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Community Health and Development

Isabelita M. Samaniego MD
June 25 2008

1. Define and explain terms
2. List and discuss the perspectives in approaching health care
delivery influencing a community health development
3. Discuss how communities address their health concerns
4. Discuss community organization and health promotion
- A state of complete physical, mental, and social well being
and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity.
World Health Organization - 1947

A dynamic state or condition which is multidimensional in

nature and results from the adaptation to his/her

Group of people who have common characteristics; can be
defined geographically or administratively
Community Health
The health status of a defined group of people and the
actions and conditions, both private and public, to promote,
protect, and preserve their health.
Population Health
- The health status of people who are not organized and have
no identity as a group or locality and the actions and
conditions to promote, protect and preserve their health
Public Health
- Health status of a defined group of people and governmental
actions and conditions to promote, protect, and preserve the
peoples health
Community Health vs Personal Health
o Individual actions and decision making that affect
the health of an individual or their immediate family
o Activities aimed at protecting or improving the
health of a population or community
growth in one or more sectors of society plus associated
changes in attitudes, social institutions and knowledge,
resulting in desired changes in peoples standard of living
Community Health Development (CHD)
Process of putting in the hands of community members the
power to make effective health decisions and to influence
the management of available health resources so that they
can start to address their own health concerns
- Active players: community leaders, barangay health
workers, community volunteer health workers,and people in
the community
Elyu, masayahin ako

First Shifting

Perspectives in Approaching Health Care Delivery

1. Health is a Social Phenomenon
2. All Sides of Reality must be Considered
3. The Community should be Partners in Health, not Just

Factors Affecting Community Health

Physical: industrial development, community size,
environment, geography
o beliefs, traditions and prejudices
o economy, politics, religion
o socioeconomic status
o social norms
o local and external decision making process
o policy-making policies (?)
Individual Behaviour: takes the concerted effort of many, if
not, most to make a community volunteer program work
All Sides of Reality Must Be Considered
Strengths: internal capacities, positive traits and values,
experiences, physical and human resources
Weaknesses: internal to the community (problems, issues),
acts as barriers
Opponents: possibilities, generate strength, help realize
health goals
Threats: external conditions/situations affect health or effort
to improve health
Community Should Be Partners in Health, not Just
Putting health in the hands of the people
Encouraging comunities to assume responsibility for their
health and become partners
Paradigm shift for health professionals
Actions that Help Community Address Health Problems:
Community organizing
Community mobilization
Education and Training
Establishing effective linkages for the future
Mobilization of financial, technical or other resources
Community Organizing
A process through which communities are helped to identify
common problems or goals, mobilize resources, and in other
ways develop and implement strategies for reaching their
goals they have collectively set.
Community Mobilization
Helping the community to recognize that health is a
community concern, and not just the concern of the medical
profession or the government, and motivating community
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Community Health and Development

members to take sustained action to address health
concerns in their own barangay

Assumptions of Community Organizing

1. Can develop the capacity to deal with their own
2. People want to change and can change
3. People can participate in making, adjusting or
controlling major changes
4. Changes in community living, which are self-imposed or
self-developed have a meaning and permanence
5. A holistic approach can deal successfully with
6. Democracy requires cooperative participation and action
in the affairs of the community and people must learn
the skills
7. Frequently, community of people need help in
organizing to deal with their needs, not as many
individuals requiring help with individual problems

Education and Training

Disseminating knowledge and/or information needed to
enable people to act together for barangay health
o Up-to-date knowledge on health issues
o Information on leadership
o Community diagnosis techniques
o Strategies for community-based health promotion

Helping communities have a voice in health issues which

cannot be resolved at the community level
o Participation of representatives of the community in
o Advocacy/lobbying for change in health care
delivery by either community members or by a body
established to give the community a voice

Stakeholders in the Process

Initiating agency
o may be from community, LGU, NGO, external
funding agency
Facilitating agency
o may be the initiating agency or some other agency
Supporting agencies
o agencies that can help with lobbying or advocacy

Process for Organizing a Community (presented in a flowchart

1. Recognize the problem
2. Making entry in the community
3. Organize the people
4. Assessing the Community
5. Determine priorities and setting goals
6. Selecting a solution to the Problem
The Final 4 Steps

Establishing Effective Linkages for the Future

Ensuring that the community has access to information that
can enable them to make informed choices
Actions to address Health Concerns in Policies
Training in basic advocacy skills and in how health system
o Ex: Policies affecting availability of drugs at the
Barangay Health station
o Ensuring representation on appropriate special
o Ex: peoples organization to have a seat on District
Health Boards

Formation of alliances
o Alliances with agencies to support certain causes
Formation of a municipal or provincial body
o a special body with representatives from
communities, NGOs and government agencies, can
be nominated or established to have direct
responsibility for tapping the concerns of local

System for Putting Health in the Hands of the People


Helping communities address their health problems where

these can be addressed
o Facilitating a paradigm change on the part of the
health workers
o Community organization, diagnosis, training and
establishing linkages as part of CHD intervention
o Community-based health promotion
Elyu, masayahin ako



Looping Back


Student Activity

Community A : felt need is the high prevalence of hypertension

in their barangay: Describe how you will organize the community
to develop a health project focusing on hypertension.

Community B : High prevalence of PTB.

Community C : High Incidence of Dengue
Community D : High Prevalence of DM

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