16. Function
221
Chapter 3
43. g (1) = 5 + 1 = 6
45. Using #41 and #43, we see that
f (2) + g (1) = 7 + 6 = 1 .
47. Using #41 and #43, we see that
3 f (2) 2 g (1) = 3(7) 2(6) = 33 .
49. Using #41 and #43, we see that
f (2)
7
= .
g (1)
6
51.
f (0) f (2) ( 2(0) 3) ( 7 )
=
6
g (1)
=
53.
52.
2
G (0) G (3) ( 0 + 2(0) 7 ) ( 4 )
=
F (1)
3
7 + 4
=
= 1
3
3 + 7 2
=
6
3
f ( x + 1) f ( x 1) = [ 2( x + 1) 3] [ 2( x 1) 3]
= [ 2 x + 2 3] [ 2 x 2 3]
= [ 2 x 1] [ 2 x 5]
= 2x 1 2x + 5
= 4
54.
F (t + 1) F (t 1) = 4 (t + 1) 2 4 (t 1) 2
= 4 ( t 2 + 2t + 1) 4 ( t 2 2t + 1)
= 4 t 2 2t 1 4 t 2 + 2t 1
= 4 t 2 2t 1 4 + t 2 2t + 1
= 4t
55.
g ( x + a) f ( x + a) = [5 + ( x + a) ] [ 2( x + a) 3]
= [5 + x + a ] [ 2 x + 2a 3]
= 5 + x + a 2 x 2a + 3
= 8 xa
222
Section 3.1
56.
G ( x + b) + F (b) = ( x + b) 2 + 2( x + b) 7 + 4 b 2
= x 2 + 2bx + b 2 + 2 x + 2b 7 + 4 b 2
= x 2 + 2bx + 2 x + 2b 3
57.
f ( x + h) f ( x) [ 2( x + h) 3] [ 2 x 3]
=
h
h
2 x + 2h 3 2 x + 3
=
h
2h
=
= 2
h
58.
2
2
F (t + h) F (t ) 4 (t + h) 4 t
=
h
h
2
4 ( t + 2ht + h 2 ) 4 t 2
=
h
4 t 2 2ht h 2 4 t 2
=
h
2
4 t 2ht h 2 4 + t 2
=
h
2
2ht h
h(2t + h)
=
=
= ( 2t + h )
h
h
59.
g (t + h) g (t ) [5 + (t + h) ] [5 + t ]
=
h
h
5+t + h5t h
=
= =1
h
h
60.
2
2
G ( x + h) G ( x) ( x + h) + 2( x + h) 7 x + 2 x 7
=
h
h
x 2 + 2hx + h 2 + 2 x + 2h 7 x 2 2 x + 7
=
h
2hx + h 2 + 2h h(2 x + h + 2)
=
=
= 2x + h + 2
h
h
223
Chapter 3
73. Since x 2 + 1 0 , for every real number 74. Since x 2 + 4 0 , for every real number
x, the domain is \ .
x, the domain is \ .
This is written using interval notation as
This is written using interval notation as
( , ) .
( , ) .
75. The domain is the set of all real
numbers x such that
7 x 0,
that is 7 x .
This is written using interval notation as
( , 7] .
224
Section 3.1
( , 52 .
+
HJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ
G


2
+
HJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ
G


5
( , ) .
3
2
HJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ
G


5
Chapter 3
+
HJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG


2
+
HJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG


4
notation as ( , 32 ) .
5
6
x 34 = 23 .
10 x 9 = 8
10 x = 17
x = 17
10
x = 2, 4
226
Section 3.1
99.
2 x( x 5)3 12( x 5) 2 = 0
100.
3x( x + 3) 2 6( x + 3)3 = 0
2( x 5) [ x( x 5) 6] = 0
2
3( x + 3) 2 [ x 2( x + 3)] = 0
2( x 5) 2 ( x 2 5 x 6) = 0
3( x + 3) 2 ( x 6 ) = 0
2( x 5) ( x 6)( x + 1) = 0
2
x = 3, 6
x = 1,5, 6
227
Chapter 3
108. The volume of a right circular cylindrical tank whose base radius is 10 ft and
whose height is h is given by V (h) = (10) 2 h = 100 h . If the height is increased by 2
ft, the corresponding volume would be:
V (h + 2) = (10) 2 (h + 2) = 100 h + 200
So, the volume increased by 200 cubic ft, which corresponds to
200 7.48gal 4700 gal .
109. Yes. For because every input (year),
there corresponds to exactly one output
(federal funds rate).
111. (1989, 4000), (1993, 6000),
(1997, 6000), (2001, 8000), (2005,11000),
113. a) F(50) = number of tons of carbon
emitted by natural gas in 1950 = 0
b) g(50) = number of tons of coal emitted
by natural gas in 1950 = 1000
c) h(5) = 2000
115. Should apply the vertical line test to
determine if the relationship describes a
function. The given relationship IS a
function in this case.
228
Section 3.1
117.
f ( x + 1) f ( x) + f (1) , in general. You
cannot distribute the function f through the
input at which you are evaluating it.
0 = 1 A
1= A
vertical line test x = 4 doesnt intersect the 123. False. This simply means that a
particular horizontal line intersects the
graph, but it still defines a function.
graph twice. Consider f ( x) = x 2 on \ . In
this case, f (a) = f ( a) , for all real
numbers a.
125.
1
is undefined only if b = 3 .
b3
C (2) C + 2
=
is undefined only if D = 2 . So,
D (2) D + 2
C (1) C + 1 C + 1
F (1) =
=
=
= (C + 1) = 4 implies that C = 5 .
D (1) D + 1 2 + 1
127. F (2) =
229
Chapter 3
128. Many functions will work here. The easiest ones to construct are of the form
b
g ( x) =
. For such a function, certainly g (5) is undefined. In order for (1, 1) to be
x 5
b
b
on the graph, it must be the case that 1 =
, so that b = 4 . So, one function
=
1 5 4
4
that works is g ( x) =
.
x 5
130. The domain is the set of all real
numbers x such that
129. The domain is the set of all real
x 2 a 2 = ( x a )( x + a ) 0 .
numbers x such that
CPs: x = a
x 2 a 2 = ( x a )( x + a) 0 , which is
+
+
equivalent to x a . So, the domain is
HJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG


( , a ) ( a, a ) ( a, ) .
131.
Section 3.1
133.
134.
Observe that
S ( r + 3 ) = 4 (r + 3) 2
Radius
increased by 3
Corresponding
surface area
= 4 ( r 2 + 6r + 9 )
= 4 r 2 + 4 ( 6r + 9 )
So, the surface area would increase by
4 ( 6r + 9 ) .
136.
231
Chapter 3
4. F ( x) = ( x ) + 2 ( x )
4
= x 4 + 2 x 2 = F ( x)
So, even. Thus, F cannot be odd.
6. f ( x) = 3( x)5 + 4( x)3
= ( 3x5 + 4 x3 ) f ( x)
= ( 5t 3 3t ) g (t )
f ( x) = ( 3x5 + 4 x3 )
= 3x + 4 x = f ( x)
So, odd.
5
So, odd.
7. h( x) = ( x) 2 + 2( x) = x 2 2 x h( x)
So, not even.
h( x ) = ( x 2 2 x ) = x 2 + 2 x h( x )
8. G ( x) = 2( x) 4 + 3( x)3
= 2 x 4 3 x3 G ( x)
So, not even.
G ( x ) = ( 2 x 4 3 x 3 ) G ( x )
10. g ( x) = ( x) 1 + ( x)
= ( x 1 + x ) g ( x)
= x 3 x h( x )
1
((
h( x ) = x x
1
)) = x
g ( x) = ( x 1 + x )
x = h( x )
So, odd.
11. f ( x) = x + 5 = 1 x + 5
= x 1 + x = g ( x)
So, odd.
(Note: ( x) 1 = 1x = 1x = ( x) 1 )
12. f ( x) = x + ( x) 2
= x + 5 = f ( x)
= 1 x + x 2 = f ( x)
232
Section 3.2
13. f ( x) = x = 1 x = f ( x)
14.
f ( x ) = ( x ) = x 3 = 1 x 3 = f ( x )
3
= t + 3 G (t )
18. f ( x) = 2 ( x) = 2 + x f ( x)
So, not even.
f ( x) = 2 + x f ( x)
So, not odd. Thus, neither.
= x 2 x g ( x)
So, not even.
20. f ( x) = ( x) 2 + 2 = x 2 + 2 = f ( x)
So, even. Thus, f cannot be odd.
g ( x) = x 2 x g ( x)
So, not odd. Thus, neither.
1
21. h( x) =
+ 3 h( x )
x
So, not even.
1
1
h( x ) =
+ 3 = 3 h( x )
x
x
So, not odd. Thus, neither.
23. Call the function h.
h is not even since h(1) = 4 0 = h(1) .
h is not odd since h(1) = 4 0 = h(1) .
Thus, neither.
22.
1
1
2( x) = 2 x h( x)
x
x
h( x ) =
233
Chapter 3
25.
Domain
Range
Increasing
Decreasing
Constant
( , )
[ 1, )
( 1, )
(3, 2)
d) 0
e) 1
f) 2
( , 3) ( 2, 1)
26.
Domain
Range
Increasing
Decreasing
Constant
[ 4, )
( ,3]
(1, 2 )
(3, 0) (2, )
d) 1
e) approximately 1.8
f) 1
[ 4, 3) (0,1)
27.
Increasing
[ 7, 2]
[ 5, 4]
( 4, 0 )
Decreasing
Constant
(7, 4) (0, 2)
nowhere
Domain
Range
d) 4
e) 1
f) 5
234
Section 3.2
28.
Increasing
( , )
( , )
( , 3) ( 3, )
Decreasing
Constant
(3,3)
nowhere
Domain
Range
d) 0
e) 3.5
f) approximately 3.3
29.
Increasing
( , )
( , )
( , 3) ( 4, )
Decreasing
Constant
nowhere
( 3, 4 )
Domain
Range
d) 2
e) 2
f) 2
30.
Range
( , )
( , )
Increasing
Decreasing
nowhere
( , )
Constant
nowhere
Domain
d) 2
e) 1
f) 1
235
Chapter 3
31.
Decreasing
( , )
[ 4, )
( 0, )
( , 0 )
Constant
nowhere
Domain
Range
Increasing
d) 4
e) 0
f) 0
32.
Domain
Range
Increasing
Decreasing
Constant
( , )
[0, )
( 3, )
( , 3)
( 3,3)
d) 0
e) 0
f) 0
33.
Increasing
( , 0 ) ( 0, )
( , 0 ) ( 0, )
( , 0 ) ( 0, )
Decreasing
Constant
nowhere
nowhere
Domain
Range
d) undefined
e) 3
f) 3
236
Section 3.2
34.
Decreasing
( , 4 ) ( 4, )
( , )
( , 0 ) ( 4, )
( 0, 4 )
Constant
nowhere
Domain
Range
Increasing
d) 4
e) approximately 3.5
f) approximately 2.5
35.
( , 0 ) ( 0, )
( ,5) [7]
( , 0 )
( 5, )
( 0,5)
Domain
Range
Increasing
Decreasing
Constant
d) undefined
e) 3
f) 7
36.
Decreasing
( 8, 0 ) ( 0, 4]
( 4,3]
( 8, 5) ( 0, 4 )
( 5, 0 )
Constant
nowhere
Domain
Range
Increasing
37.
d) undefined
e) approximately 0.8
f) 0
38.
( x + h) ( x + h) x x
=
h
x 2 + 2hx + h 2 x h x 2 + x
=
h
h ( 2 x + h 1)
= 2x + h 1
h
2
( x + h) 2 + 2( x + h) x 2 + 2 x
=
h
x 2 + 2hx + h 2 + 2 x + 2h x 2 2 x
=
h
h ( 2x + h + 2)
= 2x + h + 2
h
237
Chapter 3
39.
40.
( x + h) + 3( x + h) x + 3x
=
h
x 2 + 2hx + h 2 + 3x + 3h x 2 3x
=
h
h ( 2 x + h + 3)
= 2x + h + 3
h
2
( x + h) 2 + 5( x + h) x 2 + 5 x
=
h
x 2 2hx h 2 + 5 x + 5h + x 2 5 x
=
h
h ( 2 x h + 5 )
= 2 x h + 5
h
41.
( x + h) 2 3( x + h) + 2 x 2 3x + 2
42.
( x + h) 2 2( x + h) + 5 x 2 2 x + 5
=
h
x 2 + 2hx + h 2 3x 3h + 2 x 2 + 3x 2
=
h
h ( 2 x + h 3)
= 2x + h 3
h
43.
=
h
x 2 + 2hx + h 2 2 x 2h + 5 x 2 + 2 x 5
=
h
h ( 2x + h 2)
= 2x + h 2
h
44.
3( x + h) 2 + 5( x + h) 4 3 x 2 + 5 x 4
=
h
3x 2 6hx 3h 2 + 5 x + 5h 4 + 3x 2 5 x + 4
=
h
h ( 6 x 3h + 5 )
= 6 x 3h + 5
h
4( x + h) 2 + 2( x + h) 3 4 x 2 + 2 x 3
=
h
4 x 2 8hx 4h 2 + 2 x + 2h 3 + 4 x 2 2 x + 3
=
h
h ( 8 x 4h + 2 )
= 8 x 4h + 2
h
33 13 27 1
=
= 13
3 1
2
3 1
=1
47.
3 1
(1 2(3)) (1 2(1)) 5 (1)
49.
=
= 2
3 1
2
45.
51.
5 2(3) 5 2(1)
3 1
1 3
2
= 1
11 32
=
= 13
3 1 2
2(3) 2(1) 4
48.
= = 2
3 1
2
46.
1
3
( 9 3 ) ( 9 1 ) = 0 8 = 4
2
50.
3 1
52.
238
3 1 1 1
8
=
=1
3 1
2
2
Section 3.2
53.
Increasing
( , )
( , 2]
( , 2 )
Decreasing
Constant
nowhere
( 2, )
Domain
Range
54.
Range
( , )
{1} (1, )
Increasing
Decreasing
nowhere
( , 1)
Constant
( 1, )
Domain
( , )
[0, )
( 0, )
( 1, 0 )
( , 1)
239
Chapter 3
56.
Domain
Range
Increasing
Decreasing
Constant
( , )
[0, )
( 0, 2 )
( , 0 )
( 2, )
57.
Increasing
( , )
( , )
( , )
Decreasing
Constant
nowhere
nowhere
Domain
Range
58.
Decreasing
( , )
[0, )
( 0, )
( , 0 )
Constant
nowhere
Domain
Range
Increasing
240
Section 3.2
59.
Decreasing
( , )
[1, )
(1, )
( ,1)
Constant
nowhere
Domain
Range
Increasing
60.
Decreasing
( , )
( , )
( , 1) ( 0, )
( 1, 0 )
Constant
nowhere
Domain
Range
Increasing
61.
Increasing
( , )
[ 1,3]
( 1,3)
Decreasing
Constant
nowhere
( , 1) ( 3, )
Domain
Range
241
Chapter 3
62.
Increasing
( , 1) ( 1,3) ( 3, )
[ 1,3]
( 1,3)
Decreasing
Constant
nowhere
( , 1) ( 3, )
Domain
Range
Increasing
( , )
[1, 4]
(1, 2 )
Decreasing
Constant
nowhere
( ,1) ( 2, )
Domain
Range
64.
Increasing
( ,1) (1, 2 ) ( 2, )
[1, 4]
(1, 2 )
Decreasing
Constant
nowhere
( ,1) ( 2, )
Domain
Range
242
Section 3.2
65.
Decreasing
( , 2 ) ( 2, )
( , )
( 2,1)
( , 2 ) (1, )
Constant
nowhere
Domain
Range
Increasing
Decreasing
( ,1) (1, )
( , )
( 2,1)
( , 2 ) (1, )
Constant
nowhere
Domain
Range
Increasing
Increasing
( , )
[0, )
( 0, )
Decreasing
Constant
nowhere
( , 0 )
Domain
Range
243
Chapter 3
68.
Increasing
( ,1) (1, )
[1, )
(1, )
Decreasing
Constant
nowhere
( ,1)
Domain
Range
Range
( , )
( , )
Increasing
Decreasing
nowhere
( , 0 ) ( 0, )
Constant
nowhere
Domain
Increasing
( , )
( , )
( , 0 ) ( 0, )
Decreasing
Constant
nowhere
nowhere
Domain
Range
244
Section 3.2
71.
Decreasing
( ,1) (1, )
( , 1) ( 1, )
( 1,1)
( , 1) (1, )
Constant
nowhere
Domain
Range
Increasing
Decreasing
( ,1) (1, )
( ,1) (1, )
(1, )
( , 1)
Constant
nowhere
Domain
Range
Increasing
245
Chapter 3
73.
Decreasing
( , )
( , 2 ) [ 4, )
( , 2 ) ( 0, 2 ) ( 2, )
( 2, 0 )
Constant
nowhere
Domain
Range
Increasing
( , 1) ( 1,1) (1, )
[1, )
(1, )
( , 1)
( 1,1)
Increasing
( ,1) (1, )
( ,1) (1, )
( ,1) (1, )
Decreasing
Constant
nowhere
nowhere
Domain
Range
246
Section 3.2
76.
Decreasing
( , )
( 1, )
( 1, )
( , 1)
Constant
nowhere
Domain
Range
Increasing
C ( x) = 9 x, 50 < x 100
8 x, x > 100
0 x 10
2500 + 175
250 x,
( x 10)
, x > 10
C ( x) =
=
0.39 x,
0 x 10
3.90 + 0.12
( x 10)
, x > 10
C ( x) =
=
dining room
C ( x) =
3500 + 25
( x 100)
, x > 100
1000 +
Cost
for
first
#
of
guests
beyond
first
100
100 guests
247
Chapter 3
Amount upfront
Amount from 15% royalties
R ( x) = 50, 000 + 0.15(2, 000, 000) +
0.20(20)( x 100, 000) , 100, 000 < x
Amount upfront
Amount from 15% royalties
R ( x) = 35, 000 + 0.15(2, 000, 000) +
0.25(20)( x 100, 000) , x > 100, 000
Business
Costs
Studio
Rent
Cost of materials
for x units
248
Section 3.2
f ( x) = 0.80 + 0.17(2),
0.80 + 0.17(n),
0 x <1
1 x < 2
2 x<3
n x < n +1
91. a)
) (
88. Observe
0 x <1
1
1
1 x < 2
f ( x) = 1
2 x<3
n x < n +1
1
Using the
thegreatest
greatestinteger
integer
function,
function,
we we Using the g
have f ( x) =
have f ( x) = 1.13 + 0.17 a x b , x 0 .
cd x fg
1+ d
g
e100 h
89. f (t ) = 3(1)a b , t 0
1500 500
= 20 per year
1950 1900
7000 1500
b)
= 110 per year
2000 1950
93.
f ( x) = 1.13 + 0.17(2),
1.13 + 0.17(n),
, x0
90. f ( x) = (1)
5000 1500
= 140 per year
92. a)
1975 1950
7000 5000
b)
= 80 per year
2000 1975
94.
) (
= 16 ft/sec
Number miles
beyond first 30
249
Chapter 3
109.
110.
250
Section 3.3
16. y = x
17. y = 3 x
18. y = 13 x
19. y = x 3 4
20. y = ( x 3)3
21. y = ( x + 1)3 + 3
22. y = x 3
23. y = x 3
25.
24. y = x 3
26.
251
Chapter 3
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
252
Section 3.3
33.
35.
37.
34.
36.
38.
253
Chapter 3
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
254
Section 3.3
45.
46.
47.
48.
255
Chapter 3
256
Section 3.3
x = 1 x = x .)
257
Chapter 3
64. Since
2 x = ( x 2) , reflect the
258
Section 3.3
1
x
66. Since 2 x + 3 = ( x 2) + 3 ,
259
Chapter 3
graph of
1
x
75.
= ( x 2 6 x + 9 ) + 11 9
= ( x 3) + 2
2
260
Section 3.3
76.
= ( x 2 + 2 x + 1) 2 1
= ( x + 1) 3
2
77.
= ( x 2 + 2 x + 1) + 1
= ( x + 1) + 1
2
78.
= ( x2 6x + 9) 7 + 9
= ( x 3) + 2
2
261
Chapter 3
79.
= 2 ( x2 4 x + 4) + 3 8
= 2 ( x 2) 5
2
= 3 ( x 2 2 x + 1) + 5 3
= 3 ( x 1) + 2
2
262
Section 3.3
Any part of the graph of y = f ( x) that is below the xaxis is reflected above it for the
graph of y = f ( x) .
263
Chapter 3
96. a.
97. a.
b.
f ( x), x 0
The relationship is described by: f ( x ) =
f ( x), x < 0
b.
264
Section 3.3
98. a.
b.
265
Chapter 3
Domains:
dom( f + g )
dom( f g ) = ( , )
dom( fg )
= 6 x 2 12 x + 4 x 8
= 6x2 8x 8
f ( x) 3x + 2
=
g ( x) 2 x 4
Domains:
dom( f + g )
dom( f g ) = ( , )
dom( fg )
f
dom = ( ,1) (1, )
g
3.
f ( x) + g ( x) = ( 2 x 2 x ) + ( x 2 4 )
f
dom = ( , 2 ) ( 2, )
g
4.
= 3x x 4
2
= x 2 + 3x 23
f ( x) g ( x) = ( 2 x x ) ( x 4 )
2
f ( x) g ( x) = ( 3 x + 2 ) ( x 2 25 )
= 2x x x + 4
= x2 x + 4
2
= 3 x + 2 x 2 + 25
= x 2 + 3x + 27
f ( x) g ( x) = ( 2 x 2 x ) ( x 2 4 )
f ( x) g ( x) = ( 3 x + 2 ) ( x 2 25 )
= 2 x x 8x + 4 x
f ( x) 2 x 2 x
= 2
g ( x)
x 4
4
Domains:
f ( x) + g ( x) = ( 3 x + 2 ) + ( x 2 25 )
= 3 x 3 + 2 x 2 75 x 50
f ( x) 3x + 2
=
g ( x) x 2 25
Domains:
266
Section 3.4
5.
1 + x2
x
1 x2
f ( x) g ( x) = 1x x =
x
f ( x) g ( x) = 1x x = 1
f ( x) 1x 1
= =
g ( x) x x 2
f ( x) + g ( x) = 1x + x =
6.
Domains:
dom( f + g )
dom( f g )
dom( fg ) = ( , 0 ) ( 0, )
f
dom
g
2x + 3 x 4
x 4 3x + 2
2x + 3
=
3x + 2
2x + 3
6 x 2 + 9 x + 4 x + 6 + x 2 8 x + 16
(
)
f
x
=
= x4
( x 4 )( 3x + 2 )
x4
g ( x)
2
3x + 2
7 x + 5 x + 22
=
2
x + 3 3x + 2
( x 4 )( 3x + 2 )
=
4
x
x4
2x + 3 x 4
f ( x) g ( x) =
( 2 x + 3)( 3x + 2 )
x 4 3x + 2
=
2
2
( x 4)
2 x + 3)( 3 x + 2 ) ( x 4 )
(
=
Domains:
( x 4 )( 3x + 2 )
2x + 3 x 4
+
x 4 3x + 2
2
2 x + 3)( 3 x + 2 ) + ( x 4 )
(
=
( x 4 )( 3x + 2 )
f ( x) g ( x) =
f ( x) + g ( x) =
dom( f + g )
6 x 2 + 9 x + 4 x + 6 x 2 + 8 x 16
=
dom( f g )
4
3
2
x
x
+
(
)(
)
=
dom( fg ) = ( , 23 ) ( 23 , 4 ) ( 4, )
f
dom
g
5 x + 21x 10
( x 4 )( 3x + 2 )
2
Domains:
7.
dom( f + g )
dom( f g ) = [ 0, )
dom( fg )
f ( x) + g ( x) = x + 2 x = 3 x
f ( x) g ( x) = x 2 x = x
f ( x) g ( x) = x 2 x = 2 x
f
dom = ( 0, )
g
f ( x)
x 1
=
=
g ( x) 2 x 2
267
Chapter 3
8.
f ( x) + g ( x) = x 1 + 2 x
Domains:
Must have both x 1 0 and 2 x 2 0. So,
dom( f + g )
dom( f g )
dom( fg ) = [1, )
f
dom
g
f ( x) g ( x) = x 1 2 x 2
f ( x) g ( x) = 2 x 2 x 1
f ( x)
x 1
=
g ( x)
2x2
9.
f ( x) + g ( x) = 4 x + x + 3
f ( x) g ( x) = 4 x x + 3
f ( x) g ( x) = 4 x x + 3
f ( x)
4 x
4 x x+3
=
=
g ( x)
x+3
x+3
10.
f ( x) + g ( x) = 1 2 x + 1x
f ( x) g ( x) = 1 2 x 1x
f ( x) g ( x) = 1 2 x 1x
f ( x)
1 2x
=
= x 1 2x
1
g ( x)
x
11.
Domains:
Must have both 4 x 0 and x + 3 0 .
So,
dom( f + g )
dom( f g ) = [ 3, 4] .
dom( fg )
For the quotient, must have both 4 x 0
f
and x + 3 > 0 . So, dom = ( 3, 4] .
g
Domains:
Must have both 1 2 x 0 and x 0 . So,
dom( f + g )
dom( f g )
dom( fg ) = ( , 0 ) ( 0, 12 ]
f
dom
g
( f D g )( x) = 2 ( x 2 3) + 1 = 2 x 2 6 + 1 = 2 x 2 5
( g D f )( x) = ( 2 x + 1) 3 = 4 x 2 + 4 x + 1 3 = 4 x 2 + 4 x 2
2
Domains:
dom( f D g ) = ( , ) = dom( g D f )
12.
( f D g )( x) = ( 2 x ) 1 = 4 4 x + x 2 1 = x 2 4 x + 3
2
( g D f )( x) = 2 ( x 2 1) = 2 x 2 + 1 = x 2 + 3
Domains:
dom( f D g ) = ( , ) = dom( g D f )
268
Section 3.4
13.
1
1
=
( x + 2) 1 x + 1
1
1 + 2( x 1) 1 + 2 x 2 2 x 1
+2=
=
=
( g D f )( x) =
x 1
x 1
x 1
x 1
( f D g )( x) =
Domains:
dom( f D g ) = ( , 1) ( 1, ) ,
14.
2
2
=
(2 + x) 3 x 1
2
2( x 3) + 2 2 x 6 + 2 2 x 4
=
=
=
( g D f )( x) = 2 +
x3
x3
x3
x3
( f D g )( x) =
Domains:
dom( f D g ) = ( ,1) (1,3) ( 3, ) ,
dom( g D f ) = ( ,3) ( 3, )
15.
16.
1
1 x
1 =
x
x
1
( g D f )( x) =
x 1
Domains:
dom( f D g ) = ( , 0 ) ( 0, )
1
1
=
x 1 x 1
1
( g D f )( x) =
x 1
Domains:
dom( f D g ) = ( ,1) (1, )
( f D g )( x) =
( f D g )( x) =
17.
( f D g )( x) = ( x + 5) 1 = x + 4
( g D f )( x) = x 1 + 5
Domains:
( f D g )( x) = 2 ( x 2 + 2 ) = 2 x 2 2 = x 2
( g D f )( x) =
2 x
+2 = 2 x+2 = 4 x
Domains:
dom( f D g ) = [0] since x 2 0 only when x = 0.
dom( g D f ) = ( , 2]
269
Chapter 3
19.
3
( f D g )( x) = ( x 4) 3 + 4 = x 4 + 4 = x
1
( g D f )( x) = ( x3 + 4 ) 4 = x3 = x
1
Domains:
dom( f D g ) = ( , ) = dom( g D f )
20.
( f D g )( x) =
( g D f )( x) =
(x
3
+ 1 1 = 3 x 3 + 2x 3 + 11 = 3 x 3 + 2x 3 = 3 x
x2 1
(x
+2
+ 1 = ( x 2 1) + 1 = x 4 2 x 2 + 1 + 1 = x 4 2 x 2 + 2
2
Domains:
dom( f D g ) = ( , ) = dom( g D f )
21.
22.
23.
= 102 + 10 + 10 1
= 14 + 1 = 15
= 110 + 3 = 113
24.
= 2 + 10 2 1
= 52 + 10 5 1
= 14 1 = 13
= 35 2 = 33
25.
= 2 + 10 + 2 1
2
26.
= 4 + 10 4 1
= 52 + 10 5 1
= 26 3
= 35(2) = 70
28.
27.
f
f (10) 10 + 10
=
=
(10) =
g (10)
10 1
g
f
f (2) 22 + 10
=
=
= 14
(2)
g (2)
2 1
g
110
3
29.
30.
f ( g (2)) = f N
2 1 =12 + 10 = 11
=1
31.
f ( g (1)) = f N
1 1 = 02 + 10 = 10
=0
32.
g ( f ( 3)) = g (3) 2 + 10 = 19 1 = 3 2
=19
g ( f (4)) = g 4
+ 10 = 26 1 = 5
= 26
270
Section 3.4
34.
g ( f (0)) = g 0
+ 10 = 10 1 = 3
=10
36.
( ( 7 )) = g ( 7 ) + 10
2
g f
= g (17) = 17 1 = 4
37.
( f D g )(4) = f ( g (4)) = f
= f
( 3) = ( 3)
4 1
38.
( g D f )(3) = g ( f (3)) = g (3) 2 + 10
+ 10 = 13
= g (19) = 19 1 = 3 2
40.
39.
1 2
=1 + 1 = 2
f ( g (1)) = f
2 1
N
=1
1
2
+ 1 =
= 13
g ( f (2)) = g 2N
=5 2 5
f ( g (1)) = f 2(1) + 1 = 13
=3
g ( f (2)) = g ( 12 ) = 2 ( 12 ) + 1 = 2
2
+ 2 Since 3 is not in
41. f ( g (1)) = f 1N
=3
the domain of f, this is undefined.
Likewise, g ( f (2)) is undefined since 2 is
not in the domain of f.
43.
1
f ( g (1)) = f 1N
+ 3 =
= 13
4
1
=4
1
g ( f (2)) = g
= 1+ 3 = 4
2 1
N
=1
42.
2
f ( g (1)) = f 1N
+ 1 = 3 2 = 1
=2
g ( f (2)) = g 3
2 = 12 + 1 = 2
=1
44.
1
f ( g (1)) = f 2(1) 3 = = 1
1
=1
g ( f (2)) = g ( 12 ) = 2 ( 12 ) 3 = 2
46.
45.
1 3 1
7
3
f ( g (1)) = f
= 2 3 = 2
1
3
= 2
3
1
g ( f (2)) = g
2
3 =
= 14
1 3
=1
+ 5 = 6 1 = 5
f ( g (1)) = f 1N
=6
g ( f (2)) = g N
2 1 = 12 + 5 = 6
=1
271
Chapter 3
48.
3
= 3
23
g ( f (2)) is undefined since f (2) is not
defined.
50.
1
1
f ( g (1)) = f (1 3) 3 = f (2) 3
g ( f (2)) = g (2 1)
) = g (1)
51.
x 1
f ( g ( x)) = 2
+ 1 = x 1 + 1 = x
2
(2 x + 1) 1 2 x
g ( f ( x)) =
=
=x
2
2
(x
g ( f ( x)) =
+ 1) 1 = x 2 = x = x
N
))
2
2
= 1N
2 3 ,
<0
2
which is undefined
g ( f (2)) is undefined since f (2) is not
defined.
52.
(3 x + 2) 2 3 x
f ( g ( x)) =
=
=x
3
3
x2
g ( f ( x)) = 3
+2 = x2+2 = x
3
54.
= 1 + 2(1) + 1 = 4
f ( g ( x)) =
= 1 (2)
53.
f ( g (1)) = f 4 12 = f (3) =
f ( g ( x)) = 2
2 x
= 2 (2 x)
= 22+ x = x
Since x 1
g ( f ( x)) = 2 ( 2 x 2 ) = 2 2 + x 2 = x 2 = x
x 1 + 1 = ( x 1) + 1 = x
56.
3
f ( g ( x)) = 5 ( 5 x 3 ) = 5 5 + x 3
1
55.
f ( g ( x)) =
1
1
x
=x
g ( f ( x)) =
1
1
x
= x 3 = x
=x
57.
2
x+9
x+9
f ( g ( x)) = 4
9 = 4
9 = x
2
4
g ( f ( x)) =
(4x
g ( f ( x)) = 5 (5 x) 3 = 5 (5 x)
= 55+ x = x
9 +9
2
272
4x2 2x
=
=x
2
2
Section 3.4
58.
x3 + 1
3 3
f ( g ( x)) = 8
1 = x = x
8
3
(
g ( f ( x)) =
8x 1 + 1
8
8x 1 + 1
=x
8
59.
f ( g ( x)) =
g ( f ( x)) =
1
1
1
=
=
=x
x +1
x +1 x
1
x 1
x
x
+1
1
x 1
1
x 1
25 x 2
f ( x) = 2 x 2 + 5 x g ( x) = 3x 1
1+ x 1
x 1
1
x 1
x
x 1
1
x1
=x
= 25 25 x 2 = x 2 = x since x 0 .
62. The most natural pairs are:
f ( x) = 1x g ( x) = x 2 + 1
f ( x) =
63. f ( x) =
2
x
g ( x) = x 3
64. f ( x) = x
3
g ( x) = x + 1
x 2
67. F (C ( K )) = 95 ( K 273.15 ) + 32
65. f ( x) =
66. f ( x) =
g ( x) = x 2
1
x +1
g ( x) = 1 x 2
x
g ( x) = x
3x + 2
5
9
F + 255.37 .
2
b. A(100) = ( 100
4 ) = 625 ft
2
2
c. A(200) = ( 200
4 ) = 2500 ft
2
273
Chapter 3
b. A(100) = 100
4 =
2
2500
Circumference
x2
4
c. A(200) =
2002
4
= 10,000
274
Section 3.4
Commission
+
R( p ) = p 172,
000
0.6
p
Amount initially
f ( x) g ( x) = ( x + 2) x 2 4
= x + 2 x2 + 4
= x2 + x + 6
83. False.
84. False.
The domain of the sum, difference, or
For example, consider the functions
product of two functions is the intersection
f ( x) = x + 1, g ( x) = 3 .
of their domains; the domain of the
Observe that
quotient is the set obtained by intersecting
f ( g (4)) = f (3) = 4
the two domains and then excluding all
g ( f (4)) = g (5) = 3
values where the denominator equals 0.
85. True
86. False
87.
1
1
=
( g D f )( x) =
Domain: x 0, a
( x + a) a x
275
Chapter 3
88.
( g D f )( x) =
=
1
1
= 2
( ax + bx + c ) c ax + bx
2
1
x(ax + b)
Domain: x 0, ba , c
89.
( g D f )( x) =
x+a
a = x+aa = x
90. ( g D f )( x) =
1
b
1
= x ab
1
x ab
1
a
x
Domain: The domain depends on the
values of a and b. For instance, if a = 1
and b = 3 , then domain is ( , 0 ) ( 0, ) .
If a = 2 and b = 1 , then domain is ( 0, ) .
1
91.
Domain of y3 = ( ,3)
276
Section 3.5
93.
y1 = x 2 3 x 4
1
x 2 14
1
y3 =
2
( y1) 14
y2 =
94.
277
Chapter 3
10. Is a function.
Onetoone
13. Is a function.
Onetoone
8. Is a function.
Not onetoone
0,1,2,3 all map to 1 in the
range.
11. Is a function.
Not onetoone
Doesnt pass the horizontal
line test. Both (1,1) , (0,1)
are on the graph.
14. Is a function.
Onetoone
9. Is a function.
Not onetoone
0,2, 2 all map to 1 in the
range, for instance.
12. Is a function.
Not onetoone
Doesnt pass the horizontal
line test.
15. Is a function.
Not onetoone
Doesnt pass the horizontal
line test.
19.
f ( x1 ) = f ( x2 )
1
1
=
x1 1 x2 1
x2 1 = x1 1
x2 = x1
Onetoone
278
Section 3.5
20.
f ( x1 ) = f ( x2 )
x1 = 3 x2
( x ) =( x )
3
x1 = x2
Onetoone
22.
f ( x1 ) = f ( x2 )
x1 + 1 = x2 + 1
x1 + 1 = x2 + 1
x1 = x2
Onetoone
279
Chapter 3
23.
f ( x1 ) = f ( x2 ) x13 1 = x23 1
x13 = x23
x1 = x2
Onetoone
24.
f ( x1 ) = f ( x2 )
1
1
=
x1 + 2 x2 + 2
x2 + 2 = x1 + 2
x2 = x1
Onetoone
25.
Given: f ( x) = 2 x + 1, f 1 ( x) =
x 1
2
x 1
f ( f 1 ( x) ) = 2
+ 1 = x 1 + 1 = x
2
(2 x + 1) 1 2 x
f 1 ( f ( x) ) =
=
=x
2
2
Notes on the Graphs:
Thick, solid curve is the graph of f.
Thin, solid curve is the graph of f 1 .
Thick, dotted curve is the graph of y = x .
280
Section 3.5
26.
x2
, f 1 ( x) = 3 x + 2
3
x
(3
+ 2) 2 3 x
f ( f 1 ( x) ) =
=
=x
3
3
x2
f 1 ( f ( x) ) = 3
+2 = x2+2 = x
3
Given: f ( x) =
27.
Given: f ( x) = x 1, x 1
f 1 ( x) = x 2 + 1, x 0
f ( f 1 ( x) ) =
f 1 ( f ( x) ) =
(x
+ 1) 1 = x 2 = x = x
N
Since x 0
x 1 +1 = x 1+1 = x
281
Chapter 3
28.
Given: f ( x) = 2 x 2 , x 0
f 1 ( x ) = 2 x , x 2
f ( f 1 ( x) ) = 2
2 x
= 2 (2 x) = x
f 1 ( f ( x) ) = 2 ( 2 x 2 ) = x 2 = x = x
N
Since x 0
29.
Given: f ( x) = 1x , f 1 ( x) = 1x
1
f ( f 1 ( x) ) = 1 = x
x
f 1 ( f ( x) ) =
1
1
x
=x
282
Section 3.5
30.
1
Given: f ( x) = (5 x) 3 , f 1 ( x) = 5 x 3
f ( f 1 ( x) ) = (5 (5 x 3 )) 3 = (5 5 + x 3 )
1
= ( x3 ) 3 = x
1
f 1 ( f ( x) ) = 5 (5 x) 3 = 5 (5 x) = x
1
31.
1
1
3
, f 1 ( x) =
2x + 6
2x
1
1
f ( f 1 ( x) ) =
=1
6+6
1
2 3 + 6 x
2x
1
= 1 =x
Given: f ( x) =
1
1
3 =
3
1
1
2
x+3
2 x + 6
= x +33 = x
f 1 ( f ( x) ) =
283
Chapter 3
32.
3
3
, f 1 ( x) = 4
4 x
x
3
3
=
f ( f 1 ( x) ) =
3
3
44 44+
x
x
x
= 3 = x
3
3
4 x
1
= 4 3
f ( f ( x) ) = 4
3
3
4 x
= 44+ x = x
Given: f ( x) =
33.
x+3
3 4x
, f 1 ( x) =
x+4
x 1
3 4x
3 4 x + 3( x 1)
+3
x 1
f ( f 1 ( x) ) = x 1
=
3 4x
3 4 x + 4( x 1)
+4
x 1
x 1
3 4 x + 3x 3
x
x 1
=
= x 1
1
3 4 x + 4x 4
x 1
x 1
x x 1
=x
=
x 1 1
x+3
4 x + 12
3 4
3
+
x
4
=
x+4
f 1 ( f ( x) ) =
x+3
x+3
1
1
x+4
x+4
Given: f ( x) =
3 x + 12 4 x 12
x
x+4
=
= x+4
1
x +3 x 4
x+4
x+4
x x + 4
=x
=
x + 4 1
284
Section 3.5
34.
3x + 5
x 5
, f 1 ( x ) =
3 x
x +1
3x + 5
3 x + 5 5( x + 1)
5
x +1
=
f ( f 1 ( x) ) = x + 1
3x + 5 3x + 3 ( 3x + 5)
3
x +1
x +1
2 x
3x + 5 5 x 5
x +1
= x +1
=
2
3 x + 3 3x 5
x +1
x +1
2 x x + 1
=
=x
x + 1 2
x 5
3 x 15
3
+5
+5
3
= 3 x
f 1 ( f ( x ) ) =
x5
x 5
+1
+1
3 x
3 x
3 x 15 + 5(3 x) 3 x 15 + 15 5 x
3 x
3 x
=
=
x 5+3 x
x 5+ 3 x
3 x
3 x
2 x 3 x
=
=x
3 x 2
Given: f ( x) =
35.
36.
285
Chapter 3
37.
38.
39.
40.
286
Section 3.5
41.
42.
rng ( f ) = dom ( f 1 ) = ( , )
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f 1 ) = ( , )
Thus, f 1 ( x) = 17 x .
rng ( f ) = dom ( f 1 ) = ( , )
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f 1 ) = ( , )
Thus, f 1 ( x) = 13 ( x 2) = 13 x + 32 .
rng ( f ) = dom ( f 1 ) = ( , )
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f 1 ) = ( , )
Thus, f 1 ( x) = 12 ( x 3) .
rng ( f ) = dom ( f 1 ) = ( , )
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f 1 ) = ( , )
x=
1
y 1
Thus, f ( x) = x 1 .
3
rng ( f ) = dom ( f 1 ) = ( , )
287
Chapter 3
y +1
Thus, f 1 ( x) = 3 x + 1 .
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f 1 ) = ( , )
rng ( f ) = dom ( f 1 ) = ( , )
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f 1 ) = [3, )
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f 1 ) = ( ,3]
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f 1 ) = [ 0, )
x=
y +1
Thus, f 1 ( x) = x + 1 .
rng ( f ) = dom ( f 1 ) = [ 0, )
rng ( f ) = dom ( f 1 ) = [ 0, )
rng ( f ) = dom ( f 1 ) = [ 1, )
2 x2 = y 1
y 1
(since x 0)
2
x 1
.
Thus, f 1 ( x) =
2
53. Solve y = ( x + 2) 2 3 for x:
x=+
y + 3 = ( x + 2) 2
y + 3 = x + 2 (since x 2)
2 + y + 3 = x
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f 1 ) = [ 0, )
rng ( f ) = dom ( f 1 ) = [1, )
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f 1 ) = [ 2, )
rng ( f ) = dom ( f 1 ) = [ 3, )
Thus, f 1 ( x) = 2 + x + 3 .
54. Solve y = ( x 3) 2 2 for x:
y + 2 = ( x 3) 2
y + 2 = x 3 (since x 3)
3+ y + 2 = x
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f 1 ) = [3, )
rng ( f ) = dom ( f 1 ) = [ 2, )
Thus, f 1 ( x) = 3 + x + 2 .
288
Section 3.5
55. Solve y =
2
x
for x:
xy = 2
x = 2y
Thus, f 1 ( x) = 2x .
56. Solve y = 3x for x:
yx = 3
x = 3y
1
Thus, f ( x) = .
3
x
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f 1 ) = ( , 0 ) ( 0, )
rng ( f ) = dom ( f 1 ) = ( , 0 ) ( 0, )
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f 1 ) = ( , 0 ) ( 0, )
rng ( f ) = dom ( f 1 ) = ( , 0 ) ( 0, )
(3 x ) y = 2
3 y xy = 2
xy = 3 y 2
x = 3 yy 2
Thus, f 1 ( x) =
58. Solve y =
3 x 2
x
7
x+2
for x:
2 y + xy = 7
xy = 7 2 y
x = 7 y2 y
59. Solve y =
72 x
x
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f 1 ) = ( , 2 ) ( 2, )
rng ( f ) = dom ( f 1 ) = ( , 0 ) ( 0, )
7 x +1
5 x
for x:
y (5 x) = 7 x + 1
5 y xy = 7 x + 1
7 x xy = 1 5 y
x(7 + y ) = 1 5 y
x = 57y+y1
Thus, f 1 ( x) =
rng ( f ) = dom ( f 1 ) = ( , 0 ) ( 0, )
= 3 2x .
( x + 2) y = 7
Thus, f 1 ( x) =
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f 1 ) = ( ,3) ( 3, )
5 x 1
x +7
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f 1 ) = ( ,5 ) ( 5, )
rng ( f ) = dom ( f 1 ) = ( , 7 ) ( 7, )
289
Chapter 3
Thus, f 1 ( x) =
5 7 x
x2
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f 1 ) = ( , 7 ) ( 7, )
rng ( f ) = dom ( f 1 ) = ( , 2 ) ( 2, )
63. Onetoone
The portion of the graph for nonnegative
x values is as follows. The graph for
negative xvalues is merely a reflection of
this graph over the origin.
62. Onetoone
So, G 1 ( x) = 1x on ( , 0 ) .
For x 0 : Solve y = x for x:
y= x
x = y2
So, G 1 ( x) = x 2 on ( 0, ) .
Thus, the inverse function is given by:
1x , x < 0
1
G ( x) = 2
x , x 0
290
Section 3.5
So, f 1 ( x) = 95 ( x 32) .
The inverse function represents the
conversion from degrees Fahrenheit to
degrees Celsius.
(Note: Should also have the graph of
y = x 2 , x 2 , above. The present curve
would have an open hole at (2,2), and this
newlyadded piece would have a closed
hole at (2,4) and extend upward to the
right quadratically.)
66. Solve y = 95 ( x 32) for x:
y = x 32
y + 32 = x
9
5
9
5
= 175 x + 750
To calculate C 1 ( x) , we calculate the inverse of each piece separately:
y
x
For 0 x 10 : Solve y = 250 x for x: x = 250
. So, C 1 ( x) = 250
, for 0 x 2500 .
750
. So, C 1 ( x) =
For x > 10 : Solve y = 175 x + 750 for x: x = y175
Thus, the inverse function is given by:
x , 0 x 2500
C 1 ( x) = x 250
750
175 , x > 2500
291
x 750
175
Chapter 3
= 0.12 x + 2.7
1
To calculate C ( x) , we calculate the inverse of each piece separately:
y
x
For 0 x 10 : Solve y = 0.39 x for x: x = 0.39
. So, C 1 ( x) = 0.39
, for 0 x 3.9 .
2.7
2.7
. So, C 1 ( x) = x0.12
, for x > 3.9 .
For x > 10 : Solve y = 0.12 x + 2.7 for x: x = y0.12
Thus, the inverse function is given by:
x , 0 x 3.9
C 1 ( x) = x 0.39
2.7
0.12 , x > 3.9
69. Let x = number of hours worked. Then, the take home pay is given by
E ( x) = N
7 x 0.25(7 x) = 5.25 x .
$7 per hour,
for x hours
Amount withheld
for taxes
y
x
To calculate E 1 , solve y = 5.25 x for x: x = 5.25
. So, E 1 ( x) = 5.25
, x0.
The inverse function tells you how many hours you need to work to attain a certain take
home pay.
70. Let x = number of hours worked.
Since the hourly rate for overtime pay is 1.5(8) = 12 dollars per hour, we see that the
weekly earnings are described by the following function:
8 x,
0 x 40
0 x 40
320 + 12( x 40) , x > 40
8 x,
E ( x) =
=
12 x 160, x > 40
Pay for first Amount of overtime
pay
40 hours
To calculate E 1 ( x) , we calculate the inverse of each piece separately:
For 0 x 40 : Solve y = 8 x for x: x = 8y . So, E 1 ( x) = 8x , for 0 x 320 .
For x > 40 : Solve y = 12 x 160 for x: x = y +12160 . So, E 1 ( x) = x +12160 , for x > 320 .
Thus, the inverse function is given by:
x , 0 x 320
E 1 ( x) = x +8160
12 , x > 320
The inverse function tells you how many hours you need to work to attain a certain take
home pay.
72. To determine the points on the graph
71. Not a function since the graph does
of the inverse of f, switch the order of the x
not pass the vertical line test.
and y in the ordered pairs rather than
292
Section 3.5
[ 2, ) .
y = 1 x 2 , 0 x 1, 0 y 1 .
To calculate the inverse of this function, solve for x:
y 2 = 1 x 2 , which gives us x = 1 y 2
So, f 1 ( x) = 1 x 2 , 0 x 1 . The domain and range of both are [0,1] .
82. Let f ( x) = cx , c 0 . To calculate the inverse of this function, solve for x:
y = cx x = cy yx = c y = cx .
Thus, f ( x) = f 1 ( x), x 0 .
83. As long as m 0 (that is, while the
graph of f is not a horizontal line), it is
onetoone.
f 1 ( x) =
293
x b
m
Chapter 3
86. Onetoone
88. Onetoone
294
Section 3.6
kw
L
11. v = kgt
k
13. R =
PT
9. F =
15. y = k x
17. The general equation is d = kt . Using
the fact that d = k (1) = r , we see that
k = r . So, d = rt .
4. A = kx 2
6. h = k t
k
8. P = 2
r
kT
10. V =
P
12. S = ktd
k
14. y =
xz
k
16. y = 3
t
18. The general equation is F = km .
Using the fact that F = k (1) = a, we see
that k = a . So, F = ma .
20. The general equation is A = kbh .
Using the fact that A = k (5)(4) = 10 we see
that k =
295
1
1
. So, A = bh .
2
2
Chapter 3
4
4
see that k = . So, V = r 3 .
3
3
that k = . So, A = r 2 .
4
23. The general equation is V = khr 2 . Using the fact that V = k (2) 2 = 1, we see
that k =
16
. So, V =
16
hr 2 .
24. The general equation is W = kRI 2 . Using the fact that W = k (100)(0.25) 2 = 4 , we
25k
16
16 2
= 4 , so that k =
. Hence, W =
RI .
4
25
25
k
k
25. The general equation is V = . Using the fact that V =
= 1000 , we see that
400
P
400, 000
k = 400, 000 . Hence, V =
.
P
k
k
26. The general equation is I = 2 . Using the fact that I = 2 = 42 , we see that
16
d
10, 752
k = 10, 752 . Hence, I =
.
d2
k
27. The general equation is F =
. Using the fact that F = 6 k 5 = 20 , we
L
(10 m )(10 m )
see that
2
.
L
k
k
. Using the fact that y =
= 32 , we see that
xz
4(0.05)
6.4
.
xz
k
k
. Using the fact that t = = 2.4 , we see that
8
s
19.2
k = 2.4(8) = 19.2 . Hence, t =
.
s
296
Section 3.6
k
k
= 180 , we see that
. Using the fact that W =
2
(0.2) 2
d
7.2
.
d2
k
k
. Using the fact that R =
= 0.4 , we see that
2
I
(3.5) 2
4.9
.
I2
k
x z
k
= 12 , we see
(0.2) 4
4.8
.
x z
kL
k (20)
. Using the fact that R =
= 0.5 , we see that
A
(0.4)
0.01L
.
A
km
k (20)
= 32 , we see that
. Using the fact that F =
d
8
12.8m
.
k = 32 ( 208 ) = 12.8 . Hence, F =
d
km m
k (8)(16)
35. The general equation is F = 12 2 . Using the fact that F =
= 20 , we see
(0.4) 2
d
34. The general equation is F =
20(0.4) 2
0.025m1m2
= 0.025 . Hence, F =
that k =
.
(8)(16)
d2
k g
k 16
. Using the fact that w =
= 20 , we see that
2
(0.5) 2
t
1.25 g
20(0.5) 2
.
k=
= 1.25 . Hence, w =
t2
4
37. Assume that W = kH . We need to determine k. Using Jasons data, we see that
172.50 = 23k , so that k = 7.5 . So, W = 7.5H . (Note that Valeries data also satisfies
this equation.)
297
Chapter 3
38.
Orange County: Assume that T = kP . We need to determine k. Using the data, we see
that 2.60 = 40k , so that k = 0.065 . So, T = 0.065P .
S1 = 1.6S 2 .
44. Using the same information as in
Exercise 43, we see that the given
information yields
F= 3N
18 cm ) = 54N .
cm (
298
Section 3.6
k = 1400 w
k
. Using the data for Earth, we obtain:
D2
k
so that
1400 w 2 =
m (150, 000 km )2
19
k
. Using the data for Earth, we obtain:
D2
k
1400 w 2 =
so that
m (150, 000 km )2
=
300
300
T
300 4 12
kT
52. Use the formula P =
with T = 300K, P = 1 atm., and V = 4 ml to obtain
V
PV (1 atm ) (4)
4
4 300 4
k=
=
=
. Thus, P =
or 1.33 atm .
=
300
300
T
300 3 3
54. y varies directly with the square of x
53. Should be y is inversely proportional
to x.
( x 2 ), NOT the square root ( x ).
299
Chapter 3
1
55. True. A = bh , so area is directly
2
proportional to both base and height.
meters):
Cn2 = 1.0 1013 , L = 2000m, = 1.55 106 m (so that k =
Substituting this information into the equation yields :
7.1 = (1.0 10
2
), and p21 = 7.1 .
1.55 106 m
6
) 1.55 106 2000116
7
13
so that
7.1
(1.0 10
6
) 1.55 106 2000116
7
13
11
11
1.23 .
meters):
Cn2 = 1.0 1013 , L = 2000m, = 1.55 106 m (so that k =
Substituting this information into the equation yields :
2.3 = (1.0 10
2
), and s2p = 2.3 .
6
1.55 10 m
6
) 1.552106 2000116
7
13
so that
2.3
(1.0 10
6
2
13
300
11
0.399 .
Section 3.6
61. (a) The least squares regression line is y = 2.93x + 201.72 , and is plotted as seen
below:
(b) The variation constant is 120.07 and the equation of the direct variation is
y = 120.074 x 0.259 .
(c) When the oil price is $72.70 per barrel in September 2006, the predicted stock index
obtained from the least squares regression line is 415, and the value from the equation of
direct variation is 364. In this case, the least squares regression line provides a closer
approximation to the actual value, 417.
301
Chapter 3
Then, the graph of the least squares regression line, with the scatterplot, is given by:
(b) The variation constant is 11.53 and the equation of the inverse variation is
11.53
y = 0.27 . The following is the sequence of commands, and screen captures, to use on
x
the TI8*.
(c) When oil price is $72.70 per barrel in September 2006, the predicted 5year maturity
rate obtained from the least squares regression line is 3.25, and the equation of inverse
variation is 3.61. The equation of the inverse variation provides a closer approximation
to the actual value, 5.02. Here are the corresponding screen captures from the TI8*.
302
Section 3.6
63. (a) The least squares regression line is y = 141.73x + 2, 419.35 . The following is
the sequence of commands, and screen captures, to use on the TI8*.
Then, the graph of the least squares regression line, with the scatterplot, is given by:
(b) The variation constant is 3,217.69 and the equation of the inverse variation is
3217.69
. The following is the sequence of commands, and screen captures, to use
y=
x 0.41
on the TI8*.
The graph of the curve of inverse variation,with the scatter plot, is given by:
Chapter 3
(c) When the 5year maturity rate is 5.02% in September 2006, the predicted number of
housing units obtained from the least squares regression line is 1708, and the equation of
inverse variation is 1661. The equation of the least squares regression line provides a
closer approximation to the actual value, 1861. The picture of the least squares line,with
the scatter plot, as well as the computations using the TI8* are as follows:
304
Section 3.6
64. (a) The least squares regression line is y = 0.15 x + 22.60 . The following is the
sequence of commands, and screen captures, to use on the TI8*.
Then, the graph of the least squares regression line, with the scatterplot, is given by:
(b) The variation constant is 0.32 and the equation of the inverse variation is
y = 0.32 x 0.91 .
Then, the graph of the curve of inverse variation, with the scatterplot, is given by:
305
Chapter 3
(c) There are 1861 housing units in September 2006. The predicted utilities stock index
obtained from the least squares regression line is 307, and the equation of direct
variation is 304. The equation of the least squares regression line provides a closer
approximation to the actual value, 417. The screen captures from the TI8* are as
follows:
1861 X
1861.000
Y1
308.186
Y2
303.583
66. (a) The variation constant is 0.346,
65. (a) The equation is approximately
and the equation is approximately
y = 0.218 x + 0.898
y = 1.163x 0.346 .
(b) About $2.427 per gallon. Yes, it is
very close to the actual price at $2.425 per (b) About $2.283 per gallon. No, it is
very close to the actual price at $2.425 per
gallon.
gallon.
(c) $3.083
(c) $2.583
306
Chapter 3 Review
17.
f (7) g (3) = ( 4(7) 7 ) 32 + 2(3) + 4
18.
= 35 19 = 665
F (0)
3
=
g (0)
4
19.
26.
27. We need x 4 0 , so
the domain is [ 4, ) .
( , )
D
for D: 2 = D9 , so that D = 18 .
5 16
30. There are many such functions. The most natural one to construct has the form
D
f ( x) =
. Since ( 0, 4 ) is to lie on the graph of f, we substitute this point
( x + 3)( x 2)
into the equation for the function to find the corresponding value of D that will ensure
D
D
this: 4 =
=
, so that D = 24 . Hence, one such function is given by:
(0 + 3)(0 2) 6
24
.
f ( x) =
( x + 3)( x 2)
29. Solve 2 = f (5) =
307
Chapter 3
31.
f ( x) = 2( x) 7 = (2 x + 7) f ( x)
So, not even.
f ( x) = ( (2 x + 7) ) = 2 x + 7 f ( x)
So, not odd.
Thus, neither.
33.
h( x) = ( x)3 7( x) = ( x 3 7 x ) h( x)
32.
g ( x) = 7( x)5 + 4( x)3 2( x)
= ( 7 x5 + 4 x3 2 x ) g ( x)
g ( x) = ( 7 x5 + 4 x3 2 x )
= 7 x5 + 4 x3 2 x = g ( x)
So, odd.
34.
f ( x) = ( x) 4 + 3( x) 2 = x 4 + 3 x 2 = f ( x)
So, even.
Hence, cannot be odd.
So, odd.
35.
1
1
f ( x) = ( x ) 4 + ( x) = ( x) 4 x f ( x)
So, not even.
1
1
f ( x) = x 4 x = x 4 + x f ( x)
36.
f ( x) = x + 4 f ( x)
So, not even.
f ( x) = x + 4 f ( x)
So, not odd.
Thus, neither.
f ( x) =
+ 3( x) = 3 + 3 x f ( x) f ( x) = 1 + 3( x) 4 + x = f ( x)
( x)3
x
( x) 2
So, not even.
So, even.
1
1
f ( x) = 3 + 3 x = 3 + 3 x = f ( x) Hence, f cannot be odd.
x
x
So, odd.
39.
40.
Domain
[ 4, 7]
Domain
( , 3) ( 3, )
Range
[ 2, 4]
Range
( , 2 ) ( 3, )
Increasing
( 3, 7 )
nowhere
Increasing
Decreasing
Constant
( 0,3)
( 4, 0 )
308
Decreasing
( , 3) ( 3, )
Constant
nowhere
Chapter 3 Review
( 4 2 ) ( 4 0 ) = 2
41.
42.
Then, C ( x ) =
2(5) 1 2(1) 1
5 1
9 1
= 2
4
46. Domain: ( , 0 ) ( 0, )
Range: ( , 2] ( 0, )
Amount of overtime
309
Chapter 3
x right 3 units,
310
1
x
Chapter 3 Review
55.
56.
311
Chapter 3
57.
58.
59. y = x + 3 Domain: [ 3, )
60. y = x 4 Domain: [ 0, )
61. y = x 2 + 3 Domain: [ 2, )
62. y = x
63. y = 5 x 6 Domain: [ 0, )
64. y =
65. y = ( x 2 + 4 x + 4 ) 8 4 = ( x + 2 ) 12
1
2
( , 0]
Domain: [ 0, )
Domain:
x +3
Domain: \ or ( , )
66.
y = 2 ( x 2 + 3 x ) 5 = 2 ( x 2 + 3 x + 94 ) 5 92
= 2 ( x + 32 ) 192
2
Domain: \ or ( , )
312
Chapter 3 Review
68.
g ( x ) + h( x ) = ( 2 x + 3 ) + ( x 2 + 6 ) = x 2 + 2 x + 9
67.
g ( x) + h( x) = ( 3 x 4 ) + ( x 3) = 2 x 7
g ( x) h( x) = ( 3 x 4 ) ( x 3) = 4 x 1
g ( x ) h( x ) = ( 2 x + 3 ) ( x 2 + 6 ) = x 2 + 2 x 3
g ( x ) h( x ) = ( 2 x + 3 ) ( x 2 + 6 )
g ( x) h( x) = ( 3 x 4 ) ( x 3) = 3 x 2 + 5 x + 12
g ( x ) 3 x 4
=
h( x )
x 3
Domains:
dom( g + h)
dom( g h) = ( , )
dom( gh)
g
dom = ( ,3) ( 3, )
h
69.
= 2 x 3 + 3 x 2 + 12 x + 18
g ( x) 2 x + 3
=
h( x ) x 2 + 6
Domains:
dom( g + h)
dom( g h)
dom( gh) = ( , )
g
dom
h
g ( x ) + h( x ) =
1
x2
+ x
Domains:
g ( x ) h( x ) =
1
x2
dom( g + h)
dom( g h)
dom( gh) = ( 0, )
g
dom
h
g ( x ) h( x ) =
g ( x)
=
h( x )
1
x2
1
x2
x=
1
5
x2
70.
g ( x ) + h( x ) =
x+3
3x 1
+
2 ( x 2) x 2
( x + 3) + 2 ( 3x 1)
( 2x 4)
7x +1
2 ( x 2)
x+3
3x 1
g ( x ) h( x ) =
2 ( x 2) x 2
=
( x + 3) 2 ( 3x 1)
( 2x 4)
5 x + 5
2 ( x 2)
g ( x ) h( x ) =
x + 3 3x 1 ( x + 3) ( 3 x 1)
=
2
2 ( x 2) x 2
2 ( x 2)
x+3
g ( x) 2 ( x 2 )
x+3
x2
x+3
=
=
=
3
x
1
h( x )
2 ( x 2 ) 3x 1 2(3x 1)
x2
Domains:
dom( g + h)
dom( g h) = ( , 2 ) ( 2, )
dom( gh)
f
dom = ( , 13 ) ( 13 , 2 ) ( 2, )
g
313
Chapter 3
Domains:
Must have both x 4 0 and 2 x + 1 0 .
So,
dom( f + g )
dom( f g ) = [ 4, ) .
dom( fg )
For the quotient, must have both
x 4 0 and 2 x + 1 > 0 . So,
f
dom = [ 4, ) .
g
71.
g ( x ) + h( x ) = x 4 + 2 x + 1
g ( x ) h( x ) = x 4 2 x + 1
g ( x ) h( x ) = x 4 2 x + 1
g ( x)
x4
=
h( x )
2x +1
72.
g ( x ) + h( x ) = ( x 2 4 ) + ( x + 2 ) = x 2 + x 2
g ( x ) h( x ) = ( x 2 4 ) ( x + 2 ) = x 2 x 6
g ( x ) h( x ) = ( x 2 4 ) ( x + 2 )
= x3 + 2 x 2 4 x 8
g ( x) x 2 4
=
= x 2, x 2
h( x ) x + 2
73.
Domains:
dom( g + h)
dom( g h) = ( , )
dom( gh)
g
dom = ( , 2 ) ( 2, )
h
74.
3
( f D g )( x) = ( x + 3) + 2 ( x + 3) 1
( f D g )( x) = 3 ( 2 x + 1) 4 = 6 x 1
= x 3 + 9 x 2 + 29 x + 3
( g D f )( x) = 2 ( 3 x 4 ) + 1 = 6 x 7
Domains:
dom( f D g ) = ( , ) = dom( g D f )
( g D f )( x) = ( x3 + 2 x 1) + 3 = x 3 + 2 x + 2
Domains:
dom( f D g ) = ( , ) = dom( g D f )
314
Chapter 3 Review
76.
75.
2
( f D g )( x) = 2
2
1
1 + 3(4 x)
+3
4 x
4 x
2(4 x) 8 2 x
=
=
13 3x 13 3x
x+3
1
1
( g D f )( x) =
=
=
2
4( x + 3) 2 4 x + 10
4
x+3
x+3
( f D g )( x) =
Domains:
dom( f D g ) = ( , 4 ) ( 4, 133 ) ( 133 , )
dom( g D f ) = ( , 3) ( 3,
5
2
) (
5
2
x+6
5 = 2( x + 6) 5
= 2x + 7
( g D f )( x) =
2 x2 5 + 6
Domains:
dom( f D g ) : Need both x + 6 0 and
2 x + 7 0 . Thus, dom( f D g ) = 72 , ) .
, )
( x )( x + ) 0
5
2
CPs:
5
2
5
2
+G
HJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ


5
2
5
2
So, dom( g D f ) = ,
315
5
2
)(
5
2
, .
Chapter 3
78.
1
= x2 4
1
2
x 4
1
1
=1
( g D f )( x) =
2
1
4 x 4
x
( f D g )( x) =
77.
( f D g )( x) = x 2 4 5 = ( x 3)( x + 3)
( g D f )( x) =
x 5
( )
4 = x9
Domains:
CPs: 3
+G
HJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ


3
3
1
1 4 x
x
x
1 4x
Domains:
CPs: 2
+G
HJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ


2
2
So, dom( g D f ) = ( , 2 ) ( 2, ) .
dom( g D f ) = [5, ) .
x 14 . So,
dom( g D f ) = ( , 0 ) ( 0, 14 ) ( 14 , ) .
79.
g (3) = 6(3) 3 = 15
f ( g (3)) = f (15) = 4(15) 2 3(15) + 2 = 857
f (1) = 4(1) 2 3(1) + 2 = 9
g ( f (1)) = g (9) = 6(9) 3 = 51
81.
f (1) = 4 (1) = 5
g ( f (1)) = g
( 5) = ( 5)
+ 5 = 10
82.
g (3) = 5(3) + 2 = 17
g (3) = 32 1 = 8
17
17
=
2(17) 3 31
1
1
f (1) =
=
2(1) 3
5
f ( g (3)) = f (17) =
1
g ( f (1)) = g =
5
80.
g (3) = 32 + 5 = 14, but f ( g (3)) = f (14)
is not defined.
1
1
=
8 1 7
1
1
f (1) =
=
1 1
2
2
3
1 1
g ( f (1)) = g = 1 =
4
2 2
f ( g (3)) = f (8) =
1
5 + 2 = 1
5
316
Chapter 3 Review
83.
f ( g (3)) =
3 4
) (
2
3 4 + 10
4
1
g ( f (1)) = g
= g (4) = 7
2
(1) 2
= (1) 2 (1) + 10 = 12
g ( f (1)) = g (1) 2 + 1 + 10
= 3 12 4 = 2
x
, g ( x) = 3 x .
1 x
Then, h( x) = f ( g ( x)) .
85. Let f ( x) = 3 x 2 + 4 x + 7, g ( x) = x 2 .
Then, h( x) = f ( g ( x)) .
86. Let f ( x) =
1
, g ( x) = x 2 + 7 .
x
Then, h( x) = f ( g ( x)) .
88. Let f ( x) = x , g ( x) = 3 x + 4 .
87. Let f ( x) =
Then, h( x) = f ( g ( x)) .
90. Since 42 = lw, l = 42w . So, the
perimeter formula becomes:
84 + 2 w2
36 = 2l + 2 w = 2 ( 42w ) + 2 w =
w
so that
2w2 36 w + 84 = 0
w2 18w + 42 = 0
92. No, since Bill and Maria both
received an A.
A(t ) = ( r (t ) ) = 25 t + 2
2
= 625 (t + 2) in 2
91. Yes
93. No, since both (2,3) and (3,3) lie on the
graph of the function.
95. Yes
97. Yes
317
Chapter 3
99. Onetoone
101.
x4
f ( f 1 ( x) ) = 3
+4 = x4+4 = x
3
318
Chapter 3 Review
102.
f ( f 1 ( x) ) =
1
1
=
+
1
7
x
1+ 7x
7
4
7
x
4x
1
1
=
=
= x
1
1
+77
x
x
103.
f ( f 1 ( x) ) =
(x
4) + 4 = x2 = x ,
since x 0 .
104.
7 x + 2 + 2( x 1)
7x + 2
+2
x 1
=
f ( f 1 ( x) ) = x 1
7 x + 2 7( x 1)
7x + 2
7
x 1
x 1
7x + 2 + 2x 2
9x
=
= x
=
9
7x + 2 7x + 7
319
Chapter 3
x 1
.
2
106. Solve y = x 5 + 2 for x:
Thus, f 1 ( x) =
( x 1) =
rng ( f ) = dom ( f 1 ) = ( , )
x=
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f 1 ) = ( , )
1
2
y2
Thus, f 1 ( x) = 5 x 2 .
107. Solve y = x + 4 for x:
x = y2 4
Thus, f 1 ( x) = x 2 4 .
108. Solve y = ( x + 4) 2 + 3 for x:
y 3 = x + 4
4 + y 3 = x
1
Thus, f ( x) = 4 + x 3 .
109. Solve y = xx++63 for x:
( x + 3) y = x + 6
xy + 3 y = x + 6
xy x = 6 3 y
x( y 1) = 6 3 y
x = 6y31y
Thus, f 1 ( x) =
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f 1 ) = ( , )
6 3 x
x 1
rng ( f ) = dom ( f 1 ) = ( , )
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f 1 ) = [ 4, )
rng ( f ) = dom ( f 1 ) = [ 0, )
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f 1 ) = [ 4, )
rng ( f ) = dom ( f 1 ) = [3, )
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f 1 ) = ( , 3) ( 3, )
rng ( f ) = dom ( f 1 ) = ( ,1) (1, )
( 12 ( y + 8) ) = x 5
3
5 + ( 12 ( y + 8) ) = x
3
Thus, f 1 ( x) = 5 + ( 12 ( x + 8) ) .
3
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f 1 ) = ( , )
rng ( f ) = dom ( f 1 ) = ( , )
111. Let x = total dollars worth of products sold. Then, S ( x) = 22, 000 + 0.08 x .
1
Solving y = 22, 000 + 0.08 x for x yields: x = 0.08
( y 22, 000 )
22,000
Thus, S 1 ( x) = x 0.08
. This inverse function tells you the sales required to earn a
desired income.
320
Chapter 3 Review
So, V 1 ( s ) =
1
3
1
3
y.
that k = 2 . So, C = 2 r .
that k = . So, A = r 2 .
k
.
L
(10 m )(10 m )
6
= 20
.
50 L
117. Assume that W = kH . We need to determine k. Using Coles data, we see that
229.50 = 27k , so that k = 8.5 . So, W = 8.5H . (Note that Dicksons data also satisfies
this equation.)
118.
3.50
= 0.07 T ( P) = 0.07 P
County A:
50
3.50
= 0.07 T ( P) = 0.08P
County B:
50
120. The graph of f is as follows:
119. The graph of f is as follows:
Domain of f:
( , 1) ( 3, )
Domain of f:
321
( , 3) ( 3,3) ( 3, )
Chapter 3
121.
Domain
Range
Increasing
Decreasing
Constant
( , 2 ) ( 2, )
{1, 0,1} ( 2, )
( 2, )
( , 1)
( 1, 2 )
Decreasing
( , 2 ) ( 2, )
[0,3) ( 4, )
( 1, 0 ) (1, 2 ) ( 2, )
( 2, 1) ( 0,1)
Constant
nowhere
Domain
Range
Increasing
322
Chapter 3 Review
125.
y1 = 2 x + 3
y2 = 4 x
y3 =
y1
y2
Domain of y3 = [ 1.5, 4 )
323
Chapter 3
126.
y1 = x 2 4
y2 = x2 5
y3 = ( y1) 2 5
Domain of y3 = ( , 2] [ 2, )
Chapter 3 Practice Test Solutions1. b (Not onetoone since both (0,3) and 2. a (Doesnt pass the vertical line test.)
(3,3) lie on the graph.)
4. Observe that
3. c
f (11) = 11 2 = 9 = 3
g (1) = (1) 2 + 11 = 12
So, f (11) 2 g (1) = 3 2(12) = 21 .
324
f
x2
5. ( x) = 2
x + 11
g
7.
g ( f ( x)) =
x2
Domain: [2, )
+ 11 = x 2 + 11 = x + 9
g
x 2 + 11
6. ( x) =
Domain: (2, )
x2
f
8.
( f + g )(6) = f (6) + g (6)
= 6 2 + ( 62 + 11) = 2 + 47 = 49
Domain: ( 2, )
9.
( ( 7 )) = f ( 7 ) + 11 = f (18)
10. f ( x) = x ( x) 2 = x x 2 = f ( x)
f g
= 18 2 = 4
12. f ( x) = 2x = 2x = f ( x)
So, odd.
Therefore, f cannot be even.
11.
f ( x) = 9( x)3 + 5( x) 3
= 9 x 3 + 5 x + 3 f ( x)
f ( x) = 9 x3 + 5 x + 3
= 9 x3 + 5 x + 3 f ( x)
So, not odd. Thus, neither.
13. f ( x) = x 3 + 2
14. f ( x) = 2( x 1) 2
Reflect the graph of x 2 over the xaxis,
then expand vertically by a factor of 2,
and then shift right 1 unit.
Domain: ( , ) Range: ( , 0]
325
Chapter 3
x, x < 1
Domain: ( , 1) ( 1, )
Range: [1, )
Open holes at (1,1) and (2,1); closed hole
at (2,4)
16. (a) 5
(b) 2
(e) when x = 7
(c) 7
17.
(a) 2
(b) 4
(c) 3
(d) when x = 3, 2
19.
3( x + h) 2 4( x + h) + 1 3x 2 4 x + 1
) (
18.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
) = 3x
3
never
1
2
+ 6 xh + 3h 2 4 x 4h + 1 3x 2 + 4 x 1
h
h
h ( 6 x + 3h 4 )
=
= 6 x + 3h 4
h
( 5 7( x + h) ) ( 5 7 x ) = 5 7 x 7h 5 + 7 x = 7h = 7
20.
h
h
h
21.
22.
10 1 2 1 3 1 1
( 64 16(2)2 ) ( 64 16(0)2 ) = 0 64 = 32
=
=
10 2
8
4
2
2
Domains:
23. Solve y = x 5 for x:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f 1 ) = [5, )
y2 = x 5
2
rng ( f ) = dom ( f 1 ) = [ 0, )
y2 + 5 = x
Thus, f 1 ( x) = x 2 + 5 .
24. Solve y = x 2 + 5 for x:
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f 1 ) = [ 0, )
y = x2 + 5
y 5 = x, since x 0.
Thus, f 1 ( x) = x 5 .
326
Domains:
2x +1
for x:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f 1 ) = ( ,5 ) ( 5, )
5 x
(5 x ) y = 2x + 1
rng ( f ) = dom ( f 1 ) = ( , 2 ) ( 2, )
5 y xy = 2 x + 1
5 y 1 = x( y + 2)
5 y 1
x=
y+2
5x 1
Thus, f 1 ( x) =
.
x+2
26. We compute the inverse of f piecewise:
For x 0 : Solve y = x for x: x = y . So, f 1 ( x) = x on ( , 0] .
25. Solve y =
( y)
= 1 x2
x2 = 1 y 2
x = 1 y 2 since 1 x 0
327
Chapter 3
15 + 1( x 30) , x > 30
C ( x) =
beyond
the initial 30.
15, 0 x 30
=
x 15, x > 30
t = 1.5
t = (1.5) 2 = 2.25
So, after 2.25 hours, the puddle will reach
the sidelines.
k=
8
25
. So, y =
8
25
Range
Increasing
Decreasing
Constant
km
.
P
k (2)
= 20 , we
3
30m
see that k = 20 ( 32 ) = 30 . So, F =
.
P
Using the fact that F =
x2
36.
Domain
[ 4, 2 ) ( 2, 4]
[0,5]
( 1,1) ( 3, 4 )
( 2, 1) (1,3)
( 4, 2 )
328
2.
2
2
3+ 5 6+ 2 5 3+ 5
=
=
=
4
2
3 5 3 5 3+ 5
3.
x 3 4 x x( x 2) ( x + 2)
=
= x( x 2)
x+2
x+2
Domain: ( , 2 ) ( 2, )
10 x 2 29 x 21 = (5 x + 3)(2 x 7)
4.
1
6
x = 15 x + 11
5 x = 6 x + 330
11x = 330
x = 30
5. (8 9i )(8 + 9i ) = 64 + 81 = 145 + 0i
6.
5
10
10 = , x 0
x
3x
15 30 x = 10
5 = 30 x
x=
7. Since
is 40%.
35.70
59.50
8.
1
6
x(6 x + 1) = 12
6 x 2 + x 12 = 0
(3x 4)(2 x + 3) = 0
x = 43 , 32
10.
9.
2
1
x
x=
2
5
2
5 x 10 x = 2
5 x2 2 x
x + 2 = (3)3 = 27
x = 29
2=0
5 x2 2x + 1 2 5 = 0
Check:
5( x 1) 2 = 7
( x 1) 2 =
7
5
x = 1
x + 2 = 3
7
5
= 1
35
5
329
29 + 2 = 3 27 = 3 .
Chapter 3
11.
12.
7 < 3 2 x 5
x x 12 = 0
4
10 < 2 x 2
Let u = x 2 .
5 > x 1
u 2 u 12 = 0
(u 4)(u + 3) = 0
u = 3, 4
So, we have:
[ 1,5)
x 2 = 3 x = i 3
x 2 = 4 x = 2
13.
14.
x
<0
x5
CPs: x = 0,5
+G
HJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ


0
[0.4375, 1.25]
15.
16.
d=
= 0.4375
m=
(x
+ 12 x + 36 ) + ( y 2 18 y + 81) = 4 + 36 + 81
( x + 6) 2 + ( y 9) 2 = 121
So, the center is (6,9) and the radius is 11.
19. Since the center is (2, 1) , the general equation is ( x (2)) 2 + ( y (1)) 2 = r 2 .
Now, use the fact that (4,3) lies on the circle to find r 2 . Indeed, observe that
(4 (2)) 2 + (3 (1))2 = 20 = r 2 .
So, the equation is ( x + 2) 2 + ( y + 1) 2 = 20 .
330
21.
( ,1) (1, )
23.
g ( f (1)) = g ( 6 (1) ) = 7 2 3 = 46
24. y = x 2 + 3, x 0
To find the inverse, switch the x and y and
solve for y:
x = y2 + 3
x 3 = y2
y = x 3, x 3
Since the domain of the original function is
x 0 , we use the positive root. So,
f 1 ( x) = x 3 .
So, r =
k
k
. Using the fact that r = = 45 , we see that k = 135 .
t
3
135
.
t
26.
Decreasing
[ 1,1) (1,3]
[0,1]
( 1, 0 ) (1, 2 )
( 0,1) ( 2,3)
Constant
nowhere
Domain
Range
Increasing
331
Chapter 3
implies that
h( x ) = x 2 .
332