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Monitoring and Surveillance

Systems Overview

Monitoring and Surveillance


Real-time measurements from permanentmonitoring sensors help identify, diagnose and
act to mitigate production problems
Constant surveillance also facilitates detailed
analysis for production optimization and
improves the accuracy of the production
allocation

Surveillance

Why Monitoring?
Update reservoir model
Transient testing
Optimise gaslift, stimulation / fracture operations
Monitor water or gas entry
Reduce intervention
Enable determination of downhole flow rate
Real time observation and control
Determine contribution per zone or well
Interference testing during planned shut ins

What is RMC
It provides technologies for monitoring and controlling
reservoir(s) performance throughout its life-cycle with a
minimum of intervention
It allows for production from, or injection into, multiple
reservoirs or zones through a single wellbore

This type of completion is often referred to as an


Intelligent Completion.

Reservoir Monitoring and Control


No place to hide hydrocarbons(*)
Update
Reservoir
Model

Optimization
Monitor

(*)

Smart Wells Forum, SPE-France, Sept.01

Control

Decision Making

Data
Management

Data Acquisition

Components of Optimization Loop

Surface Control Unit

Control
Valves

Sensors

Surface Acquisition
Unit

Reservoir Monitoring Equipment

Production Sensors
Pressure / Temperature
gauges
FloWatcher
Gradiomanometer
Sensa Fiber Optics

Reservoir Sensors
Resistivity or Inductive
Arrays
Behind casing pressure
sensors
Geophones

Flow Network: Illustration for Gas Lift Well


Production

Lift-gas
Wing &
Master Valve

Controller or
Casing Choke

10

11

20

12
13
14

Flowline
Choke

15 4

21

25

22

26

Separator

16 5

Compressor 1

23
Compressor 2

24

From Well
To Well
Production
Header

Gas
Header

Compressor 3

From Well
Gas Lift Valve
To Well
Tubing

Valve
Choke
Measurement #

Casing
Packer

1
1

Perforations

27

Flow Network: Illustration of Measurement List


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

Bottom hole pressure


Bottom hole temperature
Flowing tubing head pressure
Annulus pressure
Lift gas pressure (CHP)
SSSV status
SSV status
Chemical injection flow (Injection gas)
Chemical injection (Injection gas) ppm
Lift gas control valve percent open
Lift gas rate setpoint
Lift gas pressure (upstream of meter)
Lift gas meter differential pressure (dp)
Lift gas meter temperature (upstream of control valve)
Lift gas flow rate
Lift gas temperature
Chemical injection flow (Production)
Chemical injection (Production) ppm
Sand detection
Flow line pressure differentual
Flow line pressure
Flow line temperature
Bulk lift gas temperature
Bulk lift gas pressure
Total gas production rate
Water production rate
Net oil production rate

Well (Subsurface)
Well (Subsurface)
Well (Surface)
Well (Surface)
Well (Surface)
Well (Surface)
Well (Surface)
Well (Surface)
N/A
Well (Surface)
N/A
Well (Surface)
Well (Surface)
Well (Surface)
N/A
n/a
Well (Surface)
N/A
Well (Flow line)
Well (Flow line)
Well (Flow line)
Well (Flow line)
Injection Manifold
Injection Manifold
N/A
N/A
N/A

Behind Casing Reservoir Sensors


Common characteristics
Sensor are in direct contact with the reservoir,
installed outside the casing
Installed in the well or dedicated observation
well

Sensor types
Pressure - Reservoir pressure monitoring
Resistivity electrodes - Water saturation
monitoring
Geophones - Gas saturation monitoring

Behind Casing Pressure Sensors

Eliminates uncertainty from extrapolating reservoir pressure from a tubing gauge

Stops fluid segregation in the completion from effecting pressure transients

Allows monitoring of shallower reservoirs by wells with deeper completions

Allows direct measurement of P reservoir pressure if casing is not perforated

Allows monitoring of individual reservoir pressures in a stacked reservoir

Allows monitoring of the pressure drop across the completion

Injection Well

Pressure Sensors
Determining fluid front
interface locations by the
difference in their mobility
using time lapse pressure
transient analysis

End of the Course

Thank You