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Heat Transfer Mechanisms:

Conduction

Radiation

Convection (mass movement of fluids)

Conduction

Conduction heat transfer occurs only when there is

physical contact between bodies (systems) at different

temperatures by molecular motion.

Heat transfer through solid bodies is by conduction

alone, whereas the heat may transfer from a solid

surface to a fluid partly by conduction and partly by

convection.

T

q y = k

y

the heat flux in

the y direction

(W/m2)

thermal

conductivity

(W/m.K)

temperature

gradient in the

y-direction

(K/m)

The thermal conductivity of a substance is defined as the heat

flow per unit area per unit time when the temperature

decreases by one degree in unit distance.

The thermal conductivity is a material property which reflects

the relative ease or difficulty of the transfer of energy through

the material. It depends on the bonding and structure of the

material.

Thermal Diffusivity ()

The thermal diffivity is a fundamental quantity. It is

analogous to momentum and mass diffusivities.

=k/Cv

where and Cv are the density and specific heat of the

material, respectively.

In mks system, the unit of thermal diffusivity is m2.s-1,

while in the cgs system it is usually cm2.s-1.

Thermal Radiation

Thermal radiation is the energy radiated from hot

surfaces as electromagnetic waves. It does not require

medium for its propagation. Heat transfer by radiation

occur between solid surfaces, although radiation from

gases is also possible. Solids radiate over a wide range of

wavelengths, while some gases emit and absorb radiation

on certain wavelengths only.

The energy flux emitted by an ideal radiator is

proportional to the fourth power of its absolute

temperature.

eb=T4

where eb is the emissive power and is the StefanBoltzmann constant.

body, reflected from the body, or transmitted through the body. The

fraction of the incident radiation which is absorbed by the body is

called absorptivity ( )

Other fractions of incident radiation which are reflected and

transmitted are called reflectivity (symbol

) and transmissivity,

The sum of these fractions should be unity i.e.

Convection

Convection is the heat transfer within a fluid, involving gross

motion of the fluid itself.

Fluid motion may be caused by differences in density as in free

convection. Density differences are a direct result of temperature

differences between the fluid and the solid wall surface.

In forced convection, the fluid motion is produced by mechanical

means, such as a domestic fan-heater in which a fan blows air

across an electric element.

When a moving fluid at one temperature is in contact with a

solid at a different temperature, heat exchanges between the

solid and the fluid by conduction at a rate given by Fouriers

law. Under such cases the distribution of temperature within

the fluid and the heat flux at the wall can be determined by

using heat transfer coefficient, h,

h=q0/(Ts-Tf) =-[k(dT/dy)0]/(Ts-Tf)

where

Ts, the surface temperature

Tf, bulk fluid temperature

q0, heat flux at the wall

(dT/dy)0, the temperature gradient in the fluid normal to the

wall at the fluid-solid interface.

k, the conductivity of the fluid

Conduction of energy in a gas phase is primarily by transfer of

translational energy from molecule to molecule as the faster

moving (higher energy) molecules collide with the slower ones.

C vV

k =

3

where Cv, the heat capacity per unit volume, V, the average

1/ 2

speed, , the mean free path.

3

1

k= 2

d

B T )

3

m

absolute temperature, d, the center to center distance of two

molecules.

The thermal conductivity of gases is independent of pressure and

depends only on temperature. This conclusion is valid up to about

ten atmospheres (1.0133 x 105 Pa)

Eucken developed the following equation for the thermal

conductivity of polyatomic gases at normal pressures,

1.25R

k = C p +

pressure.

The thermal conductivity of gas mixtures can be estimated within

a few percent by the following equation

k mix =

X ikiM

1/3

i

X iM

1/3

i

weight, Mi, and intrinsic thermal conductivity ki.

Solids transmit thermal energy by two modes:

elastic vibrations of the lattice moving through the crystal in

the form of waves

free electrons moving through the lattice also carry energy

similar to the case in gases (this is observed in metals)

Each lattice vibration (there is always a spectrum of vibrations)

may be described as a traveling wave carrying energy and obeying

the laws of quantum mechanics. By analogy with light theory, the

waves in a crystal exhibit the characteristics of particles and are

called phonons.

Two types of phonon-phonon interaction are observed in solids:

Normal or N-type

Umklapp (U-process) collision

1.25R

k = C p +

Since the number of phonons increases with temperature and the

wavelength of phonons ph is proportional to 1/T. At room

temperature and above, molar heat capacity v for most

materials is roughly constant the thermal conductivity of a

solid which conducts energy only by phonons, decreases with

increasing temperature.

ph = 20Tmd/ 2T

where Tm, melting point, T = absolute temperature, d, crystallattice dimension, and , Gruneisens constant (~2 for most solids

at ordinary temperatures).

THIS IS GENERALLY OBSERVED IN ELECTRICALLY

INSULATING SUBSTANCES SUCH AS OXIDES (BUT NOT

IN THE FORM OF POROUS, BULK MATERIALS).

OXIDES

POROUS

OXIDES

Phonons are also scattered by

differences in isotopic

masses

chemical impurities

dislocations

second phases

In electrical conductors, in addition to phonons, conduction

electrons contribute to thermal conductivity. The electronic

contribution to the thermal conductivity, kel,

k el =

2 n e K B2 T el

3 m eV f

where ne, the number of free electrons per cm3, el the mean free

path of electron, Vf, electron velocity at the Fermi surface and

me, electron mass.

Wiedmann-Franz law and the Lorentz number, L, are utilized to

determine what is the dominant mechanism for thermal

conduction

k el

L =

= 2 . 45 x 10

eT

W ohm K - 2

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