts)
A. Request for Changes
The following is intended as a guide for processing changes to the design plans after a project has
been awarded.
For projects which have been assigned a Bridge Technical Advisor, structural design change orders
can be approved at the Regional level provided the instructions outlined in the Construction Manual
are followed.
For all other projects, all changes are to be channeled through the Construction Support Unit which
will coordinate with the OSC Bridge Construction Engineer. Responses to inquiries should be
handled as follows:
1. Request by Contractor or Supplier
A designer, BTA, or design unit manager contacted directly by a contractor/supplier may discuss
a proposed change with the contractor/supplier, but shall clearly tell the contractor/supplier to
formally submit the proposed change though the Project Engineer and that the discussion in no
way implies approval of the proposed change. Designers are to inform their manager if they are
contacted.
2. Request From the Project Engineer
Requests for changes directly from the Project Engineer to the design unit manager should be
discouraged but may be acceptable when the Bridge Construction Engineer is not available. The
Bridge Construction Engineer and Construction Support Unit should be informed of any changes.
3. Request From the Region Construction Engineer
Requests from the Region Construction Engineer are to be handled like requests from the Region
Project Engineer.

July 2000 1.3-15


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

General Information Design Procedures and Processes

4. Request From the OSC Bridge Construction Engineer


Requests for changes from the OSC Bridge Construction Engineer or his/her assistants are
usually made through the Construction Support Unit and not directly to the Design Unit.
However, sometimes, it is necessary to work directly with the Design Unit. The Construction
Support Unit should be informed of any decisions made involving changes to the Contract Plans.
5. Request From the Design Unit
Request for changes from the Design Unit due to plan error, omissions, etc., shall be discussed
with the Bridge Design Engineer prior to revising and issuing new plan sheets.
B. Processing Contract Revisions
Changes to the Contract Plans or Specifications subsequent to the award of the contract may require
a contract revision. To clearly identify the scope of work, it is often desirable to provide revised or
additional drawings. When a revision or an additional drawing is necessary, request the original
mylars from the Construction Support Unit’s Plans Technician and prepare revised or new original
mylars.
Send the new mylars to the Construction Support Unit’s Plans Technician. The OSC Construction
Office requires two reduced paper copies; Construction Support Unit requires one reduced paper
copy; Design Unit requires one or more reduced paper copies; one full-sized paper print, stamped
“As Constructed Plans,” shall be sent to the Project Engineer who shall use it to mark construction
changes and upon project completion, forward them to the Construction Support Bridge Plans
Technician. The Designer is responsible for making the prints and distributing them.
This process applies to all contracts including OSC Ad and Award, Region Ad and Award, or Local
Agency Ad and Award.
Whenever new plan sheets are required as part of a contract revision, the information in the title
blocks of these sheets must be identical to the title blocks of the contract they are for (e.g., Job
Number, Contract No., Fed. Aid Proj. No., Approved by, and the Project Name). These title blocks
shall also be initialed by the Bridge Design Engineer, manager, designer, and reviewer of the change
before they are distributed. If the changes are modifications made to an existing sheet, the sheet
number will remain the same. A new sheet shall be assigned the same number as the one in the
originals that it most closely applies to and shall also be given a letter (e.g., the new sheet applies to
the original sheet 25 of 53 so it will be number 25A of 53). A full size mylar of the contract revision
sheet shall be stored in the Bridge Projects Unit.
Every revision will be assigned a number which shall be enclosed inside a triangle (e.g., 1 ).
The assigned number shall be located both at the location of the change on the sheet and in the
revision block of the plan sheet along with an explanation of the change.
Any revised sheets shall be sent to the OSC Construction Office with a written explanation describing
the changes to the contract, justification for the changes, and a list of material quantity additions
or subtractions.

1.3-16 July 2000


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
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General Information Design Procedures and Processes

1.3.7 Archiving Design Calculations, Design Files, and S&E Files


Upon Award, the following information will be collected by the Bridge Standard Plans Engineer.
• Design File
• S&E File
• Design Calculations
Place a job file cover sticker on the file folder (see Figure 1). Fill in all fields completely. Keep these files
on site for future reference until the end of the retention period. Update the file with any contract plan
changes that occur during construction. After the retention period, send the files to the Office of the
Secretary of State for archiving at:
Archives & Records Management
1129 Washington Street SE
Olympia, WA 98504-0238
Telephone: 360-586-4900

SR # _____ County ____________________ CS # _____


Bridge Name _____________________________________
Bridge # _______________ Contract # ________________
Contents ________________________________________
Designed by _____________ Checked by _____________
Archive Box # _____________________ Vol. # _______

Figure 1

P65:DP/BDM1

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

General Information Coordination With Other Divisions and Agencies

1.4 Coordination With Other Divisions and Agencies


During the various phases of design, it is necessary to coordinate the elements of the bridge design
function with the requirements of other divisions and agencies. E-mail messages, telephone calls, and
other direct communication with other offices are necessary and appropriate. Adequate communications
are essential but organizational format and lines of responsibility must be recognized. However, a written
request sent through channels is required before work can be done or design changes made on projects.
1.4.1 Preliminary Planning Phase
See Chapter 2.1 of this manual for coordination required at preliminary planning phase.
1.4.2 Final Design Phase
A. Coordination With Region
During this phase, final coordination of the bridge design with region requirements must be
accomplished. This is normally done with the Region Project Engineer, Region Design Engineer,
or Region Plans Engineer. Details such as division of quantity items between the region PS&E and
bridge PS&E become highly important to a finished contract plan set. The region PS&E and bridge
PS&E are combined by the Region Plans Branch. However, necessary coordination should be
accomplished before this time.
During the design of a project for a region level contract, the region shall provide a copy of the
proposed structural plans (such as retaining walls, barrier, large culverts, etc.) to the Bridge and
Structures Office. Bridge and Structures Office will review these plans and indicate any required
changes, then send them back to the region.
The region shall incorporate the changes prior to contract advertisement.
After contract advertisement, the region shall return the original plan sheets to Bridge and Structures
Office. These sheets shall be held in temporary storage until the “As Constructed Plans” for them are
completed by the region.
The region shall then transmit the “As Constructed Plans” to Bridge and Structures Office where
they will be transferred to the original plans for permanent storage. Upon request, the region will be
provided copies of these plans by Bridge and Structures Office.
B. Technical Design Matters
Technical coordination must be done with the OSC Materials Laboratory Foundation Engineer and
with the OSC Hydraulic Engineer for matters pertaining to their responsibilities. A portion of the
criteria for a project design may be derived from this coordination, otherwise it shall be developed
by the designer subject to approval of the Bridge Design Engineer.
When two or more structures are to be let under the same contract, the designer should make a special
effort to be uniform on structural details, bid items, specifications, and other items.

P:DP/BDM1
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August 1998 1.4-1


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

General Information Bridge Design Scheduling

1.5 Bridge Design Scheduling


1.5.1 General
The Bridge Projects Engineer is responsible for scheduling and monitoring the progress of projects.
The “Bridge Design Schedule” is used to track the progress of a project and is updated monthly. A typical
project would involve the following steps:
A. Regions advise Bridge and Structures Office of an upcoming project.
B. The Bridge Projects Unit estimates design time required for preliminary plans, design, and S&E
(see Section 1.5.2).
C. The project is entered into the Bridge Design Schedule with start and due dates for site data
preliminary plan, project design, PS&E, and the ad date.
D. Bridge site data received.
E. Preliminary design started.
F. Final Design Started — Designer estimates time required for final plans (see Section 1.5.3).
G. Monthly Schedule Update — Each Design Unit Supervisor turns in to the Bridge Scheduling
Engineer an updated copy of the Bridge Design Schedule showing man-months used last month,
man-months used to date, percentage complete, and adjustments required in the schedule. The report
is due by the fourth working day of the month.
H. Project turned in to S&E unit.
1.5.2 Preliminary Design Schedule
The preliminary design estimate done by the Bridge Projects Unit is based on historical records from
past projects factoring in unique features of each individual project, the efficiencies of designing similar
bridges on the same project, CADD system efficiencies, designer experience, and other factors as
appropriate.
1.5.3 Final Design Schedule
A. Breakdown of Project Man-Hours Required
Using a spreadsheet, list each item of work required to complete the project and the man-hours
required to accomplish them. Certain items of work may have been partially completed during the
preliminary design, and this partial completion should be reflected in the columns “% Completed”
and “Date Completed.” Formerly, WSDOT Form 232-002 (see Appendix 1.5-A1), was used to
monitor project progress. This form can still be used.
The designer or team leader should research several sources when making the final design time
estimate. The following are possible sources that may be used:
The “Bridge Design Summary” contains records of design time and costs for past projects. The
summary is kept in the Bridge Projects Unit. The times given include preliminary plan, design,
check, drafting, and supervision as reported on the summary from the Accounting Office.
The Bridge Projects Unit has “Bridge Construction Cost Summary” books. These are grouped
according to bridge types and have records of design time, number of drawings, and bridge cost.
The hours shown are the total for the bridge as reported from the designer’s time sheets.

August 1998 1.5-1


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

General Information Bridge Design Scheduling

B. Estimate Design Time Required


The designer or design team leader shall determine an estimate of design time required to complete
the project. The use of a spreadsheet, Microsoft Project, or other means is encouraged to ensure
timely completion and adherence to the schedule. In the past, WSDOT Form 232-003 was used.
Typically, the following completion percentages (percent of the total project time) from Form
232-002 are applied on Form 232-003 for the following activities:
Activity No. Percentage
1 40
2 20
3 25
4 5
5 5
7 5
Completion percentages for Activities 4, 5, and 7 are approximately 5 percent of the project total.
Activity 6 is separate from design time required by needs to be included to determine the
completion date.
Activities 8 and 9 are estimates dependant on individual circumstances.
Note: Activities 1 through 5 and Activity 7 make up 100 percent of the design time required to
complete the job.
The individual activities include the specific items as follows under each major activity.
Activity No. 1 Design — Includes:
1. Project coordination.
2. Geometric computations.
3. Design calculations (including time for Load Rating).
4. Complete check of all plan sheets by the designer.
5. Supervisor time related to design (estimate 10 percent of design time).
Activity No. 2 Design Check — As defined in Section 1.3.1A3 — Includes:
1. Checking design at maximum stress locations.
2. Checking major items on the drawings, including geometrics.
3. Additional checking required.
4. Supervisor time related to checking (estimate 10 percent of design
check time).

1.5-2 August 1998


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

General Information Bridge Design Scheduling

Activity No. 3 Drawings — Includes:


Preparation of all drawings.
Activity No. 4 Revisions — Includes:
1. Revisions resulting from the checker’s check.
2. Revisions resulting from the supervisory review.
Activity No. 5 Quantities — Includes:
1. Compute quantities including bar list.
2. Check quantities.
Activity No. 6 S&E — Includes:
1. Preparing special provisions checklist.
2. Assemble backup data covering any unusual feature.
Activity No. 7 Review — Includes:
1. Supervisor’s review.
Activity No. 8 Other Jobs — Includes:
1. Interruptions.
Activity No. 9 Leave — Includes:
1. Annual, sick, and other leave.
See Figures 1.5.2-1 and 2 for sample Bar Chart problem and corresponding progress report form.
C. Monthly Project Progress Report
The designer or design team leader is responsible for determining monthly project progress and
reporting the results to the Unit Supervisor. In the past, WSDOT Form 232-004 (see Appendix
1.5-A2) was used to monitor the progress of the project design. The Design Unit Supervisor is
required to update a copy of the bridge design schedule each month using information from the
designer or design team leader. Any discrepancies between actual progress and the project schedule
must be determined. Adjustments, either by revising the workforce assigned to the project, hours
assigned to activities or, the project schedule, should be made accordingly.
“Man-hours Used to Date” indicates the total number of hours used for each activity during
the current period added to the total shown on the last report done.
“% of Total Time Used” is the number of hours used for the activity divided by the current
number of hours assigned to the activity from the “Current Estimate of Time to Complete”
on Form 232-003.
“% of Activity Complete” and “% of Total Project Complete” are estimates. Some activities
will probably be ahead of schedule, some behind, and others on schedule. It is here that major
discrepancies should be noticed and adjustments made as described above.

August 1998 1.5-3


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

General Information Bridge Design Scheduling

The designer may use a computer spreadsheet, to track the progress of the project and as an aid in
evaluating the percent complete. Other tools include using an Excel spreadsheet listing bridge sheet
plans by title, bridge sheet number, percent design complete, percent design check, percent plan
details completed, and percent plan details checked. A spreadsheet with this data allows the designer
or design team leader to rapidly determine percent of project completion and where resources need to
be allocated to complete the project on schedule.

P:DP/BDM1
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1.5-4 August 1998


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

General Information Bridge Design Scheduling

Design Estimate Bar Chart


Sample Criteria
The designer estimates that 792 man-hours will be required to complete the design phase of the project.
The hours are distributed among Activities 1 through 7 and entered in the first column of the Bar Chart
Form. Enter the percentage amount in column three. Estimate the time for Activity 8 (approximately
5 percent of subtotal) and for Activity 9 (approximately 8 percent of subtotal). Time from Activities 8
and 9 will not enter into job manpower estimates, but will affect the estimated completion date. Using a
convenient scale, draw the bar chart.
To compute the “Anticipated Completion Date,” scale from the “zero-line” to the farthest block on the
right and to this add Activities 8 and 9 (in effect extending the completion time). Multiply this number by
the scale you are using and divide by 8, and this will give you the number of working days to completion
date. The number of working days in conjunction with the Working Day Calendar (see Bridge Projects
Unit) will give the completion date. For this example, this will be:
(5.5 + 1.2) × 100 × 1/8 = 84 working days
August 2, 1982 — Start Date = 6,475 (from working day calendar)
Number of working days = +84
6,559 Dec. 2, 1982 (anticipated completion date)

Washington State
Department of Transportation Design Time Bar Chart
SR No. Job No. Project

Designed By Design Checked By Drawn By Design Start Date Scheduled Completion Date Anticipated Completion Date
of Time to Complete
Original Estimate

Layout By
Current Estimate
to Complete

Layout Check Bar Chart


Percentage
Completion
Activity No.

(Man Hours)

(Man Hours)
Activity

Layout Man Hours


Scale: 1" = __________ Man Hours

1 Design
Design
2 Check
3 Drawings

4 Revisions

5 Quantities

6 S&E

7 Reviews

Subtotals 12345678
100%
12345678
12345678
12345678
8 Other Jobs 12345678
12345678
12345678
12345678
9 Leave 12345678
12345678
12345678
12345678
12345678
12345678
Totals
12345678 Remarks

DOT 232-003 (formerly C1M4)


Rev 3/91

Figure 1.5.2-1

August 1998 1.5-5


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

General Information Bridge Design Scheduling

Sample Progress Report Form


Figure 1.5.2-2

1.5-6 August 1998


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

General Information Bridge Design Scheduling

1.6 Guidelines for Bridge Site Visits


The following guidelines are established to help all staff in determining the need for visiting bridge sites
prior to final design. These guidelines should apply to consultants as well as to our own staff. In all cases,
the associated region should be made aware of the site visit so that they would have the opportunity to
participate. Region participation would be especially useful if a preliminary bridge plan is involved.
1.6.1 Bridge Rehabilitation Projects (excluding rail and minor expansion joint rehabilitation
projects)
For this type of bridge project, it is critical that the design team know as much as possible about the
bridge that is to be rehabilitated. There is good information regarding the condition of existing bridges
at the Bridge Preservation Office (Mottman). As-built drawings and contract documents are also helpful,
but may not necessarily be accurate. At least one bridge site visit is necessary for this type of project. In
some cases, an in-depth inspection with experienced condition survey inspectors would be appropriate.
The decision to perform an in-depth inspection should include the Unit Supervisor, Region, and the
Bridge Design Engineer.
1.6.2 Bridge Widenings and Seismic Retrofits
For this type of bridge project, it is important that the design team is familiar with the features and
condition of the existing bridge. There is good information regarding the condition of existing bridges
at the Bridge Preservation Office (Mottman). As-built drawings and contract documents are also helpful,
but may not necessarily be accurate. A site visit is recommended for this type of project, particularly if
the bridge to be widened has unique features or is other than a standard prestressed girder bridge with
elastomeric bearings.
1.6.3 Rail and Minor Expansion Joint Retrofits
Generally, pictures and site information from the region along with as-builts and condition survey
information are adequate for most of these types of projects. However, if there is any doubt about the
adequacy of the available information or concern about accelerated deterioration of the structure
elements to be retrofitted, a site visit is recommended.
1.6.4 New Bridges
Generally, pictures and site information from the region are adequate for most new bridge designs.
However, if the new bridge is a replacement for an existing bridge, a site visit is recommended,
particularly if the project requires staged removal of the existing bridge and/or staged construction
of the new bridge.
1.6.5 Bridge Demolition
If a bridge demolition is required as part of a project, a site visit would help the design team determine
if there are unique sit restrictions that could affect the demolition. If unique site restrictions are observed,
they should be properly documented, included in the job file and noted on the special provisions checklist.
Before making a site visit, the Condition Survey Unit and the region should be contacted to determine
if there are any unique site conditions or safety hazards. Proper safety equipment and procedures should
always be incorporated into any site visit. When making a site visit, it is important to obtain as much
information as possible. Pictures, video records with spoken commentary, field measurements, and field
notes are appropriate forms of field information. A written or pictorial record should be made of any

August 1998 1.6-1


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

General Information Bridge Design Scheduling

observed problems with an existing bridge or obvious site problem. The site visit data would then be
incorporated into the job file. This information will be a valuable asset in preparing constructable and
cost-effective structural designs. When negotiating with consultants for structural design work, it is
important to make appropriate site visits part of the consultants’s scope of work.

P:DP/BDM1
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1.6-2 August 1998


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

General Information Bibliography

1.99 Bibliography
1. Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, Latest Edition and Interims, American Association
of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO).
2. LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, Latest Edition and Interims. American Association of State
Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO).
3. Organization Handbook, Washington State Department of Transportation.
4. WSDOT Design Manual.
5. WSDOT Construction Manual.

P:DP/BDM1
9807-0802

August 1998 1.99-1


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

General Information Standard Design Criteria Form

STANDARD DESIGN CRITERIA


PROJECT

SR MADE BY CHECKED BY DATE SUPV.

ITEM STANDARD DESIGN CRITERIA FOR THIS STRUCTURE

1 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR HIGHWAY BRIDGES


AASHTO_________TH EDITION, 19___________

2 INTERIM SPECIFICATION, 19____________(IF USED)

3 STATE OF WASHINGTON, STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD, BRIDGE, AND MUNICIPAL


CONSTRUCTION, 19__________

4 STATE OF WASHINGTON, STANDARD PLANS FOR ROAD, BRIDGE, AND MUNICIPAL


CONSTRUCTION WITH REVISIONS TO 19____________

5 BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL, VOLUME_____________, WITH REVISIONS TO 19___________

6 OTHER_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

7 DESIGN BY: LOAD FACTOR____________________________________________________________________________________

WORKING STRESS________________________________________________________________________________

8 STEEL REINFORCING BARS:

A.A.S.H.T.O. M31 GRADE 60_______________

A.A.S.H.T.O. M31 GRADE 40______________


9 CONCRETE:

F'C = 4000 PSI (CLASS AX)

F'C = 3000 PSI (CLASS B)


3
F'C = _________ PSI (LIGHTWEIGHT) DENSITY = ________________ LBS. PER FT.

OTHER__________________________________________________________________________________________________

10 PRESTRESSED GIRDERS:
SERIES, __________________________________ SPECIAL,_________________________________

STANDARD CONCRETE DENSITY = ___________________________ LBS. / FT.3

LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE DENSITY = _______________________________LBS. / FT.3

MINIMUM CONCRETE STRENGTH AT STRAND RELEASE = _______________________________PSI

MINIMUM CONCRETE STRENGTH AT 28 DAYS = ________________________________________PSI


11 FOUNDATION DATA FROM SOILS MAXIMUM DESIGN SOIL p OR PILE LOAD
PIER
NO. PILE/SPREAD ALLOWABLE SOIL p DESIGNER GROUP CHECKER GROUP

August 1998 1.3-A1-1


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

General Information Standard Design Criteria Form

ITEM STANDARD DESIGN CRITERIA FOR THIS STRUCTURE

12 STEEL STRUCTURES:

INDICATE BY SPECIFICATION THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF STEEL USE

A.A.S.H.T.O. M-

A.A.S.H.T.O. M-

A.A.S.H.T.O. M-

A.A.S.H.T.O. M- ROLLERS

A.A.S.H.T.O. M- CASTINGS

OTHER

13 SPECIAL CRITERIA:

SEE FORM ENTITLED “EXCEPTIONS TO THE STANDARD DESIGN CRITERIA“

230-030
DOT Revised 1/89

1.3-A1-2 August 1998


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

General Information Exceptions to the Standard Design Criteria Form

Project SR No.

Made By Check By Supervisor Date

EXCEPTIONS TO THE STANDARD DESIGN CRITERIA


No. Gen. Area Addition or Modification App’d By

DOT 230-032 (formerly C1M3)


Rev 3/91

August 1998 1.3-A2


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

General Information Design Completed Checklist

August 1998 1.3-A3


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

General Information Job File Table of Contents

Job File Table of Contents

Item Date Who Subject

August 1998 1.3-A4


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

General Information Office Time Report

Bridge and Structures Office Time Report

_______________ Region L-Number ___________

PRELIMINARY PLAN: Design Unit Staffing Level estimate __________

Start Date: ____________________ Completion Date: _______________

TIME CHARGED
Design ____________ Hours Standard _______________
Check ____________ Hours
Drafting ___________ Hours
Review ___________ Hours
Total _____________ Hours

DESIGN AND DETAIL Design Unit Staffing Level estimate __________

Start Date: ____________________ Completion Date: _______________

TIME CHARGED
Design ____________ Hours Standard _______________
Check ____________ Hours
Drafting ___________ Hours
Review ___________ Hours
Total _____________ Hours

August 1998 1.3-A5


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

General Information Not Included in Bridge Quantities List

Not Included In
Bridge Quantities List
Environmental And Engineering Service Center
Bridge and Structures Office

SR Job Number Project Title

Designed By Checked By Date Supervisor

Type of Structure

The following is a list of items for which the Bridge and Structures Office is relying on the Region to furnish
plans, specifications and estimates.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

DOT Form 230-038 EF


Revised 2/97

August 1998 1.3-A6


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

General Information Special Provisions Checklist

August 1998 1.3-A7-1


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Appendix A

General Information Special Provisions Checklist

1.3-A7-2 August 1998


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

General Information Special Provisions Checklist

August 1998 1.3-A7-3


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

General Information Special Provisions Checklist

1.3-A7-4 August 1998


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

General Information Special Provisions Checklist

August 1998 1.3-A7-5


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

General Information Special Provisions Checklist

1.3-A7-6 August 1998


Washington State
Department of Transportation Breakdown of Project Manhours Required

August 1998
Appendix A

Job No. SR Project Made By Date

Design Check Draw Check Drawing


General Information

No. Drawing or Item Comments

By
% Completed
Hours Required
Date Completed
By
% Completed
Hours Required
Date Completed
By
% Completed
Hours Required
Date Completed
By
% Completed
Hours Required
Date Completed
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL

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16
17
18
19
20
21
22
DOT 232-002 (formerly C1M5)
Rev 3/91
Breakdown of Project Manhours Required Form

1.5-A1
1.5-A2
Monthly Project Progress Report Form

Rev 3/91
DOT 232-004 (formerly C1M4)
987654321
98765432 99887766554433221 987654321 987654321
987654321 987654321
98765432
987654321
9 8765432
987654321
9876543211 9876543211 9876543211 9876543211
Totals
987654321 987654321 987654321 987654321
6543210987654321 66543210987654321 6543210987654321 76543210987654321
654321098765432
6543210987654321 54321098765432
6543210987654321
6 543210987654321 7 654321098765432
76543210987654321
6543210987654321 6543210987654321 654321098765432
6543210987654321 76543210987654321
9
6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 76543210987654321
65432109876543211 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 76543210987654321
6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 76543210987654321
6543210987654321 65432109876543211 6543210987654321 76543210987654321
6543210987654321 65 6543210987654321 76543210987654321
6543210987654321
4321098765432
6543210987654321 76543210987654321
8
654321098765432
65432109876543211 65432109876543211 65432109876543211 765432109876543211
6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 76543210987654321
7
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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL

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3
2
1

Activity No.
Project Complete
% of Total

Complete
% of Activity

Time Used
% of Total

Used to Date
Man Hours

Project Complete
% of Total

Complete
% of Activity

Time Used
% of Total

Used to Date
Man Hours

Project Complete
% of Total

Complete
% of Activity

Time Used
% of Total

Used to Date
Man Hours

Project Complete
% of Total

Complete
% of Activity

Time Used
% of Total

Used to Date
Man Hours
As of As of As of As of
Reference No. Reference No. Reference No. Reference No.
General Information

Project Job No. SR


Appendix A

August 1998
Monthly Project Progress Report Department of Transportation
Washington State
BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Preliminary Design Contents

Page
2.0 Preliminary Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1-1
2.1 Preliminary Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2.1.1 Interdisciplinary Design Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2.1.2 Value Engineering Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2.1.3 Preliminary Project Recommendations (Existing Bridges) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2.1.4 Preliminary Project Recommendations (New Bridges) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.1.5 Type, Size, and Location Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
A. TS&L General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
B. TS&L Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
C. Reviews and Submittal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.2 Preliminary Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2-1
2.2.1 Development of the Preliminary Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
A. Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
B. Site Reconnaissance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
C. Coordination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
D. Consideration of Alternatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
E. Designer Recommendation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
F. Concept Approval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
G. Inspection and Maintenance Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.2.2 Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
A. Job File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
B. Bridge Site Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
C. Request for Preliminary Foundation Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
D. Request for Preliminary Hydraulics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
E. Design Report or Design Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
F. Other Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
G. Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.2.3 General Factors for Consideration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
A. Site Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
B. Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
C. Economic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
D. Structural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
E. Environmental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
F. Aesthetic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
G. Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
H. Hydraulic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
I. Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.2.4 Permits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
A. Coast Guard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
B. Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.2.5 Approvals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
A. Bridge Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
B. Bridge Architect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
C. Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
D. Railroad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

August 1998 2.0-i


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Preliminary Design Contents

Page
2.3 Preliminary Plan Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3-1
2.3.1 Highway Crossings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
B. Bridge Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
C. Horizontal Clearances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
D. Vertical Clearances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
E. End Slopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
F. Determination of Bridge Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
G. Pedestrian Crossings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
H. Bridge Redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.3.2 Railroad Crossings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
B. Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
C. Bridge Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
D. Horizontal Clearances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
E. Crash Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
F. Vertical Clearances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
G. Determination of Bridge Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
H. Special Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.3.3 Water Crossings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
A. Bridge Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
B. Horizontal Clearances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
C. Vertical Clearances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
D. End Slopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
E. Determination of Bridge Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
F. Scour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
G. Pier Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
H. Construction Access and Time Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.3.4 Bridge Widenings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
A. Bridge Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
B. Traffic Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
C. Construction Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.3.5 Detour Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
A. Bridge Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
B. Live Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.3.6 Retaining Walls and Noise Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.3.7 Bridge Deck Drainage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.3.8 Bridge Deck Protective Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.3.9 Construction Clearances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.3.10 Inspection and Maintenance Acces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
B. Safety Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
C. Travelers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.4 Selection of Structure Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4-1
2.4.1 Bridge Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
A. Reinforced Concrete Flat Slab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
B. Reinforced Concrete Tee Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

2.0-ii August 1998


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Preliminary Design Contents

Page
C. Reinforced Concrete Box Girder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
D. Post Tensioned Concrete Box Girder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
E. Prestressed Concrete Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
F. Composite Steel Plate Girder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
G. Composite Steel Box Girder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
H. Steel Truss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
I. Segmental Concrete Box Girder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
J. Railroad Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
K. Timber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
L. Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.4.2 Wall Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.5 Aesthetic Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5-1
2.5.1 General Visual Impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2.5.2 End Piers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
A. Wing Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
B. Retaining Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
C. Slope Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2.5.3 Intermediate Piers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2.5.4 Barrier and Wall Surface Treatments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
A. Plain Surface Finish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
B. Fractured Fin Finish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
C. Pigmented Sealer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.5.5 Superstructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.6 Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6-1
2.6.1 Structure Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2.6.2 Handling and Shipping of Precast Members and Steel Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2.6.3 Salvage of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2.7 WSDOT Standard Highway Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7-1
2.7.1 Design Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
B. Substructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
C. Superstructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
D. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.99 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.99-1

Appendix A — Design Aids


2.2-A1 Bridge Site Data General
2.2-A2 Bridge Site Data Rehabilitation
2.2-A3 Bridge Site Data Stream Crossings
2.2-A4 Preliminary Plan Checklist
2.3-A1 Bridge Stage Construction Comparison
2.3-A2 Bridge Redundancy Criteria
2.4-A1 Bridge Selection Guide
2.7-A1 Standard Superstructure Elements
2.7-A2 Standard Pier Elements

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Appendix B — Design Examples


2.2-B1 Preliminary Plan Bridge Replacement
2.2-B2 Preliminary Plan Bridge Widening
2.2-B3 Preliminary Plan New Bridge

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2.0 Preliminary Design


2.1 Preliminary Studies
2.1.1 Interdisciplinary Design Studies
As part of the preparation for a major project, an Interdisciplinary Design Team (IDT) may be established
by the region. The IDT is composed of members of different expertise and backgrounds, selected from
regions, the Service Center, and outside agencies. The IDT members and the support groups serve to
give an objective analysis and review of the various design alternatives for the region’s project. They
contribute ideas and participate in the selection of design alternatives. This work will often culminate in
the publication of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).
Bridge Design Engineers are often asked to be a part of this process, either as a support resource or as a
member of the IDT itself.
2.1.2 Value Engineering Studies
Value Engineering (VE) is a process of review and analysis of a project. The VE team seeks to define the
most cost-effective means of satisfying the basic function(s) of the project. Usually a VE study takes place
before or during the time that the region is working on the design. Occasionally a VE study examines a
project with a completed PS&E.
A VE team is typically made up of members of different expertise and backgrounds, selected from the
region, Service Center, and outside agencies. The Team Facilitator will lead the team through the VE
process. The team will review the project as defined by the project’s design personnel. They will seek to
decide the basic function(s) that are served by the project, brainstorm to develop other alternatives to
serve the same function(s), and evaluate these alternatives on how well they satisfy these basic functions.
The VE team will present their findings in a presentation to the region. The region is then required to
investigate these findings further and address them in the design.
Bridge Design Engineers are often asked to be a part of this process, either as support contacts or as VE
team members. The process usually involves three to five days.
2.1.3 Preliminary Project Recommendations (Existing Bridges)
Projects that call for the rehabilitation of an existing bridge require that the existing condition of the
bridge be reviewed and a recommendation the existing bridge be prepared. When a region starts a design
for such a project, they will request by an Inter-Departmental (IDC) memorandum that the Bridge and
Structures Office make Preliminary Project recommendations. This will provide them with a scope of
work and a cost estimate for the project. It involves review of the inspection and condition reports from
the Bridge Preservation Section and a site visit with the region and other project stakeholders. Special
inspections of certain portions of the structure may need to be scheduled to determine the load capacity of
the existing bridge, what types of rehabilitation work need to be done, the extended life span achieved by
certain types of rehabilitation work, and to develop various alternatives with cost estimates for compari-
son, ranging from “do nothing” to “replacement.”
A typical recommendation consists of two parts. The first is a report to the file providing detailed
information related to the bridge rehabilitation and a summary of the various alternatives considered and
an itemized list of the rehabilitation work with the associated costs. The second part is an IDC to the
region discussing the overall project in general terms mentioning any particular items of concern to the
region and a summary of the preferred alternatives with recommendations. The region should be given the
opportunity to review a draft report and IDC and provide input prior to finalization.

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2.1.4 Preliminary Project Recommendations (New Bridges)


Projects that call for a new bridge require that a recommendation for the new structure be prepared. While
a region is preparing a design for a project, they will seek assistance from the Bridge and Structures
Office by writing an IDC. This request could range from confirmation of construction cost data to
consideration of various structure designs or staging alternatives. An IDC to the region will provide
recommendations and information. A face to face meeting with the region project staff is recommended.
2.1.5 Type, Size, and Location Studies
It is the policy of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) that major or unusual bridges must go
through the preparation of a Type, Size, and Location (TS&L) study. The TS&L study will outline the
project, describe the proposed structure and other design alternatives considered, and show justification
for the selection of the preferred alternative. Approval of the TS&L study by FHWA is the basis for
advancing the project to the design stage.
The FHWA requires a TS&L study for tunnels, movable bridges, unusual structures, and major structures
with deck areas greater than 125,000 square feet. This is a guideline only. Smaller bridges that are unusual
may also require a TS&L study while some, such as long viaducts, may not. As early as possible in the
Project Development stage, the FHWA should be contacted for conformation.
The preparation of the TS&L study is the responsibility of the Bridge and Structures Office. The TS&L
cannot be submitted to FHWA until after the Environmental documents have been submitted. However,
TS&L preparation need not wait for Environmental document approval, but may begin as soon as the
bridge site data is available. See Chapter 1110 of the Design Manual for the type of information required
for a bridge site data submittal.
A. TS&L General
In order to become familiar with the project, the designer should first review its history. The
Environmental and Design Reports should be reviewed. The bridge site data should be scrutinized so
that additional data, maps, or drawings can be requested. After reviewing the history of the project, a
meeting with region and a site visit should be arranged.
In order to have foundation information, the Materials Lab must be contacted early. FHWA expects
specific recommendations on the foundation type. The Materials Lab will submit a detailed
foundation report for inclusion as an appendix to the TS&L study.
In order to find the preferred structural alternative, the designer should:
l. Develop a list of all the feasible alternatives. At this stage of the process, the range of alternatives
should be kept wide open. Brainstorming with supervisors and other engineers can help bring out
fresh and innovative solutions.
2. Eliminate the unusable alternatives by applying the constraints of the project. Question restrictive
constraints and document their bases. At the end of this step, there should be no more than four
alternatives.
3. Perform preliminary level design calculations for unique structural problems to ensure that the
remaining alternatives are feasible.
4. Compare the advantages, disadvantages, and costs of the remaining alternatives to determine the
preferred alternative(s).
5. Visit the project site with the region and Geotech Branch.

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After piers have been located, a memorandum request for a Hydraulics Report should be made to
the Olympia Service Center Hydraulics Unit. FHWA expects specific information on scour and
backwater on both falsework and permanent piers. The Olympia Service Center Hydraulics Unit
will submit a report for inclusion as an appendix to the TS&L study.
The Bridge Architect at the Bridge and Structures Office should be consulted early on and
throughout the study process “Notes to the file” should be made documenting the aesthetic
requirements and recommendations of the Architect.
Cost backup data is needed for any costs used in the TS&L study. FHWA expects TS&L costs
based on estimated quantities. This data is to be included in an appendix to the TS&L study. It is
a good idea to coordinate the quantities submitted are in a form compatible with the estimator’s
cost breakdown method.
B. TS&L Outline
The TS&L study should describe the project, the proposed structure, and give reasons why the bridge
type, size, and location were selected.
1. Cover, Title Sheet, and Contents
These should identify the project and the contents of the TS&L.
2. Photographs
There should be enough color photographs to provide the look and feel of the area. The prints
should be numbered and labeled and the location indicated on a diagram.
3. Introduction
The introduction describes the report and references other reports used to prepare the TS&L
study. The following reports should be listed if used.
• Design Reports and Supplements
• Environmental Reports
• Architectural or Visual Assessment Reports
• Hydraulic Report
• Geotechnical Reports
4. Project Description
The project description is intended to summarize the preferred alternative of the project design so
that the TS&L study clearly defines the project. Care should be taken to describe the project
adequately but briefly. A vicinity map should be shown.
5. Design Criteria
Design criteria states to what code, loading, etc., the bridge will be constructed. Besides
the AASHTO specifications and assorted AASHTO guide specifications, other criteria are
sometimes used. These criteria should be listed. Examples of this would be the temperature
loading used for segmental bridges or areas defined as wetlands.

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6. Structural Studies
The structural studies section documents how the proposed structure type, size, and location were
determined. The following considerations should be addressed.
• Aesthetics
• Cost Estimates
• Geometric constraints
• Project staging
• Foundations
• Hydraulics
• Feasibility of construction
• Structural constraints
• Maintenance
This section should have a narrative style describing how these factors point to the preferred
alternative. Show how each constraint eliminated or supported the alternatives. For instance,
“Because the geometry required a 200-foot span, prestressed concrete girders could not be used”
or “Restrictions on falsework placement forced the use of self supporting precast concrete or
steel girders.”
7. Executive Summary
The executive summary should be able to stand alone as a separate document. The project and
structure description should be given. Present the recommended alternative with its cost and
include a summary of considerations used to choose or eliminate alternatives.
8. Drawings
Preliminary Plan drawings of the recommended alternative are included in the appendix. The
drawings show the plan, elevation, and typical section. For projects where alternative designs are
specified as recommended alternatives, Preliminary Plans for each of these structure types shall
be included. Supplemental drawings showing special features, such as complex piers, are often
provided to clearly define the project.
C. Reviews and Submittal
While writing the TS&L study, all major decisions should be discussed with the unit supervisor, who
can decide if the Bridge Design Engineer needs to be consulted. A peer review meeting with the
Bridge Design Engineer should be scheduled at 50 percent completion. The FHWA Bridge Engineer
should be invited to provide input.
The final report must be reviewed, approved, and the Preliminary Plan drawings signed by the Bridge
Architect, the Bridge Projects Engineer, the Bridge Design Engineer, and the Bridge and Structures
Engineer. The TS&L study is submitted with a cover letter to FHWA signed by the Bridge and
Structures Engineer.

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2.2 Preliminary Plan


The Preliminary Plan is the most important phase of bridge design as it sets the groundwork for the final
design. The intent is to completely define the bridge geometry so final roadway design by the regions and
the structural design by the Bridge and Structures Office can take place with minimal revisions.
During the region’s preparation of the highway design, they also begin work on the bridge site data.
Region submits the bridge site data to the Bridge and Structures Office which initiates the start of the
Preliminary Plan. Information that must be included as part of the bridge site data submittal is outlined
in Chapter 1110 of the Design Manual.
2.2.1 Development of the Preliminary Plan
A Responsibilities
In general, the responsibilities of the designer, checker, detailer, and supervisor are as specified in
Chapter 1 of the Bridge Design Manual. The primary design engineer is responsible for developing a
Preliminary Plan for the structure that is compatible with geometric, aesthetic, staging, geotechnical,
hydraulic, financial, and structural requirements and conditions that exist at the site.
Upon receipt of the bridge site data from the region, the designer shall review it for completeness and
verify that what the project calls for is realistic and structurally feasible. Any omissions or corrections
are to be called to the region’s attention immediately.
The supervisor shall be kept informed of progress on the preliminary plan so that the schedule can
be monitored. Should problems develop, the supervisor can make adjustments to the schedule or
manpower assignments. The designer must keep the job file up to date by documenting all conversa-
tions, meetings, requests, questions, and approvals concerning the project. Notes to the designer, and
details not shown in the Preliminary Plan shall be documented in the job file.
The checker shall give an independent review of the plan, verifying that it is in compliance with the
site data as provided by the region and as corrected in the job file. The plan shall be compared against
the Preliminary Plan checklist to ensure that all necessary information is shown. The checker is to
review the plan for consistency with office design practice, detailing practice, and for constructibility.
The preliminary plan shall be drawn using current office CAD equipment and software by the
Engineer or Detailer.
B. Site Reconnaissance
The site data submitted by the region will include a video and photographs of the site. Even for
minor projects, this may not be enough information for the designer to work from in developing the
Preliminary Plan. For most bridge projects, site visits are necessary. Site visits with region project
staff and other project stakeholders such as Hydraulics, Design, and Geotech Branch should be
arranged with the knowledge and approval of the Bridge Projects Engineer.
C Coordination
The designer is responsible for coordinating the design and review process throughout the project.
This includes seeking input from various WSDOT units and outside agencies.
D. Consideration of Alternatives
In the process of developing the Preliminary Plan, the designer should brainstorm, develop, and
evaluate various design alternatives. Depending on how the General Factors for Consideration
(Section 2.2.3) apply to a particular site, the number of alternatives will usually be limited to only a

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few for most projects. For some smaller projects and most major projects, design alternatives merit
development and close evaluation. The process of considering and rejecting design alternatives
provides documentation for the preferred alternative.
E. Designer Recommendation
Once the designer has done a thorough job of evaluating the needs and limitations of the site,
analyzed all information and developed and evaluated design alternatives for the project, he should
be able to make a recommendation for the optimum solution. Based on this recommendation, the
designer should discuss the recommendation with the Bridge Projects Engineer.
F. Concept Approval
For some projects, the presentation, in “E” above, to the Bridge Projects Engineer will satisfy the
need for concept approval. Large complex projects, projects of unique design, or projects where two
or more alternatives appear viable, should be presented to the Bridge Design Engineer for his
concurrence before plan development is completed. For unique or complex projects a presentation is
made to the Bridge and Structures Office Peer Review Committee.
G. Inspection and Maintenance Access
In the process developing the Preliminary Plan, the design engineer should consult with the Bridge
Preservation Section for input.
2.2.2 Documentation
A. Job File
When a memorandum IDC, transmitting site data from the region is received by the Bridge and
Structures Office, a job file is created. This official job file serves as a depository for all
communications and resource information for the job. Scheduling and time estimates are logged in
this file, as well as cost estimates, preliminary quantities, and documentation of all approvals.
When the Preliminary Plan is completed, the job file continues to serve a useful purpose as a
communications and documentation depository for all pertinent project-related information during
the design process.
B. Bridge Site Data
All Preliminary Plans are developed from site data as submitted by the region. This submittal will
consist of a memorandum IDC, and appropriate attachments as specified by Chapter 1110 of the
Design Manual. When this information is received, it should be reviewed for completeness so that
missing or incomplete information can be noted and requested.
C. Request for Preliminary Foundation Data
A Request for Preliminary Foundation Data is sent to Geotech Branch to solicit any foundation
data that is available at this preliminary stage. The Geotech Branch is provided with approximate
dimensions for overall structure length and width, an approximate number of intermediate piers
(if applicable), and approximate stations for beginning and end of structure on the alignment.
Based on test holes from previous construction in the area, geological maps, and soil surveys.
The Materials Lab responds by IDC giving an analysis of what foundation conditions arc likely to
be encountered and what types of substructure are best suited for these conditions.

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D. Request for Preliminary Hydraulics


A Request for Preliminary Hydraulics data is sent to the Hydraulics Office to document hydraulic
requirements that must be considered in the structure design. The Hydraulics Office is provided with
the contour plan and other bridge site data.
Seal vent elevations, normal water, 100-year flood and 500-year flood elevations, and flows (Q), pier
configuration, scour depth and minimum footing cover, ice pressure, minimum waterway channel
width, riprap requirements, and minimum clearance to the 100-year flood elevation are provided in
an ºIDC response from the Hydraulics Office.
E. Design Report or Design Summary
Some bridge construction projects have a Design Report or Design Summary prepared by the region.
This is a document which includes design considerations and conclusions reached in the development
of the project. It defines the scope of work for the project. It serves to document the design standards
and applicable deviations for the roadway alignment and geometry. It is also an excellent reference
for project history, safety and traffic data, environmental concerns, and other information.
F. Other Resources
For some projects, preliminary studies or reports will have been prepared. These resources can
provide additional background for the development of the Preliminary Plan.
G. Notes if meetings with Regions and other project stakeholders shall be included in the documentation.
2.2.3 General Factors for Consideration
Many factors must be considered in preliminary bridge design. Some of the more common of these are
listed in general categories below. These factors will be discussed in appropriate detail in subsequent
portions of this manual.
A. Site Requirements
Topography Alignment (tangent, curved, skewed)
Vertical profile and superelevation
Proposed or existing utilities
B. Safety
Feasibility of falsework (impaired clearance and sight distance)
Density and speed of traffic
Detours or possible elimination of detours by staging construction
Sight distance
Horizontal clearance to piers
Hazards to pedestrians, bicyclists
Inspection and Maintenance Access (UBIT clearances) (see Figure 2.3.10-1)
C. Economic
Funding classification (federal and state funds, state funds only, local developer funds)
Funding level

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D. Structural
Limitation on structure depth
Requirements for future widening
Foundation and groundwater conditions
Anticipated settlement
E. Environmental
Site conditions (wetlands, environmentally sensitive areas)
EIS requirements
Mitigating measures
F. Aesthetic
General appearance
Compatibility with surroundings and adjacent structures
Visual exposure and importance
G. Construction
Ease of construction
Falsework clearances and requirements
Erection problems
Hauling difficulties and access to site
Construction season
Time limit for construction
H. Hydraulic
Bridge deck drainage
Stream flow conditions and drift
Passage of flood debris
Scour, effect of pier as an obstruction (shape, width, skew, number of columns)
Bank and pier protection
Consideration of a culvert as an alternate solution
Permit requirements for navigation and stream work limitations
I. Other
Prior commitments made to other agency officials and individuals of the community
Recommendations resulting from preliminary studies
2.2.4 Permits
A. Coast Guard
As outlined in Chapter 240 of the Design Manual, the Bridge and Structures Office is responsible for
coordinating and applying for Coast Guard permits for bridges over waterways. This is handled by
the Coast Guard Liaison Engineer in the Bridge Projects Unit of the Bridge and Structures Office.
A determination of whether a bridge requires a permit is known before the bridge site data is
received. Generally, tidal-influenced waterways and waterways used for commercial navigation will
require Coast Guard permits. However, some waterways may qualify for an exemption from a permit
if certain conditions apply including the exclusion of use by vessels larger than 21 feet long. The

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process of getting this exemption, from FHWA, not the Coast Guard, is the responsibility of the
region. The Coast Guard Liaison Engineer should be asked to check with the region and the Coast
Guard to confirm the situation on a case by case basis.
For all waterway crossings, the Coast Guard Liaison Engineer is required to initial the Preliminary
Plan as to whether a Coast Guard permit or exemption is required. This box regarding Coast Guard
permit status is located in the center left margin of the plan. If a permit is required, the permit target
date will also be noted. The reduced print, signed by the Coast Guard Liaison Engineer, shall be
placed in the job file.
The work on developing the permit application should be started such that it is ready to be sent to the
Coast Guard eight months before the project ad date. The Coast Guard Liaison Engineer should be
given a copy of the Preliminary Plan from which to develop the plan sheets that are part of the permit.
B. Other
All other permits will be the responsibility of the region. The Bridge and Structures Office may be
asked to provide information to the region to assist them in making applications for these permits.
2.2.5 Approvals
A. Bridge Design
When the Preliminary Plan has been checked by the checker and signal by the Bridge Projects
Engineer, it is ready to go to the Bridge Design Engineer and the Bridge and Structures Engineer
for approval.
B. Bridge Architect
For all preliminary plans, the Architect should be aware and involved when the designer is first
developing the plan. The Architect should be presented with a reduced print of the plan by the
designer. This is done prior to the job going to the checker. The Architect will review the print and
signify his approval by signing it. This print is placed in the job file. If future plan revisions change
elements of aesthetic importance, the Architect should be asked to review and approve, by signature,
a print of the revised plan.
For large, multiple bridge projects, the Bridge Architect should be contacted for development of a
coordinated architectural concept for the project corridor. The architectural concept for a project
corridor is generally developed in draft form and reviewed with the project stakeholders prior to
finalizing.
C. Region
Prior to the completion of the preliminary plan the designer should meet with the region to discuss the
concept and get their input. When the Preliminary Plan and the “Not Included in Bridge Quantities
List” along with the preliminary plan transmittal IDC.
The region will review the plan for compliance and agreement with their original site data. They will
work to answer any notes to the region that have been listed on the plan. When this review is com-
plete, the Regional Administrator, or his representative, will sign the plan. The region will send back
a print of the plan with any comments noted in red (additions) and green (deletions) along with
responses to the notes to the region.

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D. Railroad
When a railroad is involved with a structure on a Preliminary Plan, the Right of Way Accommodation
Engineer of the Design Office must be involved during the plan preparation process. A copy of the
Preliminary Plan is sent to the Right of Way Accommodation Engineer, who then sends a copy to the
railroad involved for their comments and approval.
The railroad will respond with approval by letter to the Right of Way Accommodation Engineer.
A copy of this letter is then routed to the Bridge and Structures Office and is placed in the job file.

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2.3 Preliminary Plan Criteria


2.3.1 Highway Crossings
A. General
A highway crossing is defined as a grade separation between two intersecting roadways. A highway
crossing is further categorized as either an undercrossing or an overcrossing.
1. Undercrossing
A bridge which provides for passage of a state highway under a less important state highway,
a county road, or a city street is called an undercrossing. Relative importance between state
highways is indicated by functional classification. For details, see Chapter 440 of the
Design Manual.
For example, a bridge included as a part of an interchange involving SR 182 (Interstate) and
SR 14 (Principal) and providing for passage of traffic on SR 182 under SR 14 would be called
SR 14 I/C Undercrossing.
2. Overcrossing
A bridge which carries traffic on a state highway over a less important state highway, a county
road, or a city street is called an overcrossing.
For example, a bridge which carries traffic on SR 5 over Hamilton Road would be called
Hamilton Road Overcrossing.
B. Bridge Width
The bridge roadway channelization is provided by the region with the Bridge Site Data. For state
highways, the roadway geometrics are controlled by Chapters 430 and 440 of the Design Manual. For
city and county arterials, the roadway geometrics are controlled by Chapter IV of the Local Agency
Guidelines.
C. Horizontal Clearances
Safety dictates that fixed objects be placed as far from the edge of the roadway as is economically
feasible. Criteria for minimum horizontal clearances to bridge piers and retaining walls are outlined in
the Design Manual. Chapter 710 of the Design Manual outlines clear zone and recovery area
requirements for horizontal clearances without guardrail or barrier being required.
Actual horizontal clearances shall be shown in the plan view of the Preliminary Plan (to the nearest
0.1 foot). Minimum horizontal clearances to inclined columns or wall surfaces should be provided at
the roadway surface and for a vertical distance of 6 feet above the edge of pavement. When bridge
end slopes fall within the recovery area, the minimum horizontal clearance should be provided for a
vertical distance of 6 feet above the fill surface. See Figure 2.3.1-1.
Bridge piers and abutments ideally should be placed such that the minimum clearances can be
satisfied. However, if for structural or economic reasons, the best span arrangement requires a pier to
be within clear zone or recovery area, then guardrail or barrier can be used to mitigate the hazard.
There are instances where it may not be possible to provide the minimum horizontal clearance even
with guardrail or barrier. An example would be placement of a bridge pier in a narrow median. The
required column size may be such that it would infringe on the shoulder of the roadway. In such
cases, the New Jersey barrier shape would be incorporated into the shape of the column. Barrier or

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guardrail would need to taper into the pier at a flare rate satisfying the criteria in Chapter 710 of the
Design Manual. See Figure 2.3.1-2. The reduced clearance to the pier would need to be approved by
the region.
D. Vertical Clearances
The required minimum vertical clearances are established by the functional classification of the
highway and the construction classification of the project. For state highways, this is as outlined in
Chapters 430 and 440 of the Design Manual. For city and county arterials, this is as outlined in
Chapter IV of the Local Agency Guidelines.
Actual minimum vertical clearances are shown on the Preliminary Plan (to the nearest 0.1 foot). The
approximate location of the minimum vertical clearance is noted in the upper left margin of the plan.
For structures crossing divided highways, minimum vertical clearances for both directions are noted.
E. End Slopes
The type and rate of end slope used at bridge sites is dependent on several factors. Soil conditions and
stability, right of way availability, fill height or depth of cut, roadway alignment and functional
classification, and existing site conditions are all important.
The region should have made a preliminary determination based on these factors during the
preparation of the bridge site data. The side slopes noted on the Roadway Section for the roadway
should indicate the type and rate of end slope.
The Materials Lab will recommend the minimum rate of end slope. This should be compared to the
rate recommended in the Roadway Section and to existing site conditions (if applicable). The types of
end slopes and the conditions for which each are applicable are spelled out in Chapter 640 of the
Design Manual.
End slope protection may be required at certain highway crossings, as spelled out in Chapter 1120 of
the Design Manual. Examples of slope protection are shown on Standard Plan D-9.
F. Determination of Bridge Length
Establishing the location of the end piers for a highway crossing is a function of the profile grade of
the overcrossing roadway, the minimum vertical and horizontal clearances required for the structure,
and the type and rate of end slope used.
For the general case of bridges in cut or fill slopes, the control point is where the cut or fill slope
plane meets the bottom of ditch or edge of shoulder as applicable. From this point, the fill or cut slope
plane is established at the recommended rate up to where the slope plane intersects the grade of the
roadway at the shoulder. Following the requirements of Standard Plan H-9, the back of pavement
seat, end of wing wall or end of retaining wall can be established at 3 feet behind the slope
intersection.
For the general case of bridges on wall type or “closed” abutments, the controlling factors are the
required horizontal clearance and the size of the abutment. This situation would most likely occur in
an urban setting or where right of way is limited.

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Horizontal Clearance to Inclined Piers


1990
Figure 2.3.1-1

Bridge Pier in Narrow Median


1990
Figure 2.3.1-2

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G. Pedestrian Crossings
Pedestrian crossings follow the same format as highway crossings. Geometric criteria for pedestrian
facilities are established in Chapter 1020 of the Design Manual. Width and clearances would be as
established there and as confirmed by region. Unique items to be addressed with pedestrian facilities
include ADA requirements, the railing to be used, handrail requirements, overhead enclosure
requirements, and profile grade requirements for ramps and stairs.
H. Bridge Redundancy
Design bridges to minimize the risk of catastrophic collapse by using redundant supporting elements
(columns and girders).
For substructure design use:
One column minimum for roadways 28 feet wide and under.
Two columns minimum for roadways over 28 feet to 40 feet.
Three columns minimum for roadways over 40 feet to 60 feet.
Collision protection or design for collision loads for piers with one or two columns.
For superstructure design use:
Three girders (webs) minimum for roadways 32 feet and under.
Four girders (webs) minimum for roadways over 32 feet.
See Appendix 2.3-A2 for details.
Note: Any deviation from the above guidelines shall have a written approval by the Bridge
Design Engineer.
2.3.2 Railroad Crossings
A. General
A railroad crossing is defined as a grade separation between an intersecting highway and a railroad.
A bridge which provides highway traffic over the railroad is called an overcrossing. A bridge which
provides highway traffic under the railroad is called an undercrossing.
Requirements for railroad separations for both undercrossings and overcrossings may involve
negotiations with the railroad company concerning clearances, geometrics, utilities, and maintenance
roads. The railroad’s review and approval, will be based on the completed Preliminary Plan.
B. Criteria
The initial Preliminary Plan shall be prepared in accordance with the criteria of this section to
apply uniformly to all railroads. Variance from this criteria will be negotiated with the railroad,
when necessary, after a Preliminary Plan has been provided for their review.
C. Bridge Width
For railroad overcrossings, the provisions of Section 2.3.1 pertaining to bridge width of highway
crossings shall apply. Details for railroad undercrossings will depend on the specific project and the
railroad involved.

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D. Horizontal Clearances
For railroad undercrossings, the provisions of Section 2.3.1 pertaining to horizontal clearances for
highway crossings shall apply. However, because of the heavy live loading of railroad spans, it is
advantageous to reduce the span lengths as much as possible. For railroad undercrossings skewed to
the roadway, piers may be placed up to the outside edge of 8-foot (minimum) shoulders if certain
conditions are met (structural requirements, satisfactory aesthetics, satisfactory sight distance, etc.).
The actual minimum horizontal clearances are shown in the Plan view of the Preliminary Plan (to the
nearest 0.1 foot). For railroad overcrossings, minimum horizontal clearances are as noted below:
Railroad
Alone

Fill Section 14 feet


Cut Section 16 feet
Horizontal clearance shall be measured from the center of the outside track to the face of pier. When
the track is on a curve, the minimum horizontal clearance shall be increased at the rate of 11/2 inches
for each degree of curvature. An additional 8 feet of clearance for off-track equipment shall only be
provided when specifically requested by the railroad.
E. Crash Walls
Crash walls, when required, shall be designed to conform to the criteria from of the AREA Manual.
F. Vertical Clearances
For railroad undercrossings, the provisions of Section 2.3.1 pertaining to vertical clearances of
highway crossings shall apply. For railroad overcrossings, the minimum vertical clearance shall
satisfy the requirements of Chapter 1120 of the Design Manual.
The actual minimum vertical clearances are shown on the Preliminary Plan (to the nearest 0.1 foot).
The approximate location of the minimum vertical clearance is noted in the upper left margin of the
plan.
G. Determination of Bridge Length
For railroad overcrossings, the provisions of Section 2.3.1 pertaining to the determination of bridge
length shall apply. For railroad overcrossings, the minimum bridge length shall satisfy the minimum
horizontal clearance requirements. The minimum bridge length shall generally satisfy the
requirements of Figure 2.3.2-1.
H. Special Considerations
For railroad overcrossings, the top of footings for bridge piers or retaining walls adjacent to railroad
tracks shall be 2 feet or more below the top of tie. The footing face shall not be closer than 10 feet to
the center of the track. Any cofferdams, footings, excavation, etc., encroaching within 10 feet of the
center of the track requires the approval of the railroad.

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For railroads, the minimum horizontal construction opening is 8 feet 6 inches to either side of the center-
line of track. The minimum vertical construction opening is 22 feet 6 inches above the top of rail at 6 feet
offset from the centerline of track. Falsework openings shall be checked to verify that enough space is
available for falsework beams to span the required horizontal distances and still provide the minimum
vertical falsework clearance. Minimum vertical openings of less than 22 feet 6 inches may be negotiated
with the railroad through the Utilities-Railroad Engineer.
2.3.3 Water Crossings
A. Bridge Width
The provisions of Section 2.3.1 pertaining to bridge width for highway crossings apply here.
B. Horizontal Clearances
Water crossings over navigable waters requiring clearance for navigation channels shall satisfy the
horizontal clearances required by the Coast Guard. Communication with the Coast Guard will be
handled through the Coast Guard Liaison Engineer. For bridges over navigable waters, the centerline
of the navigation channel and the horizontal clearances (to the nearest 0.1 foot) to the piers or the pier
protection are shown on the Plan view of the Preliminary Plan.
C. Vertical Clearances
Vertical clearances for water crossings must satisfy floodway clearance and, where applicable,
navigation clearance.
Bridges over navigable waters must satisfy the vertical clearances required by the Coast Guard.
Communication with the Coast Guard will be handled through the Coast Guard Liaison Engineer.
The actual minimum vertical clearance (to the nearest 0.1 foot) for the channel span is shown on the
Preliminary Plan. The approximate location of the minimum vertical clearance is noted in the upper
left margin of the plan. The clearance shall be shown to the water surface as required by the Coast
Guard criteria.
Floodway vertical clearance will need to be discussed with the Hydraulics Office. In accordance with
the flood history, nature of the site, character of drift, and other factors, they will determine a mini-
mum vertical clearance for the 100-year flood. The roadway profile and the bridge superstructure
depth must accommodate this. The actual minimum vertical clearance to the 100-year flood is shown
(to the nearest 0.1 foot) on the Preliminary Plan, and the approximate location of the minimum
vertical clearance is noted in the upper left margin of the plan.
D. End Slopes
The type and rate of end slopes for water crossings is similar to that for highway crossings. Soil
conditions and stability, fill height, location of toe of fill, existing channel conditions, flood and scour
potential, and environmental concerns are all important.
As with highway crossings, the region, and Materials Lab will make preliminary recommendations as
to the type and rate of end slope. The Hydraulics Office will also review the Regions’s
recommendation for slope protection.
E. Determination of Bridge Length
Determining the overall length of a water crossing is not as simple and straight forward as for a
highway crossing. Floodway requirements and environmental factors have a significant impact on
where piers and fill can be placed.

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Determination of Bridge Length for a Railroad Undercrossing


Figure 2.3.2-1

If a water crossing is required to satisfy floodway and environmental concerns, it will be known by
the time the Preliminary Plan has been started. Environmental studies and the Design Report prepared
by the region will document any restrictions on fill placement, pier arrangement, and overall flood-
way clearance. The Hydraulics Office will need to review the size, shape, and alignment of all bridge
piers in the floodway and the subsequent effect they will have on the base flood elevation. The overall
bridge length may need to be increased depending on the span arrangement selected and the change in
the flood backwater, or justification will need to be documented.
F. Scour
The Hydraulics Office will indicate the anticipated depth of scour at the bridge piers. They will
recommend pier shapes to best streamline flow and reduce the scour forces. They will also recom-
mend measures to protect the piers from scour activity or accumulation of drift (minimum cover to
top of footing, riprap, pier alignment to stream flow, closure walls between pier columns, etc.).
G. Pier Protection
For bridges over navigable channels, piers adjacent to the channel may require pier protection. The
Coast Guard will determine whether pier protection is required. This determination is based on the
horizontal clearance provided for the navigation channel and the type of navigation traffic using the
channel.
H. Construction Access and Time Restrictions
Water crossings will typically have some sort of construction restrictions associated with them. These
must be considered during preliminary plan preparation.

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The time period that the contractor will be allowed to do work within the waterway may be restricted
by regulations administered by various agencies. Depending on the time limitations, a bridge with
fewer piers or faster pier construction may be more advantageous even if more expensive.
Contractor access to the water may also be restricted. Shore areas supporting certain plant species are
sometimes classified as wetlands. In order to work in or gain access through such areas, a work trestle
may be necessary. Work trestles may also be necessary for bridge removal as well as new bridge
construction.
2.3.4 Bridge Widenings
A. Bridge Width
The provisions of Section 2.3.1 pertaining to bridge width for highway crossings shall apply. In most
cases, the width to be provided by the widening will be what is called for by the design standards,
unless a deviation is approved.
B. Traffic Restrictions
Bridge widenings inherently involve traffic restrictions on the lanes above and where applicable on
the lanes below. The bridge site data submitted by the district should contain information regarding
temporary lane widths and staging configurations. This information should be checked to be certain
that the existing bridge width, and the bridge roadway width during the intermediate construction
stages of the bridge are sufficient for the lane widths, shy distances, temporary barriers, and construc-
tion room for the contractor. These temporary lane widths and shy distances are noted on the
Preliminary Plan. The temporary lane widths and shy distances on the roadway beneath the bridge
being widened should also be checked that adequate clearance is available for any substructure
construction.
C. Construction Sequence
Using the traffic restriction data in the bridge site data, a construction sequence shall be developed.
Such a sequence shall take into account necessary steps for construction of the bridge widening
(substructure and superstructure), any construction work off of and adjacent to the structure, and the
requirements of traffic flow on and below the structure. Checks shall be made to be certain that girder
spacings, closure pours, and removal work are all compatible with the traffic arrangements.
Projects with several bridges being widened at the same time should have sequencing that is
compatible with the region’s traffic plans during construction and that allow the contractor room
to work. It is important to meet with the region project staff to assure that the construction staging and
characterization of traffic during construction is constructible and minimizes the impact to the
traveling public.
2.3.5 Detour Structures
A. Bridge Width
The lane widths, shy distances, and overall roadway widths for detour structures are determined by
the Region. Review and approval of detour roadway widths is done by the Traffic Office.
B. Live Load
Unless otherwise justified, all detour structures shall be designed for an AASHTO HS 15 live load.
Construction requirements and staging can be sufficient reason to justify designing for a higher
live load.

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2.3.6 Retaining Walls and Noise Walls


The requirements for Preliminary Plans for retaining walls and noise walls are similar to the requirements
for bridges. The plan and elevation views define the overall limits and the geometry of the wall. The
section view will show general structural elements that are part of the wall and the surface finish of the
wall face.
The most common types of walls are outlined in Section 9.4.2 of the Bridge Design Manual and
Chapter 1130 of the Design Manual. The Bridge and Structures Office is responsible for Preliminary
Plans for all nonstandard walls (retaining walls and noise walls) as spelled out in Chapter 1130 of the
Design Manual.
2.3.7 Bridge Deck Drainage
The Hydraulics Office provides a review of the Preliminary Plan with respect to the requirements for
bridge deck drainage. As soon as the Preliminary Plan has been developed to the point that the length and
width of the structure, profile grade, and superelevation diagram are shown on the plan, a reduced print
shall be provided to the Hydraulics Office for their review. Any other pertinent information (such as
locations of drainage off the structure) should be given to them also. For work with existing structures, the
locations of any and all bridge drains shall be noted.
The Hydraulics Office will determine the type of drains necessary (if any) and their location and spacing
requirements. They will furnish any details or modifications required for special drains or special
situations.
If low points of sag vertical curves or superelevation crossovers occur within the limits of the bridge, the
region should be asked to revise their geometrics to place these features outside the limits of the bridge.
If such revisions cannot be made, the Hydraulics Office will provide details to handle drainage with
bridge drains on the structure.
2.3.8 Bridge Deck Protective Systems
The Preliminary Plan shall note in the lower left margin the type of deck protective system to be utilized
on the bridge. The most commonly used systems are described in Section 8.4.7 of the Bridge Design
Manual.
New construction will generally be System 1 (21/2-inch concrete cover plus epoxy-coated rebars).
System 2 (MC overlay) and System 3 (ACP overlay) are to be used on new construction that require
overlays and on widenings for major structures. The type of overlay to be used should be noted in the
bridge site data submitted by the region. The bridge condition report will indicate the preference of the
Bridge and Structures Office and the Deck Systems Specialist in the Bridge and Structures Office.
2.3.9 Construction Clearances
Most projects will involve construction in and around traffic. Both traffic and construction have to be
accommodated. Construction clearances and working room must be reviewed at the Preliminary Plan
stage to verify the constructibility of the project.
For construction clearances for roadways, the region shall supply the necessary traffic staging information
with the bridge site data. This includes temporary lane widths and shy distances, allowable or necessary
alignment shifts, and any special minimum vertical clearances. With this information, the designer can
establish the falsework opening or construction opening.

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The horizontal dimension of the falsework or construction opening shall be the sum of the temporary
traffic lane widths and shy distances, plus two 2-foot temporary concrete barriers, plus 2 feet shy behind
these barriers. For multispan openings, a minimum of 2 feet shall be assumed for the interior support. This
interior support shall also have 2 feet shy on both sides to the two 2-foot temporary concrete barriers that
will flank it.
The vertical clearance shall normally be 14 feet 6 inches minimum. The space available for the falsework
must be enough for whatever depth is necessary to span the required horizontal opening. If the necessary
depth is greater than the space available, either the minimum vertical clearance for the falsework shall be
reduced or the horizontal clearance and span for the falsework shall be reduced.
Preferably, the falsework span shall not exceed 38 feet. This limits the stresses in the new structure from
the construction and concrete pouring sequences. While the falsework or construction openings are
measured normal to the crossroad alignment, the falsework span is measured parallel to the bridge
alignment.
Once the construction clearances have been determined the designer should meet with the region to
review the construction clearances to assure compatibility with the construction staging. This review
should take place prior to finalization of the preliminary bridge plan.
For railroads see Section 2.3.2H.
2.3.10 Inspection and Maintenance Access
A. General
Bridge inspection is required by the FHWA a minimum of every two years. The inspectors are
required to access the bridge components to within 3 feet (1 meter). Maintenance forces need to
access damaged members and locations that may collect debris. This is accomplished by using many
methods. Safety cables, ladders, bucket trucks, Under Bridge Inspection Truck (UBIT), (see Figure
2.3.10-1), and under bridge travelers are just a few of the most common methods. Preliminary
designers need to be aware of these requirements to assist the inspectors efforts over the life of the
bridge. Access should be considered throughout the Preliminary Plan TS&L stages.

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Figure 2.3.10-1
B. Safety Cables
Safety cables strung on steel plate girders or trusses allow for walking access. Care must be given to
the application and location. Built-up plate girder bridges are detailed with a safety cable for inspec-
tors walking the bottom flange. However, when the girders become more than 8 feet deep, the
inspection of the top flange and top lateral connections becomes difficult. When the girders are less
than 5 feet deep, it is not feasible for the inspectors to stand on the bottom flanges. On large trusses,
large gusset plates (3 feet or more wide) are difficult to negotiate around. Cable are best run on the
exterior of the bridge except at large gusset plates. At these locations, cables or lanyard anchors
should be placed on the inside face of the truss. This way inspectors can utilize bottom lateral gusset
plates to stand on while traversing around the main truss gusset.
C. Travelers
Under bridge travelers, placed on rails that remain permanently on the bridge, can be considered on
large steel structures. This is an expensive option but it should be evaluated for large bridges with
high ADT as access to the bridge would be limited by traffic windows that specify when a lane can be
closed. Some bridges are restricted to weekend UBIT inspection for this reason.

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2.4 Selection of Structure Type


2.4.1 Bridge Types
The following superstructure depth to span ratios have been determined from past experience to be
reasonable and economical and are in some cases less than the minimum depth recommended by
AASHTO. In this situation, the Bridge Design Manual will govern. The length of span used to determine
superstructure depth shall be the length between centerline of bearings. Do not use the length between
points of dead load contraflexure as noted in AASHTO for design.
A. Reinforced Concrete Slab
l. Use
Used for simple and continuous spans up to 60 feet.
2. Characteristics
Design details and falsework relatively simple. Shortest construction time for any cast-in-place
structure. Correction for anticipated falsework settlement must be included in the dead load
camber curve because of the single concrete pour.
3. Depth/Span Ratios
a. Constant depth
Simple spans 1/22
Continuous spans 1/25
b. Variable depth
Adjust ratios to account for change in relative stiffness of positive and negative moment
sections.
B. Reinforced Concrete Tee-Beam
1. Use
Used for continuous spans 30 feet to 60 feet. Has been used for longer spans with inclined
leg piers.
2. Characteristics
Forming and falsework is more complicated than flat slab. Construction time is longer than for a
flat slab.
3. Depth/Span Ratios
a. Constant depth
Simple spans 1/13
Continuous spans 1/15
b. Variable depth
Adjust ratios to account for change in relative stiffness of positive and negative moment
sections.

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C. Reinforced Concrete Box Girder


1. Use
Used for continuous spans 50 feet to 130 feet. Maximum simple span 110 feet to limit excessive
dead load deflections.
2. Characteristics
Forming and falsework is somewhat complicated. Construction time is approximately the same
as for a tee-beam. High torsional resistance makes it desirable for curved alignments.
3. Depth/Span Ratios*
a. Constant depth
Simple spans 1/18
Continuous spans 1/20
b. Variable depth
Adjust ratios to account for change in relative stiffness of positive and negative moment
sections.
*If the configuration of the exterior web is sloped and curved, a larger depth/span ratio may
be necessary.
D. Post-Tensioned Concrete Box Girder
1. Use
Normally used for continuous spans longer than 130 feet or simple spans longer than 110 feet.
Should be considered for shorter spans if a shallower structure depth is needed.
2. Characteristics
Construction time is somewhat longer due to post-tensioning operations. High torsional
resistance makes it desirable for curved alignments.
3. Depth/Span Ratios*
a. Constant depth
Simple spans 1/20.5
Continuous spans 1/25
b. Variable depth
Two span structures
@ Center of span 1/25
@ Intermediate pier 1/12.5
Multispan structures
@ Center of span 1/36
@ Intermediate pier 1/18
*If the configuration of the exterior web is sloped and curved, a larger depth/span ratio may
be necessary.

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E. Prestressed Concrete Sections


1. Use
Local precast fabricators have several standard forms available for precast concrete sections
based on WSDOT standard girder series plans. They are versatile enough to cover a wide variety
of span lengths.
WSDOT standard girders are:
a. W74G, W58G, W50G, and W42G prestressed, concrete I-girders requiring a cast-in-place
concrete roadway deck.
b. W53DG, and W35DG prestressed, concrete decked bulb tee girders requiring an ACP
overlay roadway surface.
c. 12-inch, 18-inch, and 26-inch precast prestressed slabs requiring an ACP overlay roadway
surface.
d. 26-inch precast prestressed tribeam requiring an ACP overlay roadway surface.
2. Characteristics
Construction details and forming are fairly simple. Construction time is less than for a
cast-in-place bridge. Little or no falsework is required.
F. Composite Steel Plate Girder
1. Use
For simple spans up to 260 feet and for continuous spans from 120 to 400 feet. Relatively low
dead load when compared to a concrete superstructure makes this bridge type an asset in areas
where foundation materials are poor.
2. Characteristics
Construction details and forming are fairly simple Construction time is comparatively short.
Shipping and erecting of large sections must be reviewed. Cost of maintenance is higher than for
concrete bridges. Current cost information should be considered because of changing steel
market conditions.
3. Depth/Span Ratios
a. Constant depth
Simple spans 1/22
Continuous spans 1/25
b. Variable depth
@ Center of span 1/40
@ Intermediate pier 1/20
G. Composite Steel Box Girder
1. Use
For simple spans up to 260 feet and for continuous spans from 120 to 400 feet. Relatively low
dead load when compared to a concrete superstructure makes this bridge type an asset in areas
where foundation materials are poor.

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2. Characteristics
Construction details and forming are more difficult than for a steel plate girder. Shipping and
erecting of large sections must be reviewed. Current cost information should be considered
because of changing steel market conditions.
3. Depth/Span Ratios
a. Constant depth
Simple spans 1/22
Continuous spans 1/25
b. Variable depth
@ Center of span 1/40
@ Intermediate pier 1/20
Sloping webs are not used on box girders of variable depth.
H. Steel Truss
1. Use
For simple spans up to 300 feet and for continuous spans up to 1,200 feet. Used where vertical
clearance requirements dictate a shallow superstructure and long spans or where terrain dictates
long spans and construction by cantilever method.
2. Characteristics
Construction details are numerous and can be complex. Cantilever construction method can
facilitate construction over inaccessible areas. Through trusses are discouraged because of the
resulting restricted horizontal and vertical clearances for the roadway.
3. Depth/Span Ratios
a. Simple spans 1/6
b. Continuous spans
@ Center of span 1/18
@ Intermediate pier 1/9
I. Segmental Concrete Box Girder
1. Use
For continuous spans from 200 to 700 feet. Used where site dictates long spans and construction
by cantilever method.
2. Characteristics
Use of travelers for the form apparatus facilitates the cantilever construction method enabling
long-span construction without falsework. Precast concrete segments may be used. Tight
geometric control is required during construction to ensure proper alignment.
3. Depth/Span Ratios
Variable depth
@ Center of span 1/50
@ Intermediate pier 1/20

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J. Railroad Bridges
1. Use
For railroad undercrossings, most railroad companies prefer simple span steel construction. This
is to simplify repair and reconstruction in the event of derailment or some other damage to the
structure.
2. Characteristics
The heavier loads of the railroad live load require deeper and stiffer members than for highway
bridges. Through girders can be used to reduce overall structure depth if the railroad concurs.
Piers should be normal to the railroad to eliminate skew loading effects.
3. Depth/Span Ratios
Constant depth
Simple spans 1/12
Continuous two span 1/14
Continuous multi-span 1/15
K. Timber
1. Use
Generally used for spans under 40 feet. Usually used for detour bridges and other temporary
structures.
2. Characteristics
Excellent for short-term duration as for a detour. Simple design and details.
3. Depth/Span Ratios
Constant depth
Simple span – Timber beam 1/10
Simple span – Glulam beam 1/12
Continuous spans 1/14
L. Other
Bridge types such as cable-stayed, suspension, arch, tied arch, and floating bridges have special and
limited applications. Their use is generally dictated by site conditions. Preliminary design studies will
generally be done when these types of structures are considered.
2.4.2 Wall Types
The process of selecting a type of retaining wall should economically satisfy structural, functional, and
aesthetic requirements and other considerations relevant to a specific site. A detailed listing of the
common wall types and their characteristics can be found in Section 9.4.2 of the Bridge Design Manual.

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Preliminary Design Aesthetic Considerations

2.5 Aesthetic Considerations


2.5.1 General Visual Impact
A bridge can be a strong feature in any landscape. Steps must be taken to assure that even the most basic
structure will complement rather than detract from its surroundings. The Design Report, EIS, and bridge
site data submitted by the region should each contain a discussion on the aesthetic importance of the
project site. This commentary, along with the video and/or pictures submitted, will help the designer
determine the appropriate structure. Generally a visit to the bridge site with the Bridge Architect and the
region will be made as well. The Bridge Architect should be contacted early in the preliminary bridge plan
process for input.
Aesthetics is a very subjective element that must be factored into the design process in the otherwise very
quantitative field of structural engineering. Bridges that are well proportioned structurally using the least
material possible are generally well proportioned. However, the details such as pier walls, columns, and
crossbeams require special attention to ensure a structure that will enhance the general vicinity.
2.5.2 End Piers
A. Wing Walls
The size and exposure of the wing wall at the end pier should balance, visually, with the depth and
type of superstructure used. For example, a prestressed girder structure fits best visually with a
15-foot wing wall (or curtain wall/retaining wall). However, there are instances where a 20-foot wing
wall (or curtain wall/retaining wall) may be used with a prestressed girder (maximizing a span in a
remote area, for example). These guidelines shall be used with engineering judgment and with the
review of the Bridge Architect.
It is less expensive for bridges of greater than 40 feet of overall width to be designed with wing walls
(or curtain wall/retaining wall) than to use a longer superstructure.
B. Retaining Walls
For structures at sites where profile, right of way, and alignment dictate the use of high exposed
wall-type abutments for the end piers, retaining walls that flank the approach roadway can be used to
retain the roadway fill and reduce the overall structure length. Stepped walls are often used to break
up the height, and allow for landscape planting. A curtain wall runs between the bridge abutment and
the heel of the abutment footing. In this way, the joint in the retaining wall stem can coincide with the
joint between the abutment footing and the retaining wall footing. This simplifies design and provides
a convenient breaking point between design responsibilities if the retaining walls happen to be the
responsibility of the region. The length shown for the curtain wall dimension is an estimated dimen-
sion based on experience and preliminary foundation assumptions. It can be revised under design to
satisfy the intent of having the wall joint coincide with the end of the abutment footing.
C. Slope Protection
The region is responsible for making initial recommendations regarding slope protection. It should be
compatible with the site and should match what has been used at other bridges in the vicinity. The
type selected shall be shown on the Preliminary Plan. It shall be noted on the “Not Included in Bridge
Quantities” list.

August 1998 2.5-1


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Preliminary Design Aesthetic Considerations

2.5.3 Intermediate Piers


The size, shape, and spacing of the intermediate pier elements must satisfy two criteria. They must be
correctly sized and detailed to efficiently handle the structural loads required by the design and shaped to
enhance the aesthetics of the structure.
The primary view of the pier must be considered. For structures that cross over another roadway, the
primary view will be a section normal to the roadway. This may not always be the same view as shown on
the Preliminary Plan as with a skewed structure, for example. This primary view should be the focus of
the aesthetic review.
Tapers and flairs on columns should be kept simple and structurally functional. Fabrication and
constructibility of the formwork of the pier must be kept in mind. Crossbeam ends should be carefully
reviewed. Skewed bridges and bridges with steep profile grades or those in sharp vertical curves will
require special attention to detail.
Column spacing should not be so small as to create a cluttered look. Column spacing should be
proportioned to maintain a reasonable crossbeam span balance.
2.5.4 Barrier and Wall Surface Treatments
A. Plain Surface Finish
This finish will normally be used on structures that do not have a high degree of visibility or where
existing conditions warrant. A bridge in a remote area or a bridge among several existing bridges all
having a plain finish would be examples.
B. Fractured Fin Finish
This finish is the most common and an easy way to add a decorative texture to a structure. Variations
on this type of finish can be used for special cases. The specific areas to receive this finish should be
reviewed with the Bridge Architect.
C. Pigmented Sealer
The use of a pigmented sealer can also be an aesthetic enhancement. The particular hue can be
selected to blend with the surrounding terrain. Most commonly, this would be considered in urban
areas. The selection should be reviewed with the Bridge Architect and the region.
2.5.5 Superstructure
The horizontal elements of the bridge are perhaps the strongest features. The sizing of the structure depth
based on the span/depth ratios in Section 2.4.1, will generally produce a balanced relationship.
Haunches or rounding of girders at the piers can enhance the structure’s appearance. The use of such
features should be kept within reason considering fabrication of materials and construction of formwork.
The amount of haunch should be carefully reviewed for overall balance from the primary viewing
perspective.
The slab overhang dimension should approach that used for the structure depth. This dimension should be
balanced between what looks good for aesthetics and what is possible with a reasonable slab thickness and
reinforcement.
For box girders, the exterior webs can be sloped. The amount of slope should not exceed l1/2: l for
structural reasons. Sloped webs should only be used in locations of high aesthetic impact.

DP:BDM2

2.5-2 August 1998


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Preliminary Design Miscellaneous

2.6 Miscellaneous
2.6.1 Structure Costs
Historical bridge and structure cost data is outlined in Chapter 12. When using this data for cost estimates,
the cost range assumed shall be based on the amount of information available. Unless foundation condi-
tions are known, the worst case conditions would be assumed (e.g., pile foundations) for cost analysis. An
estimate contingency of 10 percent (minimum) staff be added to all preliminary bridge plan estimates. For
small projects or remote areas, high-range costs would be used. The cost data would be adjusted for
inflation to the current date. Estimates include mobilization but not sales tax, engineering, future inflation,
or contingencies, and the accuracy of the estimate is ±15 percent.
2.6.2 Handling and Shipping Precast Members and Steel Beams
Bridges utilizing precast concrete beams or steel beams need to have their access routes checked and sites
reviewed to be certain that the beams can be transported to the site. It must also be determined that they
can be erected once they reach the site.
Both the size and the weight of the beams must be checked. Likely routes to the site must be adequate to
handle the truck and trailer hauling the beams. Avoid narrow roads with sharp turns, steep grades, and/or
load-rated bridges which may prevent the beams from reaching the site. The Condition Survey Section of
the Bridge and Structures Office should be consulted for limitations on hauling lengths and weights.
The site should be reviewed for adequate space for the contractor to set up the cranes and equipment
necessary to pick up and place the girders. The reach and boom angle should be checked and should
accommodate standard cranes.
2.6.3 Salvage of Materials
When a bridge is being replaced or widened, the material being removed should be reviewed for anything
that WSDOT may want to salvage. Items such as aluminum rail, luminaire poles, sign structures, and steel
beams should be identified for possible salvage. The region should be asked if such items are to be
salvaged since they will be responsible for storage and inventory of these items.

DP:BDM2

August 1998 2.6-1


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Preliminary Design Miscellaneous

2.7 WSDOT Standard Highway Bridge


2.7.1 Design Elements
The following are standard design elements for highway undercrossings and overcrossings. They are
meant to provide a generic base for consistent, clean looking bridges, and to reduce design and construc-
tion costs. Modification of some elements may be required, depending on site conditions. This should be
determined on a case-by-case basis during the preliminary plan stage of the design process.
A. General
Fractured Fin Finish shall be used on the exterior face of the traffic barrier. All other surfaces shall be
Plain Surface Finish.
Exposed faces of wingwalls, columns, and abutments shall be vertical. The exterior face of the traffic
barrier and the end of the intermediate pier crossbeam and diaphram shall have a 1:12 backslope.
B. Substructure
End piers use the following details:
15′-0″ wingwalls (Standard Cadd File WW15_21.FGB).
Stub abutment wall with vertical face. Footing elevation, pile type (if required), and setback
dimension are determined from recommendations in the WSDOT Materials Laboratory
Foundation Report.
Intermediate piers use the following details:
“Semi-drop” Crossbeams: The crossbeam below the girders is designed for the girder and slab
dead load, and construction loads. The crossbeam and the hinge diaphram together are designed
for all live loads and composite dead loads. The crossbeam shall be 3′-0″ minimum depth.
Round Columns: Columns shall be 3′-0″ or 4′-0″ in diameter. Dimensions are constant full height
with no tapers. Bridges with roadway widths of 28′-0″ or less will generally be single column
piers. Bridges with roadway widths of greater than 28′-0″ shall have two or more columns,
following the criteria established in Section 2.3.1 H.
C. Superstructure
Concrete Slab: 7 1 2 ″ minimum thickness, with the top mat being epoxy coated steel reinforcing bars.
Prestressed Girders: Girder spacing will vary depending on roadway width and span length. The slab
overhang dimension is approximately half of the girder spacing. Girder spacings typically range
between 6′-0″ and 8′-0″.
W74G spans up to about 132″. (Standard Cadd File W74G.FGB).
W58G spans up to about 110′. (Standard Cadd File W58G.FGB).
Intermediate Diaphrams: Locate at the midspan for girders up to 80′ long. Locate at third points for
girders over 80′ long. (Standard Cadd File DIA63A5.FGB).
End Diaphrams: “End Wall on Girder” type. (Standard Cadd File DIA63A5.FGB).
Traffic Barrier: New Jersey face barrier. (Standard Cadd File TB.FGB).

August 1998 2.7-1


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Preliminary Design Miscellaneous

Hinge Diaphram: Full width of crossbeam between girders and outside of the exterior girders.
Exterior face is flush with the end of the crossbeam and matches the 1:12 slope of the crossbeam face.
(Standard Cadd File TO BE DEVELOPED).
BP Rail: 3′-6″ overall height for pedestrian traffic. 4′-6″ overall height for bicycle traffic. (Standard
Cadd File BPRAIL.FGB).
Sidewalk: 6″ height at curb line. Transverse slope of -.01′ per foot towards the curb line. (Standard
Cadd File PED_BAR.FGB).
Sidewalk barrier: Inside face is vertical. Outside face slopes 1:12 outward. (Standard Cadd File
PED_BAR.FGB).
D. Examples
Appendices 2.7-A1 and A2 detail the standard design elements of a standard highway bridge.
The following bridges are good examples of a standard highway bridge. However, they do have some
modifications to the standard.
SR 17 Undercrossing 395/110 Contract 3785
Mullenix Road Overcrossing 16/203E&W Contract 4143

DTP:BDM2

2.7-2 August 1998


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Preliminary Design Bibliography

2.99 Bibliography
1. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) publication Federal Aid Highway Program Manual.
FHWA Order 5520.1 (dated December 24, 1990) contains the criteria pertaining to Type, Size, and
Location studies.
Volume 6, Chapter 6, Section 2, Subsection 1, Attachment 1 (Transmittal 425) contains the criteria
pertaining to railroad undercrossings and overcrossings.
2. Washington Utilities and Transportation Commission Clearance Rules and Regulations Governing
Common Carrier Railroads.
3. American Railway Engineering Association (AREA) Manual for Railroad Engineering. Note: This is
the criteria which we follow except as superseded by FHWA or WSDOT criteria. This manual is used
as the basic design and geometric criteria by all railroads.
4. Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) Design Manual (M 22-01).
5. Local Agency Guidelines (M 36-63).
6. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Standard
Specifications for Highway Bridges.

DTP:BDM2

August 1998 2.99-1


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

Preliminary Design Bridge Site Data General

Bridge Site Data


General
Region Made By Date

Bridge Information
SR Bridge Name Control Section Project No.

Highway Section Section, Township & Range Datum

Structure width between curbs ? What are expected foundation conditions?

Will the structure be widened in a When can foundation drilling be accomplished?


contract subsequent to this contract ? Yes No N/A
Which side and amount ? Is slope protection or riprap required for the bridge end slopes?
Will the roadway under the structure be widened in the future? Yes No N/A
Yes No N/A Are sidewalks to be provided? Yes No N/A
Stage construction requirements ?
Yes No N/A
If Yes, which side and width?
Should the additional clearance for off-track railroad maintenance
equipment be provided? Will sidewalks carry bicycle traffic?
Yes No N/A
Can a pier be placed in the median? Will signs or illumination be attached to the structure?
Yes No N/A
Yes No N/A
What are the required falsework or construction opening dimensions ?
Will utility conduits be incorporated in the bridge?
Yes No N/A
Are there detour or shoofly bridge requirements?
(If Yes, attach drawings) What do the bridge barriers transition to?
Yes No N/A
Can the R/W be adjusted to accommodate toe of approach fills?
Yes No N/A
Furnish type and location of existing features within the limits of this
What is the required vertical clearance? project, such as retaining walls, sign support structures, utilities,
buildings, powerlines, etc.

What is the available depth for superstructure?

Are overlays planned for a contract subsequent to this contract ?


Yes No N/A
Can profile be revised to provide greater Any other data relative to selection of type, including your
or less clearance? Yes No N/A recommendations?

If Yes, which line and how much?

Will bridge be contracted before, with or after approach fill?


Before With After N/A
Attachments
Vicinity Map

Bridge Site Contour Map

Specific Roadway sections at bridge site and approved roadway sections

Vertical Profile Data

Horizontal Curve Data

Superelevation Transition Diagrams

Tabulated field surveyed and measured stations, offsets, and elevations of existing roadways

Photographs and video tape of structure site, adjacent existing structures and surrounding terrain

DOT Form 235-002 EF


Revised 6/97

August 1998 2.2-A1


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

Preliminary Design Bridge Site Data Rehabilitation

Bridge Site Data


Rehabilitation
Region Made By Date

Bridge Information
SR Bridge Name Control Section Project No.

Highway Section Section, Township & Range Datum

Existing roadway width, curb to curb Left of CL Right of CL

Proposed roadway width, curb to curb Left of CL Right of CL


Existing wearing surface (concrete, ACP, ACP w /membrane, LMC, epoxy, other) Thickness

Existing drains to be plugged, modified, moved, other?


Proposed overlay (ACP, ACP w /membrame, LMC, epoxy) Thickness

Is bridge rail to be modified? Yes No

Existing rail type

Proposed rail replacement type

Will terminal design “F” be required? Yes No

Will utilities be placed in the new barrier? Yes No

Will the structure be overlayed with or after rail replacement? With Rail Replacement After Rail Replacement

Condition of existing joints

Existing joints watertight? Yes No


@ curb line @ CL roadway @ curb line
Measure width of existing joint, normal to skew. Inch Inch Inch

Estimate structure temperature at time of joint measurement

Type of existing joint

Describe damage, if any, to existing joints

Existing Vertical Clearance

Proposed Vertical Clearance (at curb lines of traffic barrier)

Attachments
Video tape of project

Sketch indicating points at which joint width was measured.

Photographs of existing joints.

Existing deck chloride and detamination data.

Roadway deck elevations at curb lines (10-foot spacing)

DOT Form 235-002A EF


Revised 3/97

2.2-A2 August 1998


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

Preliminary Design Bridge Site Data Stream Crossings

Bridge Site Data


Stream Crossings
Region Made By Date

Bridge Information
SR Bridge Name Control Section Project No.

Highway Section Section, Township & Range Datum

Name of Stream Tributary of

Elevation of W.S. Stream Velocity Depth of Flow


(@ date of survey) (fps @ date of survey) (@ date of survey)

Max Highwater Elevation @ Date

Normal Highwater Elevation @ Date

Normal Stage Elevation @ Date

Extreme Low Water Elevation @ Date

Amount and Character of Drift

Streambed Material

Datum (i.e., USC and GS, USGS, etc.)

Manning’s “N” Value (Est.)

Attachments
Site Contour Map (See Sect. 7.02.00 Highway Hydraulic Manual)

Highway Alignment and Profile (refer to map and profiles)

Streambed: Profile and Cross Sections (500 ft. upstream and downstream)

Photographs

Character of Stream Banks (i.e., rock, silt, etc.) / Location of Solid Rock

Other Data Relative to Selection of Type and Design of Bridge, Including your Recommendations (i.e., requirements of
riprap, permission of piers in channel, etc.)

DOT Form 235-001 EF


Revised 3/97

August 1998 2.2-A3


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

Preliminary Design Preliminary Plan Checklist

Project__________________ SR______ Prelim. Plan by _____ Check by _____ Date_____

PRELIMINARY PLAN CHECKLIST

PLAN ELEVATION
___Survey Lines and Station Ticks ___Full Length Reference Elevation Line
___Survey Line Intersection Angles ___Existing Ground Line x ft. Rt of Survey Line
___Survey Line Intersection Stations ___End Slope Rate
___Survey Line Bearings ___Slope Protection
___Roadway and Median Widths ___Pier Stations and Grade Elevations
___Lane and Shoulder Widths ___Profile Grade Vertical Curves
___Sidewalk Width ___BP/Pedestrian Rail
___Connection/Widening for Guardrail/Barrier ___Barrier/Wall Face Treatment
___Profile Grade and Pivot Point ___Construction/Falsework Openings
___Roadway Superelevation Rate (if constant) ___Minimum Vertical Clearances
___Lane Taper and Channelization Data ___Water Surface Elevations and Flow Data
___Traffic Arrows ___Riprap
___Mileage to Junctions along Mainline ___Seal Vent Elevation
___Back to Back of Pavement Seats ___Datum
___Span Lengths ___Grade elevations shown are equal to …
___Lengths of Walls next to/ part of Bridge ___For Embankment details at bridge ends …
___Pier Skew Angle ___Indicate F, H, or E at abutments and piers
___Bridge Drains, or Inlets off Bridge
___Existing drainage structures TYPICAL SECTION
___Existing utilities Type/Size, and Location ___Bridge Roadway Width
___New utilities - Type, Size, and Location ___Lane and Shoulder Widths
___Luminaires, Junction Boxes, Conduits ___Profile Grade and Pivot Point
___Bridge mounted Signs and Supports ___Superelevation Rate
___Contours ___Survey Line
___Top of Cut: Toe of Fill ___Overlay Type and Depth
___Bottom of Ditches ___Barrier Face Treatment
___Test Holes (if available) ___Limits of Pigmented Sealer
___Riprap Limits ___BP/Pedestrian Rail dimensions
___Stream Flow Arrow ___Stage Construction Lane Orientations
___R/W Lines and/or Easement Lines ___Locations of Temporary Concrete Barrier
___Points of Minimum Vertical Clearance ___Closure Pour
___Horizontal Clearance ___Structure Depth/Prestressed Girder Type
___Exist. Bridge No. (to be removed, widened) ___Conduits/Utilities in bridge
___Section, Township, Range ___Substructure Dimensions
___City or Town
___North Arrow LEFT MARGIN
___SR Number ___Job Number
___Bearing of Piers, or note if radial ___Bridge (before/with/after) Approach Fills
___Structure Depth/Prestressed Girder Type
MISCELLANEOUS ___Deck Protective System
___Structure Type ___Coast Guard Permit Status
___Live Loading ___Railroad Agreement Status
___Undercrossing Alignment Profiles/Elevs. ___Points of Minimum Vertical Clearance
___Superelevation Diagrams ___Cast in Place Concrete Strength
___Curve Data
___Riprap Detail RIGHT MARGIN
___Layout Approval Block ___Control Section
___Notes to Region ___Project Number
___Names and Signatures ___Region
___Not Included in Bridge Quantities List ___Highway Section
___Inspection and Maintenance Access ___SR Number
___Structure Name

2.2-A4 August 1998


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

Preliminary Design Bridge Stage Construction Comparison

January 1991 2.3-A1


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Analysis Contents

Page
3.0 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1-1
3.1 General Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
3.1.1 Philosophy of Analysis Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
3.1.2 Analysis Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
3.2 Frame Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *
3.2.1 Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *
3.2.2 Member and Frame Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *
3.2.3 Partial Fixity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2-1
3.2.4 Development of F.E.M.s and Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *
3.2.5 Influence Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *
3.3 Sidesway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *
3.4 Trusses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *
3.5 Computer Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *
3.5.1 General Discussion of Computer Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *
3.5.2 List of Programs Available . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *
3.6 Other Analysis Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *
3.6.1 Energy Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *
3.6.2 Castiglano . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *
3.6.3 Virtual Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *
3.6.4 The Buckling Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *
3.6.5 Finite Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *
3.7 Dynamic Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *
3.8 Special Analysis Problems by Bridge Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *
3.8.1 Suspension bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *
3.8.2 Cable Stayed Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *
3.9 Special Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *
3.9.1 Skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *
3.9.2 Footing Deflections and Rotations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *

Appendix A
3.0-A1 Concentrated Load Coefficients — General
3.0-A2 Concentrated Load Coefficients — Case I
3.0-A3 Fixed End Moment Coefficient Chart
3.0-A4 Influence Lines — Two Equal Spans
3.0-A5 Coefficients and Factors for Double Tapered Members
3.0-A6 Stiffness Factors for Tapered Members
3.0-A7 Carry Over Factors for Tapered Members
3.0-A8 Fixed End Moments for Tapered Members

*Indicates sections not issued to date.

3-CON:V:BDM3

July 1994 3.0-i


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Analysis General Considerations

3.0 Analysis
3.1 General Considerations
3.1.1 Philosophy of Analysis Procedures
For the design of concrete bridges, in distribution of moments, generally use the gross moment of inertia
of the concrete superstructure. In lieu of including the transformed area of steel for columns or other
compression members, 120 percent of the gross moment of inertial of columns and other compression
members may generally be used.
3.1.2 Analysis Methods
The maximum live load deflection computed shall be in accordance with AASHTO except that the maxi-
mum live load deflection in a span shall not exceed 1/1000 and for a cantilever 1/375, regardless of
whether the bridge is used by pedestrians.

3-1:V:BDM3

July 1994 3.1-1


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Analysis Frame Analysis

3.2.1 Theory (Vacant)


3.2.2 Member and Frame Factors (Vacant)
3.2.3 Partial Fixity
In general, assume 50 percent fixity of footings except footings on rock shall be 100 percent fixed. For
frame analysis, the point of fixity shall normally be taken to be at the approximate center line of footing.
For column design, Volume 2 Sheets 9-220 through 9-225 shall be consulted. This shall hold for footings
with or without seals. Where superstructures are supported directly on piles, for analyses of the structure
the piles may be assumed fixed at a point 5 feet to 10 feet in the ground. For flat slab bridges supported
on piling, the piles shall be assumed pinned at the tops. For design of structures with large diameter
shafts see Section 9.8
For one column piers assume the footing fully fixed in the direction transverse to the roadway. For loads
on one column piers assume the pier acts transversely as a simple cantilever, fixed at the footing, with no
allowance for torsional, or lateral stiffness of the superstructure.

3-2:V:BDM3

July 1994 3.2-1


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A
Concentrated Load
Analysis Coefficients — General

July 1994 3.0-A1


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A
Concentrated Load
Analysis Coefficients — Case I

3.0-A2 July 1994


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A
Fixed End Moment
Analysis Coefficient Chart

July 1994 3.0-A3-1


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A
Fixed End Moment
Analysis Coefficient Chart

3.0-A3-2 July 1994


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A
Influence Lines —
Analysis Two Equal Spans

July 1994 3.0-A4


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A
Coefficients and Factors
Analysis for Double Tapered Members

July 1994 3.0-A5-1


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A
Coefficients and Factors
Analysis for Double Tapered Members

3.0-A5-2 July 1994


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A
Stiffness Factors
Analysis for Tapered Members

July 1994 3.0-A6


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A
Carry Over Factors
Analysis for Tapered Members

3.0-A7 July 1994


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A
Fixed End Moments
Analysis for Tapered Members

July 1994 3.0-A8-1


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A
Fixed End Moments
Analysis for Tapered Members

3.0-A8-2 July 1994


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Loads and Loading Contents

Page
4.0 Loads and Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1-1
4.1 Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
4.1.1 Dead Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
4.1.2 Live Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
B. Distribution to Superstructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
C. Distribution to Substructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
4.1.3 Wind Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
4.1.4 Wind on Live Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
4.1.5 Earthquake Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
4.1.6 Other Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
A. Thermal, Shrinkage, and Prestressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
B. Buoyancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
C. Centrifugal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
D. Force from Stream Current, Floating Ice, and Drift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.2 Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2-1
4.2.1 Combination of Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
4.2.2 Load Factor Coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
4.2.3 Service Load Coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
4.3 Application of Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3-1
4.3.1 Dead Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
4.3.2 Live Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
4.3.3 Wind Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4.3.4 Earthquake Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4.4 Foundation Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4-1
4.4.1 Procedure Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
4.4.2 Spread Footings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
4.4.3 Pile Foundations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
A. Lateral Spring Input from P-Y Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
B. Lateral Spring Input to Dynamic Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
C. Vertical Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
D. Stiffness Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
E. GPILE Computer Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.99 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.99-1
Appendix A
4.4-A1-1 Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart
4.4-A2 Peak Ground Acceleration Map
Appendix B
4.3-B1 Basic Truck Loading
4.3-B2 Common Response Modification Factors
4.3-B3 Seismic Analysis Example
4.4-B1 Spring Constants Evaluation Example

P:DP/BDM4

August 1998 4.0-i


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Loads and Loading Loads

4.0 Loads and Loading


AASHTO loading specifications shall be the minimum design criteria used for all bridges.
4.1 Loads
4.1.1 Dead Loads
Use values in AASHTO except as herein modified:
Reinforced Concrete — 160 pounds per cubic foot.
D.L. Forms in Top Slab of Concrete Box Girders — 5 pounds per square foot of cell area.
4.1.2 Live Loads
A. General
Live load design criteria is specified in the lower right corner of the bridge preliminary plan sheet.
The Bridge Projects Unit determines this criteria using the following guideline:
• HS 25 — New bridges on the interstate or state system and bridge widenings involving addition
of substructure.
• HS 20 — Bridge widenings with no addition of substructure.
• HS 15 — Detour bridges.
Use values described in AASHTO. Design for HS25 loading by multiplying HS20-44 axle loads by
1.25. The loading consisting of two 24K axles at 4-foot centers sometimes governs for short span
bridges. See Figure 4.3.2-1 for illustration of this “alternative” loading.
See Figures 4.3.2-2 and 3 for “L” value to use in the formula in Section 4.3.2. Figure 4.3.2-2
illustrates determination of the “L” length of the member under consideration. For beams and girders,
use span length center to center of supports. For cantilevers, use length from center of support to
farthest load on cantilever. See Figure 4.3.2-2 for illustration.
B. Distribution to Superstructure
1. Integral Deck Precast Sections
The Live Load Distribution factor for Bulb Tee, Single Tee, and Double Tee bridges shall be as
determined through use of the “DISTBM” computer program. (See Bridge Computer Programs
Manual.)
The AASHTO Specifications should be used for Rib Deck Bridges and the beam types listed
therein. For Rib Deck Bridges use a K value of 2.2.
Examples of beam types are shown on Figure 4.1.2-1.
2. Concrete Box Girders
The value for the number of traffic lanes to be used in the concrete box girder superstructure
design shall be determined by dividing the entire roadway slab width by 14. Use fractional lanes,
rounding to the nearest tenth of a foot, if applicable. Roadway slab widths of less than 28 feet
shall have two design lanes. No reduction factor will be applied to the superstructure for multiple
loadings.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
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Loads and Loading Loads

Beam Types
Figure 4.1.2-1

4.1-2 August 1998


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Loads and Loading Loads

3. Other Types
See AASHTO Specifications.
C. Distribution to Substructure
The value for the number of traffic lanes to be used in the substructure design shall be determined
by dividing the entire roadway slab width by 12. No fractional lanes shall be used. Roadway
slab widths of less than 24 feet shall have a maximum of two design lanes. A reduction factor will be
applied in the substructure design for multiple loadings in accordance with AASHTO. The following
percentages of the resulting live loading shall be used:
Number of Lanes Loaded Percent
Two Lanes 100
Three Lanes 90
Four Lanes or More 75
4.1.3 Wind Loads
AASHTO load combinations for wind are based on probability of simultaneous load occurrence. The
basic wind loads result from 100 mph wind, which produces 75 psf on trusses and arches, 50 psf on
girders and beams, and 40 psf on substructures. This wind is assumed to act on the structure when live
load is not present. A 30 mph wind (0.3 × 100, or a 70 percent reduction from basic) is included in
Groups III and IV, and is assumed to act when live load is present.
The forces tending to overturn a structure are represented by an upward high wind pressure of 20 psf
acting on the plan view area, for Groups II, V, and IX. A moderate wind pressure of 6 psf is used for
Groups III and VI. The force is applied at the windward quarter point of the transverse superstructure.
4.1.4 Wind on Live Load
A moderate wind force is assumed to act on the live load itself, represented by a live load acting 6 feet
above the roadway surface, both transversely and longitudinally. This force is computed by multiplying
the bridge length tributary to a particular member by 0.1 for transverse and 0.04 for longitudinal direction.
4.1.5 Earthquake Loads
a. Design for earthquake shall be in accordance with Division 1-A, Seismic Design of the 1996
AASHTO Standard Specifications for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges.
b. The Multimode Spectral Method of dynamic analysis described in the AASHTO Specifications shall
be used for most continuous bridges. The SEISAB computer program can be used to analyze most
common bridges. The GTSTRUDL dynamic analysis system is capable of handling a larger range of
structures.
c. The Single Mode Spectral Method may be used in certain cases, as described in the AASHTO
Specifications.
d. Use the USGS Peak Ground Acceleration map (Appendix 4.4-A2, 10 percent Probability of
Exceedance in 50 Years) to obtain an acceleration coefficient for preliminary design. The project
Foundation Report will contain the acceleration coefficient to use in the final design of a bridge.
When using Appendix 4.4-A2, interpolate between contours to find the value to use for particular site,
and round to the nearest 1 percent of gravity (g). In general, Appendix 4.4-A2 can also be used for

August 1998 4.1-3


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Loads and Loading Loads

bridge seismic retrofit designs. However, seismic evaluation and retrofitting of older bridges can
sometimes result in excessive costs (the retrofit costs are not consistent with the benefit gained). In
these situations, the Bridge Design Engineer should be consulted for direction.
e. It is recommended that temporary (detour) structures shall be designed for a seismic acceleration
coefficient equal to 0.5 x the acceleration coefficient for a permanent structure. All other require-
ments of the AASHTO Specifications for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges shall apply. Seismic
Performance Category shall be based on the magnitude of the reduced acceleration coefficient.
f. The Geotechnical Engineer should be consulted when determining the soil type to be used in the
seismic analysis.
4.1.6 Other Loads
A. Thermal, Shrinkage, and Prestressing
Member loadings are induced by movements of the structure and can result from several sources.
Movements due to temperature changes are calculated using coefficients of thermal expansion of
0.000006 ft/ft per degree for concrete and 0.0000065 ft/ft per degree for steel. Reinforced concrete
shrinks at the rate of 0.0002 ft/ft.
Refer to AASHTO and Bridge Design Manual Chapters 6, 8, and 9 for guidance on computation and
application of these force types.
B. Buoyancy
The effects of submergence of a portion of the substructure is to be calculated, both for designing
piling for uplift and for realizing economy in footing design.
C. Centrifugal
Centrifugal forces are included in all groups which contain vehicular live load. They act 6 feet above
the roadway surface and are significant where curve radii are small or columns are long. They are
radial forces induced by moving trucks. See AASHTO for force equation.

4.1-4 August 1998


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Loads and Loading Loads

D. Force from Stream Current, Floating Ice, and Drift


In designing for stream flow force on piers, a reasonable area of drift or floating ice must be
determined, considering the stream or river characteristics (check with the Hydraulics Unit). Water
depth and pier spacing will partly determine drift areas.

W.S. = Water surface as defined by the Hydraulics Unit


SF = PdAd + PpAp
Ad = Area of drift or floating ice = D x E
Ap = Area of pier below ice = B x C. Where the pier is skewed to the stream, flow C
equals the width of the column normal to the stream flow.
V = Velocity of water (ft/sec)
Pd = Pressure on drift (psf) = 1.38 V2
Pp = Pressure on pier (psf) = KV2
In the absence of other data, the maximum values of D and E shall be 10 feet and 50 feet,
respectively.
Water Related Forces
Figure 4.1.6-1

DP:BDM4

August 1998 4.1-5


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Loads and Loading Load Combinations

4.2 Load Combinations


4.2.1 Combination of Loads
Group numbers represent various combinations of loads and forces which may act on a structure. Group
loading combinations for both Load Factor and Service Load Design are defined by the following
equation:
Group (N) = γ[βd D + βp PS + βL (L+I) + βc CF + βE E + βD B + βs SF + βw W + βwL WL + βL LF + βR
(R + S + T) + βEQ EQ + βICE ICE]
where:
N = Group Number
γ = General Factor
βN = Specific Factor
D = Dead Load (including overburden)
PS = Prestress Load*
L = Live Load
I = Live Load Impact
E = Earth Pressure (Lateral, only)
B = Buoyancy
W = Wind Load on Structure
WL = Wind Load on Live Load — 100 pounds per linear foot of span
LF = Longitudinal Force from Live Load
CF = Centrifugal Force
R = Rib Shortening
S = Shrinkage
T = Temperature
EQ = Earthquake
SF = Stream Flow Pressure
ICE = Ice Pressure
*PS = Forces and moments transferred from members containing post-tensioning steel to other
members upon application of the post-tensioning force.
Terms in the general equation that do not contribute to a particular combination are represented by zeros
in the table.
4.2.2 Load Factor Coefficients
LFD requires basic design loads or related internal moments and forces to be increased by specified load
factors, γ and β.
The γ factor is applied for stress control. Its common value is 1.3, which enables use of 77 percent of the
ultimate capacity. The 30 percent increase in design load represented by the factor is intended to account
for variations in weight, reinforcement placement, structural behavior, and calculation of stress.
The β factor is a measure of the accuracy of load prediction and the probability of simultaneous
application of loads in a combination.
Table 4.2.2-1 contains the terms and factors required to meet AASHTO Load Factor Design.

August 1998 4.2-1


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
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Loads and Loading Load Combinations

Column Design
βD = 0.75 or bD = 1.0, whichever governs.
Flexural and Tension Members
βD = 1.0
βE = 1.0
Footing Bearing Pressure and Internal Footing Stresses
βD = 0.75 or βD = 1.0
βE = 1.0
Footing Stability and Sliding
βD = 0.75 or βD = 1.0, whichever governs.
βE = 0.4 or βE = 1.3, whichever governs.
Notes:
1. For footing design, check Basic Loading Combination in accordance with BDM Section 9.5.1A3.a.
2. For rigid frame design, see BDM Section 9.3.4.E.
3. Check stability for all group loadings in accordance with BDM Section 9.5.1A3.b.
4. Group 1A load combination shall be applied only with live loadings less than HS 20 or H 20. See
AASHTO.
*Applies if design loads are already factored, such as in cases where MDes = 1.0 ML + 0.3 MT or MDes = 0.3
ML + 1.0 MT are used.
Table of Coefficients γ and β
For Load Factor Design
Table 4.2.2-1

4.2-2 August 1998


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Loads and Loading Load Combinations

4.2.3 Service Load Coefficients


Table 4.2.3-1 contains the terms and factors required to meet AASHTO Service Load Design. The
allowable percentage of the basic unit stress is given in the right hand column of the table.

Footing Bearing Pressure and Internal Footing Stresses


βE = 1.0
Footing Stability and Sliding
βE = 0.5 or βE = 1.0, whichever governs.
Notes:
1. For culvert loading, see AASHTO.
2. No increase in allowable unit stresses shall be permitted for members or connections carrying wind
load only.
Table of Coefficients γ and β
For Service Load Design
Table 4.2.3-1

4-2:P:BDM4

August 1998 4.2-3


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Loads and Loading Application of Loads

4.3 Application of Loads


4.3.1 Dead Loads
Dead load is commonly applied to supports by assuming that it acts along each girder line.
4.3.2 Live Loads
The three types of live loadings ordinarily applied to a bridge when checking for maximum stresses in its
components are illustrated in AASHTO and Figure 4.3.2-1. The standard H-S truck represents common
vehicles. The lane load consists of combinations of uniform and concentrated loads which represent three
lighter trucks spaced close together. The alternative loading represents certain heavy military vehicles.
The loading type governing the design depends on the structure configuration. For example, truck loading
governs for maximum moment in simple spans shorter than 145 feet and lane loading controls for longer
spans. In continuous spans, lane loading governs for maximum negative moment, except for spans shorter
than 45 feet, in which truck loading will govern. The maximum positive moment in continuous spans is
usually produced by using lane loading, for span lengths of over about 110 feet. Alternative loading
governs in certain short span situations.
Figures 4.3.2-2 and 4.3.2-3 illustrate application of loads to produce maximum stresses in various span
arrangements. Appendix 4.3-B1 illustrates calculation of reactions and maximum moments in a simple
span. Impact is figured using the following formula:

50
I=
L + 125
Where L is the loaded portions of the spans.

Alternative (Military) Loading


Figure 4.3.2-1

August 1998 4.3-1


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Loads and Loading Application of Loads

Application of Loads
Figure 4.3.2-2

4.3-2 August 1998


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Loads and Loading Application of Loads

Application of Loading
Figure 4.3.2-3

August 1998 4.3-3


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Loads and Loading Application of Loads

4.3.3 Wind Loads


Wind loads acting on the superstructure are based on the profile presented to the wind, the height of which
usually consists of the girder depth and traffic barrier height.
4.3.4 Earthquake Loads
Bibiography 1 through 4 contain several examples of applying earthquake loads to bridges. This section
serves to amplify some analysis concepts.
Load factors applied in the Group VII combination are based on two concepts:
1. Full utilization of the elastic capacity of a particular element or member.
2. Taking advantage of the ductility or redundancy of the structure to absorb the energy released in an
earthquake and keep the structure intact.
Two typical AASHTO load case equations are:
MEQ = 1.0 ML + 0.3 MT
or
MEQ = 1.0 ML + 1.0 MT
Where the moments are:
MEQ = Earthquake
ML = Longitudinal
MT = Transverse
These equations are intended to satisfy concept 1. The SEISAB computer program prints out solutions to
the two equations as load cases 3 and 4.
Concept 2 is handled through use of the “R” factor. It appears in the factored loading equation:
Mu = 1.0 (MDL + MEQ/R)
The Guide Specification lists values for “R” for various structural components and types of supports.
Some common examples are:
• Single column bents, considered ductile but nonredundant, R = 3 for both directions.
• Multi-column bents, considered ductile and redundant, R = 5 both ways.
• Wall-type piers, less ductile than single column bents, often having R = 2 for transverse behavior and
R = 3 longitudinally.
• Footings, R = 1 for seismic performance Categories C and D and R = Rcol for SPC B. Higher values
are used than for columns and crossbeams because below ground structural damage is difficult to spot
and repair. Plastic hinging moments are often less than those produced using an R of 1, so that some
economy may be realized.
• Bearing type connections and stops, R = 0.8, due to lack of ductility and redundancy and because they
serve to prevent large displacements.
See Appendix 4.3-B2-1 and 2 for illustrations of common piers and appropriate factors to apply to the
members.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
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Loads and Loading Application of Loads

In order to design structures to survive the forces and strains resulting from earthquake motion, the
following factors need to be considered:
• The proximity of the site to known active faults and the historical record of activity.
• The seismic response of the soil at the site.
• The dynamic response characteristics of the total structure.
See Appendix 4.3-B3-1 through 3 for a general discussion of a seismic analysis.

4-3:P:BDM4

August 1998 4.3-5


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
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Loads and Loading Foundation Modeling

4.4 Foundation Modeling


Proper foundation modeling for earthquake loads is necessary because misinterpreted AASHTO Specifi-
cations can lead to a wide range of member sizes. Realistic models will likely produce savings in material,
especially when determining loads to apply to a substructure. Analysis is an iterative process which
converges to an acceptable design.
4.4.1 Procedure Summary
Following is a workable procedure for analysis:
a. Assume the foundation as fixed (unless you know otherwise). Use SEISAB or GTSTRUDL to
perform a dynamic analysis to determine initial loading.
b. If the support is not founded in rock, multiply the forces from the fully fixed model by 0.85 for the
initial trial design. Otherwise, use the fully fixed forces for the trial.
c. Determine a preliminary footing size, pile size, and arrangement, as applicable to the type of support.
d. Determine foundation springs as outlined in this section and Section 4.4.2. If pile support is being
used, see Section 4.4.3.E.
e. Rerun the dynamic model with springs included.
f. Compare loads and deflections using the same range used to determine the springs.
g. Redesign the footing, piles, adjust the springs, etc., until tolerable convergence is attained.
4.4.2 Spread Footings
a. You may apply load factor column moments from groups other than Group VII and column plastic
hinging moments for a first trial footing configuration. Then determine soil spring constants using the
footing plan area and depth of embedment. Assuming a shear wave velocity value, consult a Founda-
tion or Geotechnical Engineer for an appropriate value.
b. Appendix 4.4-B1 through 4 illustrate a procedure to determine soil spring constants for spread
footings.
4.4.3 Pile Foundations
A. Lateral Spring Input from P-Y Curves
Spring constants that represent pile supports may be obtained using a procedure which begins by
applying moments (as described in Section 4.4.1A) to an assumed footing and pile configuration. P-Y
curves from the foundation report may be input to the LPILE1 computer program to derive the initial
spring constants.
The spacing between pile centers is often about 4 times the pile diameter (D), which means that each
pile in the group may deflect more than if it were acting alone. Apply efficiency factors, if provided
on the soils report, to quantify that difference. If information is not available, use the following table
to estimate values.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Loads and Loading Foundation Modeling

Efficiency Factor
Table 4.4.3-1
For driven piles, the following factors apply:
Contact the Olympia Service Center Materials Lab to verify any assumptions.
The LPILE1 computer program will generate P-Y curves, or the user can input them. To
obtain generated curves, input a modulus of subgrade reaction (K), and a soil shear strength
(C) which are the values taken from the soils report multiplied by the efficiency factor. To
figure P-Y curves for input, multiply the P-Y values from the soils report by the efficiency
factor.
For a typical soil, the relationship between its normalized resistance value and friction angle
is defined by the curve in Figure 4.4.3-1. The friction angle could be adjusted for efficiency
and input to LPILE1 by following these steps:
1. Begin at the coordinate of the natural friction angle (36°).
2. Read across to the normalized resistance (61).
3. Multiply the resistance by the efficiency reduction factor, i.e., 61 (0.5) = 31.
4. Read across from the reduced value to obtain the adjusted friction angle (31°).
5. Input the φ value to LPILE1.

4.4-2 August 1998


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Loads and Loading Foundation Modeling

Friction Angle (φ)

PS
bγx
= Ka (tan8B-1) + Ko tan φ tan 4B

PS = Soil Resistance on Pile Element


b = Pile Width
g = Soil Unit Weight
X = Depth to Pile Element
N = Step in Example
B = 45° + φ/2
Ka = tan2(45° – φ/2)
Ko = 1 – Sin φ
Figure 4.4.3-1

August 1998 4.4-3


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Loads and Loading Foundation Modeling

B. Lateral Spring Input to Dynamic Analysis


Lateral spring constants can be generated for input to SEISAB (or GTSTRUDL) by using LPILE1
and two types of loading.
Case 1 — Applied Lateral Load — See Figure 4.4.3-2(A). Apply a lateral load (F) to the model of a
pile, and restrain its top against rotation. The load produces a deflected shape with the top deflection
being ∆. A moment (M) is also induced. F and M may be plotted against ∆ to produce two curves.
The spring constants are defined as slopes of the curves, and their calculation and SEISAB
nomenclature are given by the equations in Figure 4.4.3-2(A).
Make enough LPILE1 runs to define a linear range along the lateral force versus a deflection curve.
Vary axial loads, to bracket the values expected from the dynamic analysis (i.e., SEISAB results).
Include negative axial loads to represent anticipated tension due to uplift effects.
Case 2 — Applied Moment — See Figure 4.4.3-2(B). Apply a moment (M) to the pile model,
restraining the pile top against translation. Calculate the pile top rotation (φ) from the LPILE1 output
by dividing the deflection at the bottom of the top increment (∆1) by the increment length (H1). The
spring constants are defined as slopes of the curves, and they are calculated using the equations in
Figure 4.4.3-2(B).
A rapid way to approximate the slope of any curve is to select a point at half of the ultimate lateral
force or moment capacity of the pile. Note that the off-diagonal terms must be equal and opposite in
sign.
Figure 4.4.3-3 contains examples of spring calculation from LPILE1 output.

4.4-4 August 1998


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Loads and Loading Foundation Modeling

Figure 4.4.3-2A

Figure 4.4.3-2B

August 1998 4.4-5


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Loads and Loading Foundation Modeling

Loading Number 1
Boundary condition code = 2
Lateral load at the pile head = 0.250D+05 lbs = 25 K applied
Slope at the pile head = 0.000D+00 in/in
Axial load at the pile head = 0.758D+05 lbs
X Deflection Moment Shear Soil Total Flexural
Reaction Stress Rigidity
In In Lbs-In Lbs Lbs/In Lbs/In**2 Lbs-In**2
***** ********** ********** ********** ********** ********** **********
0.00 0.267D+01 -0.383D+07 0.250D+05 0.000D+00 0.270D+05 0.392D+11
=2.67″ =25K

25K K
KF1F1 = KF3F3 = = 112
(2.67in / 12 in / ft ) ft

(A)
Loading Number 1
Boundary condition code = 4
Deflection at the pile head = 0.000D+00 in
Moment at the pile head = 0.391D+07 in-lbs = 391 K-in applied
Axial load at the pile head = 0.103D+06 lbs
X Deflection Moment Shear Soil Total Flexural
Reaction Stress Rigidity
In In Lbs-In Lbs Lbs/In Lbs/In**2 Lbs-In**2
***** ********** ********** ********** ********** ********** **********
0.00 0.000D+00 0.391D+07 0.189D+05 0.000D+00 0.281D+05 0.392D+11
28.04 -0.237D+00 0.340D+07 -0.186D+05 0.208D+02 0.247D+05 0.392D+11
0.237″ = ∆1
28.04″ = H

∆1 0.237
f = Tan–1 H = Tan–1 = 0.48426°
1 28.04

or = 0.00845 rad
(B)

Sample LPILE1 Output


Figure 4.4.3-3

4.4-6 August 1998


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Loads and Loading Foundation Modeling

C. Vertical Springs
Vertical spring constants, Kv (or KF2F2) can be calculated from the following equations:

AE
Point bearing pile: Kv =
L
where,
A = Cross sectional area
E = Young’s modulus
L = Length
Pile having constant skin friction:

2AE
Kv =
L
Pile linearly varying skin friction:

3AE
Kv =
L
Pile partially embedded in the soil:

AE
1. Kv = 1 − F  L

 2

AE
2. Kv = 1 − 2 F  L

 3

August 1998 4.4-7


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Loads and Loading Foundation Modeling

Torsional (M/φ) spring constants for individual piles are based on the strength of the pile only. The
torsional resistance is given by the following equation:
M/φ = T/φ = JG/L
where,
G = 0.4 E
J = Torsional Moment of Inertia
L = length of pile
D. Stiffness Matrix
Eight individual pile stiffness terms should be put into Seisab, which forms a {6 × 6} matrix as shown
below:
F1 F2 F3 M1 M2 M3
F1 KF1F1 0 0 0 0 KF1M3
F2 KF2F2 0 0 0 0
F3 KF3F3 -KF3M1 0 0
M1 KM1M1 0 0
M2 KM2M2 0
M3 "Symmetrical" KM3M3
KF1M3 is cross-coupling term P/φ. -KF3M1 is cross-coupling term M/d. Note that the two have
opposite signs.
E. GPILE Computer Program
If a large number of piles is required per footing, to reduce Seisab input/output, individual springs can
be used in the GPILE computer program. The output will contain a {6 × 6} stiffness matrix for the
pile group which can be used to model the foundation in SEISAB. GPILE input includes pile configu-
ration and spring constants. The program also computes individual pile loads and deflections from a
set of input loads. GPILE can be used in conjunction with the plastic hinging moments, transmitted
from the column, to converge on an acceptable pile configuration.

4-4:P:BDM4

4.4-8 August 1998


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Loads and Loading Bibliography

4.99 Bibliography
1. AASHTO, Standard Specifications for Design of Highway Bridges, 1996, Division 1-A Seismic
Design.
2. Imbsen, R. A., Seismic Design of Highway Bridges, FHWA Workshop Manual, January 1981,
DOT-FH-11-9426.
3. FHWA/RD-83/007 Seismic Retrofitting Guidelines for Highway Bridges, December 1983.
4. FHWA-IP-87-6, Seismic Design and Retrofit Manual for Highway Bridges, May 1987.
5. California Department of Transportation, Bridge Design Practice, 1983.
6. Chen, R. L., Pile Foundation Modeling for Bridge Dynamic Response Analysis, unpublished paper
available in WSDOT Bridge and Structures Design, April 1987.
7. Engineering Computer Corporation, SEISAB-I, Workshop Manual, October 1984 and August 1985.
8. Reese, Lymon C., Documentation of Computer Program LPILE1, report for Ensoft, Inc., The
University of Texas at Austin, 1985.
9. AASHTO, Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, 1996.
10. Washington State Department of Transportation, Bridge Computer Programs Manual, GPILE and
DISTBM.
11. Washington State Department of Transportation, 1996, USGS National Seismic Hazards, Mapping
Project.
12. Hart Crowser, Subsurface Explorations and Design Phase Geotechnical Engineering Study, SR 90,
Seattle Access, Volume 111, September 1986, J-712-50.
13. Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Design and Construction of Driven Pile Foundations,
FHWA-DD-66-1, Revision 1.
14. Imbsen & Associates, FHWA, Seismic Design of Highway Bridges Training Course Participant
Workbook, February 1989.
15. FHWA-86/103, Seismic Design of Highway Bridges, Vol. II: Example problems and Sensitivity
Studies, June 1986.

4-99:P:BDM4

August 1998 4.99-1


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

Loads and Loading Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart

August 1998 4.4-A1-1


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

Loads and Loading Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart

4.4-A1-2 August 1998


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

Loads and Loading Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart

August 1998 4.4-A1-3


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

Loads and Loading Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart

4.4-A1-4 August 1998


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

Loads and Loading Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart

August 1998 4.4-A1-5


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

Loads and Loading Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart

4.4-A1-6 August 1998


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

Loads and Loading Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart

August 1998 4.4-A1-7


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

Loads and Loading Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart

4.4-A1-8 August 1998


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

Loads and Loading Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart

August 1998 4.4-A1-9


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

Loads and Loading Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart

4.4-A1-10 August 1998


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

Loads and Loading Peak Ground Acceleration Map

August 1998 4.4-A2


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix B

Loads and Loading Basic Truck Loading

Basic Truck Loading


HS25

August 1998 4.3-B1


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix B

Loads and Loading Common Response Modification Factors

August 1998 4.3-B2-1


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix B

Loads and Loading Common Response Modification Factors

4.3-B2-2 August 1998


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix B

Loads and Loading Seismic Analysis Example

A recent analysis of a bridge on I-90 in the Mercer Slough area near Bellevue provides the following
example:
The deep soft soil at the site is classified as “Type III” from the AASHTO Specifications. An
acceleration coefficient of 0.25, see Figure 4.1.5-1, was selected as appropriate.
The acceleration spectrum shown in Appendix 4.3-B3-2 was used to load the bridge. The results which
SEISAB calculated for the first 6 modes of oscillation appear in Appendix 4.3-B3-3. The CS values in
the table relate directly to the response periods of the various modes as solutions to the equation:

CS = 1.22AS
/3
T
where:
A = The acceleration coefficient
S = The soil profile coefficient (1.5 in this case)
T = The period of vibration of the bridge, the time it takes for one cycle of oscillation
In an undamped, single degree of freedom system, the natural period is defined as:

M
T= π
K

where:
M = The mass involved
K = The spring constant
See Bibliography 1 and 7 for further comments and procedures.
CS, the elastic seismic response coefficient, is the percentage of a gravity force which is applied to the
bridge for a particular mode. The participation factors indicate that modes 1 and 3 contribute most heavily
to the design forces. In this case, the ground sends 0.25 g and the bridge receives about 0.50 g.
The 0.50 g applied, divided by R = 5, translates to 0.1 g when figuring design moments for a multiple
column bent. Design shears would be the lesser of the values produced by 0.50 g and the shears associated
with plastic hinging moments. Since the column reinforcement may yield when the 0.1 g level is reached,
the energy remaining will be redistributed to the remainder of the bridge. The main column reinforcement
must be adequately confined by ties or spirals to allow redistribution to occur while maintaining structural
integrity.

P:DP/BDM4

August 1998 4.3-B3-1


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix B

Loads and Loading Seismic Analysis Example

Example Seismic Analysis

4.3-B3-2 August 1998


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix B

Loads and Loading Seismic Analysis Example

Example Seismic Analysis (Continued)

August 1998 4.3-B3-3


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix B

Loads and Loading Spring Constants Evaluation Example

Given Data
• Cohesionless soil – Poisson’s ratio = 0.33 = µ
• Soil density – 120 pcf = σ
• VS = shear wave velocity = 1,500 ft/sec
Solution:
Shear Modulus

120 lb/ft 3 (1, 500 ft/sec)


2

G= °Vs2 = 32.2 ft/sec 2 1000 Lb/ K


( )
Vertical Stiffness
L/W; 1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0 5.0 10.0
ßZ ; 2.12 2.14 2.18 2.26 2.44 2.82
18
L/W = = 1.20 ßZ = 2.13
15

β Z G LW 2.13 × 8385 18 × 15 K
KZ = = = 438,000
1− µ 1 − 0.33 ft

Embedment Factor

KW
ro = =- 9.27′
π

H 6
ro = 9.27 = 0.65

August 1998 4.4-B1-1


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix B

Loads and Loading Spring Constants Evaluation Example

Vertical Stiffness — Modified


KZH = 1.36 KZ = 1.36 × 438,000 = 596,000 kips/ft = KFY
Horizontal Stiffness

L
= 1.20 < 5 ßx = 2.0 (See page 6-37 of Bilbliography 2 for explanation.)
W

KX = ßX (1 – µ) G LW

= 2.0 (1 – 0.33) 8385 18 × 15 = 185,000 K/ft


Assuming that the horizontal embedment effect is the same as the vertical.
Horizontal Stiffness — Modified
KXH = 1.85 × 105 1.36 = 2.5 × 105 K/ft = KFX = KFZ

4.4-B1-2 August 1998


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix B

Loads and Loading Spring Constants Evaluation Example

Rocking Stiffness
Long Direction c = 7.5′ d = 9′

d
R= = 1.20 ßψ = 0.52
c
R; 0.2 0.5 1.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0
ßψ; 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.95 1.1

(8G cd ) 2

Kψ = ßψ
1− µ

0.52 × 8 × 8385 × 7.5 × 9 2 K − ft


= = 3.2 × 107
1 − 0.33 rad

K − ft
KH = 1.36 (3.2 × 107) = 4.3 × 107 = KMZ
rad
Short Direction

c
R= = 0.83 ßψ = 0.48
d

(8G)dc 2 K − ft
Kψ = ßψ = 2.4 × 107
1− µ rad

0.48 × 8 × 8385 × 9 × 7.52


=
1 − 0.33

K − ft
Kψ H = 1.36 (2.4 × 107) = 3.3 × 107
rad
Torsional Stiffness

16cd(c 2 + d 2 ) 16 × 7.5 × 9(7.52 + 9 2 )


rc = 4
=4
6π 6π

16 16 K − ft
Kθ = Gre3 = × 8385 × 9.423 = 3.7 × 107
3 3 rad

K − ft
Kθ H = 1.36 (3.7 × 107) = 5.0 × 107 = KMY
rad
Appendix 4.4-B1-4 depicts the footing from the example in spring matrix form. The nomenclature is
general, and is used for GTSTRUDL input (GTSTRUDL 4.2.2d contains a similar matrix using
SEISAB nomenclature).

August 1998 4.4-B1-3


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix B

Loads and Loading Spring Constants Evaluation Example

Spring Matrix

4.4-B1-4 August 1998


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Contents

Page
5.0 Reinforced Concrete Superstructures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1-1
5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
5.1.1 Concrete and Grout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
A. Classes of Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
B. Strength of Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
C. Grout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
5.1.2 Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
A. Grades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
B. Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
C. Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
D. Splices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
E. Bends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
F. Fabrication Lengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
G. Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
H. Percentage Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.2 Design Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2-1
5.2.1 Strength Design Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
A. Design Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
B. Flexure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
C. Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
D. Strut-and-Tie Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
E. Shear and Torsion, ACI Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
F. Shear and Torsion, Strut-and-Tie Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
G. Deflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
H. Serviceability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5.2.2 Working Stress Design Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5.3 Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3-1
5.3.1 Girder Spacing and Basic Geometries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
A. Girder Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
B. Basic Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
C. Construction Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
D. Load Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
5.3.2 Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
A. Top Slab Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
B. Bottom Slab Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
C. Web Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
D. Intermediate Diaphragm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5.3.3 Crossbeam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
A. Basic Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
B. Reinforcing Steel Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.3.4 End Diaphragm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
A. Basic Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
B. Reinforcing Steel Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.3.5 Dead Load Deflection and Camber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

July 2000 5.0-i


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Contents

Page
5.3.6 Thermal Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
A. Effective Bridge Temperature and Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
B. Differential Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.3.7 Hinges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.3.8 Utility Openings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
A. Confined Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
B. Drain Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
C. Access Hole and Air Vent Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.4 Hinges and Inverted T-Beam Pier Caps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4-1
A. Local Failure Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
B. Shear Friction Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
C. Flexural Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
D. Hanger Tension Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
E. Punching Shear Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
F. Bearing Strength Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5.5 Widenings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5-1
5.5.1 Review of Existing Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
B. Original Contract Plans and Special Provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
C. Original Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
D. Final Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
5.5.2 Analysis and Design Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
B. Seismic Design Criteria for Bridge Widenings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
C. Substructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
D. Superstructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
E. Stability of Widening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5.5.3 Removing Portions of the Existing Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5.5.4 Attachment of Widening to Existing Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
B. Connection Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5.5.5 Expansion Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.5.6 Possible Future Widening for Current Designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
5.5.7 Bridge Widening Falsework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
5.5.8 Existing Bridge Widenings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
5.99 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.99-1

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Appendix A Design Aids


5.1-A1 Reinforcing Bar Properties
5.1-A2 Bar Area vs. Bar Spacing
5.1-A3 Bar Area vs. Number of Bars
5.1-A4 Tension Development Length of Straight Deformed Bars
5.1-A5 Tension Development Length of Standard 90° and 180° Hooks
5.1-A6 Tension Lap Splice Lengths of Grade 60 Uncoated Bars
5.1-A7 Minimum Development Length and Minimum Lap Splices of Deformed Bars
in Compression
5.2-A1 ρ Values for Singly Reinforced Beams fc′ = 3,000 psi fy = 60,000 psi
5.2-A2 ρ Values for Singly Reinforced Beams fc′ = 4,000 psi fy = 60,000 psi
5.2-A3 ρ Values for Singly Reinforced Beams fc′ = 5,000 psi fy = 60,000 psi
5.3-A1 Positive Moment Reinforcement
5.3-A2 Negative Moment Reinforcement
5.3-A3 Adjusted Negative Moment Case I (Design for M @ Face of Effective Support)
5.3-A4 Adjusted Negative Moment Case II (Design for M @ 1/4 Point)
5.3-A5 Load Factor Slab Design fc′ = 4,000 psi
5.3-A6 Load Factor Slab Design fc′ = 5,000 psi
5.3-A7 Slab Design — Traffic Barrier Load
Appendix B Design Examples
5.2-B1 Slab Design
5.2-B2 Slab Design for Prestressed Girders
5.2-B3 Strut-and-Tie Design
5.2-B4 Working Stress Design

P65:DP/BDM5

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5.0 Reinforced Concrete Superstructures


5.1 General
Prior to precast pretensioned and post-tensioned concrete members introduced in the early 1960s, all short
and medium span bridges were built as cast-in-place (CIP) reinforced concrete superstructures.
Examples of reinforced concrete superstructures are: flat slabs, slab and T-beams, arches, slabs for all
types of steel bridges, and box girders.
Many of the bridges built before 1960 are functional, durable, and structurally sound. The service life of
some of these early bridges can be extended by widening their decks to accommodate increased traffic
demand or to improve safety. This chapter addresses special requirements for widenings.
The design aids in this chapter can also be utilized in the design of nonprestressed reinforcement in
prestressed structural elements and reinforced concrete substructures.
5.1.1 Concrete and Grout
A. Classes of Concrete
1. CLASS 3000
Used in large sections with light to nominal reinforcement, mass pours, sidewalks, curbs, gutters,
and nonstructural concrete guardrail anchors, luminaire bases.
2. CLASS 4000
Used in traffic and pedestrian barriers, approach slabs, footings, box culverts, wing walls, curtain
walls, retaining walls, columns, and crossbeams.
3. CLASS 4000D
Used in bridge concrete decks. Standard specifications require two coats of curing compound and
a continuous wet cure for 14 days.
4. CLASS 4000P
Used for cast-in-place pile and shaft.
5. CLASS 4000W
Used underwater in seals.
6. CLASS 5000 or Higher
Used in CIP post-tensioned concrete box girder construction or in other special structural
applications situations. Use of CLASS 5000 or higher requires approval of the Bridge Design
Engineer, the Olympia Service Center, and Materials Lab. Place documentation in job file.
B. Strength of Concrete
1. The 28-day compressive design strengths (fc′) in pounds per square inch (psi) are:

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Class f c′
COMMERCIAL 2300
3000 3000
4000, 4000D 4000
4000W 2400*
5000 5000**
6000 6000
4000P 3400***
*40 percent reduction from CLASS 4000.
**Concrete Class 5000 is available within a 30-mile radius of Seattle, Spokane, and Vancouver.
Outside this 30-mile radius, concrete suppliers do not have the quality control rocedures and
expertise to Supply Control Class 5000.
***15 percent reduction from CLASS 4000 for all drilled shafts.
2. Relative Compressive Concrete Strength
a. During design or construction of a bridge, it is necessary to determine the strength of
concrete at various stages of construction. For instance, Section 6-02.3(17)J of the Standard
Specifications discusses the time at which falsework and forms can be removed to various
percentages of the concrete design strength. Occasionally, construction problems will arise
which require a knowledge of the relative strengths of concrete at various ages. Table 5.1-1
is intended to supply this information.
b. Curing conditions of the concrete (especially in the first 24 hours) have a very important
influence on the strength development of concrete at all ages. Temperature affects the rate
at which the chemical reaction between cement and water takes place. Loss of moisture can
seriously impair the concrete strength.
c. Table 5.1-1 shows the approximate values of the minimum compressive strengths of differ-
ent classes of concrete at various ages. If the concrete has been cured under continuous moist
curing at an average temperature, it can be assumed that these values have been developed.
d. If test strength is above or below that shown in Table 5.1-1, the age at which the design
strength will be reached can be determined by direct proportion.
For example, if the relative strength at 10 days is 64 percent instead of the minimum
70 percent shown in Table 5.1-1, the time it takes to reach the design strength can be
determined as follows:
Let x = relative strength to determine the age at which the concrete will reach
the design strength
x 100
= Therefore, x = 110
70 64
From Table 5.1-1, the design strength should be reached in 40 days.
C. Grout
Grout is usually a prepackaged cement based grout or nonshrink grout that is mixed, placed, and
cured as recommended by the manufacturer. It is used under steel base plates for both bridge bearings
and luminaire or sign bridge bases. Nonshrink grout is used in keyways between precast prestressed
deck slabs, tri-beams, and bulb-tees. For design purposes, the strength of the grout, if properly cured,
can be assumed to be equal to or greater than that of the adjacent concrete.
Should the grout pad thickness exceed 4 inches, steel reinforcement shall be used.

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The following chart shows approximate relative strength of concrete and compressive strength of different
classes of concrete at various ages based on continuous moist curing at an average temperature.
Relative and Compressive Strength of Concrete
Table 5.1.1-1

Relative Class Class Class Relative Class Class Class


Age Strength 5000 4000 3000 Age Strength 5000 4000 3000
(Days) (%) (psi) (psi) (psi) (Days) (%) (psi) (psi) (psi)

3 35 1750 1400 1050 20 91 4550 3640 2730


4 43 2150 1720 1290 21 93 4650 3720 2790
5 50 2500 2000 1500 22 94 4700 3760 2820
6 55 2750 2200 1650 23 95 4750 3800 2850
7 59 2950 2360 1770 24 96 4800 3840 2880
8 63 3150 2520 1890 25 97 4850 3880 2910
9 67 3350 2680 2010 26 98 4900 3920 2940
10 70 3500 2800 2100 27 99 4950 3960 2970
11 73 3650 2920 2190 28 100 5000 4000 3000
12 75 3750 3000 2250 30 102 5100 4080 3060
13 77 3850 3080 2310 40 110 5500 4400 3300
14 79 3950 3160 2370 50 115 5750 4600 3450
15 81 4050 3240 2430 60 120 6000 4800 3600
16 83 4150 3320 2490 70 125 6250 5000 3750
17 85 4250 3400 2550 80 129 6450 5160 3870
18 87 4350 3480 2610 90 131 6550 5240 3930
19 89 4450 3560 2670

5.1.2 Reinforcement
A. Grades
Steel reinforcing bars are manufactured as plain or deformed bars (which have ribbed projections that
grip the concrete in order to provide better bond between steel and concrete). In Washington State,
main bars are always deformed. Plain bars are used for spirals and ties.
Reinforcing bars conform to either the requirements of AASHTO M31, Grade 60 (ASTM A-615
Grade 60) with a 60,000 psi yield strength or in the case of bars in portions of concrete members
where plastic hanging can occur during an earthquake or which are to be spliced by welding,
ASTM A 706 Specifications for Low-Alloy Steel deformed Bars for Concrete Reinforcement.
B. Sizes
Reinforcing bars are referred to in the contract plans and specifications by number and vary in
size from #3 to #18. For bars up to and including #8, the number of the bar coincides with the bar
diameter in eighths of an inch. The #9, #10, and #11 bars have diameters that provide areas equal
to 1″ x 1″ square bars, 11/8″ x 11/8″ square bars and 11/4″ x 11/4″ square bars respectively. Similarly,
the #14 and #18 bars correspond to 11/2″ x 11/2″ and 2″ x 2″ square bars, respectively. Tables 5.1-A1
through 5.1-A3 in Appendix A, show the sizes, number, and various properties of the types of bars
used in Washington State.

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C. Development
1. Development Length, ld, in Tension
Development length or anchorage of reinforcement is required on both sides of a point of
maximum stress at any section of a reinforced concrete member.
Development of bars in tension involves calculating the basic development length, ldb, which
is modified by factors to reflect bar spacing, cover, enclosing transverse reinforcement, top
bar effect, type of aggregate, epoxy coating, and ratio of required area to provided area of
reinforcement to be developed.
The development length, ld (including all applicable modification factors) must not be less
than 12 inches.
Tables 5.1-A4 and 5.1-A5 in Appendix A, show the tension development length for both un-
coated and epoxy coated Grade 60 bars for normal weight concrete with specified strengths of
3,000 to 6,000 psi.
2. Development Length, ld, in Compression
The basic development lengths for deformed bars in compression are shown in Table 5.1-A7,
Appendix A. These values may be modified for ratio of required area vs. provided area of
reinforcement, or for bars enclosed in a 1/4 inch diameter spiral at 4 inch maximum pitch.
However, the minimum development length is 1 foot 0 inches (office practice).
3. Standard End Hook Development Length, ldh, in Tension
Standard end hooks, utilizing 90 and 180 degree end hooks, are used to develop bars in tension
where space limitations restrict the use of straight bars. End hooks on compression bars are not
effective for development length purposes. Figures 5.1.2-1 and 5.1.2-2 and Table 5.1.2-1 show
the minimum embedment lengths necessary to provide 2 inches of cover on the tails of 90 and
180 degree end hooks. Epoxy coating does not affect the tension development lengths, ldh, of
standard 90 and 180 degree end hooks. The values shown in Table 5.1-1A5, Appendix A, show
the tension development lengths for normal weight concrete with specified strengths of 3,000 to
6,000 psi.
D. Splices
Three methods are used to splice reinforcing bars; lap splices, mechanical splices, and welded splices.
Lap splicing of reinforcing bars is the most common method. The Contract Plans should clearly show
the locations and lengths of lap splice. Lap splices are not permitted for bars larger than #11.
No lap splices, for either tension or compression bars, shall be less than 2 feet 0 inches (office
practice). See Section 8.32 of the Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges and Section
6-02.3(24)D Standard Specifications for additional splice requirements.
1. Lap Splices — Tension
Many of the same factors which affect development length affect splices. Consequently, tension
lap splices are a function of the bar’s development length, ld. There are three classes of tension
lap splices: Class A, B, and C. Designers are encouraged to splice bars at points of minimum
stress and to stagger lap splices along the length of the bars.

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Minimum Embedment Lengths to Provide 2-inch Cover to Tail of Standard 180° End Hooks
Table 5.1.2-1

#3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #14 #18

6″ 7″ 9″ 10″ 1′-0″ 1′-2″ 1′-3″ 1′-5″ 1′-7″ 2′-10″ 3′-7″

Standard 180° and 90° End Hooks


Figure 5.1.2-1

Special Confinement for 180° and 90° End Hooks


Figure 5.1.2-2

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Recommended End Hooks


Table 5.1.2-2

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Figure 5.1.2-3

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(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 5.1.2-4

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Table 5.1A6 in Appendix A, shows tension lap splices for both uncoated and epoxy coated
Grade 60 bars for normal weight concrete with specified strengths of 3,000 to 6,000 psi. For
additional requirements, see Section 8.32.3 of the AASHTO Standard Specifications for
Highway Bridges.
For Seismic Performance Categories C and D, Section 8.4.1(F) of the AASHTO Standard
Specifications for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges, the lap splices for longitudinal column
bars are permitted only within the center half of the column height and shall not be less than the
lap splices given in Table 5.1-A6 in Appendix A, or 60 bar diameters whichever is greater.
Note that the maximum spacing of the transverse reinforcement (i.e., column ties) over the
length of the splice shall not exceed the smaller of 4 inches or 1/4 of the minimum column plan
dimension.
2. Lap Splices — Compression
The compression lap splices shown in Table 5.1-A7 (right-hand column) in Appendix A, are
for concrete strengths greater than 3,000 psi. If the concrete strength is less than 3,000 psi, the
compression lap splices should be increased by one third. Note that when two bars of different
diameters are lap spliced, the length of the lap splice shall be the larger of the lap splice for the
smaller bar or the development length of the larger bar.
3. Mechanical Splices
A second method of splicing is by mechanical splices, which are proprietary splicing
mechanisms. The requirements for mechanical splices are found in Section 6-02.3(24)F of the
Standard Specifications, Sections 8.32.2 and 8.32.3 of the AASHTO Standard Specifications for
Highway Bridges, and Section 8.4.1(F) of the Standard Specifications for Seismic Design of
Highway Bridges.
4. Welded Splices
Welding of reinforcing bars is the third acceptable method of splicing reinforcing bars. Section
6-02.3(24)E of the Standard Specifications describes the requirements for welding reinforcing
steel. On modifications to existing structures, welding of reinforcing bars may not be possible
because of the non-weldability of some steels. See Sections 8.32.2 and 8.32.3 of the AASHTO
Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges and Section 8.4.1(F) of the Standard Specifications
for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges for additional welded splice requirements.
E. Bends
For standard hooks and bend radii, see Table 5.1-15. Note that the tail lengths are greater for the 135°
seismic tie hook than for the regular or nonseismic 135° tie hook. For field bending requirements, see
Section 6-02.3(24)A of the Standard Specifications.
F. Fabrication Lengths
Reinforcing bars are normally stocked in lengths of 60 feet. They can also be fabricated in longer
lengths.

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The maximum overall bar lengths to be specified on the plans are:


Bar Size Maximum Length
#3 30′-0″
#4, #5 40′-0″
#6, #7 60′-0″
#8, #9, #10 60′-0″
#11, #14, #18 60′-0″
Where possible, specify lengths 60 feet and less for bar sizes #8 through #18. Because of placement
considerations, the overall lengths of bar size #3 has been limited to 30 feet and bar sizes #4 and #5
to 40 feet. To use longer lengths, the designer should make sure that the bars can be placed and
transported by truck. See Table 5.1-A1 in Appendix A.
G. Placement
Placement of reinforcing bars can be a problem during construction. Reinforcing bars are more than
just lines on the drawing, they have size, weight, and volume. In confined areas, the designer should
ensure that reinforcing bars can be placed. Sometimes it may be necessary to make a large scale
drawing of reinforcement to look for interference and placement problems. If interference is expected,
additional details may be required in the contract plans showing how to handle the interference and
placement problems.
H. Percentage Requirements
There are several AASHTO requirements to ensure that minimum reinforcement is provided in
reinforced concrete members.
1. Flexure
The reinforcement provided at any section should be adequate to develop a moment at least 1.2
times the cracking moment calculated on the basis of the modulus of rupture for normal weight
concrete. The modulus of rupture for normal weight concrete is 7.5 √fc′ . This requirement may
be waived if the area of reinforcement provided is at least one-third greater than that required by
analysis. For additional minimum reinforcement required, see Section 8.17, AASHTO Standard
Specifications for Highway Bridges.
2. Compression
For columns, the area of longitudinal reinforcement shall not exceed 0.08 nor be less than 0.01 of
the gross area, Ag, of the section. Preferably, the ratio of longitudinal reinforcement should not
exceed 0.04 of the gross area, Ag, to ensure constructibility and placement of concrete. If a ratio
greater than 0.04 is used, the designer should verify that concrete can be placed. If for architec-
tural purposes the cross section is larger than that required by the loading, a reduced effective
area may be used. The reduced effective area shall not be less than that which would require
1percent of the longitudinal area to carry the loading. Additional lateral reinforcement require-
ments are given in Section 8.18, AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, and
for plastic hinge zones, see Section 8.4.1(D), AASHTO Standard Specifications for the Seismic
Design of Highway Bridges. For column reinforcing, ASTM A 706 reinforcing should be
pecified to improve durability.
3. Other Minimum Reinforcement Requirements
For minimum shear reinforcement requirements, see Section 8.19 and for minimum temperature
and shrinkage reinforcement, see Section 8.20, AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway
Bridges.

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5.2 Design Methods


5.2.1 Strength Design Method
A. Design Philosophy
In the strength design method or ultimate strength method, the service loads are increased by load
factors to obtain the ultimate design load. The structural members are then proportioned to provide
the design ultimate strength. Several textbooks listed in the bibliography, which are excellent
sources [1,2,3].
B. Flexure
The basic strength design requirement can be expressed as follows:
Design Strength ≥ Required Strength or φ Mn ≥ Mu (1)
For design purposes, the area of reinforcement for a singly reinforced beam or slab can be determined
by letting:
Mu = φ Mn = φ [As (fy) (d – a/2)] (2)
However, if a As(fy)/(0.85)(fc′)(b) and ρ = As/(b)(d) (3)
Equation (2) can be expressed as:
Mu/φ (b) (d)2 = ρ (fy) [1 – 0.59 (ρ) fy/fc′] (4)
Tables 5.2-1 through 5.2-3 in Appendix 5.2-A1, -A2, and -A3, were prepared based on Eq (4) to
quickly determine the amount of reinforcing steel required, As required, when Mu, fc′, fy, b, and d
are known.
An alternate approach is to solve directly for As required from:

As required =
0.85 fc′ (b)
fy ( √
d – d2 –
31.3725 Mu
fc′ (b) ) where Mu = kips – in
fc′ = ksi
(5)

Similarly, substituting 1.2Mcr for Mu, As min can be found from:

As min =
0.85 fc′ (b)
fy ( √
d – d2 –
0.124 h2
√ f c′ ) where h = slab thickness (6)

From AASHTO 8.16.3.1.1 and 8.16.3.2.2, As max can be found from:

As max = 0.6375 β1 (b) (d)


fc ′
fy ( 87
87 + fy ) (7)

where β1 = 0.85 if fc′ ≤ 4 ksi and


β1 = 0.85 – 0.05 (fc′ – 4) if fc′ > 4 ksi, but not less than 0.65
Tension reinforcement should be designed in the following order:
1. From Eq (5) or Tables 5.2-A1 through 5.2-A3 in Appendix A, determine As required.
2. From Eq (6) determine As min.
3. From Eq (7) or Tables 5.2-A1 through 5.2-A3 in Appendix A, determine As max.

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4. If As required > As max, increase the member’s dimensions.


If As max > As required > As min, use As ≥ As required.
If As required < As min < 1.33 As required, use As ≥ As min.
If 1.33 As required < As min, use As ≥ 1.33 As required.
Always use As ≤ As max.
See Appendix 5.2-B1 and 5.2-B2 for design examples.
C. Shear
The AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges addresses shear design of members
in Section 8.16.6. Shear friction provisions (Section 8.16.6.4) are applied to transfer shear across
a plane, such as: an existing or potential crack, an interface between dissimilar materials, or at a
construction joint between two sections of concrete placed at different times.
The shear design for deep beams is not addressed in the AASHTO Standard Specifications, but is
discussed in Section 11.8, ACI 318-89 Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete and
Commentary, and ACI-ASCE Committee 343 Analysis and Design of Reinforced Concrete Bridge
Structures [4,5,6].
D. Strut-and-Tie Model
1. General
Strut-and-tie models may be used to determine internal force effects near supports and the points
of application of concentrated loads [16].
The strut-and-tie model should be considered for the design of deep footings and pile caps or
other situations in which the distance between the centers of applied load and supporting reaction
is less than twice the member thickness.
2. Structural Modeling
The structure and a component or region, thereof, may be modeled as an assembly of steel
tension ties and concrete compressive struts interconnected at nodes to form a truss capable
of carrying all the applied loads to the supports as shown in Figure 5.2.1-1 for a deep beam.
The required widths of compression struts and tension ties shall be considered in determining
the geometry of the truss. The truss model does not necessarily need to conform to structural
stability as a real truss would.
The factored resistance, Pn,of struts and ties shall be taken as that of axially loaded components.
Pu′ = ϕ Pn
where:
Pn = nominal resistance of strut or tie (KIP)
ϕ = 0.7 Compression
ϕ = 0.9 Tension

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3. Proportioning of Compressive Struts


a. Strength of Unreinforced Strut
The nominal resistance of an unreinforced compressive strut shall be taken as:
Pn = fcuAcs
where:
Pn = nominal resistance of a compressive strut (kips)
fcu = limiting compressive stress (ksi)
Acs = effective cross-sectional area of strut (in2)
b. Effective Cross-Sectional Area of Strut
The value of Acs shall be determined by considering both the available concrete area and the
anchorage conditions at the ends of the strut, as shown in Figure 5.2.1-2.
When a strut is anchored by reinforcement, the effective concrete area may be considered
to extend a distance of up to six bar diameters from the anchored bar, as shown in Figures
5.2.1-2(a), 5.2.1-2(b), and 5.2.1-2(c).
c. Limiting Compressive Stress in Strut
The limiting compressive stress, fcu, shall be taken as:

fc ′
fcu = ≤ 0.8 fc′
0.8 + 170ε1

for which:
ε1 = εs + (εs + 0.002) cot2 αs
where:
as = the smallest angle between the compressive strut and adjoining tension
ties (DEG)
εs = the tensile strain in the concrete in the direction of the tension tie (in/in)
fc′ = specified compressive strength (ksi)
d. Reinforced Strut
If the compressive strut contains reinforcement that is parallel to the strut and detailed to
develop its yield stress in compression as shown in Figure 5.2.1-2(d), the nominal resistance
of the strut shall be taken as:
Pn = fcu Acs + fy Ass
where:
Ass = area of reinforcement in the strut (in2)

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Strut-and-Tie Model for Deep Beam


Figure 5.2.1-1

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Influence of Anchorage Conditions on Effective Cross-Sectional Area of Strut


Figure 5.2.1-2

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4. Proportioning of Tension Ties


a. Strength of Tie
Tension tie reinforcement shall be anchored to the nodal zones by specified embedment
lengths, hooks, or mechanical anchorages. The tension force shall be developed at the inner
face of the nodal zone.
The nominal resistance of a tension tie in KIP shall be taken as:
Pn = fy Ast + Aps [fpe + fy]
where:
Ast = total area of longitudinal mild steel reinforcement in the tie (IN2)
Aps = area of prestressing steel (IN2)
fy = yield strength of mild steel longitudinal reinforcement (KSI)
fpe = stress in prestressing steel due to prestress after losses (KSI)
b. Anchorage of Tie
The tension tie reinforcement shall be anchored to transfer the tension force therein to
the node regions of the truss in accordance with the requirements for development of
reinforcement as specified in Article 5.1.2C.
5. Proportioning of Node Regions
Unless confining reinforcement is provided and its effect is supported by analysis or
experimentation, the concrete compressive stress in the node regions of the strut shall not exceed:
• For node regions bounded by compressive struts and bearing areas: 0.85 ϕ fc′
• For node regions anchoring a one-direction tension tie: 0.75 ϕ fc′
• For node regions anchoring tension ties in more than one direction: 0.65 ϕ fc′
where:
ϕ = 0.7 resistance factor for bearing on concrete
The tension tie reinforcement shall be uniformly distributed over an effective area of concrete at
least equal to the tension tie force divided by the stress limits specified herein.
In addition to satisfying strength criteria for compression struts and tension ties, the node regions
shall be designed to comply with the stress and anchorage limits.
6. Crack Control Reinforcement
Structures and components or regions thereof, except for slabs and footings, which have been
designed in accordance with the provisions strut-and-tie model, shall contain an orthogonal
grid of reinforcing bars near each face. The spacing of the bars in these grids shall not exceed
12.0 inches.
The ratio of reinforcement area to gross concrete area shall not be less than 0.003 in each
direction.
Crack control reinforcement, located within the tension tie, may be considered as part of the
tension tie reinforcement.

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E. Shear and Torsion, ACI Method


The AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges does not address the design of reinforced
concrete members for torsion. The design for shear and torsion is based on ACI 318-95 Building
Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary (318F-95) and is satisfactory for bridge
members with dimensions similar to those normally used in buildings. The AASHTO LRFD Specifi-
cations Article 5.8.3.6 may also be used for design of sections subjected to shear and torsion.
F. Shear and Torsion, Strut-and-Tie Method
According to Hsu [7], utilizing ACI 318-89 for members is awkward and overly conservative when
applied to large-size hollow members. Collins and Mitchell [8] propose a rational design method for
shear and torsion based on the compression field theory or strut and tie method for both prestressed
and non-prestressed concrete beams. These methods assume that diagonal compressive stresses can
be transmitted through cracked concrete. In addition to transmitting these diagonal compressive
stresses, shear stresses are transmitted from one face of the crack to the other by a combination of
aggregate interlock and dowel action of the stirrups.
For recommendations and design examples for beams in shear and torsion, the designer can refer
to the paper by M.P. Collins and D. Mitchell, Shear and Torsion Design of Prestressed and
Non-Prestressed Concrete Beams, PCI Journal, September-October 1980, pp. 32-100 [8]. See
Appendix 5.2-B3 for a strut and tie design example for a pier cap.
G. Deflection
Flexural members are designed to have adequate stiffness to limit deflections or any deformations
which may adversely affect the strength or serviceability of the structure at service load plus impact.
The minimum superstructure depths are specified in AASHTO Table 8.9.2 and deflections shall be
computed in accordance with Section 8.13, AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges.
H. Seviceability
In addition to the deflection control requirements described above, service load stresses shall be
limited to satisfy fatigue (Section 8.16.8.3) and for distribution of tension reinforcement when fy for
tension reinforcement exceeds 40,000 psi (Section 8.16.8.4 AASHTO Specifications).
To control cracking of the concrete, tension reinforcement at maximum positive and negative moment
sections shall be chosen so that the calculated service load stress, fs in ksi, shall be less than the value
computed by:
z
fs = 3 ≤ 0.6 fy
1/
(dc x A)

The requirements for control of cracking apply to superstructure elements only


The calculated service load stress is calculated utilizing Working Stress Design (WSD) principles
described below. The values of dc and A are defined in Section 8.16.8.4 of the AASHTO Standard
Specifications for Highway Bridges. The value z shall be 130 kips per inch for girder and crossbeam
reinforcing bars in negative moment regions, and all deck reinforcing bars. A value of 170 kips per
inch shall be used for all other positive moment regions. Note that this check is for distribution of
flexural reinforcement to control cracking. See Appendix 5.2-B2 which shows the flexural reinforce-
ment at a pier location placed equally in top and bottom layers. When this is done, the total slab
thickness can be used in computing A.

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5.2.2 Working Stress Design Method


Prior to the strength design method, introduced in the 1973, AASHTO Standard Specifications for
Highway Bridges, the working stress design (WSD) method was used to design bridges. Many design aids
were produced as a result. The ACI Publication SP-3, Reinforced Concrete Design Handbook Working
Stress Method [9], is a publication that was widely used by designers and several textbooks have sections
devoted to WSD [1,2].
Working Stress Design principles are used to compute the tensile stress, fs, and Mcr, which are used to
check crack control and minimum flexural reinforcement respectively. Design aid for working stress
design method for Class 3000 and 4000 concrete is provided in Appendix B4.

P65:DP/BDM5

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5.3 Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges


A typical box girder bridge is comprised of top and bottom concrete slabs connected by a series of vertical
girder stems. This section is a guide for designing:
Top slab
Bottom slab
Girder stem (web)
For design criteria not covered, see Section 2.4.1.C.
5.3.1 Girder Spacing and Basic Geometries
A. Girder Spacing
The most economical web spacing for ordinary box girder bridges varies from about 8 to 12 feet.
Greater girder spacing requires some increase in both top and bottom slab thickness, but the cost of
the additional concrete can be offset by decreasing the total number of girder stems. Fewer girder
stems reduces the amount of form work required and a lower cost.
The number of girder stems can be reduced by cantilevering the top slab beyond the exterior girders.
A deck overhang of approximately one-half the girder spacing generally gives satisfactory results.
This procedure usually results in a more aesthetic as well as a more economical bridge.
For girder stem spacing in excess of 12 feet or cantilever overhang in excess of 6 feet, transverse
post-tensioning shall be used.
B. Basic Dimensions (Figure 5.3.1-1)
1. Top Slab Thickness, T1 (includes 1/2″ wearing surface)
T1 = 12 x (S+10)/30 but not less than 7″ with overlay or 7.5″ without overlay.
2. Bottom Slab Thickness, T2
a. Near Center Span
T2 = 12 x (Sclr)/16 but not less than 5.5″ (normally 6.0″ is used).
b. Near Intermediate Piers
Thickening of the bottom slab is often used in negative moment regions to control
compressive stresses that are significant.
Transition slope = 24:1 (see T2′ in Figure 5.3.2-8).
3. Girder Stem (Web) Thickness, T3
a. Near Center Span
Minimum T3 = 9.0″ — vertical
Minimum T3 = 10.0″ — if sloped
b. Near Supports
Thickening of girder stems is used in areas adjacent to supports to control shear
requirements.

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Changes in girder web thickness shall be tapered for a minimum distance of 12 times the
difference in web thickness.
Maximum T3 = T3+4.0″ maximum
Transition length = 12 x (T3) in inches

Basic Dimensions
Figure 5.3.1-1

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4. Intermediate Diaphragm Thickness, T4 and Diaphragm Spacing


a. For tangent and curved bridge with R > 800 feet
T4 = 0″ (Diaphragms are not required.)
b. For curved bridge with R < 800 feet
T4 = 8.0″
Diaphragm spacing shall be as follows:
For 600′ < R < 800′at 1/2 pt. of span.
For 400′ < R < 600′ at 1/3 pt. of span.
For R < 400′ at 1/4 pt. of span.
C. Construction Considerations
Review the following construction considerations to ensure that:
1. Construction joints at slab/stem interface or fillet/stem interface at top slab are appropriate.
2. All construction joints to have roughened surfaces.
3. Bottom slab is parallel to top slab (constant depth).
4. Girder stems are vertical.
5. Dead load deflection and camber to nearest 1/8″.
6. Skew and curvature effects have been considered.
7. Thermal effects have been considered.
8. The potential for falsework settlement is acceptable. This always requires added stirrup
reinforcement in sloped outer webs.
D. Load Distribution
1. Unit Design
According to the AASHTO specifications, the entire slab width shall be assumed effective for
compression. It is both economical and desirable to design the entire superstructure as a unit
rather than as individual girders. When a reinforced box girder bridge is designed as an indi-
vidual girder with a deck overhang, the positive reinforcement is congested in the exterior cells.
The unit design method permits distributing all girder reinforcement uniformly throughout the
width of the structure.
2. Dead Loads
a. Box dead loads.
b. D.L. of top deck forms — 5 lbs. per sq. ft. of the area.
— 10 lbs. per sq. ft. if web spacing > 10′−0″.
c. Traffic barrier.
d. Overlay, intermediate diaphragm, and utility weight if applicable.

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3. Live Load
a. Superstructure
No. of lanes = slab width (curb to curb) / 14
Fractional lane width will be used
For example, 58 roadway / 14 = 4.14, then no. of lanes = 4.14
b. Substructure
No. of lanes = slab width (curb to curb) / 12
Fractional lane width will be ignored
For example, 58 roadway / 12 = 4.83, then no. of lanes = 4.0
c. Overload if applicable.
5.3.2 Reinforcement
This section discusses moment reinforcement for top slab, bottom slab, and intermediate diaphragms in
box girders.
A. Top Slab Reinforcement
1. Near Center of Span
Figure 5.3.2-1 shows the reinforcement required near the center of the span and Figure 5.3.2-2
shows the overhang reinforcement.
a. Transverse reinforcing in the top and bottom layers to transfer the load to the main girder
stems shall be equal in size and spacing.
b. Bottom longitudinal “distribution reinforcement” in the middle half of the deck span (Seff) to
aid in distributing the wheel loads.
c. Top longitudinal “temperature and shrinkage reinforcement.”
2. Near Intermediate Piers
Figure 5.3.2-3 illustrates the reinforcement requirement near intermediate piers. See Appendix
5.2-B2 for design of longitudinal deck reinforcement.
a. Transverse reinforcing same as center of span.
b. Longitudinal reinforcement to resist negative moment (see Figure 5.3.2-3).
c. “Distribution of flexure reinforcement” to limit cracking (see Figure 5.3.2-3).
≤ 0.6fy, where z = 130 kips per inch.
1/ 3
Allowable fs = z/(dc x A)
3. Bar Patterns
a. Transverse Reinforcement
It is preferable to place the transverse reinforcement parallel to the X-Beam and end
diaphragm on skews up to 25 degrees or less. Where skew angles exceed 25 degrees, the
transverse bars are normal to bridge center line and the areas near the expansion joint and
bridge ends are reinforcement by partial length bars. The bottom transverse slab reinforce-
ment is discontinued at the X-Beam (see Figure 5.3.2-4).

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b. Longitudinal Reinforcement
For longitudinal reinforcing bar patterns, see Chapter 6.

Partial Section Near Center of Span


Figure 5.3.2-1

Overhang Detail
Figure 5.3.2-2

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Top Slab Flexural Reinforcing Near Intermediate Pier


Figure 5.3.2-3

Partial Plans at Abutments


Figure 5.3.2-4

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B. Bottom Slab Reinforcement


1. Near Center of Span
Figure 5.3.2-5 shows the reinforcement required near the center of the span.
a. Minimum transverse “distributed reinforcement.”
As=0.005 x flange area with 1/2 As distributed equally to each surface.
b. Longitudinal “main reinforcement” to resist positive moment.
c. Check “distribution of flexure reinforcement” to limit cracking (see Figure 5.3.2-5).
≤ 0.6fy, where z = 170 kips per inch.
1/ 3
Allowable fs = z/(dc x A)
d. Add steel for construction load (sloped outer webs).
2. Near Intermediate Piers
Figure 5.3.2-6 shows the reinforcement required near intermediate piers.
a. Minimum transverse reinforcement same as center of span.
b. Minimum longitudinal “temperature and shrinkage reinforcement.”
As=0.004 x flange area with 1/2 As distributed equally to each face.
c. Add steel for construction load (sloped outer webs).
3. Bar Patterns
a. Transverse Reinforcement
See top slab bar patterns, Figures 5.3.2-1, 5.3.2-2, and 5.3.2-3.
All bottom slab transverse bars shall be bent at the outside face of the exterior web.
For vertical web, the tail will be 1′-0″ and for sloping exterior web 2′-0″ minimum splice
with the outside web stirrups. See Figure 5.3.2-7.
b. Longitudinal Reinforcement
For longitudinal reinforcing bar patterns, see Chapter 6.
C. Web Reinforcement
1. Vertical Stirrups (see Figure 5.3.2-8)
The web reinforcement should be designed for the following requirements:
Vertical shear requirements.
Out of plane bending on outside web due to live load on cantilever overhang.
Horizontal shear requirements for composite flexural members.
A b
Minimum v = 50 w (#5 bars @ 1′-6″), where bw = no. of girder stems (T3).
s fy

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2. Web Longitudinal Reinforcement (see Figure 5.3.2-8)


If the depth of the side face of a member exceeds 3 feet, longitudinal skin reinforcement shall be
uniformly distributed along both side faces of the member for a distance d/2 nearest the flexural
tension reinforcement. The area of skin reinforcement Ask per foot of height on each side face
shall be ≥ 0.012 (d – 30). The maximum spacing of skin reinforcement shall not exceed the lesser
of d/6 and 12 inches. Such freinforcement may be included in strength computations if a strain
compatibility analysis is made to determine stresses in the individual bars or wires. The total area
of longitudinal skin reinforcement in both faces need not exceed one half of the flexural tensile
reinforcement.
Where As = Total required area of longitudinal reinforcing steel.
Reinforcing steel spacing < Web Thickness (T3) or 12″.
For cast-in-place sloped outer webs, increase inside stirrup reinforcement and bottom slab top
transverse reinforcement as required for the web moment locked-in during construction of the top
slab. This moment about the bottom corner of the web is due to tributary load from the top slab
concrete placement plus 10 psf form dead load. See Figure 5.3.2-10 for typical top slab forming.

Bottom Slab Reinforcement Near Center of Span


Figure 5.3.2-5

Bottom Slab Reinforcement Near Intermediate Pier


Figure 5.3.2-6

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Figure 5.3.2-7

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Figure 5.3.2-8

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D. Intermediate Diaphragm (see Figure 5.3.2-9)

Figure 5.3.2-9
Intermediate diaphragms are not required for bridges on tangent alignment or curved bridges with an
inside radius of 800 feet or greater.
Notes:
1. If the bar is not spliced, the horizontal dimension should be 4″ shorter than the slab width.
2. Stirrup hanger must be placed above longitudinal steel when diaphragm is skewed and slab
reinforcement is placed normal to center of roadway. (Caution: Watch for the clearance with
longitudinal steel).
3. The reinforcement should have at least one splice to facilitate proper bar placement.
Notes:

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1. The diagonal brace supports web forms during web pour. After cure, the web is stiffer than the brace,
and the web attracts load from subsequent concrete placements.
2. The tributary load includes half the overhang because the outer web form remains tied to and
transfers load to the web which is considerably stiffer than the formwork.
Increase Web Reinf. for Locked-In Construction Load

Due to Typical Top Slab Forming for Sloped Web Box Girder
Figure 5.3.2-10

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5.3.3 Crossbeam
A. Basic Geometry
For aesthetic purposes, it is preferable to keep the crossbeam within the superstructure so that the
bottom slab of the entire bridge is a continuous plane surface interrupted only by the columns.
Although the depth of the crossbeam may be limited, the width can be made as wide as necessary to
satisfy design requirements. Normally, it varies from 3 feet to the depth of box but is not less than
column sizes to utilize the column reinforcement (see Figure 5.3.3-1 and 5.3.3-2).
Crossbeams on box girder type of construction shall be designed as a T beam utilizing the flange in
compression, assuming the deck slab acts as a flange for positive moment and bottom slab a flange
for negative moment. The effective overhang of the flange on a cantilever beam shall be limited to six
times the flange thickness.
The bottom slab thickness is frequently increased near the crossbeam in order to keep the main box
girder compressive stresses to a desirable level for negative girder moments (see Figure 5.3.2-8). This
bottom slab flare also helps resist negative crossbeam moments. Consideration should be given to
flaring the bottom slab at the crossbeam for designing the cap even if it is not required for resisting
main girder moments.
B. Reinforcing Steel Details
Special attention should be given to the details to ensure that the column and crossbeam reinforce-
ment will not interfere with each other. This can be a problem especially when round columns with a
great number of vertical bars must be meshed with a considerable amount of positive crossbeam
reinforcement passing over the columns.
1. Top Reinforcement
Provide negative moment reinforcement at the 1/4 point of the square or equivalent square
columns (see Appendix 5.3-A1 and 5.3-A4).
a. When Skew Angle < 10 Degrees
If the bridge is tangent or slightly skewed and the deck reinforcement is parallel to the cross
beam, the negative cap reinforcement can be placed either in contact with top deck negative
reinforcement or directly under the main deck reinforcement (see Figure 5.3.3-1). Reinforce-
ment must be epoxy coated if the location of reinforcement is less than 4″ below top of deck.
b. When Skewed Angle > 10 Degrees
When the structure is on a greater skew and the deck steel is normal or radial to the longitu-
dinal centerline of the bridge, the negative cap reinforcement should be lowered to below the
main deck reinforcement (see Figure 5.3.3-2).
c. To avoid cracking of concrete, interim reinforcements are required below the construction
joint in diaphgragms and crossbeams.
The interim reinforcements shall develop a moment capacity of 1.2 Mcr where Mcr may be
given as:

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fr Ig
Mcr =
yt
fr = 7.5 √ fc′
Mcr = 1.25 bh2 √ f c′
Mn = 1.2Mcr = 1.5 bh2 √ fc′

As =
0.85 fc′ b
fy ( √
d – d2 –
31.3725M
fc ′ )
5.3.4 End Diaphragm
A. Basic Geometry
Bearings at the end diaphragms are usually located under the girder stems and transfer loads directly
to the pier (see Figure 5.3.3-3). In this case, the diaphragm width should be equal to or greater than
bearing sole plate grout pads (see Figure 5.3.3-4).
Designer should provide access space for maintenance and inspection of bearings.
Allowance should be provided to remove and replace the bearings. Lift point locations, jack capacity,
number of jacks, and maximum permitted lift should be shown in the plan details.

Skew Angle ≤ 10°


Crossbeam Top Reinforcement
Figure 5.3.3-1

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Skew Angle > 10°


Crossbeam Top Reinforcement
Figure 5.3.3-2

Bearing Locations, Lift Points, Jack Capacity, and Maximum Lift Permitted at End Diaphragm
Figure 5.3.3-3

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“L” Abutment End Diaphragm


Figure 5.3.4-1
The end diaphragms should be wide enough to provide adequate reinforcing embedment length.
When the structure is on a skew greater than 10 degrees and the deck steel is normal or radial to
the center of the bridge, the width should be enough to accommodate the embedment length of
the reinforcement.
The most commonly used type of end diaphragm is shown in Figure 5.3.3-5. The dimensions shown
here are used as a guideline and should be modified if necessary. This end diaphragm is used with a
stub abutment and overhangs the stub abutment. It is used on bridges with an overall or out-to-out
length less than 400 feet. If the overall length exceeds 400 feet, an “L” abutment should be used.
B. Reinforcing Steel Details
Typical reinforcement details for an end diaphragm are shown in Figure 5.3.3-6.
5.3.5 Dead Load Deflection and Camber
Camber is the adjustment made to the vertical alignment to compensate for the anticipated dead load
deflection and the long-term deflection caused by shrinkage and creep. The multipliers for estimating
long-term deflection and camber for reinforced concrete flexural members may be taken as shown in
Table 1.

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Multipliers for Estimating Long-term Deflection and Camber of Concrete Members


Table 5.3.5-1

Multiplier
Coefficient

Girder Adjacent to Existing/Stage Construction


Deflection (downward) — apply to the elastic deflection due 1.90
to the weight of member
Deflection (downward) — apply to the elastic deflection due 2.20
to superimposed dead load only
Girder Away From Existing/Stage Construction
Deflection (downward) — apply to the elastic deflection due 2.70
to the weight of member
Deflection (downward) — apply to the elastic deflection due 3.00
to superimposed dead load only

In addition to dead load deflection, forms and falsework tend to settle and compress under the weight
of freshly placed concrete. The amount of this takeup is dependent upon the type and design of the
falsework, workmanship, type and quality of materials and support conditions. The camber should be
modified to account for anticipated takeup in the falsework.
5.3.6 Thermal Effects
Concrete box girder bridges are subjected to stresses and/or movements resulting from temperature
variation. Temperature effects result from time-dependent variations in the effective bridge temperature
and from temperature differentials within the bridge superstructure.
A. Effective Bridge Temperature and Movement
Fluctuation in effective bridge temperature causes expansion and contraction of the structure. Proper
temperature expansion provisions are essential in order to ensure that the structure will not be
damaged by thermal movements. These movements, in turn, induce stresses in supporting elements
such as columns or piers, and result in horizontal movement of the expansion joints and bearings.
For more details, see Chapter 8.
B. Differential Temperature
Although time-dependent variations in the effective temperature have caused problems in both
reinforced and prestressed concrete bridges, detrimental effects caused by temperature differential
within the superstructure have occurred only in prestressed bridges. Therefore, computation of
stresses and movements resulting from the vertical temperature gradients is not included in this
chapter. For more details, see AASHTO Guide Specifications, Thermal Effects on Concrete
Bridge Superstructures (1989).

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End Diaphragm With Stub Abutment


Figure 5.3.4-2

Typical End Diaphragm Reinforcement


Figure 5.3.4-3

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5.3.7 Hinges
Hinges are one of the weakest links of box girder bridges subject to earthquake forces and it is desirable to
eliminate hinges or reduce the number of hinges. For more details on the design of hinges, see Section 5.4.
Designer should provide access space or pockets for maintenance and inspection of bearings.
Allowance should be provided to remove and replace the bearings. Lift point locations, maximum lift
permitted, jack capacity, and number of jacks should be shown in the hinge plan details.
5.3.8 Utility Openings
A. Confined Spaces
A confined space is any place having a limited means of exit which is subject to the accumulation of
toxic or flammable contaminants or an oxygen deficient environment. Confined spaces include but
are not limited to pontoons, box girder bridges, storage tanks, ventilation or exhaust ducts, utility
vaults, tunnels, pipelines, and open-topped spaces more than 4 feet in depth such as pits, tubes, vaults,
and vessels. The designer should provide for the following:
• A sign with “Confined Space Authorized Personnel Only.”
• In the “Special Provisions Check List,” alert and/or indicate that a special provision might be
needed to cover confined spaces.
B. Drain Holes
Drain holes should be placed in the bottom slab at the low point of each cell to drain curing water
during construction and any rain water that leaks through the deck slab. Additional drains shall be
provided as a safeguard against water accumulation in the cell (especially when waterlines are carried
by the bridge). In some instances, drainage through the bottom slab is difficult and other means shall
be provided (i.e., cells over large piers and where a sloping exterior web intersects a vertical web).
In this case, a horizontal drain should be provided through the vertical web. Figure 5.3.8-1 shows
drainage details for the bottom slab of concrete box girder bridges.
C. Access Hole and Air Vent Holes
Access holes with doors should be placed in the bottom slab if necessary to inspect utilities inside
cells (i.e., waterline, conduits, E.Q. restrainers, etc.). Figure 5.3.8-2 and 5.3.8-3 shows access hole
and air vent hole details. Air vents are required when access holes are used.

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Figure 5.3.8-1

P65:DP/BDM5

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Figure 5.3.8-2

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Figure 5.3.8-3

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5.4 Hinges and Inverted T-Beam Pier Caps


Hinges and inverted T-beam pier caps require special design and detailing considerations. Continuous
hinge shelves (both top and bottom projecting shelves) and continuous ledges of inverted T-beam pier
caps, which support girders, are shown in Figures 5.4-1 and 5.4-2 respectively. In each case, vertical
tensile forces (hanger tension) act at the intersection of the web and the horizontal hinge shelf or ledge.
In the ledges of inverted T-beam pier caps, passage of live loads may also cause reversing torsional
stresses which together with conventional longitudinal shear and bending produce complex stress
distributions in the ledges [10,11].
Provide minimum shelf or ledge support lengths (N, N1, and N2) and provide positive longitudinal
linkage (e.g., earthquake restrainers) [12] in accordance with the current AASHTO seismic design
requirements.
A. Local Failure Modes
In addition to conventional longitudinal bending and shearing forces, there are several local modes
of failure which should be addressed in the design [10,11]. These are: shear friction failure, flexural
failure, hanger tension failure, punching shear failure of the horizontal hinge shelf or ledge, and
spalling under the bearing.
Figure 5.4-3 shows these local failure modes and potential cracks. For all conditions, except for the
bearing strength check, use φ=0.85. For the bearing strength check, use φ=0.7 [13].

Continuous Hinge
Figure 5.4-1

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Inverted T-Beam Pier Cap


Figure 5.4-2

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The forces acting on the hinge shown in Figure 5.4-3 are: shear, Vu; horizontal tensile force, Nuc;
and moment, Mu.
Vu = Factored Shear (Dead Load + Live Load + Impact) (1)
Nuc ≥ 0.2Vu, but less than 1.0Vu (2)
Mu = Vu(af) + Nuc(h-d) (3)
where: af = Flexural moment arm is the distance from the reaction to the
centerline of the hanger reinforcement, and shall include the thermal
movement of the reaction, Vu.
h-d = Moment arm for the horizontal load, Nuc.
The horizontal tensile load, Nuc, is due to indeterminate causes such as restrained shrinkage or
temperature stresses and is considered a live load [13].
In addition, service load conditions should also be checked for deflections and crack control.

Crack 1 could lead to a flexural or shear friction failure mode.


Crack 2 necessitates hanger reinforcement.
Crack 3 could lead to a punching shear failure.
Crack 4 can be avoided by reducing the bearing stress or allowing more edge distance.

Failure Modes and Potential Cracks


Figure 5.4-3

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B. Shear Friction Design


1. Interior Bearing
Figure 5.4-4 shows the effective shelf width used to compute the allowable shear strength. The
ratio av/d shall satisfy equation (4) and the factored shear force (including shelf dead load) shall
satisfy both equations (5) and (6) [13]:
av/d ≤ 1.0 (4)
Vu ≤ φ (0.2fc′)(W+4av)(d) (5)
Vu ≤ φµ (Avf)(fy) (6)
where: av = Distance from the reaction to the vertical face
d = Depth from compression face to tensile reinforcement
φ = 0.85
0.2fc′ ≤ 800 psi
W+4av = Effective shelf width
µ = 1.4 for cast-in-place concrete (e.g., monolithic construction,
no construction joint)
Avf = Shear friction reinforcement
When W+4av > S, check:
Vu ≤ φ (0.2fc′)(S)(d) (7)
2. Bearing at End of Hinge or Ledge
When S > 2c < (W+4av), check:
Vu ≤ φ (0.2fc′)(2c)(d) (8)
When S > (W+4av) < 2c, check:
Vu ≤ φ (0.2fc′)(W+4av)(d) (9)
When (W+4av) > S > 2c, check:
Vu ≤ φ (0.2fc′)(S)(d) (10)
In addition, equation (6) shall be satisfied. Avf is distributed over 2c, W+4av, or S, whichever
is less.
where c = Distance from the end of the hinge or ledge to the center of the
exterior bearing.
S = Center-to-center of girders or hinge seat bearings.

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Shear Friction Design


Figure 5.4-4
C. Flexural Design (Figure 5.4-5)
The primary reinforcement, As, for the shelf or ledge shall be determined from equations (11),
(12), and (13), whichever is greater [13]:
As ≥ Af + An (11)
As ≥ 2(Avf)/3 + An (12)
As ≥ ρmin (W+5af)(d) (13)
where:
ρmin = 0.04(fc′/fy)
Af = Flexural reinforcement required for Mu
Avf = Shear friction reinforcement
An = Tensile reinforcement = Nuc/φ(fy)
In addition, closed stirrups or ties parallel to As with a total area Ah of not less than 0.5(As-An)
shall be uniformly distributed within two thirds of the effective depth adjacent to As [13].
If the effective width W+5af≥S place the reinforcement over distance S. At the ends of the hinge
or ledge, distribute the reinforcement over distance 2c, S, or W+5af, whichever is less.

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Flexural Design
Figure 5.4-5
D. Hanger Tension Design (Figure 5.4-6)
The hanger tension reinforcement, Ahr, shall satisfy both of the following strength and service-
ability equations:
Vu ≤ φAhr/s)(fy)(S) Strength (14)
V ≤ (Ahr/s)(0.5fy)(W+3av) Serviceability (15)
where:
Ahr = Hanger reinforcement in square inches
s = Spacing of the hanger reinforcement
V = Service load reaction
W+3av = Effective width for hanger reinforcement-Serviceability

Hinge Hanger Reinforcement


Figure 5.4-6

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In addition to equations (14) and (15), the following equation shall also be satisfied for inverted
T-beam pier caps (see Figure 5.4-7):
2Vu ≤ 2[2φ √ fc′ bfdf] + φ(ahr/s)(fy)(W+2df) (16)
where bf = Width of bottom flange of inverted T-beam
df = Distance from top of ledge to center of longitudinal cap reinforcement
near the bottom flange of the inverted T-beam
W+2df = Effective width for hanger reinforcement for inverted T-beam.
If S>(W+2df), it is not necessary to add the stirrup reinforcement for conventional shear and
torsion to the hanger reinforcement. Ensure that the stirrup reinforcement satisfies either the
conventional longitudinal shear and torsion reinforcement requirements or the hanger reinforce-
ment requirement, whichever is greater. If S<(W+2df), it will be necessary to add the required
hanger reinforcement to that required for shear and torsion [11].

Inverted T-Beam Hanger Reinforcement


Figure 5.4-7
E. Punching Shear Check
As shown in Figure 5.4-8, punching shear of the horizontal shelves of hinges and ledges of inverted
T-beam pier caps should be checked. For an interior bearing, check:
Vu ≤ φ (4 √ fc′ )(W + 2L′ + 2d)(d) (17)
For an exterior bearing at the end of a hinge or inverted T-beam cap, check:
Vu ≤ φ (4 √ fc′ )(W + L′ + d)(d) (18)
where:
4 √ fc′ = Allowable tensile strength of concrete for punching shear
W = Width of the rectangular bearing perpendicular to the longitudinal axis
of the bridge (e.g., width parallel to the centerline of bearings)
L′ = Length from face of hinge or ledge to back of bearing = L+c

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Punching Shear at Interior Bearing


Figure 5.4-8
F. Bearing Strength Check
To prevent spalling under the bearing, the bearing stress should not exceed 0.85(φ)(fc′) [13]:
Vu ≤ 0.85(φ)(fc′)(W)(L) (19)
where: φ = 0.70
L = Length of the rectangular bearing parallel to the longitudinal
axis of the bridge (e.g., parallel to the direction of traffic).

P65:DP/BDM5

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5.5 Widenings
This section provides general guidance for the design of bridge widenings. Included are additions to the
substructure and the superstructure of reinforced concrete box girder, flat slab, T-beam, and precast-
prestressed girder bridges. For additional information, see ACI Committee Report, Guide for Widening
Highway Bridges [15].
5.5.1 Review of Existing Structures
A. General
Obtain the following documents from existing records for preliminary review, design, and plan
preparation:
1. Reduced copy of “As-Built”contract plans from our microfilm records in Bridge Records, Office
of Bridges and Structures.
2. Reduced copy of original contract plans and special provisions, which can be obtained from
Engineering Records (Plans Vault), Records Control. These will not include the “As-Built” plans,
since they are made prior to receiving the “As-Built” plans from the Project Engineer. Backup
microfilm records are also maintained by Engineering Records (Plans Vault), Records Control,
but the “As-Built” plans may not be current.
3. Check with the Bridge Preservation Unit for records of any unusual movements/rotations and
other structural information.
4. Original design calculations, which are stored in State Archives and can be retrieved by Bridge
Records personnel.
5. Current field data on Supplemental Site Data Form (including current deck elevations at interface
of widening and existing deck, as well as cross slopes), are obtained from District. Current field
measurements of existing pier crossbeam locations are recommended so that new prestressed
girders are not fabricated too short or too long. This is particularly important if piers have been
constructed with different skews. This information may not be available in any existing plans,
so field trips may be necessary to determine actual details.
6. Original and current Foundation Reports from the Materials Lab or from the Plans Vault.
7. Change Order files to the original bridge contract in Records Control Unit.
B. Original Contract Plans and Special Provisions
Location and size of reinforcement, member sizes and geometry, location of construction joints,
details, allowable design soil pressure, and test hole data are given on the plans. Original contract
plans can be more legible than the microfilm copies.
The special provisions may include pertinent information that is not covered on the plans or in the
Standard Specifications.
C. Original Calculations
The original calculations should be reviewed for any “special assumptions” or office criteria used
in the original design. The actual stresses in the structural members, which will be affected by the
widening, should be reviewed. This may affect the structure type selected for the widening.

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D. Final Records
For major widening/renovation projects, the Final Records should be reviewed particularly for
information about the existing foundations and piles. Sometimes the piles indicated on the original
plans were omitted, revised, or required preboring. Final Records are available from Records Control
or Bridge Records (Final Records on some older bridges may be in storage at the Materials Lab).
5.5.2 Analysis and Design Criteria
A. General
Each widening represents a unique situation and construction operations may vary between widening
projects. The guidelines in this section are based on over 20 years of WSDOT design experience with
bridge widenings.
1. Appearance
The widening of a structure should be accomplished in such a manner that the existing structure
does not look “added on to.” When this is not possible, consideration should be given to enclo-
sure walls, cover panels, paint, or other aesthetic treatments. Where possible and appropriate, the
structure’s appearance should be improved by the widening.
2. Materials
Preferably, materials used in the construction of the widening shall have the same thermal and
elastic properties as the materials used in the construction of the original structure.
3. Load Distribution and Construction Sequence
The members of the widening should be proportioned to provide similar longitudinal and
transverse load distribution characteristics as the existing structure. Normally this can be
achieved by using the same cross sections and member lengths that were used in the existing
structure.
The construction sequence and degree of interaction between the widening and the existing
structure, after completion, shall be fully considered in determining the distribution of the dead
load for design of the widening and stress checks for the existing structure. The distribution of
live load shall be in accordance with the AASHTO specifications. Where precast-prestressed
girders are used to widen an existing cast-in-place concrete box girder or T-beam bridge, the live
load distribution factor for interior girder(s) shall be S/5.5.
The construction sequence or stage construction should be clearly shown in the plans to avoid
confusion and misinterpretation during construction. A typical construction sequence may
involve placing the deck concrete, removing the falsework, placing the concrete for the closure
strip, and placing the concrete for the traffic barrier. Indicate in the plans a suggested stage
construction plan to avoid misinterpretation.
4. Specifications
The design of the widening shall conform to the current AASHTO Specifications and the state of
Washington’s Standard Specifications for Road, Bridge, and Municipal Construction.
The method of design for the widening shall be by load factor design methods even though the
original design may have been by service load design.

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5. Geometrical Constraints
The overall appearance and geometrical dimensions of the superstructure and columns of the
widening should be the same or as close as possible to those of the existing structure. This is to
ensure that the widening will have the same appearance and similar structural stiffness as the
original structure.
6. Strength of Concrete
The allowable stresses shown in the latest AASHTO Specifications are to be used. For concrete
structures located in rural areas or where the volume of concrete is less than 30 cubic yards, use
Class 4000 (fc′ = 4000 psi) and Grade 60 reinforcement. For projects located in urban areas and
having a volume of concrete greater than 30 cubic yards, Class 5000 may be specified only if
necessary to meet structural requirements and if facilities are available. Concrete with a greater
strength may be used, if needed, with consultation and approval of the Bridge Design Engineer.
7. Overlay
It should be established at the preliminary plan stage if an overlay is required as part of the
widening.
8. Strength of the Existing Structure
A review of the strength of the main members of the existing structure shall be made for
construction conditions utilizing AASHTO Load Factors.
A check of the existing main members after attachment of the widening shall be made for the
final design loading condition.
If the existing structural elements do not have adequate strength, consult your supervisor or in the
case of consultants, contact the Consultant Liason Engineer for appropriate guidance.
If significant demolition is required on the existing bridge, consideration should be given to
requesting concrete strength testing for the existing bridge and including this information in the
contract documents.
9. Special Considerations
a. For structures that were originally designed for HS20 loading, HS25 shall be used to design
the widening. For structures that were originally designed for less than HS20, consideration
should be given to replacing the structure instead of widening it.
b. Where large cambers are expected, a longitudinal joint between the existing structure and the
widening may be considered. Longitudinal joints, if used, should be located out of traveled
lanes or beneath median barriers to eliminate potentially hazardous vehicle control problems.
c. The Standard Specifications do not permit falsework to be supported from the existing
structure unless the Plans and Specifications state otherwise. This requirement eliminates the
transmission of vibration from the existing structure to the widening during construction.
The existing structure may still be in service.
d. For narrow widenings where the Plans and Specifications require that the falsework be
supported from the original structure (e.g., there are no additional girders, columns,
crossbeams, or closure strips), there should be no external rigid supports such as posts or
falsework from the ground. Supports from the ground do not permit the widening to deflect

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with the existing structure when traffic is on the existing structure. This causes the uncured
concrete of the widening to crack where it joins the existing structure. Differential dead load
deflection during construction should be given consideration.
e. Precast members may be used to widen existing cast-in-place structures. This method is
useful when the horizontal or vertical clearances during construction are insufficient to build
cast-in-place members.
f. The alignment for diaphragms for the widening shall generally coincide with the existing
diaphragms.
g. When using battered piles, estimate the pile tip elevations and ensure that they will have
ample clearance from all existing piles, utilities, or other obstructions. Also check that there
is sufficient clearance between the existing structure and the pile driving equipment.
B. Seismic Design Criteria for Bridge Widenings
1. Adequacy of Existing Structure
Early in the project, determine whether earthquake loading poses any problems for the structural
adequacy of the existing structure (e.g., original unwidened structure). The amount of reinforce-
ment and structural detailing of older structures may not meet the current AASHTO seismic
design requirements. It is important that these deficiencies be determined as soon as possible so
that remedial/retrofitting measures can be evaluated. It should be noted that for some structures,
because of deterioration and/or inadequate details, the widening may not be structurally or
economically feasible. In this case, the Bridge Design Engineer should be consulted for possible
structure replacement instead of proceeding with widening the structure.
2. Superstructure Widening Without Adding Substructure
No seismic analysis is necessary for this condition. Check the support shelf length required at all
piers. Check the need for longitudinal earthquake restrainers and transverse earthquake stops.
3. Superstructure Widening by Adding Column(s) and Substructure
Use the AASHTO/BDM seismic design criteria with appropriate R factors to design and detail
the new columns and footings for the maximum required capacity.
Analyze the widening and the existing structure as a combined unit.
If the existing structure is supported by single column piers, and is located in SPC or C (LRFD
Seismic Zone 2, 3, or 4), the existing columns should be retrofitted if the existing column does
not have adequate ductility to meet current standards.
If the existing structure is supported by multiple column piers, determine the need to retrofit the
existing columns as part of the widening as follows:
a. For existing bridges in SPC B or C (LRFD, Zone 2, 3, or 4) that are widened with additional
columns and substructure, existing columns should be considered for retrofitting unless
calculations or column details indicate that the existing columns have adequate ductility.
Nonductile existing columns will likely not be able to carry vertical load if they experience
the inelastic deflection that a new (ductile) column can tolerate.

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b. Only the columns should be retrofitted. Retrofitting the foundations supporting existing
columns is generally too expensive to consider for a widening project. Experience in past
earthquakes in California has shown that bridges with columns (only) retrofitted have
performed quite well.
c. Approval for retrofitting existing multiple column piers is subject to available funding and
approval of the Bridge Design Engineer.
4. Other Criteria
a. If recommended in the foundation report, the superstructure widening with new substructure
shall also be checked for differential settlement between the existing structure and the new
widened structure. All elements of the structure shall be analyzed and detailed to account for
this differential settlement especially on spread footing foundations.
b. Check support width requirements; if there is a need for earthquake restrainers on the
existing structure as well as the widened portion, they shall be included in the widening
design.
c. The current AASHTO seismic design criteria may result in columns with more reinforce-
ment and larger footings for the widened portion than those on the existing structure. If it is
not possible to use larger footings because of limited space, an alternate design concept such
as drilled shafts may be necessary.
d. When modifications are made near or on the existing bridge, be careful to isolate any added
potential stiffening elements (such as traffic barrier against colmuns).
e. The relative stiffness of the new columns compared to the existing columns should be
considered in the combined analysis. The typical column retrofit is steel jacketing with
grouted annular space (between the existing column and the steel jacket).
f. When strutted columns (horizontal strut between existing columsn) are encountered, remove
the strut and analyze the existing columns for the new unbraced length and retrofit, if
necessary. Refer to WSDOT Research Report on Strutted Columns (nearing completion).
C. Substructure
1. Selection of Foundation
a. The type of foundation to be used to support the widening should generally be the same as
that of the existing structure unless otherwise recommended by the Geotechnical Engineer.
The effects of possible differential settlement between the new and the existing foundations
shall be considered.
b. Consider present bridge site conditions when determining new foundation locations. The
conditions include: overhead clearance for pile driving equipment, horizontal clearance
requirements, working room, pile batters, channel changes, utility locations, existing
embankments, and other similar conditions.
2. Scour and Drift
Added piles and columns for widenings at water crossings may alter stream flow characteristics
at the bridge site. This may result in pier scouring to a greater depth than experienced with the
existing configuration. Added substructure elements may also increase the possibility of trapping
drift. The Hydraulics Engineer should be consulted concerning potential problems related to
scour and drift on all widenings at water crossings.

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D. Superstructure
1. Camber
Accurate prediction of dead load deflection is more important for widenings than for new
bridges, since it is essential that the deck grades match [15].
The multipliers for estimating long-term delfection and camber for bridge widening may be taken
as 2.7 times the elastic deflection due to the weight of the member and 3.0 times the elastic
deflection due to the superimposed loads.
To obtain a smooth transition in transverse direction of the bridge deck, the camber of the girder
adjacent to the existing structure shall be adjusted for the difference in camber between new and
existing structure. A linear interpolation may be used to adjust the camber of the girders located
away from the existing structure.
When large cambers are expected, see Section 5.5.2.A9b.
2. Closure Strip
Except for narrow deck slab widenings (see Section 5.5.2.A9c) a closure strip is required for all
cast-in-place widenings. The width shall be the minimum required to accommodate the necessary
reinforcement and for form removal. Reinforcement, which extends through the closure strip
shall be investigated in accordance with Section 5.5.4A7. Shear shall be transferred across the
closure strip by shear friction and/or shear keys.
All falsework supporting the widening shall be released and formwork supporting the closure
strip shall be supported from the existing and newly widened structures prior to placing concrete
in the closure strip. Because of deck slab cracking experienced in widened concrete decks,
closure strips are required unless the mid-span dead load deflection is 1/2 inch or less.
3. Stress Levels and Deflections in Existing Structures
Caution is necessary in determining the cumulative stress levels, deflections, and the need for
shoring in existing structural members during rehabilitation projects.
For example, a T-beam bridge was originally constructed on falsework and the falsework was
released after the slab concrete gained strength. As part of a major rehabilitation project, the
bridge was closed to traffic and the entire slab was removed and replaced without shoring.
Without the slab, the stems behave as rectangular sections with a reduced depth and width. The
existing stem reinforcement was not originally designed to support the weight of the slab without
shoring. After the new slab was placed, wide cracks, eminating from the bottom of the stem
opened, indicating that the reinforcement was overstressed. This overstress resulted in a lower
load rating for the newly rehabilitated bridge. This example shows the need to shore up the
remaining T-beam stems prior to placing the new slab so that excessive deflections do not occur
and overstress in the existing reinforcing steel is prevented.
It is necessary to understand how the original structure was constructed, how the rehabilitated
structure is to be constructed, and the cumulative stress levels and deflections in the structure
from the time of original construction through rehabilitation.

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E. Stability of Widening
For relatively narrow box girder and T-beam widenings, symmetry about the vertical axis should be
maintained because lateral loads are critical during construction. When symmetry is not possible, use
pile cap connections, lateral connections, or special falsework. A minimum of two webs is generally
recommended for box girder widenings. For T-beam widenings that require only one additional web,
the web should be centered at the axis of symmetry of the slab. Often the width of the closure strip
can be adjusted to accomplish this.
5.5.3 Removing Portions of the Existing Structure
Portions of the existing structure to be removed shall be clearly indicated on the plans. Where a clean
break line is required, a 3/4″ deep saw cut shall be specified for a slab with normal wear and a 1/2″ deep saw
cut for worn roadway slabs. In no case, however, shall the saw blade cut or nick the main transverse top
slab reinforcement. The special provisions shall state that care will be taken not to damage any reinforce-
ment which is to be saved. Hydromilling is preferred where reinforcing bar cover is shallow and can
effectively remove delaminated decks because of the good depth control it offers. When greater depths of
slab are to be removed, special consideration should be given to securing exposed reinforcing bars to
prevent undue vibration and subsequent fatigue cracks from occurring in the reinforcing bars.
The current General Special Provisions should be reviewed for other specific requirements on slab
removal.
Removal of any portion of the main structural members should be held to a minimum. Careful consider-
ation shall be given to the construction conditions, particularly when the removal affects the existing
frame system. In extreme situations, preloading by jacking is acceptable to control stresses and deflections
during the various stages of removal and construction. Removal of the main longitudinal slab reinforce-
ment should be kept to a minimum. See “Slab Removal Detail,” Figure 5.5-1, for the limiting case for the
maximum allowable removal.
The plans should include a note that critical dimensions and elevations are to be verified in the field prior
to the fabrication of precast units or expansion joint assemblies.
In cases where an existing sidewalk is to be removed but the supporting slab under the sidewalk is to be
retained, district personnel should check the feasibility of removing the sidewalk. Prior to design, district
personnel should make recommendations on acceptable removal methods and required construction
equipment. The plans and specifications should then be prepared to accommodate these recommendations.
This will ensure the constructibility of plan details and the adequacy of the specifications.
5.5.4 Attachment of Widening to Existing Structure
A. General
1. Lap and Mechanical Splices
To attach a widening to an existing structure, the first choice is to utilize existing reinforcing
bars by splicing new bars to existing. Lap splices or mechanical splices should be used. However,
it may not always be possible to splice to existing reinforcing bars and spacing limitations may
make it difficult to use mechanical splices.

July 2000 5.5-7


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Widenings

2. Welding Reinforcement
Existing reinforcing steel may not be readily weldable. Mechanical splices should be used
wherever possible. If welding is the only feasible means, the chemistry of the reinforcing steel
must be analyzed and acceptable welding procedures developed.
3. Drilling Into Existing Structure
It may be necessary to drill holes and set dowels in epoxy resin in order to attach the widening to
the existing structure.
When drilling into heavily reinforced areas, chipping should be specified to expose the main
reinforcing bars. If it is necessary to drill through reinforcing bars or if the holes are within
4 inches of an existing concrete edge, core drilling should be specified. Core drilled holes shall
be roughened before resin is applied. If this is not done, a dried residue, which acts as a bond
breaker and reduces the load capacity of the dowel, will remain. Generally, the drilled holes are
1
/8 inch in diameter larger than the dowel diameter for #5 and smaller dowels and 1/4 inch in
diameter larger than the dowel diameter for #6 and larger dowels.
In special applications requiring drilled holes greater than 11/2″ inch diameter or deeper than
2 feet, core drilling shall be specified. These holes should also be intentionally roughened prior
to applying epoxy resin.
Core drilled holes should have a minimum clearance of 3 inches from the edge of the concrete
and 1-inch clearance from existing reinforcing bars in the existing structure. These clearances
should be noted in the plans.
4. Dowelling Reinforcing Bars Into the Existing Structure
a. Dowel bars shall be set with an approved epoxy resin. The existing structural element shall
be checked for its adequacy to transmit the load transferred to it from the dowel bars.
b. Dowel spacing and edge distance affect the allowable tensile dowel loads [14]. Allowable
tensile loads, dowel bar embedments, and drilled hole sizes for reinforcing bars (Grade 60)
used as dowels and set with an approved epoxy resin are shown in Table 5.5-1. These values
are based on an edge clearance greater than 3 inch, a dowel spacing greater than 6 inch, and
are shown for both uncoated and epoxy coated dowels. Table 5.5-2 lists dowel embedment
lengths when the dowel spacing is less than 6 inch. Note that in Table 5.5-2 the edge
clearance is equal to or greater than 3 inch, because this is the minimum edge clearance
for a drilled hole from a concrete edge.
If it is not possible to obtain these embedments, such as for traffic railing dowels into
existing deck slabs, the allowable load on the dowel shall be reduced by the ratio of the
actual embedment divided by the required embedment.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Widenings

c. The embedments shown in Table 5.5-1 and -2 are based on dowels embedded in concrete
with fc′=4,000 psi.

Allowable Tensile Load for Dowels Set With Epoxy Resin fc′=4,000 psi,
Gr 60 Reinforcing Bars, Edge Clearance ≥ 3 in., and Spacing ≥ 6 in.[14]
Table 5.5-1
Allowable Design Drill Hole Required Embedment, Le**
Bar Tensile Load, T* Size Uncoated Epoxy Coated
Size (kips) (in) (in) (in)
5
4 12.0 /8 7 8
3
5 18.6 /4 8 9
6 26.4 1 9 10
7 36.0 11/8 11 12
8 47.4 11/4 13 141/2
9 60.0 13/8 16 171/2
*Allowable Tensile Load (Strength Design) = (fy)(As).
**Based on removed cover. In cases where concrete cover is not removed, the designer
should add the cover thickness to the required embedment.

Allowable Tensile Load for Dowels Set With Epoxy Resin fc′=4,000 psi,
Gr 60 Reinforcing Bars, Edge Clearance ≥ 3 in., and Spacing < 6 in.[14]
Table 5.5-2
Allowable Design Drill Hole Required Embedment, Le**
Bar Tensile Load, T* Size Uncoated Epoxy Coated
Size (kips) (in) (in) (in)
5
4 12.0 /8 91/2 101/2
3
5 18.6 /4 101/2 111/2
6 26.4 1 111/2 121/2
7 36.0 11/8 131/2 15
8 47.4 11/4 161/2 18
9 60.0 13/8 20 22
*Allowable Tensile Load (Strength Design) = (fy)(As).
**Based on removed cover. In cases where concrete cover is not removed, the designer
should add the cover thickness to the required embedment.
5. Shear Transfer Across a Dowelled Joint
Shear should be carried across the joint by shear friction on an intentionally roughened surface
instead of depending on the dowels to transmit the shear force. Chipping shear keys in the
existing concrete can also be used to transfer shear across a dowelled joint, but is expensive.

July 2000 5.5-9


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Widenings

6. Preparation of Existing Surfaces for Concreting


See “Removing Portions of Existing Structure” in the General Special Provisions for
requirements. Unsound, damaged, dirty, porous, or otherwise undesirable old concrete should be
removed, and the remaining concrete surface should be clean, free of laitance, and intentionally
roughened to ensure proper bond between the old and new concrete surfaces.
7. Control of Shrinkage and Deflection on Connecting Reinforcement
Dowels that are fixed in the existing structure may be subject to shear as a result of longitudinal
shrinkage and vertical deflection when the falsework is removed. These shear forces may result
in a reduced tensile capacity of the connection. When connecting the transverse reinforcing bars
across the closure strip is unavoidable, the interaction between shear and tension in the dowel
or reinforcing bar should be checked. The use of wire rope or sleeved reinforcement may be
acceptable, subject to approval by your supervisor.
Where possible, transverse reinforcing bars should be spliced to the existing reinforcing bars in a
blocked-out area which can be included in the closure strip. Nominal, shear friction, temperature
and shrinkage, and distribution reinforcing bars should be bent into the closure strip.
Rock bolts may be used to transfer connection loads deep into the existing structure, subject to
the approval of your supervisor.
8. Post-Tensioning
Post-tensioning of existing crossbeams may be utilized to increase the moment capacity and
to eliminate the need for additional substructure. Generally, an existing crossbeam can be
core drilled for post-tensioning if it is less than 30 feet long. The amount of drift in the holes
alignment may be approximately 1 inch in 20 feet. For crossbeams longer than 30 feet, external
post-tensioning should be considered.
For an example of this application, refer to Contract 3846, Bellevue Transit Access — Stage 1.

5.5-10 July 2000


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Widenings

B. Connection Details
The details on the following sheets are samples of details which have been used for widening
bridges. They are informational and are not intended to restrict the designer’s judgment.

Slab Removal Detail


Figure 5.5.-1

July 2000 5.5-11


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Widenings

1. Box Girder Bridges


Figures 5.5-2, -3, -4, and -5 show typical details for widening box girder bridges.

Box Girder Section in Span


Figure 5.5-2

5.5-12 July 2000


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

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Box Girder Section Through X-Beam


See Box Girder Section in Span for additional details.
Figure 5.5-3
Welding or mechanical butt splice are preferred over dowelling for the main reinforcement in crossbeams
and columns when it can be done in the horizontal or flat position. It shall be allowed only when the bars
to be welded are free from restraint at one end during the welding process.
**If bars are to be dowelled, provide a sufficient embedment depth for moment connection bars into
existing structure that will provide the required moment capacity in the existing structure. See Table 5.5-1
or 5.5-2.

July 2000 5.5-13


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Widenings

Box Girder Section in Span at Diaphragm Alternate I


Figure 5.5-4

5.5-14 July 2000


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Widenings

Box Girder Section in Span at Diaphragm Alternate II


Figure 5.5-5

July 2000 5.5-15


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Widenings

2. Flat Slab Bridges


It is not necessary to remove any portion of the existing slab to expose the existing transverse
reinforcing bars for splicing purposes, because the transverse slab reinforcement is only distribu-
tion reinforcement. The transverse slab reinforcement for the widening may be dowelled directly
into the existing structure without meeting the normal splice requirements.
For the moment connection details, see Figure 5.5-6 for “Flat Slab — Section through X-Beam.”

Note: Falsework shall be maintained under pier crossbeams until closure pour is made and cured 10 days.

Flat Slab — Section through X-Beam


Figure 5.5-6

5.5-16 July 2000


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Widenings

3. T-Beam Bridges
Use details similar to those for box girder bridges for crossbeam connections. See Figure 5.5-7
for slab connection detail.

T-Beam — Section in Span


Figure 5.5-7

July 2000 5.5-17


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Widenings

4. Prestress Concrete Girder Bridges


Use details similar to those for box girder bridges for crossbeam moment connections and use
details similar to those in Figure 5.5-8 for connecting to the slab.

Prestressed Girder — Section in Span


Figure 5.5-8

5.5-18 July 2000


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Widenings

5.5.5 Expansion Joints


The designer should determine if existing expansion joints can be eliminated. It will be necessary to
determine what modifications to the structure are required to provide an adequate functional system when
existing joints are eliminated.
For expansion joint design, see Section 8.4.1 “Expansion Joints.” Very often on widening projects it is
necessary to chip out the existing concrete deck and rebuild the joint. Figures 5.5-9 and 5.5-10 show
details for rebuilding joint openings for compression seal expansion joints.
If a widening project includes an overlay, the expansion joint may have to be raised, modified or replaced.
See the Joint Specialist for plan details that are currently being used to modify or retrofit existing
expansion joints.

Expansion Joint
Detail Shown for Compression Seal — Existing Reinforcing Steel Saved
Figure 5.5-9

July 2000 5.5-19


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Widenings

Expansion Joint
Detail shown for compression seal with new reinforcing steed added.
Figure 5.5-10
5.5.6 Possible Future Widening for Current Designs
For current projects that include sidewalks (and where it is anticipated that the structure may be modified
or widened in the future), provide a smooth rather than a rough construction joint between the sidewalk
and the slab. This will normally pertain to flat slab bridges or where the sidewalk width exceeds the slab
cantilever overhang.
5.5.7 Bridge Widening Falsework
For widenings which do not have additional girders, columns, crossbeams, or closure pours, flasework
should be supported by the existing bridge. There should be an external support from the ground. The
reason is that the ground support will not allow the widening to deflect the existing bridge when traffic is
on the bridge. This will cause the “green” concrete to crack where it joins the existing bridge. Designer
should contact the bridge construction support unit regarding fasework associated with widenings.

5.5-20 July 2000


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Widenings

5.5.8 Existing Bridge Widenings


The following listed bridge widenings are included as aid to the designer. These should not be construed
as the only acceptable methods of widening; there is no substitute for the designer’s creativity or ingenuity
in solving the challenges posed by bridge widenings.
Contract Type of
Bridge SR No. Bridge Unusual Features
NE 8th Street U’Xing 405 9267 Ps. Gir. Pier replacements
Higgins Slough 536 9353 Flat Slab
ER17 and AR17 O-Xing 5 9478 Box Girder Middle and outside widening.
SR 538 O-Xing 5 9548 T-Beam Unbalanced widening section support at
diaphragms until completion of closure pour.
B-N O’Xing 5 9566 Box Girder Widened with P.S. Girders, X-beams, and
diaphragms not in line with existing jacking
required to manipulate stresses, added
enclusure walls.
Blakeslee Jct. E/W 5 9638 T-Beam and
Box Girder Post-tensioned X-beam, single web.
B-N O’Xing 18 9688 Box Girder
SR 536 9696 T-Beam Similar to Contract 9548.
LE Line over Yakima River 90 9806 Box Girder Pier shaft.
SR 18 O-Xing 90 9823 P.S. Girder Lightweight concrete.
Hamilton Road O-Xing 5 9894 T-Beam Precast girder in one span.
Dillenbauch Creek 5 Flat Slab
Longview Wye SR 432 U-Xing 5 P.S. Girder Bridge lengthening.
Klickitat River Bridge 142 P.S. Girder Bridge replacement.
Skagit River Bridge 5 Steel Truss Rail modification.
B-N O-Xing at Chehalis 5 Replacement of thru steel girder span
with stringer span.
Bellevue Access EBCD Widening Flat Slab and Deep, soft soil. Stradle best replacing
and Pier 16 Modification 90 3846 Box Girder single column.
Totem Lake/NE 124th I/C 405 3716 T-Beam Skew = 55 degrees.
Pacific Avenue I/C 5 3087 Box Girder Complex parallel skewed structures.
SR 705/SR 5 SB Added Lane 5 3345 Box Girder Multiple widen structures.
Mercer Slough Bridge 90/43S 3846 CIP Conc. Tapered widening of flat slab outrigger
Flat Slab pier, combined footings.
Spring Street O-Xing CIP Conc. Tapered widening of box girder with
No. 5/545SCD 3845 Box Girder hingers, shafts.
Fishtrap Creek Bridge 546/8 3661 P.C. Units Widening of existing P.C. Units.
Tight constraints on substructure.
Columbia Drive O-Xing 395/16 3379 Steel Girder Widening/Deck replacement using standard
rolled sections.

July 2000 5.5-21


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Widenings

Contract Type of
Bridge SR No. Bridge Unusual Features
S 74th-72nd St. O-Xing No. 5/426 3207 CIP Haunched Haunched P.C. P.T. Bath Tub girder
Con. Box Girder sections.
Pacific Avenue O-Xing No. 5/332 3087 CIP Conc. Longitudinal joint between new and
Box Girder existing.
Tye River Bridges 2/126 and 2/127 3565 CIP Conc. Stage construction with crown shift.
Tee Beam
SR 20 and BNRR O-Xing No. 5/714 9220 CIP Conc. Widened with prestressed girders
Tee Beam raised crossbeam.
NE 8th St. U’Xing No. 405/43 9267 Prestressed Pier replacement — widening.
Girders
So. 212th St. U’Xing SR 167 3967 Prestressed Widening constructed as stand alone
Girders structure. Widening column designed
as strong column for retrofit.
SE 232nd St. SR 18 5801 CIP Conc. Skew = 50 degree. Longitudinal “link
Post-tensioned pin” deck joint between new and
Box existing to accommodate new creep.
Obdashian Bridge 2/275 N/A CIP Post-tensioned Sidewalk widening with pipe struts.
1999 Box

P65:DP/BDM5

5.5-22 July 2000


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Bibliography

5.99 Bibliography
1. McCormac, J. C., Design of Reinforced Concrete, Harper & Row, New York, 1st Ed., 1978, 507 pp.
2. Wang, C.-K. and Salmon, C. G., Reinforced Concrete Design, Harper & Row, New York, 3rd Ed.,
1979, 918 pp.
3. Park, R. and Pauley, T., Reinforced Concrete Design, John Wiley & Sons, New york, 1st ed., 1975,
769 pp.
4. ACI 318-89, Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete and Commentary, American
Concrete Institute, 1989, pp.353.
5. Ghosh, S. K. and Rabbat, B. G., Editors, Notes on ACI 318-89, Building Code Requirements for
Reinforced Concrete with Design Applications, Portland Cement Association, 5th ed., 1990.
6. ACI-ASCE Committee 343, Analysis and Design of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Structures,
American Concrete Institute, 1988, 162 pp.
7. Hsu, T. T. C., Torsion of Reinforced Concrete, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, 1st Ed.,
1984, 516 pp.
8. Collins, M. P. and Mitchell, D., Shear and Torsion Design of Prestressed and Non-Prestressed
Concrete Beams, PCI Journal, September-October, 1980, pp. 32-100.
9. ACI Committee 317, Reinforced Concrete Design Handbook — Working Stress Method, Publication
SP-3, American Concrete Institute, 3rd Ed., 1965, 271 pp.
10. Mirza, S.A., and Furlong, R.W., Design of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Inverted T Beams
for Bridge Structures, PCI Journal, Vol. 30, No. 4, July-August 1985, pp. 112-136.
11. Rabbat, B.G., Reader Comments Design of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete inverted T Beams
for Bridge Structures, PCI Journal, Vol. 31, No. 3, May-June 1986, pp. 157-163.
12. Supplement A, Standard Specifications for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges, AASHTO,
Washington, D.C., 1991, pp. 14-16.
13. Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, 16th Edition, AASHTO, Washington, D.C., 1996.
14. Babaei, K. and Hawkins, N. M., Bending/Straightening and Grouting Concrete Reinforcing Steel:
Review of WSDOT’s Specifications and Proposed Modifications, Final Report WA-RD 168.1,
Washington State Transportation Center (TRAC), December 1988, 75 pp.
15. ACI Committee 345, Guide for Widening Highway Bridges, ACI Structural Journal, July/August,
1992, pp. 451-466.
16. AASHTO LRFD Specifications, 2nd Edition, AASHTO, Washington, D.C., 1998.

P65:DP/BDM5

July 2000 5.99-1


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Reinforcing Bar Properties

Nominal Outside Maximum Normal


Weight Diameter* Diameter Bar Length Bar Length
Size (lbs/ft) (in) (in) Area (in2) (ft) (ft)

#3 0.376 3
/ 8″ 0.42 0.11 40′ 30′

#4 0.668 1
/ 2″ 0.56 0.20 40′ 40′

#5 1.043 5
/ 8″ 0.70 0.31 60′ 40′

#6 1.502 3
/ 4″ 0.83 0.44 60′ 60′

#7 2.044 7
/ 8″ 0.96 0.60 60′ 60′

#8 2.670 1″ 1.10 0.79 72′** 60′

#9 3.400 1.13 (11/8″) 1.24 1.00 72′** 60′

#10 4.303 1.27 (11/4″) 1.40 1.27 72′** 60′

#11 5.313 1.41 (13/8″) 1.55 1.56 90′** 60′

#14 7.650 1.69 (13/4″) 1.86 2.25 90′** 60′

#18 13.600 2.26 (11/4″) 2.48 4.00 90′** 60′

*Normally 1/8 per bar size number.


**Requires large special order. Since these lengths may pose problems in transporting and handling, get your
supervisor’s approval before using them. See Chapter 5, Section 5.1.2F.
Note: For sizes > #9, area and weight are based on the decimal diameter.

Table 5.1-A1

July 2000 5.1-A1


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Bar Area vs. Bar Spacing

(Reinforcing Bars AASHTO M31)


Bar Size

#3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #14 #18

Spacing 3″ 0.44 0.80

3 1 /4 0.41 0.74 1.14

3 1 /2 0.38 0.69 1.06 1.51 2.06

3 3 /4 0.35 0.64 0.99 1.41 1.92 2.53 3.20

4 0.33 0.60 0.93 1.32 1.80 2.37 3.00 3.81 4.68

4 1 /4 0.31 0.56 0.88 1.24 1.69 2.23 2.82 3.59 4.40

4 1 /2 0.29 0.53 0.83 1.17 1.60 2.11 2.67 3.39 4.16 6.00

4 3 /4 0.28 0.51 0.78 1.11 1.52 2.00 2.53 3.21 3.94 5.68

5 0.26 0.48 0.74 1.06 1.44 1.90 2.40 3.05 3.74 5.40

5 1 /4 0.25 0.46 0.71 1.01 1.37 1.81 2.29 2.90 3.57 5.14

5 1 /2 0.24 0.44 0.68 0.96 1.31 1.72 2.18 2.77 3.40 4.91

5 3 /4 0.23 0.42 0.65 0.92 1.25 1.65 2.09 2.65 3.26 4.70 8.35

6 0.22 0.40 0.62 0.88 1.20 1.58 2.00 2.54 3.12 4.50 8.00

6 1 /2 0.20 0.37 0.57 0.81 1.11 1.46 1.85 2.35 2.88 4.15 7.38

7 0.19 0.34 0.53 0.75 1.03 1.35 1.71 2.18 2.67 3.86 6.86

7 1 /2 0.18 0.32 0.50 0.70 0.96 1.26 1.60 2.03 2.50 3.60 6.40

8 0.17 0.30 0.47 0.66 0.90 1.19 1.50 1.91 2.34 3.38 6.00

8 1 /2 0.16 0.28 0.44 0.62 0.85 1.12 1.41 1.79 2.20 3.18 5.65

9 0.15 0.27 0.41 0.59 0.80 1.05 1.33 1.69 2.08 3.00 5.33

9 1 /2 0.14 0.25 0.39 0.56 0.76 1.00 1.26 1.60 1.97 2.84 5.05

10 0.13 0.24 0.37 0.53 0.72 0.95 1.20 1.52 1.87 2.70 4.80

101/2 0.13 0.23 0.35 0.50 0.69 0.90 1.14 1.45 1.78 2.57 4.57

11 0.12 0.22 0.34 0.48 0.65 0.86 1.09 1.39 1.70 2.45 4.36

111/2 0.11 0.21 0.32 0.46 0.63 0.82 1.04 1.33 1.63 2.35 4.17

As Per Foot of Bar


Table 5.1-A2

5.1-A2 July 2000


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Bar Area vs. Number of Bars

Size
No. #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #14 #18

1 0.11 0.20 0.31 0.44 0.60 0.79 1.00 1.27 1.56 2.25 4.00

2 0.22 0.40 0.62 0.88 1.20 1.58 2.00 2.54 3.12 4.50 8.00

3 0.33 0.60 0.93 1.32 1.80 2.37 3.00 3.81 4.68 6.75 12.00

4 0.44 0.80 1.24 1.76 2.40 3.16 4.00 5.08 6.24 9.00 16.00

5 0.55 1.00 1.55 2.20 3.00 3.95 5.00 6.35 7.80 11.25 20.00

6 0.66 1.20 1.86 2.64 3.60 4.74 6.00 7.62 9.36 13.50 24.00

7 0.77 1.40 2.17 3.08 4.20 5.53 7.00 8.89 10.92 15.75 28.00

8 0.88 1.60 2.48 3.52 4.80 6.32 8.00 10.16 12.48 18.00 32.00

9 0.99 1.80 2.79 3.96 5.40 7.11 9.00 11.43 14.04 20.25 36.00

10 1.10 2.00 3.10 4.40 6.00 7.90 10.00 12.70 15.60 22.50 40.00

11 1.21 2.20 3.41 4.84 6.60 8.69 11.00 13.97 17.16 24.75 44.00

12 1.32 2.40 3.72 5.28 7.20 9.48 12.00 15.24 18.72 27.00 48.00

13 1.43 2.60 4.03 5.72 7.80 10.27 13.00 16.51 20.28 29.25 52.00

14 1.54 2.80 4.34 6.16 8.40 11.06 14.00 17.78 21.84 31.50 56.00

15 1.65 3.00 4.65 6.60 9.00 11.85 15.00 19.05 23.40 33.75 60.00

16 1.76 3.20 4.96 7.04 9.60 12.64 16.00 20.32 24.96 36.00 64.00

17 1.87 3.40 5.27 7.48 10.20 13.43 17.00 21.59 26.52 38.25 68.00

18 1.98 3.60 5.58 7.92 10.80 14.22 18.00 22.86 28.08 40.50 72.00

19 2.09 3.80 5.89 8.36 11.40 15.01 19.00 24.13 29.64 42.75 76.00

20 2.20 4.00 6.20 8.80 12.00 15.80 20.00 25.40 31.20 45.00 80.00

21 2.31 4.20 6.51 9.24 12.60 16.59 21.00 26.67 32.76 47.25 84.00

22 2.42 4.40 6.82 9.68 13.20 17.38 22.00 27.94 34.32 49.50 88.00

23 2.53 4.60 7.13 10.12 13.80 18.17 23.00 29.21 35.88 51.75 92.00

24 2.64 4.80 7.44 10.56 14.40 18.96 24.00 30.48 37.44 54.00 96.00

25 2.75 5.00 7.75 11.00 15.00 19.75 25.00 31.75 39.00 56.25 100.00

26 2.86 5.20 8.06 11.44 15.60 20.54 26.00 33.02 40.56 58.50 104.00

27 2.97 5.40 8.37 11.88 16.20 21.33 27.00 34.29 42.12 60.75 108.00

28 3.08 5.60 8.68 12.32 16.80 22.12 28.00 35.56 43.68 63.00 112.00

29 3.19 5.80 8.99 12.76 17.40 22.91 29.00 36.83 45.24 65.25 116.00

30 3.30 6.00 9.30 13.20 18.00 23.70 30.00 38.10 46.80 67.50 120.00

Areas for Various Bar Sizes and Number of Bars


Table 5.1-A3

July 2000 5.1-A3


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures

Tension Development Length of Uncoated Deformed Bars


fc′ = 3,000 psi fc′ = 4,000 psi fc′ = 5,000 psi fc′ = 6,000 psi
Top Bars Others Top Bars Others Top Bars Others Top Bars Others
Bar Size ft-in ft-in ft-in ft-in ft-in ft-in ft-in ft-in
3 1′-5″ 1′-0″ 1′-5″ 1′-0″ 1′-5″ 1′-0″ 1′-5″ 1′-0″
4 1′-5″ 1′-0″ 1′-5″ 1′-0″ 1′-5″ 1′-0″ 1′-5″ 1′-0″
5 1′-9″ 1′-3″ 1′-9″ 1′-3″ 1′-9″ 1′-3″ 1′-9″ 1′-3″
6 2′-3″ 1′-8″ 2′-2″ 1′-6″ 2′-2″ 1′-6″ 2′-2″ 1′-6″
7 3′-1″ 2′-3″ 2′-8″ 1′-11″ 2′-6″ 1′-9″ 2′-6″ 1′-9″
8 4′-1″ 2′-11″ 3′-6″ 2′-6″ 3′-2″ 2′-3″ 2′-11″ 2′-1″
9 5′-2″ 3′-8″ 4′-6″ 3′-2″ 4′-0″ 2′-10″ 3′-8″ 2′-7″
10 6′-6″ 4′-8″ 5′-8″ 4′-1″ 5′-1″ 3′-8″ 4′-8″ 3′-4″
11 8′-0″ 5′-9″ 6′-11″ 5′-0″ 6′-3″ 4′-5″ 5′-8″ 4′-1″
14 10′-11″ 7′-10″ 9′-5″ 9′-9″ 8′-5″ 6′-1″ 7′-9″ 5′-6″
18 14′-1″ 10′-1″ 12′-3″ 8′-9″ 10′-11″ 7′-10″ 10′-0″ 7′-2″

Tension Development Length of Epoxy Coated Deformed Bars


fc′ = 3,000 psi fc′ = 4,000 psi fc′ = 5,000 psi fc′ = 6,000 psi
Top Bars Others Top Bars Others Top Bars Others Top Bars Others
Bar Size ft-in ft-in ft-in ft-in ft-in ft-in ft-in ft-in
3 1′-9″ 1′-6″ 1′-9″ 1′-6″ 1′-9″ 1′-6″ 1′-9″ 1′-6″
4 1′-9″ 1′-6″ 1′-9″ 1′-6″ 1′-9″ 1′-6″ 1′-9″ 1′-6″
5 2′-2″ 1′-11″ 2′-2″ 1′-11″ 2′-2″ 1′-11″ 2′-2″ 1′-11″
6 2′-9″ 2′-5″ 2′-7″ 2′-3″ 2′-7″ 2′-3″ 2′-7″ 2′-3″
7 3′-9″ 3′-4″ 3′-3″ 2′-11″ 3′-0″ 2′-8″ 3′-0″ 2′-8″
8 4′-11″ 4′-4″ 4′-3″ 3′-9″ 3′-10″ 3′-5″ 3′-6″ 3′-1″
9 6′-3″ 5′-6″ 5′-5″ 4′-9″ 4′-10″ 4′-3″ 4′-5″ 3′-11″
10 7′-11″ 7′-0″ 6′-10″ 6′-1″ 6′-2″ 5′-5″ 5′-7″ 4′-11″
11 9′-9″ 8′-7″ 8′-5″ 7′-5″ 7′-6″ 6′-8″ 6′-11″ 6′-1″
14 13′-3″ 11′-8″ 11′-6″ 10′-1″ 10′-3″ 9′-1″ 9′-4″ 8′-3″
18 17′-1″ 15′-1″ 14′-10″ 13′-1″ 13′-3″ 11′-8″ 12′-1″ 10′-8″
Top Bars are so placed that more than 12″ of concrete is cast below the reinforcement. Modification Factor for Spacing >=6″ and side cover >=3″
= 0.8. Minimum Development Length = 12″. Modification Factor for Reinforcement Enclosed in Spiral = 0.75
Table 5.1-A4
Tension Development Length of Standard 90° and 180° Hooks
fc′ = 3,000 psi fc′ = 4,000 psi fc′ = 5,000 psi fc′ = 6,000 psi
Side Cover Side Cover Side Cover Side Cover Side Cover Side Cover Side Cover Side Cover
< 21/2″ Cover >= 21/2″ Cover < 21/2″ Cover >= 21/2″ Cover < 21/2″ Cover >= 21/2″ Cover < 21/2″ Cover >= 21/2″ Cover
Bar Size on Tail < 2″ on Tail >= 2″ on Tail < 2″ on Tail >= 2″ on Tail < 2″ on Tail >= 2″ on Tail < 2″ on Tail >= 2″
3 0′-9″ 0′-6″ 0′-8″ 0′-6″ 0′-7″ 0′-6″ 0′-6″ 0′-6″
4 0′-11″ 0′-8″ 0′-10″ 0′-7″ 0′-9″ 0′-7″ 0′-8″ 0′-7″
5 1′-2″ 0′-10″ 1′-0″ 0′-9″ 0′-11″ 0′-8″ 0′-10″ 0′-7″
6 1′-5″ 1′-0″ 1′-3″ 0′-10″ 1′-1″ 0′-9″ 1′-0″ 0′-8″
7 1′-8″ 1′-2″ 1′-5″ 1′-0″ 1′-3″ 0′-11″ 1′-2″ 0′-10″
8 1′-10″ 1′-4″ 1′-7″ 1′-2″ 1′-5″ 1′-0″ 1′-4″ 0′-11″
9 2′-1″ 1′-6″ 1′-10″ 1′-3″ 1′-8″ 1′-2″ 1′-6″ 1′-1″
10 2′-4″ 1′-8″ 2′-1″ 1′-5″ 1′-10″ 1′-3″ 1′-8″ 1′-2″
11 2′-7″ 1′-10″ 2′-3″ 1′-7″ 2′-0″ 1′-5″ 1′-10″ 1′-4″
14 3′-1″ 3′-1″ 2′-9″ 2′-9″ 2′-5″ 2′-5″ 2′-3″ 2′-3″
18 4′-2″ 4′-2″ 3′-7″ 3′-7″ 3′-3″ 3′-3″ 2′-11″ 2′-11″
Table 5.1-A5

5.1-A4 July 2000


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures

Tension Lap Splice Lengths of Grade 60 Uncoated Bars – Class B


fc′ = 3,000 psi fc′ = 4,000 psi fc′ = 5,000 psi fc′ = 6,000 psi
Top Bars Others Top Bars Others Top Bars Others Top Bars Others
Bar Size ft-in ft-in ft-in ft-in ft-in ft-in ft-in ft-in
3 2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-0″
4 2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-0″
5 2′-4″ 2′-0″ 2′-4″ 2′-0″ 2′-4″ 2′-0″ 2′-4″ 2′-0″
6 2′-11″ 2′-1″ 2′-9″ 2′-0″ 2′-9″ 2′-0″ 2′-9″ 2′-0″
7 4′-0″ 2′-11″ 3′-6″ 2′-6″ 3′-3″ 2′-4″ 3′-3″ 2′-4″
8 5′-3″ 3′-9″ 4′-7″ 3′-3″ 4′-11″ 2′-11″ 3′-9″ 2′-8″
9 6′-8″ 4′-9″ 5′-9″ 4′-2″ 5′-2″ 3′-9″ 4′-9″ 3′-5″
10 8′-6″ 6′-1″ 7′-4″ 5′-3″ 6′-7″ 4′-8″ 6′-0″ 4′-4″
11 10′-5″ 7′-5″ 9′-0″ 6′-5″ 8′-1″ 5′-9″ 7′-4″ 5′-3″
14 Lap Splices Lap Splices Lap Splices Lap Splices
18 Not Allowed Not Allowed Not Allowed Not Allowed

Tension Lap Splice Lengths of Grade 60 Epoxy Coated Bars – Class B


fc′ = 3,000 psi fc′ = 4,000 psi fc′ = 5,000 psi fc′ = 6,000 psi
Top Bars Others Top Bars Others Top Bars Others Top Bars Others
Bar Size ft-in ft-in ft-in ft-in ft-in ft-in ft-in ft-in
3 2′-3″ 2′-0″ 2′-3″ 2′-0″ 2′-3″ 2′-0″ 2′-3″ 2′-0″
4 2′-3″ 2′-0″ 2′-3″ 2′-0″ 2′-3″ 2′-0″ 2′-3″ 2′-0″
5 2′-10″ 2′-6″ 2′-10″ 2′-6″ 2′-10″ 2′-6″ 2′-10″ 2′-6″
6 3′-7″ 3′-2″ 3′-4″ 3′-0″ 3′-4″ 3′-0″ 3′-4″ 3′-0″
7 4′-11″ 4′-4″ 4′-3″ 3′-9″ 3′-11″ 3′-5″ 3′-11″ 3′-5″
8 6′-5″ 5′-8″ 5′-7″ 4′-11″ 5′-0″ 4′-5″ 4′-6″ 4′-0″
9 8′-1″ 7′-2″ 7′-0″ 6′-2″ 6′-3″ 5′-7″ 5′-9″ 5′-1″
10 10′-3″ 9′-1″ 8′-11″ 7′-10″ 8′-0″ 7′-0″ 7′-3″ 6′-5″
11 12′-8″ 11′-2″ 10′-11″ 9′-8″ 9′-9″ 8′-0″ 8′-11″ 7′-11″
14 Lap Splices Lap Splices Lap Splices Lap Splices
18 Not Allowed Not Allowed Not Allowed Not Allowed
Top Bars are so placed that more than 12″ of concrete is cast below the reinforcement.

Definition of Splice Classes: Class A: Low stressed bars – 75% or less are spliced
Class B: Low stressed bars – more than 75% are spliced
High stressed bars – 1/2 or less are spliced
Class C: High stressed bars – more than 50% are spliced

Class B Lap splice is the preferred and most commonly used by bridge office.

Modification Factor for Class A: 0.77


Modification Factor for Class C: 1.31
Modification Factor for 3-bar Bundle = 1.2

Table 5.1-A6

July 2000 5.1-A5


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A
Minimum Development Length and Minimum
Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Lap Splices of Deformed Bars in Compression

Development Length of Deformed Bars in


Compression and Minimum Compression Lap Splice
Per AASHTO Standard Specifications, 1991, 16th Edition Articles 8.26, 8.32.4

Concrete fc′ = 3,000 psi fc′ = 4,000 psi fc′ = 5,000 psi fc′ = 6,000 psi fc′ > 3,000 psi

Reinf. Grade 60 Grade 60 Grade 60 Grade 60 Grade 60

Bar Minimum
Size Development Length, ld Lap Splice

3&4 1′-0″* 1′-0″* 1′-0″* 1′-0″* 2′-0″4

5 1′-2″ 1′-0″ 1′-0″* 1′-0″* 2′-0″4

6 1′-5″ 1′-3″ 1′-2″ 1′-2″ 2′-0″4

7 1′-8″ 1′-5″ 1′-4″ 1′-4″ 2′-3″

8 1′-10″ 1′-7″ 1′-6″ 1′-6″ 2′-6″

9 2′-1″ 1′-10″ 1′-9″ 1′-9″ 2′-10″

10 2′-4″ 2′-1″ 1′-11″ 1′-11″ 3′-3″

11 2′-7″ 2′-3″ 2′-2″ 2′-2″ 3′-7″

14 3′-1″ 2′-9″ 2′-7″ 2′-7″ 4′-3″

18 4′-2″ 3′-7″ 3′-5″ 3′-5″ 5′-8″

Note:
1. Where excess bar area is provided, ld may be reduced by the ratio of required area to area provided.
2. *1′-0″ minimum (office practice).
3. ld (compression) must be developed with straight bar extension. Reduced length noted in (1) shall also be
straight bar extension.
4. 2′-0″ minimum (office practice).
5. When splicing smaller bars to larger bars, the lap splice shall be the larger of the minimum compression lap
splice or the development length of the larger bar in compression, AASHTO Art. 8.32.4.1.

Table 5.1-A7

5.1-A6 July 2000


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A ρ Values for Singly
Reinforced Beams
Reinforced Concrete Superstructures fc′ = 3,000 psi fy = 60,000 psi

Mu Mu Mu Mu
ρ φbd2 ρ φbd2 ρ φbd2 ρ φbd2
0.0010 59.3 0.0053 298.1 0.0097 515.4 0.0141 705.2
0.0011 65.1 0.0054 303.4 0.0098 520.0 0.0142 709.2
0.0012 71.0 0.0055 308.6 0.0099 524.6 0.0143 713.2
0.0013 76.8 0.0056 313.8 0.0100 529.2 0.0144 717.2
0.0014 82.6 0.0057 319.0 0.0101 533.8 0.0145 721.1
0.0015 88.4 0.0058 324.2 0.0102 538.3 0.0146 725.1
0.0016 94.2 0.0059 329.4 0.0103 542.9 0.0147 729.0
0.0017 100.0 0.0060 334.5 0.0104 547.4 0.0148 732.9
0.0018 105.7 0.0061 339.7 0.0105 551.9 0.0149 736.8
0.0019 111.4 0.0062 344.8 0.0106 556.4 0.0150 740.7
0.0020 117.2 0.0063 349.9 0.0107 560.9 0.0151 744.6
0.0021 122.9 0.0064 355.0 0.0108 565.4 0.0152 748.4
0.0022 128.6 0.0065 360.1 0.0109 569.9 0.0153 752.3
0.0023 134.3 0.0066 365.2 0.0110 574.3 0.0154 756.1
0.0024 139.9 0.0067 370.2 0.0111 578.8 0.0155 759.9
0.0025 145.6 0.0068 375.3 0.0112 583.2 0.0156 763.7
0.0026 151.2 0.0069 380.3 0.0113 587.6 0.0157 767.5
0.0027 156.8 0.0070 385.3 0.0114 592.0 0.0158 771.2
0.0028 162.4 0.0071 390.3 0.0115 596.4 0.0159 775.0
0.0029 168.0 0.0072 395.0 0.0116 600.7 0.0160 778.7
0.0030 173.6 0.0073 400.3 0.0117 605.1 ρmax 0.0161 782.5
0.0031 179.2 0.0074 405.2 0.0118 609.4
0.0032 184.8 0.0075 410.2 0.0119 613.7
0.0033 190.3 0.0076 415.1 0.0120 618.0
0.0034 195.8 0.0077 420.0 0.0121 622.3
0.0035 201.3 0.0078 424.9 0.0122 626.6
0.0036 206.8 0.0079 429.8 0.0123 630.9
0.0037 212.3 0.0080 434.7 0.0124 635.1
0.0038 217.8 0.0081 439.5 0.0125 639.4
0.0039 223.2 0.0082 444.4 0.0126 643.6
0.0040 228.7 0.0083 449.2 0.0127 647.8
0.0041 234.1 0.0084 454.0 0.0128 652.0
0.0042 239.5 0.0085 458.8 0.0129 656.2
0.0043 244.9 0.0086 463.6 0.0130 660.3
0.0044 250.3 0.0087 468.4 0.0131 664.5
0.0045 255.7 0.0088 473.2 0.0132 668.6
0.0046 261.0 0.0089 477.9 0.0133 672.8
0.0047 266.4 0.0090 482.6 0.0134 676.9
0.0048 271.7 0.0091 487.4 0.0135 681.0
0.0049 277.0 0.0092 492.1 0.0136 685.0
0.0050 282.3 0.0093 496.8 0.0137 689.1
0.0051 287.6 0.0094 501.4 0.0138 693.2
0.0052 292.9 0.0095 506.1 0.0139 697.2
0.0096 510.7 0.0140 701.2

Notes: Mu
1. Units of ρbd2 are in psi.
2. ρmin should be based on 1.2 Mcr or 1.33 ρ analysis, whichever is smaller.
3. ρmax = 0.75ρb = 0.0161 based on β1 = 0.85.
Table 5.2-A1

July 2000 5.2-A1


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A ρ Values for Singly
Reinforced Beams
Reinforced Concrete Superstructures fc′ = 4,000 psi fy = 60,000 psi

Mu Mu Mu Mu Mu
ρ ρ ρ ρ ρ
φbd2 φbd2 φbd2 φbd2 φbd2
0.0010 59.5 0.0056 319.3 0.0102 556.7 0.0148 771.7 0.0194 964.1
0.0011 65.4 0.0057 324.7 0.0103 561.7 0.0149 776.1 0.0195 968.1
0.0012 71.2 0.0058 330.1 0.0104 566.6 0.0150 780.5 0.0196 972.0
0.0013 77.1 0.0059 335.5 0.0105 571.5 0.0151 784.9 0.0197 975.9
0.0014 83.0 0.0060 340.9 0.0106 576.3 0.0152 789.3 0.0198 979.8
0.0015 88.8 0.0061 346.2 0.0107 581.2 0.0153 793.7 0.0199 983.7
0.0016 94.6 0.0062 351.6 0.0108 586.1 0.0154 798.1 0.0200 987.6
0.0017 100.5 0.0063 356.9 0.0109 590.9 0.0155 802.4 0.0201 991.5
0.0018 106.3 0.0064 362.2 0.0110 595.7 0.0156 806.8 0.0202 995.3
0.0019 112.1 0.0065 367.6 0.0111 600.6 0.0157 811.1 0.0203 999.2
0.0020 117.9 0.0066 372.9 0.0112 605.4 0.0158 815.4 0.0204 1003.0
0.0021 123.7 0.0067 378.2 0.0113 610.2 0.0159 819.7 0.0205 1006.8
0.0022 129.4 0.0068 383.4 0.0114 615.0 0.0160 824.1 0.0206 1010.7
0.0023 135.2 0.0069 388.7 0.0115 619.8 0.0161 828.3 0.0207 1014.5
0.0024 140.9 0.0070 394.0 0.0116 624.5 0.0162 832.6 0.0208 1018.3
0.0025 146.7 0.0071 399.2 0.0117 629.3 0.0163 836.9 0.0209 1022.0
0.0026 152.4 0.0072 404.5 0.0118 634.1 0.0164 841.2 0.0210 1025.8
0.0027 158.1 0.0073 409.7 0.0119 638.8 0.0165 845.4 0.0211 1029.6
0.0028 163.8 0.0074 414.9 0.0120 643.5 0.0166 849.7 0.0212 1033.3
0.0029 169.5 0.0075 420.1 0.0121 648.2 0.0167 853.9 0.0213 1037.1
0.0030 175.2 0.0076 425.3 0.0122 653.0 0.0168 858.1 ρmax 0.0214 1040.8
0.0031 180.9 0.0077 430.5 0.0123 657.7 0.0169 862.3
0.0032 186.6 0.0078 435.7 0.0124 662.3 0.0170 866.5
0.0033 192.2 0.0079 440.9 0.0125 667.0 0.0171 870.7
0.0034 197.9 0.0080 446.0 0.0126 671.7 0.0172 874.9
0.0035 203.5 0.0081 451.2 0.0127 676.3 0.0173 879.1
0.0036 209.1 0.0082 456.3 0.0128 681.0 0.0174 883.2
0.0037 214.7 0.0083 461.4 0.0129 685.6 0.0175 887.4
0.0038 220.3 0.0084 466.5 0.0130 690.3 0.0176 891.5
0.0039 225.9 0.0085 471.6 0.0131 694.9 0.0177 895.6
0.0040 231.5 0.0086 476.7 0.0132 699.5 0.0178 899.7
0.0041 237.1 0.0087 481.8 0.0133 704.1 0.0179 903.9
0.0042 242.6 0.0088 486.9 0.0134 708.6 0.0180 907.9
0.0043 248.2 0.0089 491.9 0.0135 713.2 0.0181 912.0
0.0044 253.7 0.0090 497.0 0.0136 717.8 0.0182 916.1
0.0045 259.2 0.0091 502.0 0.0137 722.3 0.0183 920.2
0.0046 264.8 0.0092 507.1 0.0138 726.9 0.0184 924.2
0.0047 270.3 0.0093 512.1 0.0139 731.4 0.0185 928.3
0.0048 275.8 0.0094 517.1 0.0140 735.9 0.0186 932.3
0.0049 281.2 0.0095 522.1 0.0141 740.4 0.0187 936.3
0.0050 286.7 0.0096 527.1 0.0142 744.9 0.0188 940.3
0.0051 292.2 0.0097 532.0 0.0143 749.4 0.0189 944.3
0.0052 297.6 0.0098 537.0 0.0144 753.9 0.0190 948.3
0.0053 303.1 0.0099 542.0 0.0145 758.3 0.0191 952.3
0.0054 308.5 0.0100 546.9 0.0146 762.8 0.0192 956.2
0.0055 313.9 0.0101 551.8 0.0147 767.2 0.0193 960.2
Notes: Mu
1. Units of ρbd2 are in psi.
2. ρmin should be based on 1.2 Mcr or 1.33 ρ analysis, whichever is smaller.
3. ρmax = 0.75ρb = 0.0214 based on β1 = 0.85.
Table 5.2-A2

5.2-A2 July 2000


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A ρ Values for Singly
Reinforced Beams
Reinforced Concrete Superstructures fc′ = 5,000 psi fy = 60,000 psi

Mu Mu Mu Mu Mu
ρ ρ ρ ρ ρ
φbd2 φbd2 φbd2 φbd2 φbd2
0.0010 59.6 0.0061 350.2 0.0113 623.8 0.0165 874.3 0.0217 1102.0
0.0011 65.5 0.0062 355.7 0.0114 628.8 0.0166 878.9 0.0218 1106.1
0.0012 71.4 0.0063 361.1 0.0115 633.8 0.0167 883.5 0.0219 1110.3
0.0013 77.3 0.0064 366.6 0.0116 638.8 0.0168 888.1 0.0220 1114.4
0.0014 83.2 0.0065 372.1 0.0117 643.8 0.0169 892.7 0.0221 1118.5
0.0015 89.0 0.0066 377.5 0.0118 648.9 0.0170 897.2 0.0222 1122.6
0.0016 94.9 0.0067 382.9 0.0119 653.8 0.0171 901.8 0.0223 1126.8
0.0017 100.8 0.0068 388.4 0.0120 658.8 0.0172 906.3 0.0224 1130.9
0.0018 106.6 0.0069 393.8 0.0121 663.8 0.0173 910.9 0.0225 1134.9
0.0019 112.5 0.0070 399.2 0.0122 668.8 0.0174 915.4 0.0226 1139.0
0.0020 118.3 0.0071 404.6 0.0123 673.7 0.0175 919.9 0.0227 1143.1
0.0021 124.1 0.0072 410.0 0.0124 678.7 0.0176 924.4 0.0228 1147.2
0.0022 129.9 0.0073 415.4 0.0125 683.6 0.0177 928.9 0.0229 1151.2
0.0023 135.8 0.0074 420.7 0.0126 688.6 0.0178 933.4 0.0230 1155.3
0.0024 141.6 0.0075 426.1 0.0127 693.5 0.0179 937.9 0.0231 1159.3
0.0025 147.3 0.0076 431.5 0.0128 698.4 0.0180 942.4 0.0232 1163.4
0.0026 153.1 0.0077 436.8 0.0129 703.3 0.0181 946.8 0.0233 1167.4
0.0027 158.9 0.0078 442.2 0.0130 708.2 0.0182 951.3 0.0234 1171.4
0.0028 164.7 0.0079 447.5 0.0131 713.1 0.0183 955.7 0.0235 1175.4
0.0029 170.4 0.0080 452.8 0.0132 718.0 0.0184 960.2 0.0236 1179.4
0.0030 176.2 0.0081 458.1 0.0133 722.9 0.0185 964.6 0.0237 1183.4
0.0031 181.9 0.0082 463.4 0.0134 727.7 0.0186 969.0 0.0238 1187.4
0.0032 187.7 0.0083 468.7 0.0135 732.6 0.0187 973.5 0.0239 1191.4
0.0033 193.4 0.0084 474.0 0.0136 737.4 0.0188 977.9 0.0240 1195.3
0.0034 199.1 0.0085 479.3 0.0137 742.3 0.0189 982.3 0.0241 1199.3
0.0035 204.8 0.0086 484.6 0.0138 747.1 0.0190 986.6 0.0242 1203.2
0.0036 210.5 0.0087 489.8 0.0139 751.9 0.0191 991.0 0.0243 1207.2
0.0037 216.2 0.0088 495.1 0.0140 756.7 0.0192 995.4 0.0244 1211.1
0.0038 221.9 0.0089 500.4 0.0141 761.5 0.0193 999.8 0.0245 1215.0
0.0039 227.5 0.0090 505.6 0.0142 766.3 0.0194 1004.1 0.0246 1218.9
0.0040 233.2 0.0091 510.8 0.0143 771.1 0.0195 1008.5 0.0247 1222.8
0.0041 238.9 0.0092 516.0 0.0144 775.9 0.0196 1012.8 0.0248 1226.7
0.0042 244.5 0.0093 521.3 0.0145 780.7 0.0197 1017.1 0.0249 1230.6
0.0043 250.1 0.0094 526.5 0.0146 785.4 0.0198 1021.5 0.0250 1234.5
0.0044 255.8 0.0095 531.7 0.0147 790.2 0.0199 1025.8 0.0251 1238.4
0.0045 261.4 0.0096 536.9 0.0148 795.0 0.0200 1030.1 ρmax 0.0252 1242.2
0.0046 267.0 0.0097 542.0 0.0149 799.7 0.0201 1034.4
0.0047 272.6 0.0098 547.2 0.0150 804.4 0.0202 1038.7
0.0048 278.2 0.0099 552.4 0.0151 809.1 0.0203 1042.9
0.0049 283.8 0.0100 557.5 0.0152 813.9 0.0204 1047.2
0.0050 289.4 0.0101 562.7 0.0153 818.6 0.0205 1051.5
0.0051 295.0 0.0102 567.8 0.0154 823.3 0.0206 1055.7
0.0052 300.5 0.0103 572.9 0.0155 827.9 0.0207 1060.0
0.0053 306.1 0.0104 578.1 0.0156 832.6 0.0208 1064.2
0.0054 311.6 0.0105 583.2 0.0157 837.3 0.0209 1068.4
0.0055 317.1 0.0106 588.3 0.0158 842.0 0.0210 1072.7
0.0056 322.7 0.0107 593.4 0.0159 846.6 0.0211 1076.9
0.0057 328.2 0.0108 598.5 0.0160 851.3 0.0212 1081.1
0.0058 333.7 0.0109 603.5 0.0161 855.9 0.0213 1085.3
0.0059 339.2 0.0110 608.6 0.0162 860.5 0.0214 1089.5
0.0060 344.7 0.0111 613.7 0.0163 865.1 0.0215 1093.6
0.0112 618.7 0.0164 869.7 0.0216 1097.8
Notes: Mu
1. Units of ρbd2 are in psi.
2. ρmin should be based on 1.2 Mcr or 1.33 ρ analysis, whichever is smaller.
3. ρmax = 0.75ρb = 0.0252 based on β1 = 0.80.
Table 5.2-A3

July 2000 5.2-A3


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Positive Moment Reinforcement

Figure 5.3-A1

July 2000 5.3-A1


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Negative Moment Reinforcement

Figure 5.3-A2

5.3-A2 July 2000


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A Adjusted Negative Moment
Case I (Design for M @
Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Face of Effective Support)

Figure 5.3-A3

July 2000 5.3-A3


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A
Adjusted Negative Moment
Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Case II (Design for M @ 1/4 Point)

Figure 5.3-A4

5.3-A4 July 2000


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A
Load Factor Slab Design
Reinforced Concrete Superstructures fc′ = 4,000 psi

Figure 5.3-A5

July 2000 5.3-A5


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A
Load Factor Slab Design
Reinforced Concrete Superstructures fc′ = 5,000 psi

Figure 5.3-A6

5.3-A6 July 2000


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix A

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Slab Design — Traffic Barrier Load

Notes:
1. Section “A-A” is taken to be the critical section. Other sections ordinarily do not need to be investigated.
2. Provide enough extension to the left of “A-A” to develop the As required (usually will require hooking bars).
3. Service Load fs = 20,000, Load Factor = (1.3D + 2.17L).
4. For Load Factor design, check distribution of flexural reinforcement — AASHTO 8.16-8.4. If #5 or #6 bars
are used to furnish the As from this chart, then this requirement will not have to be checked.

Figure 5.3-A7

July 2000 5.3-A7


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix B

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Slab Design

Example 5.2-B1
Given: Center-to-center spacing of girders = 12 feet 3 inches
Width of top flange of steel girder = 18 inches wide
Deck concrete, Class 4000 fc′ = 4,000 psi
Reinforcing steel, Grade 60 fy = 60,000 psi
Cover to top bars = 2.5 inches
Cover to bottom bars = 1.0 inch
Analyze a 1 foot wide section of slab
Find: Deck thickness, deck reinforcement
1. Determine Deck Thickness
Seff = 12.25′ – 2 (18″) / (4) (12) = 11.50′
Minimum thickness, tmin = (Seff + 10) (12) / 30 = (11.50 + 10) (12) / 30 = 8.60″
Use 83/4″ thick slab
2. Determine Transverse Deck Reinforcement — Top Slab Reinforcement
Dead Load Moment, MDL:
MDL = (1/10) [ (8.75″ / 12) (0.160 kcf) ] (11.50)2 = 1.55 kip-ft/ft
Live Load Moment + Impact, MLL+I:
(S + 2)
MLL+I = (Pwheel) (0.8) (1.30) AASHTO, 1989, Section 3.24.3.1
32
where: Pwheel = 1.25 (16 kips/wheel) = 20.0 kips/wheel (HS25 Truck)
continuity factory = 0.8 AASHTO, 1989, Section 3.24.3.1
impact factor = 1.30
(11.50 + 2)
MLL+I = (20.0) (0.8) (1.30) = 8.78 kip-ft/ft
32
Factored Design Moment, Mu:
Mu = 1.3 [ 1.55 + (5/3) (8.78) ] = 21.04 kip-ft/ft
Determine As req’d: dtop bars = 8.75 – 2.5 – (0.75) / 2 = 5.875″
Mu / (φ) (b) (d)2 = 21.04 (12,000) / (0.9) (12) (5.875)2 = 677.3 psi
Interpolating from Table 5.2-A2, Appendix A: ρ = 0.01272
As req’d = ρ (b) (d) = 0.01272 (12) (5.875) = 0.90 in2/ft
Use #6 bars at 5″ ctrs, As = 1.06 in2/ft > 0.90 in2/ft ok
Use same bar size and spacing for bottom slab reinforcement. An alternate approach is to solve directly for
As req’d from Eq (5), BDM Section 5.2.1B:

As req’d = 0.85 (fc′ / fy) (b) [ d – √d2 – (31.3725 Mu / fc′ b) ] (5)

= [ 0.85 (4) (12) / 60 ] [ 5.875 – √ (5.785)2 – 31.3725 (21.04) / (4) (12) ]


As req’d = 0.90 in2/ft Agrees with value previously computed by tables.

July 2000 5.2-B1-1


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix B

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Slab Design

Check As min using Table 5.2-A2, Appendix A:


Mu = 1.2 Mcr = 1.2 fr S = (1.2) 7.5 √ fc′ (1/6) (b) (t)2
= (1.2) 7.5 √ 4,000 (1/6) (12) (8.75)2 87,160 in-lbs/ft
Mu / φ bd2 = 87,160 / [ 0.9 (12) (5.875)2 ] = 233.8 psi
From Table 5.2-A2, Appendix A, interpolate ρ = 0.00404
As min = ρ (b) (d) = 0.00404 (12) (5.875) = 0.28 in2/ft < 1.06 in2/ft
Check As min using Eq (6):

As min =
0.85 fc′ (b)
fy ( √
d – d2 –
0.124 h2
√ f c′ ) (6)

As min =
0.85 (4) (12)
(60) ( √5.875 – (5.875)2 –
0.124 (8.75)2
√4
)
As min = 0.285 in2/ft Agrees with value from tables.
Check As max: From Table 5.2-A2, Appendix A, ρmax = 0.75 ρb = 0.0214
As max = 0.0214 (12) (5.875) = 1.51 in2/ft
Check As max using Eq (7), BDM Section 5.2.1B:
fc′
As max = 0.6375 β1 (b) (d) ( 87 87+ f )
fy y
(7)

(60) ( 87 + 60 )
(4) 87
As max = 0.6375 (0.85) (12) (5.875) = 1.51 in2/ft ok

3. Check Crack Control Requirements


Calculate fs due to Service Load:
M service load = 1.55 + 8.78 = 10.33 kip-ft/ft
fs calc = M(12,000) / Asjd
Where j = l – k/3 = 0.884 Agrees with Table 1, page 81, ACI Publication SP-3 Reinforced
Concrete Design Handbook Working Stress Design, 1965
k = 1 / 1 [ 1 + fs/nfc] = 1 / [ 1 + 24,000 / (8) (1,600) ] = 0.348
fs = 24,000 psi Grade 60 bars per AASHTO, Section 8.15.2.2
fc = 0.40 fc′ = 1,600 psi for Conc Cl 4000
n = Es / Ec = 29,000,000 / 3,620,000 = 8.0
fs calc = 10.33 (12,000) / (1.06) (0.884) (5.875) = 22,517 psi
Using Eq (21), BDM Section 5.2.1G, Calculate allowable fs:
fs allowable = z / [ (dc) (A) ]1/3 Eq (21)
= 130 / [ (2.875) (5) (5.75) ]1/3 = 29.63 ksi > 22.52 ksi ok

5.2-B1-2 July 2000


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix B

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Slab Design

Alternate Approach, Check zcalc < 130 kips/in using Eq (22):


zcalc = fs calc [ (dc) (A) ]1/3 < 130 kips/in Eq (22)
= (22.52) [ (2.875) (5) (5.75) ]1/3 = 98.1 kips/in < 130 kips/in ok
Use #6 bars at 5″ ctrs top and bottom transverse slab reinforcement.

Deck Reinforcement — Mid-Span Steel Plate Girder

July 2000 5.2-B1-3


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix B

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Slab Design for Prestressed Girders

Example 5.2-B2
Given: Center-to-center spacing of W58G girders = 8 feet 0 inches
Width of top flange = 25 inches wide
Average flange thickness = 6 inches
Girder concrete strength fc′ = 7,000 psi
Deck concrete, Class 5000 fc′ = 5,000 psi
Cover to top bars = 2.5 inches
Cover to bottom bars = 1.0 inch
Find: Deck thickness, deck reinforcement
1. Determine Deck Thickness
Minimum slab thickness = 7.5″ no overlay, per BDM, Chapter 6. This thickness permits the use of
#6 transverse and #5 longitudinal bars.
Seff = clear span per AASHTO 3.24.1.2(a)
Width of top flange/average flange thick = 4.16
Close enough to 4.0, use clear span for Seff
Seff = Sg – W2 = 8.0′ – 2.083′ = 5.92′
Check Minimum Slab Thickness, tmin:
tmin = (Seff + 10) (12) / 30 = (5.92′ + 10) (12) / 30 = 6.37″ < 7.5″ ok
2. Determine Transverse Deck Reinforcement — Top Slab Reinforcement
Dead Load Moment, MDL:
MDL = (1/10) [ (7.5″ / 12) (0.160 kcf) ] (5.92)2 = 0.43 kip-ft/ft
Live Load Moment + Impact, MLL+I:
(S + 2) (6.54 + 2)
MLL+I = (Pwheel) (0.8) (1.30) = (20.0) (0.8) (1.30)
32 32
MLL+I = 5.15 kip-ft/ft
Factored Design Moment, Mu:
Mu = 1.3 [ 0.35 + (5/3) (5.15) ] = 11.61 kip-ft/ft
Determine As req’d: dtop bars = 7.5 – 2.5 – (0.75) / 2 = 4.625″
Mu / (φ) (b) (d)2 = 12.54 (12,000) / (0.9) (12) (4.625)2 = 651.4 psi
Interpolating from Table 5.2-A3, Appendix A: ρ = 0.01089
As req’d = ρ (b) (d) = 0.01089 (12) (4.625) = 0.61 in2/ft
Use #6 bars at 8″ ctrs, As = 0.66 in2/ft ok
Use same bar size and spacing for bottom slab reinforcement.

July 2000 5.2-B2-1


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix B

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Slab Design for Prestressed Girders

3. Check Crack Control Requirements — Transverse Reinforcement


Calculate fs due to Service Load:
Mservice load = 0.35 + 5.15 = 5.50 kip-ft/ft
fs calc = M (12,000) / Asjd
where: j = l – k/3 = 1 – 0.375/3 = 0.875
k = 1 / 1 [ 1 + fs/nfc ] = 1 / [ 1 + 24,000 / (7.2) (2,000) ] = 0.375
fc = 0.40 fc′ = (0.40) (5,000) = 2,000 psi for Concrete Class 5000
Ec = 57,000 √ 5,000 = 4,030,500 psi
fs = 24,000 psi Grade 60 bars
n = Es / Ec = 29,000,000 / 4,030,500 = 7.2
fs calc = 5.50 (12,000) / (0.66) (0.875) (4.625) = 24,710 psi top bar
Calculate fs allowable = z / (Adc)1/3:
A = (7.5″) (2.875″) (2) / 1 bar = 43.125 dc = 2.5 + 0.75 / 2 = 2.875″
fs allow = 130 / [ (43.125) (2.875) ]1/3 = 26.07 ksi > 24.71 ksi ok
4. Determine Longitudinal Deck Reinforcement
Moments at Pier, Negative Reinforcement:
MDL = 187.6 kip-ft/girder MLL+I = 780.0 kip-ft/girder Service Load Moments
Mu = 1.3 [ 187.6 + (5/3) (780.0) ] = 1,933.8 kip-ft/girder
Determine As req’d assume two layers of #5 with davg = 64.0″:
Mu / (φ) (b) (d)2 = 1,933.8 (12,000) / (0.9) (25) (64)2 = 251.8 psi
Interpolating from Table 5.2-A3, Appendix A: ρ = 0.00433
As req’d = 0.00433 (25) (64.0) = 6.93 in2
Use 24-#5 (12-#5 in each layer) As = 7.44 in2 > 6.93 in2 ok
Spacing is approximately 8.0″, As/ft = 0.47 in2/ft
Check longitudinal distribution reinforcement so that spacing can be coordinated with the reinforcement
required for negative pier girder moment:
P = 220 / √ S = 220 / √ 6.54 = 86.0 percent but not to exceed 67 percent
Distribution Reinforcement = 0.67 (As actual) = 0.67 (0.70) = 0.47 in2/ft
As provided = 0.47 in2/ft ok

5.2-B2-2 July 2000


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix B

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Slab Design for Prestressed Girders

5. Check Crack Control Requirement — Longitudinal Reinforcement


24-#5 As = 7.44 in2 n = Es/Ec = 29,000,000 / 4,769,000 = 6.0
k = √ 2 ρ n + (ρ n)2 – ρ n
k = √ 2 (0.0047) (6.0) + [ (0.0047) (6.0) ]2 – (0.0047) (6.0) = 0.210
j = l – k/3 = 0.93
fs calc = M (12,000) / Asjd = 967.6 (12,000) / (7.44) (0.93) (64.0) = 26,220 psi
fs allowable = z / [ (dc) (A) ]1/3
Use actual girder spacing = (8.0′) (12) = 96.0″ to compute A
A = (96) (7.5) / 24 bars = 30.0 in2/bar dc = 2.5 + 0.75 + 0.625/2 = 3.56″
fs allowable = 130 / [ 30.0 (3.56) ]1/3 = 27.40 psi > 26.22 psi ok

Deck Reinforcement at Intermediate Pier — Prestressed Girder Bridge


Longitutdinal Deck Reinforcement is designed for the negative moment at an intermediate pier. Otherwise, the
longitudinal deck reinforcement will be similar to that shown in Example 5.2-B1-1.

July 2000 5.2-B2-3


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix B

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Strut-and-Tie Design

Example 5.2-B3

Design Loads
Group I: Pu = 1600k H=0
Group VII: Pu = 1500 k H = 400k
Assume crossbeam dead load is included with bearing loads.
Use Section 12.4 of AASHTO’s Guide Specifications for Design and Construction of Segmental Concrete Bridges,
1989.

July 2000 5.2-B3-1


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix B

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Strut-and-Tie Design

Develop a Preliminary Strut-and-Tie Model:

Estimate node size at top of column:


φb (fcn Acn) ≥ Su
Assuming spiral reinforcement provides confinement, use φb = 0.75 and fcn = 0.85 fc′:
0.75 (0.85 × 5) Acn ≥ 2,400
Acn ≥ 753 in2
Use the following node size at the top of column:

5.2-B3-2 July 2000


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix B

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Strut-and-Tie Design

Determine Truss Element Forces:

Group I Strut Loads Group VII Strut Loads

Determine Minimum Size of Node Regions:


φb (fcn Acn) ≥ Su where: φb = 0.70 for bearing
fcn = 0.85 fc′ in regions with compression only
fcn = 0.70 fc′ in regions with one tension tie
At base of inclined strut,
0.75 (0.85 × 5) Acn ≥ 2,596
Acn ≥ 873 in2
873
depth of node = = 12.1″ (72″ × 12.1″)
72″
where width of crossbeam = 72″
2,596
At top of inclined strut, Acn ≥ = 1,060 in2
0.70 (0.70 × 5)
1,060
depth of node = = 14.7″ (72″ × 14.7″)
72″
1,600
For 1,600k chord: Acn ≥ = 538 in2
0.70 (0.85 × 5)
538
depth of node = = 7.5″
72″
915
For 915k chord: Acn ≥ (538) = 308 in2
1,600
308
depth of node = = 4.3″
72″

July 2000 5.2-B3-3


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix B

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Strut-and-Tie Design

Determine Minimum Sizes of Compression Members:


φv (fcu Acs) ≥ Su (inclined compressive struts)
φf (0.85 fc′ Acc + As′ fs′) ≥ Su (compression chords)
For 2,596k inclined compressive strut:
0.85 (0.45 × 5) Acs ≥ 2,596k (fcu = 0.45 fc′)
2,596
Acs ≥ = 1,357 in2
0.85 (0.45) (5)
1,357
and depth of strut = = 18.9 in
72
For 915k inclined compressive strut:
915
Acs ≥ (1,357) = 478 in2
2,596
478
and depth of strut = = 6.6 in
72
For 1,600k compression chord:
1,600
Acs ≥ = 418 in2
0.9 (0.85) (5)
418
and depth of chord = = 5.8 in
72
Incorporate Node and Member Sizes Into Model:

5.2-B3-4 July 2000


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix B

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Strut-and-Tie Design

Recalculate Truss Member Forces:

Group I Strut Loads Group VII Strut Loads


Design Tie Member:
φf (As fsy + A*s f*su) ≥ Su
without prestress: 0.90 (As) (60) ≥ 2,240
As ≥ 41.5 in2
Try using 12 bundles of #14 top and #11 bot (As = 45.7 in2)
Check development length of tie bars:
For #14 bars with fc′ = 5,000 psi, ldh = 2′ – 5″
Development length available = 2′ – 4″ < 2′ – 5″
For #11 bars, ldh = 1′ – 5″ ok
Therefore, total developed steel As = 12 (1.56) + 12 (2.25) ( 2829 )
As = 44.8 in2 > 41.5 in2 ok

Partial Elevation-Tension Tie at Top of Pier Cap


x = 12 (2.25) (3.26) + 12 (1.56) (5.97) = 4.37″ = 4″ estimate ok
45.7

July 2000 5.2-B3-5


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix B

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Strut-and-Tie Design

Determine Minimum Vertical and Horizontal Steel Using Sections 12.5.3.2 and 12.5.3.3:
For vertical reinforcing: As fy ≥ 120 bw s
d
where s < or 12″
4
120 bw s
Therefore, As ≥ = 0.002 bw s
60,000
Assume 4 legs of #6 stirrups: As = 1.76 in2
As 1.76
s ≤ =
0.002 bw 0.002 (72)
s ≤ 12.2 in
d 72 – 4.37
Check: = = 16.9″
4 4
Therefore, use 4 #6 legs at 12″ maximum spacing.
For horizontal reinforcing: As fy ≥ 120 bw s
where s < d or 12″
3
For s = 12″, As ≥ 0.002 (72) (12) = 1.73 in2 (2 – #9 bars)
Try 2 #8 bars: As = 1.58 in2
1.58
s ≤ = 11.0″
0.002 (72)
Use #8 bars at 11″ maximum spacing on side faces.
For bottom bars, use #6 at approximately 12″ (7 – #6 bars)

5.2-B3-6 July 2000


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix B

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Working Stress Design

Example 5.2-B4
Service Load — Concrete Stresses and Constants

July 2000 5.2-B4-1


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix B

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Working Stress Design

5.2-B4-2 July 2000


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Appendix B

Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Working Stress Design

July 2000 5.2-B4-3


BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL
Criteria

Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Contents

Page
6.0 Prestressed Concrete Superstructures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1-1
6.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
6.1.1 Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
B. Allowable Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
6.1.2 Concrete Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
A. Strength of Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
B. Modulus of Elasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
C. Creep Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
D. Shrinkage Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
6.1.3 Prestressing Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
B. Allowable Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
6.1.4 Prestressing Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
B. Anchorages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
6.1.5 Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
A. Instantaneous Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
B. Time-dependent Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
6.1.6 Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
B. Contract Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
C. Shop Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
6.1.7 Connections (Joints) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
6.1.8 Deflection and Camber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
6.2 Precast Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2-1
6.2.1 Pre-Tensioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
6.2.2 Post-Tensioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
6.2.3 Washington Standard Prestressed Girder Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
A. Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
B. Section Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
C. Basic Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
D. Design Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
E. Prestressing Strands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
F. Development of Prestressing Strand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
G. Fabrication and Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6.2.4 Precast Prestressed (Short Span Bridges) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
A. Precast Prestressed Slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
B. Precast Prestressed Tri-Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
C. Precast Prestressed Deck Bulb-Tee Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6.2.5 Precast Box Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6.3 Precast Girder Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3-1
6.3.1 Criteria for Girder Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
A. Support Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
B. Composite Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
C. Prestressed Girder Camber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

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Page
6.3.2 Framing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
A. Girder Selection and Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
B. Slab Cantilevers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
C. Diaphragm Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
D. Skew Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
E. Grade and Cross Slope Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
F. Curve Effect and Flare Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
6.3.3 Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
A. Simple Spans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
B. Continuous Spans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6.3.4 Roadway Slab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
A. Slab Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
B. Transverse Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6.3.5 Crossbeam Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
B. Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
C. Geometry and Construction Requirement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
D. Skin Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
6.3.6 Repair of Damaged Bridge Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
B. Repair Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
C. Miscellaneous References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
6.4 Cast-in-Place Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4-1
6.4.1 Design Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
B. Bridge Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
C. Section Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
D. Strand and Tendon Arrangements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
E. Layout of Anchorages and End Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
F. Superstructure Shortening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6.4.2 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
A. Section Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
B. Preliminary Stress Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
C. Tendon Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
D. Prestress Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
E. Steel Stress Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
F. Prestress Moment Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
G. Flexural Stress in Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
H. Temperature Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
I. Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
J. End Block Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
K. Anchorage Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
L. Camber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
M. Expansion Bearing Offsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
N. Post-Tensioning Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6.4.3 Review of Shop Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
6.99 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.99-1

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Appendix A — Design Aids


6.1-A1 “A” Dimension for P.S. Concrete Bridges
6.2-A1 W95G and W83G
6.3-A1 Prestressed Girder Intermediate Hinge Diaphragm
6.4-A1-1 WSDOT Standard Girder — Composite Sections
6.4-A1-2 WSDOT Standard Girder — Non-Composite Sections
6.4-A2 WSDOT Standard Girders Section Properties — Composite Sections
6.4-A3-1 WSDOT Standard Girders Section Properties — Non-Composite Sections 1 of 2
6.4-A3-2 WSDOT Standard Girders Section Properties — Non-Composite Sections 2 of 2
6.4-A4 WSDOT Standard Girders Span Range Capacity
6.5-A1-1 W42G Girder Details 1 of 2
6.5-A1-2 W42G Girder Details 2 of 2
6.5-A2-1 W50G Girder Details 1 of 2
6.5-A2-2 W50G Girder Details 2 of 2
6.5-A3-1 W58G Girder Details 1 of 2
6.5-A3-2 W58G Girder Details 2 of 2
6.5-A4-1 W74G Girder Details 1 of 2
6.5-A4-2 W74G Girder Details 2 of 2
6.5-A5-1 WF74G Girder Details 1 of 3
6.5-A5-2 WF74G Girder Details 2 of 3
6.5-A5-3 WF74G Girder Details 3 of 3
6.5-A6-1 W83G Girder Details 1 of 3
6.5-A6-2 W83G Girder Details 2 of 3
6.5-A6-3 W83G Girder Details 3 of 3
6.5-A7-1 W95G Girder Details 1 of 3
6.5-A7-2 W95G Girder Details 2 of 3
6.5-A7-3 W95G Girder Details 3 of 3
6.5-A8 End Wall on P.S. Concrete Girder — Diaphragm Details
6.5-A9 Abutment Type Pier — Diaphragm Details
6.5-A10-1 Intermediate Pier — Fixed Recessed-Face Diaphragm Details
6.5-A10-2 Intermediate Pier — Fixed Flush-Face Diaphragm Details
6.5-A10-3 Intermediate Pier — Hinge Diaphragm Details
6.5-A10-4 Intermediate Pier — End Wall on Girder Details
6.5-A11 Intermediate Diaphragm Details
6.5-A12 Miscellaneous Diaphragm Details
6.5-A13 Single Span Prestressed Girder Construction Sequence
6.5-A14 Multiple Span Prestressed Girder Construction Sequence
6.6-A1-1 Precast Prestressed 1′-0″ Solid Slab Details 1 of 2
6.6-A1-2 Precast Prestressed 1′-0″ Solid Slab Details 2 of 2
6.6-A2-1 Precast Prestressed 1′-6″ Voided Slab Details 1 of 2
6.6-A2-2 Precast Prestressed 1′-6″ Voided Slab Details 2 of 2
6.6-A3-1 Precast Prestressed 2′-2″ Voided Slab Details 1 of 2
6.6-A3-2 Precast Prestressed 2′-2″ Voided Slab Details 2 of 2

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6.6-A4 Precast Prestressed Slab End Pier Details


6.6-A5 Precast Prestressed Slab Intermediate Pier Details
6.6-A6 Precast Prestressed Slab Layout
6.7-A1-1 Precast Prestressed Ribbed Tri-Beam Girder Details 1 of 2
6.7-A1-2 Precast Prestressed Ribbed Tri-Beam Girder Details 2 of 2
6.7-A3 Precast Prestressed Ribbed Tri-Beam Girder Pier Details
6.8-A1-1 W35DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Details 1 of 2
6.8-A1-2 W35DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Details 2 of 2
6.8-A1-3 W35DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Design Tables
6.8-A1-4 W35DG Deck Bulb Tee Diaphragm Details
6.8-A2-1 W41DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Details 1 of 2
6.8-A2-2 W41DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Details 2 of 2
6.8-A2-3 W41DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Design Tables
6.8-A2-4 W41DG Deck Bulb Tee Diaphragm Details
6.8-A3-1 W53DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Details 1 of 2
6.8-A3-2 W53DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Details 2 of 2
6.8-A3-3 W53DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Design Tables
6.8-A3-4 W53DG Deck Bulb Tee Diaphragm Details
6.8-A4-1 W65DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Details 1 of 2
6.8-A4-2 W65DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Details 2 of 2
6.8-A4-3 W65DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Design Tables
6.8-A4-4 W65DG Deck Bulb Tee Diaphragm Details
6.8-A5 Deck Bulb Tee Diaphragm Details

Appendix B — Design Examples


6.1-B1 Post-Tensioning Anchorages
6.2-B1 Notes to Designers Post-Tensioning
6.3-B1 P.T. Box Girder Bridges Single Span
6.3-B2 P.T. Box Girder Bridges Two Span
6.3-B3 P.T. Box Girder Bridges Multiple Span

P65:DP/BDM6

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6.0 Prestressed Concrete Superstructures


6.1 General
WSDOT uses three types of prestressed concrete bridges. They are (1) prestressed precast concrete girder
or slab bridges, (2) cast-in-place post-tensioned bridges, and (3) combination prestressed/post-tensioned
bridges. WSDOT utilizes prestressed concrete in special structures such as segmental cast-in-place or
precast construction. This section provides criteria for these structure types and provides general guidance
for other designs using prestressed concrete.
6.1.1 Criteria
A. General
AASHTO specifications shall be used to design prestressed concrete bridges, except as modified
in this section. Prestressed concrete bridges shall be designed using working stress design and
checked for ultimate load capacity. Refer to portions of Chapter 5 for information relating to
concrete reinforcement and design methods used for prestressed structures.
B. Allowable Stresses
AASHTO standard specifications list the allowable stresses to be used in design except as noted
below.
1. Concrete Stresses at Service Load
Under working stress conditions, tensile stresses in the precompressed tensile zone shall be
limited to zero. This prevents cracking of the concrete during service life of the structure and
provides more allowance for overloads during the life of the bridge.
2. Shear Capacity
Shear in webs of prestressed bridges shall be in accordance with AASHTO specifications.
Where additional guidance is needed, the latest ACI Code should be consulted. For special
considerations used for design of Washington State standard prestressed girders, see
Subsection 6.3.
6.1.2 Concrete Properties
A. Strength of Concrete
Pacific NW aggregates have consistently resulted in excellent concrete strengths, to as much as
10,000 psi in 28 days. The following strengths are normally used for design.
1. Precast Girders
Nominal 28-day concrete strength (fc′) for precast girders with a cast-in-place deck is 7,000 psi.
Where higher strengths would eliminate a line of girders, this strength can be specified, prefer-
ably at 8,500 psi, to a maximum of 10,000 psi. The final strength of concrete shall be specified as
required by design and shall be shown on the plans.
The minimum concrete compressive strength at release (fci′) for each prestressed girder in a
bridge is to be calculated and shown in the plans. For a 28-day concrete compressive strength
of 7,000 psi, a concrete compressive strength (at release) of between 3,500 and 6,000 psi shall
be specified. For high strength concrete, the compressive strength at release shall be limited to

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7,500 psi. Release strengths of up to 8,500 psi can be achieved with extended curing for special
circumstances. The specified concrete strength at release should be rounded to the next highest
100 psi.
2. Cast-in-Place Post-tensioned Bridges
Since conditions for placing and curing concrete on cast-in-place bridges are not controlled,
as they are for precast bridge sections, a lower figure is used for concrete strength. Normally,
use class 4000 concrete for post-tensioned cast-in-place bridges. Where significant economy
can be gained and structural requirements dictate, the structure could be designed for class
5000 concrete.
3. Cast-in-Place Slabs
Concrete class 4000D shall be used for all cast-in-place bridge decks unless otherwise approved
by the Bridge Design Engineer.
B. Modulus of Elasticity
The modulus of elasticity for concrete strength up to 10 ksi is normally 33w3/2 √ fc′, where w is the
weight of concrete in lbs/ft3. Normal weight concretes used in Washington generally have weights
close to 160 lbs/ft3. With this value, the modules of elasticity equation simplifies to E = 66,800 √fc′.
C. Creep Rate
The creep coefficient for standard conditions may be taken as follows:
Standard conditions are relative humidity ≤40 percent and average thickness of section 6 inches.
1. Cast-in-Place Girders
For most designs, the creep coefficient for loading at 7 days for moist-cured concrete and 1-3
days for steam-cured concrete is:
Ct = 22 . t0.60.6
6 + fc ′ 10 + t
The final deflection is a combination of the elastic deflection and the creep effect associated with
given loads shown by the equation below.
∆ total = ∆ elastic (1+ Ct)
For other factors affecting this equation, see Reference 6.99.2 and 6.99.4. Reference to 6.99.4
discusses methods for calculating creep effects.
2. Standard Prestressed Girders
The creep coefficient for standard prestressed girders may be taken as:
3.95 .
Ct = Ln (t + 1)
6 + f c′
Ct = creep coefficient
t = time in days
fc′ = ultimate strength of concrete in ksi

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D. Shrinkage Rate
To compute the variation of shrinkage with time, use the following equations:
t
For moist cured concrete after 7 days: (∑SH)t = x 0.51 x 10-3
35 + t
t
For steam cured concrete after 1 to 3 days: (∑SH)t = x 0.56 x 10-3
55 + t
Where (∑SH)t is the shrinkage strain at any point in time.
For corrections to the shrinkage rate values including correction for initial shrinkage, see
Reference 6.99.4.
6.1.3 Prestressing Steel
A. General
Three types of high-tensile steel are used for producing prestress. They are:
1. Strands: ASTM A 416 Grade 270, low relaxation or stress relieved.
2. Bars: ASTM A 722 Grade 150, Type 2.
3. Parallel wires: ASTM A 421 Grade 240.
All WSDOT designs are based on low relaxation strands using either 1/2″ or 0.6″ diameter strands.
B. Allowable Stresses
Allowable stresses for design are as listed in AASHTO specifications.
6.1.4 Prestressing Systems
A. General
There are numerous prestressing systems. Most systems combine a method of stressing the
prestressing strands with a method of anchoring it to concrete.
B. Anchorages
WSDOT requires approval of all multi-strand and/or bar anchorages used in prestressed concrete
bridges by testing or by a certified report, stating that the anchorage assembly will develop the yield
strength of post-tensioning steel. Manufacturers whose anchorages have been approved are.
1. V.S.L. Corporation
2. Avar Construction System
3. Dywidag Systems International
6.1.5 Losses
AASHTO specifications outline the method of predicting prestress losses for usual prestressed concrete
bridges which may be used in design except as noted below.
The following sources of prestress loss can influence the effective stress in the strand.

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A. Instantaneous Losses
1. Anchorage slippage. This slippage is assumed to be 1/4 inch for design purposes.
2. Friction losses. These losses are due to intended cable curvature and unintended wobble
coefficient. For strands against rigid galvanized metal duct these values are respectively µ = 0.20
and k = 0.0002. For strands against smooth polyethylene duct µ = 0.16 and k = 0.0002.
3. Elastic shortening of concrete.
B. Time-dependent Losses
1. Creep of concrete.
2. Shrinkage of concrete.
3. Steel relaxation.
For normal design in lieu of more accurate methods, time dependent losses may be taken as given in
Table 6.1.5-1.

Type of Section Low-relaxation Strands Bars

Rectangular Beam 33 ksi 25 ksi


Box Girder 21 ksi 15 ksi
I-Girder 33 [1- 0.15 (fc′ - 6) / 6 ] 19 ksi
Single/Double T, Hollow
Core Voided Slab 37 [ 1- 0.15 (fc′ - 6) / 6 ] 29 [ 1- 0.15 (fc′ - 6) / 6 ]

Time Dependent Prestress Losses


Table 6.1.5-1
Prestress losses due to instantaneous sources shall be added to the time dependent losses to determine
the total losses. The loss due to elastic shortening in pretensioned members shall be taken as:
PLES = (Ep / Eci ) fcgp
The loss due to elastic shortening in post-tensioned members shall be taken as:
PLES = [(N-1)/2N x Ep / Eci ] fcgp
where: Ep = modulus of elasticity of prestressing steel, ksi
Eci = modulus of elasticity of concrete at transfer, ksi
N = number of identical prestressing tendons
fcgp = sum of concrete stresses at the center of gravity of prestressing tendons due to the
prestressing force at transfer (after jacking for posttensioned members) and the
self-weight of the member at the section of maximum moment, ksi
For pretensioned member and low-relaxation strands, fcgp may be calculated on the basis of 0.7fpu.
For post-tensioned members with bonded tendons, fcgp may be calculated on the basis of prestressing
force after jacking at the section of maximum moment.
For preliminary design of pretensioned prestressed girders with normal strength concrete limited to
7,000 psi, the total prestress loss may be taken as 48 ksi.

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6.1.6 Construction
A. General
Construction plans for conventional post-tensioned box girder bridges include two different sets of
drawings. The first set (contract) is prepared by the design engineer (WSDOT or contracting agency)
and the second set (shop) is prepared by the post-tensioning materials supplier (contractor).
B. Contract Plans
The plans should be prepared to accommodate any post-tensioning system, so only prestressing forces
and eccentricity should be detailed. The concrete sections should be detailed so that available systems
can be installed. Design the thickness of webs and flanges to facilitate concrete placement. Generally,
web thickness for post-tensioned bridges shall be at least 12 inches.
C. Shop Plans
The shop plans are used to detail, install, and stress the post-tensioning system selected by the
Contractor. These plans must contain sufficient information to allow the engineer to check their
compliance with the contract plans. These plans must also contain the location of anchorages,
stressing data, and arrangement of tendons.
6.1.7 Connections (Joints)
The connections or joints must divide the structure into a logical pattern of separate elements which also
permit ease of manufacture and assembly.
The connection or joint surfaces should be oriented perpendicular to the centroidal axis of the precast
element.
Types of Connections (Joints):
Connections or joints are either wide or match cast. Depending on their width, they may be filled
with cast-in-place concrete or grouted. Match cast joints are normally bonded with an epoxy bonding
agent. Dry match cast joints are not recommended.
Shear and Alignment Keys:
In order to assist shear transmission in wide joints, use a suitable system of keys. The shape of the
keys may be chosen to suit a particular application and they can be either single keys or multiple
keys. Single keys are generally large and localized whereas multiple keys generally cover as much
of the joint surface area as is practical.

Single Key Multiple Keys

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Single keys provide an excellent guide for erection of elements. Single keys are preferred for all
match cast joints.
For all types of joints, the surfaces must be clean, free from grease and oil, etc. When using epoxy for
bonding, the joints should be lightly sand-blasted to remove laitance. For cast-in-place or other types
of wide joints, the adjacent concrete surfaces should be roughened and kept thoroughly wet, prior to
construction of the joint. Cast-in-place joints are generally preferred.
6.1.8 Deflection and Camber
Deflections of prestressed concrete beams can be predicted with greater accuracy than those for reinforced
concrete beams. Since prestressed concrete is more or less homogeneous and obeys ordinary laws of
flexure and shear, the deflection can be computed using elementary methods. However, accurate predic-
tions of the deflections are difficult to determine, since modulus of elasticity of concrete, Ec, varies with
stress and age of concrete. Also, the effects of creep on deflections are difficult to estimate. For practical
purposes, an accuracy of 10 to 20 percent is often sufficient. Prestressing can be used advantageously to
control deflections, however, there are cases where excessive camber due to prestress have caused
problems. For normal design, in lieu of more accurate methods, the deflection and camber of prestressed
members may be estimated by the multipliers as given in Table 6.1.8-1.
Multipliers for Estimating Long-term Deflection of Prestressed Concrete Girders
Table 6.1.8-1

Normal Strength High Strength


Concrete fc′ <= 7.0 ksi Concrete fc′ > 7.0 ksi

Non- Non-
Composite Composite Composite Composite

Deflection at Erection
Apply to the elastic deflection due to the member weight 1.85 1.85 1.75 1.75
at release of prestress
Apply to the elastic deflection due to prestressing at 1.80 1.80 1.70 1.70
release of prestress

Deflection at Final
Apply to the elastic deflection due to the member weight 2.70 2.40 2.50 2.20
at release of prestress
Apply to the elastic deflection due to prestressing at 2.45 2.20 2.25 2.10
release of prestress
Apply to the elastic deflection due to the Super Imposed 3.00 3.00 2.75 2.75
Dead Loads
Apply to the elastic deflection due to weight of slab ---- 2.30 ---- 2.15
release of prestress

P65:DP/BDM6

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6.2 Precast Sections


Precast sections are generally cast in a permanent plant or somewhere near the construction site and then
erected. Precasting permits better material quality control and is often more economical than cast-in-place
concrete. The precast ‘U’ sections are commonly called ‘bathtubs’ which can be joined together with
“wet joint.”
6.2.1 Pre-Tensioning
Pre-tensioning is accomplished by stressing high strength steel strands to a predetermined tension and
then placing concrete around the strands, while the stress is maintained. After the concrete has hardened,
the strands are released and the concrete, which has become bonded to the tendon, is prestressed as a
result of the strands attempting to relax to their original length. The strand stress is maintained during
placing and curing of the concrete by anchoring the ends of strands to abutments that may be as much as
500 feet apart. The abutments and appurtenances used in this procedure are referred to as pre-tensioning
bed or bench.
6.2.2 Post-Tensioning
Post-tensioning consists of installing steel tendons into a hollow metalic duct in a structure after the
concrete sections are cast. These tendons are usually anchored at each end of the structure and stressed to
a design strength using a hydraulic jacking system. Commonly the tendons are encased in a tight metal
tube. This tube is referred to as a sheath or duct and remains in the structure. After the tendon has been
stressed, the duct is filled with grout which bonds the tendon to the concrete section and prevents corro-
sion of the strand. Finally, closure pours are made at the anchor heads to provide corrosion protection.
6.2.3 Washington Standard Prestressed Girder Sections
Washington State Standard girders were adopted in the mid-1950s. These girder shapes proved to be very
efficient due to their thin webs and small flange fillets. These are still the most efficient shapes available
and variations of these girders have been adopted by other states. The original series was graduated in
10-foot increments from 30 feet to 100 feet.
In 1990, revisions were made to the prestressed concrete girder standards incorporating the results of the
research done at Washington State University on girders without end blocks. The new standards incorpo-
rate three major changes. They have a thicker web, the end blocks are eliminated, and have increased
distance between strands. The new standard designations are W74G, W58G, W50G, W42G, and deck
bulb tee standards W53DG and W35DG. The numbers refer to the depth of the section.
In 1999, deeper girders, commonly called “Supergirders” were added to the WSDOT prestressed concrete
girder standards. These new supergirders may be pretensioned or post-tensioned. The pretensioned
standards are designated as WF74G, W83G and W95G and the post-tensioned standards are designated
as W83PTG and W95PTG.
A. Properties
The properties which are needed for design of standard girders are listed in Appendix 6.4-A3-1 and 2.
B. Section Geometry
Table 6.2.3-1 gives the dimensions of the Washington State Standard Girder Sections.

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Dimensions of Standard Prestressed Girder Sections


Table 6.2.3-1

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C. Basic Assumptions
The following basic assumptions are used in the design of these standard girders. Figure 6.2.3-1
illustrates some of the factors which are constant in the WSDOT Prestressed Girder Design computer
program. Figure 6.2.3-2 show variations from those assumptions for a typical backwall design and a
typical notched girder design.

Typical Prestressed Girder Span


Figure 6.2.3-1

Typical Prestressed Girder Configuration


Figure 6.2.3-2
Figure 6.2.3-3 and Appendix 6.5-A1 through A7 show the standard strand positions in these girders.

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1. Prestress
For final conditions, the designer shall assume the prestress acting on the section to be NAs
(.70 fs′-PL) for stress relieved strands and NAs (.75 fs′-PL) for low relaxation strands.
Where:
N = number of stressed strands passing through the section
As = the area of one strand, in2
fs′ = the ultimate strength in ksi
PL = indicates total prestress losses in ksi in pretensioned members.
For checking of stresses during release, lifting, transportation, and erection of prestressed girders,
the elastic and time dependent losses shall be as follows:
Release — 1 day (lifting of girders from casting beds) computed losses
1 month — 4 months (transportation and erection of girders) 35 ksi
After 4 months computed losses
2. Strand Patterns
Standard strand patterns are shown in Appendix 6.5-A1 through A7.
D. Design Procedure
1. General
The WSDOT “Prestressed Girder Design” computer program uses a trial and error method to
arrive at solution for stress requirement and is the preferred method for final design of length
and spacing. Some publications suggest various direct means for determining stress and position,
but the procedures are generally quite complex.
2. Stress Conditions
The stress limits as described in Table 6.2.3-2 must be met for the girder and its prestress. One
or more of the conditions described below may govern design. Each condition is the result of
the summation of stresses with each load acting on its appropriate section (such as girder only,
composite section). Precast girders shall also be checked during lifting, transportation, and
erection stages by the designer to assure that girder delivery is feasible. Impact during the lifting
stage shall be 0 percent and during transportation shall be 20 percent of the dead load of the
girder. Impact shall be applied either upward or downward to produce maximum stresses.

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Prestressed Girder Strand Locations


Figure 6.2.3-3
Note: Fo may be increased in 1-inch increments to keep slope of harped strands below the slope limit.
Fb may be increased in 1-inch increments in order to reduce tension at the top of the girder at
harping point at time of strand release.

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Condition Stress Location Allowable Stress

Temporary Stress Tensile In areas other than 3 √fci′ <=0.2 psi


at Transfer Precompressed
Tensile Zone
Precompressed 6 √fci′
Tensile Zone

Compression All Locations 0.6 fci′

Temporary Stress Tensile In areas other than 6 √fci′


at Lifting Precompressed
Tensile Zone
Precompressed 6 √fci′
Tensile Zone

Compression All Locations 0.6 fci′

Tempoary Stress Tensile In areas other than 6 √fci′


at Shipping Precompressed
Tensile Zone
Precompressed 6 √fci′
Tensile Zone

Compression All Locations 0.6 fc′

Final Stresses at Tensile Precompressed 0.0 psi


Service Load Tensile Zone

Compression All Locations due to:


Permanent loads 0.45 fc′
and effective
Prestressing Load
Live load, one-half 0.4 fc′
permanent loads
and effective
prestressing load
All load combinations 0.6 fc′

Allowable Concrete Stresses


Table 6.2.3-2

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E. Prestressing Strands
1. Straight Strands
The position of the straight strands in the bottom flange and temporary strands for shipping and
handling in top flange has been standardized for each size of flange. Those strand positions and
the girder flange size are summarized in Appendix 6.5-A1 through A7.
2. Harped Strands
The harped strands are bundled at the 4/10 points of the span for series W83G, W95G, WF74G
and W58G and at the 1/3 points at the girders for series W50G and W42G. The harped strands
are bundled at the harping points. Bundles are limited to 12 strands each. Twelve (12) and fewer
harped strands are placed in a single bundle with the centroid normally 3 inches above the bottom
of the girder. Strands in excess of 12 are bundled in a second bundle with the centroid 6 inches
above the bottom of the girder. At the girder ends, the strands are splayed to a normal pattern.
The centroid of strands at both the girder end and the harping point may be varied to suit girder
stress requirements.
3. Stirrups
Shear for computation of stirrup requirements is computed at a point 1/2 of the girder depth from
the end of the girder and at the harping point. Ultimate shear is computed at these points based on
1.3 DL + 2.17 (L.L. + Impact). The portion of this shear which is carried by the concrete is given
in section 9.20.2 of AASHTO. The stirrup spacing is then calculated using the formula:
Av • fy(d)
S= where Vs = Vu / 0.85 – Vc and
Vs
d is the distance from the extreme compressive fiber to the centroid of the prestressing force.
For precast girders made continuous for live load, d shall be the distance from the extreme
compressive fiber to the centroid of the negative moment reinforcement, i.e., d = h + A - 4.5",
where h = height of the girder; A as defined in Subsection 6.3.4 A(3).
Shear reinforcement are furnished by two vertical bars. Maximum spacing is taken to be 1 foot
6 inches The point where 1-foot 6-inch spacing starts is found by interpolating between the point
1/2 of the girder depth from the end of the girder and the harping point to find the location where
the portion of the shear carried by the stirrups (Vs) yields 1 foot 6 inches Vs for 1-foot 6-inch
Avfy(dmin)
stirrup spacing can be found by using Vs (18) = where dmin is the smallest of the
18
d values found for the point 1/2 of the girder depth from the end of the girder and the harping
point. The 1-foot 6-inch stirrup spacing is used throughout the rest of the girder.
If the stirrup spacing at the point 1/2 of the girder depth from the end of the girder is smaller than
about 1 foot 2 inches, further interpolation may be done to obtain a multiple step increment of
stirrup spacing.
4. End Section Reinforcement
The Washington State Standard Prestressed Concrete Girders are not provided with a thickened
end block section, but have constant thickness webs. The end section reinforcement is detailed
on the Office Standard Plans. This reinforcement is based on the requirement to resist bursting
forces due to strand force development in this area. If the stirrup spacing required at the end of

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the girder is less than shown on the Office Standard Plans, end section stirrups spacing on the
Standard Plans should be altered to show this spacing. For a distance of 1.5d from the end of the
girder, reinforcement shall be placed to confine the p/s steel in bottom flange. The spacing of
confinement reinforcement shall not exceed 6 inch and shall be shaped to enclose the strands.
F. Development of Prestressing Strand
1. General
In determining the resistance of pretensioned concrete components in their end zones, the gradual
buildup of the strand force in the transfer and development lengths shall be taken into account.
The prestress force may be assumed to vary linearly from 0.0 at the point where bonding
commences to a maximum at the transfer length.
Between the transfer length and the development length, the strand force may be assumed
to increase in a parabolic manner, reaching the tensile strength of the strand at the end of
development length.
For the purpose of this article, the transfer length may be taken as 60 strand diameters and the
development length shall be taken as specified in Article 6.2.3F2.
The effects of debonding shall be considered as specified in Article 6.2.3F3.
2. Bonded Strand
Pretensioning strand shall be bonded beyond the critical section for development length, in
inches, taken as:
Ld ′ ≥ (f* –
su
2
3 )
fse D

where:
D = nominal strand diameter (in)
fse = effective stress in prestressing steel after all losses (ksi)
fsu
* = in the prestressing steel at nominal strength (ksi)
3. Partially Debonded Strands
Where a portion or portions of a pretensioning strand are not bonded and where tension exists
in the precompressed tensile zone, the development length specified in Article 6.2.3F2 shall
be doubled.
The number of partially debonded strands should not exceed 25 percent of the total number
of strands.
The number of debonded strands in any horizontal row shall not exceed 40 percent of the strands
in that row.
Debonded strands shall be symmetrically distributed about the centerline of the member.
Debonded lengths of pairs of strands that are symmetrically positioned about the centerline of
the member shall be equal.
Exterior strands in each horizontal row shall be fully bonded.

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4. Unbonding Strands
Where it is necessary to prevent a strand from actively supplying prestress force near the end
of a girder, it may be unbonded. This can be accomplished by taping a close fitting pvc tube to
the stressed strand from the end of the girder to some point where the strand can be allowed to
develop its load. Since this is not a common procedure, it should be carefully detailed on the
plans. It is important when this method is used in construction that the taping of the tube be
done in such a manner that grout cannot leak into the tube and provide an undesirable bond of
the strand.
5. Strand Development Outside of Girder
For girders made continuous for live load, extended bottom prestress strands are used to carry
positive live load, creep, and other moments from one span to another. Usually four strands per
girder will provide an adequate resistance. Strands used for this purpose must be developed in the
short distance between the two girder ends. This is normally accomplished by requiring strand
chucks and anchors as shown in Figure 6.2.3-4. The nominal development length is normally
2 feet. For wide crossbeams, the strands may be extended straight and a 1 foot 0 inch splice used.
At back walls, which are connected to the superstructure, the extended strands may be used to
withstand earthquake forces and, in this case, should be developed accordingly. The number
of strands to be extended cannot exceed the number of straight strands available in the girder.
Designer shall calculate the exact number of extended straight strands needed to develop the
required moment capacity at the end of girder. This calculation shall be based on the tensile
strength of the strands, the stress imposed to the anchor, and concrete bearing against the
projected area of the anchor.
The appropriate strand stress available to resist ultimate load (fgu*) at this section shall be no
greater than [(Ld / D -2/3 fse] where:
Ld is the developed length available
D is the diameter of the strand
fse is the effective prestress in steel after all losses.

Strand Development
Figure 6.2.3-4

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G. Fabrication and Handling


1. Shop Plans
Fabricators of prestressed girders are required to submit shop plans which show specific details
for each girder that they construct. These shop plans are checked and approved by the Project
Engineer’s office for conformance with the Contract Plans and specifications.
2. Special Problems for Fabricators
a. Strand Tensioning
The method selected for strand tensioning may affect the design of the girders. The strand
arrangements shown in the office standard plans and included in the Prestressed Girder
Design computer program are satisfactory for tensioning methods used by fabricators in this
state. Harped strands are normally tensioned by pulling them as straight strands to a partial
tension. The strands are then deflected vertically as necessary to give the required harping
angle and strand stress. In order to avoid overtensioning the harped strands by this proce-
dure, the slope of the strands is limited to a maximum of 6:1 for 1/2″ φ strands and 8:1 for
0.6″ φ strands. The straight strands are tensioned by straight jacking.
b. Hold Down Forces
Forces on the hold-down units are developed as the harped strands are raised. The hold-down
device provided by the fabricator must be able to hold the vertical component of the harping
forces. Normally a two or more hold-down unit is required. Standard commercial hold-down
units have been preapproved for use with particular strand groups.
c Numbers of Strands
Since the prestressing beds used by the girder fabricators can carry several girders in a line,
it is desirable that girders have the same number of strands where practical. This allows
several girders to be set up and cast at one time and saves both time and strand material.
3. Handling and Hauling of Long Prestressed Girders
a. General
Considerations for handling and shipping long prestressed girders relate primarily to weight,
length, height, and lateral stability. The effect of each variable differs considerably depend-
ing on where the handling is taking place: in the plant, on the road, or at the jobsite.
b. In-Plant Handling
The primary considerations for in-plant handling are weight and lateral stability. The
maximum weight that can be handled by precasting plants in the Pacific Northwest is
200 kips. Pretensioning lines are normally long enough so that the weight of a girder
governs capacity, rather than its length. Headroom is also not generally a concern for the
deeper sections.
Lateral stability can be a concern when handling long, slender girders. When the girder is
stripped from the form, the prestressing level is higher and the concrete strength is lower
than at any other point in the life of the member.

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The WSDOT prestressed girder sections are relatively wide and stiff about their weak axes
and, as a result, exhibit good stability, even at their longer pretentioned lengths. The simplest
method of improving stability is to move the lifting devices away from the ends. This
invariably increases the required concrete release strength, because decreasing the distance
between lifting devices increases the concrete stresses at the harp point. Stresses at the
support may also govern, depending on the exit location of the harped strands.
Alternatively, the girder sections may be braced to provide adequate stability. Temporary
prestressing in the top flange can also be used to provide a larger factor of safety against
cracking.
Other types of bracing have also been used successfully for many years. These systems
are generally based on experience rather than theory. Other methods of improving lateral
stability, such as raising the roll axis of the girder, are also an option.
For stability analysis of prestressed girder during in-plant handling in absence of more
accurate information, the following parameters shall be used:
• Height of pick point above top of girder = 0.0 in
• Lifting loop or lifting bars placement tolerance = 0.25 in
• Maximum girder sweep tolerance = 0.00052 in/in
c. Pick Up Points
The office standard plans show pick-up points for the girders. These points are critical since
the girder is in its most highly stressed condition just after strand release. In some cases,
fabricators may request to move the pick-up points toward the center of the girder. The
request must be reviewed carefully since a decrease in girder dead load moment near
centerline span may cause overstressing of the girder. Similarly, the girders must never be
supported at any point other than the centerline of bearing during storage. The girders are
also very sensitive to lateral loads and accordingly must be stored in a true vertical position.
d. Girder Lateral Bending
Long prestressed girders are very flexible and highly susceptible to lateral bending. Lateral
bending failures are sudden, catastrophic, costly, pose a serious threat to workers and
surroundings, and therefore must be guarded against. The office standard plans state that
girders over certain given lengths must be laterally braced and that all girders must be
handled carefully. It is the fabricator’s responsibility to provide adequate bracing and
provide suitable handling facilities. On unusually long girders, however, the designer should
give this matter additional consideration. Published material on girder lateral bending should
be consulted and used to assure the constructability of the girder design chosen (14, 17,
18, 19).
e. Shipping
The ability to ship deep girder sections can be influenced by a large number of variables,
including mode of transportation, weight, length, height, and lateral stability. Some variables
have more influence than others. As such, the feasibility of shipping deep girders is strongly
site-dependent. It is recommended that routes to the site be investigated during the prelimi-
nary design phase. To this end, on projects using long, heavy girders, WSDOT can place an
advisory in their special provisions including shipping routes, estimated permit fees, escort
vehicle requirements, Washington State Patrol requirements, and permit approval time.

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f. Mode of Transportation
Three modes of transportation are commonly used in the industry: truck, rail, and barge.
In Washington State, an overwhelming percentage of girders are transported by truck, so
discussion in subsequent sections will be confined to this mode. However, on specific
projects, it may be appropriate to consider rail or barge transportation.
Standard rail cars can usually accommodate larger loads than a standard truck. Rail cars
range in capacity from approximately 120 to 200 kips. However, unless the rail system runs
directly from the precasting plant to the jobsite, members must be trucked for at least some
of the route, and weight may be restricted by the trucking limitations.
For large number of girders construction, barge transportation is usually most economical.
Product weights and dimensions are generally not limited by barge delivery, but by the
handling equipment on either end. In most cases, if a product can be made and handled in
the plant, it can be shipped by barge. Of course, this applies only if both the plant and jobsite
are fully accessible by barge.
g. Weight Limitations
Girders shipped in some states have weighed in excess of 200 kips. The net weight limitation
with trucking equipment currently available in Washington State is approximately 167 to
180 kips, if a reasonable delivery rate (number of pieces per day) is to be maintained.
Product weights of up to 200 kips can be hauled with currently available equipment at a
limited rate.
Local carriers should be consulted on the feasibility of shipping heavy girders on specific
projects. Some girders can be fabricated and shipped in two or more segments to reduce the
weight and assembled and post-tensioned at the bridge site. However, it is more economical
to fabricate and ship a single-piece pretensioned girder whenever possible.
h. Length Limitations
Length limitations are generally governed by turning radii on the route to the jobsite.
Potential problems can be circumvented by moving the support points closer together (away
from the ends of the girder), or by selecting alternate routes. A rule of thumb of 130 feet
between supports is commonly used. The support points can be moved away from the ends
while still maintaining the concrete stresses within allowable limits. Length limitations are
not expected to be the governing factor for most project locations.
i. Height Limitations
The height of a deep girder section sitting on a jeep and steerable trailer is of concern when
considering overhead obstructions on the route to the jobsite. The height of the support is
approximately 6 feet above the roadway surface. When adding the depth of the girder,
including camber, the overall height from the roadway surface to the top of concrete can
rapidly approach 14 feet. Overhead obstructions along the route should be investigated for
adequate clearance in the preliminary design phase. Obstructions without adequate clearance
must be bypassed by selecting alternate routes.

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Expectations are that, in some cases, overhead clearance will not accommodate the vertical
stirrup projection on deeper WSDOT standard girder sections. Alternate stirrup configura-
tions can be used to attain adequate clearance, depending on the route from the plant to
the jobsite.
j. Lateral Stability During Shipping
Long, slender members can become unstable when supported near the ends. However, the
stability of girders sitting on flexible supports is governed by the rotational stiffness of the
support rather than the girder. Recommended factors of safety 1.0 against cracking, and
1.5 against failure (rollover of the truck) should be used.
The control against cracking the top flange is obtained by introducing the number of temp-
orary top strands, jacked to the same load as the permanent strands, required to provide a
factor of safety of 1.0. This variable depends on the combination of girder dead load, pre-
stressing, and tension in the top flange induced by the girder tilt. The calculated tilt includes
both the superelevation and its magnification based on the truck’s rotational stiffness.
For stability analysis of prestressed girders during shipping, in absence of more accurate
information, the following parameters shall be used:
• Roll stiffness of truck/trailer = 40500 kip-in/rad
• Height of girder bottom above roadway = 72 in
• Height of truck roll center above road = 24 in
• Center to center distance between truck tires = 72 in
• Maximum expected roadway superelevation = 0.06
• Maximum girder sweep tolerance = 0.001042 in/in