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E LA S TIC INS TA BI L I T Y (o r

B u c k lin g

F a ilu re )

E x a m p l e s o f b u ckl i n g fa i l u re

rt

.-!- *"-6",- :"'\a't -to cr 6;'p'zc'i'rr' trn*L ''


n 0r^1
!,
"ttot"
"n".t
:ecti'^s co'ioJ
jtrut5,
u'*' il"lz c"""
c"U8

;E--""1.-';f

stvv'i
J".- '.
$
.0''

u.,\^ |e fa ld s O ^ ft1
" *i " o-l
sQ"^eler'.s"
sq,^
eler '" s ,yYd*io
o-t

e.J l;i1 GJrio^"

$"
il"-

J.^ JL u^}e,

ll
lI I

,,t,,i
/lj
It

2l

\J

-lo^p,,o''"
*^r
n ".+"e+" o^,( tll.
t,""""D
"""tT,
"
Yl
U
r r r^ ^ ---t i^ " 1
I iiI , , . .c..*il*
v,kn..
l*9^;_
r".",."jdtil,,, c,,,,,^LIO
;+t +l*, Q1"rth fe;.J{
'^

buckting

of thin

,.ratred sections

I l c,o"j.r.
J

l!

l/

," f.;

t\" .

l/ "**ni= *-

( ,1 6 ,- ..,S ee\on

!,11o c.-q*J$

{1""*"*b."r.I
li:
l.t
l
). sQ"^["X1]-o tf,q
t

-"*r^",. ",,q
S"".^l\ !o^!. 1.1 t..\rL.n .-et1
\L*", r\: c"_?*,,,"- vo.Jl
strerlth
ts ve^olneJ
'

Aj*Una md dlnrtinr ol tlE qltndrtqt rrtt


of . c.n utbj.ct d ro conlr.tdlr for...

(!) Io6ronol8!.tllng

3)

Eidelrays buckling

of beans

'rN

(b) Loc6lBucrlng

4) buckling

p ro d u ce d b y to rsr on

'*o-1..GlW*,
T,i.r.b.r<t b{.!jna of . lnrtr in r6to..

5 ) ' s n a p - t h ro u g h '

b u ckl i n g of a s1i9ht1y cur ved m ember

(d)

0)
..Sirprhro{,i ,,
inrt.Ul(, of r lhrlow qu$.t |tEnt-.

Th e s e t y p e s o f fa i l u re
a re n ot due to the attainm ent of
s t l e s s v a l u e b u t a re re fe rre d to as an instaUifiiv- ialfor e. a m axinum
Th e d e f l e c ri o n s
a re Ia rg e and r hey .r .
ie if r he
de f o r r n a t i o n i s p re ve n te d trom pr oceeding "ii"ii",- - and the load
too far
le m o v e d t h e co n p o n e n t w i l t retur i to its oiifinaf
poJiiio",

0f a I l t h e e xa mp l e s d e scri b e d only the fir st


d e t a i l , n a m e l y th e b u ckl i n g of a colunn with

wilt be exanined i.n


an end ]oad.

Th e c r i t i c a l
l o a d fo r a n i d eal elasti.c column is known as
the
"Euler Loadn after the ma th enar ician Leonhar d Eufe! ( f707_f 7S!t
rdho first
invest ig ated tbe phenomenomof i ns tabi li tv.

T h e s t r e n g t h o f th e n a te l i a l -i tself
( eg lensile
St.r ength) does
no t i n th e fo rmu ta for the ciiti.ii- ioua,
- Th""- a;;
r d is
bu c k l-ianpgp e al oa
n o t i n cre a sed Uy usin!- a
str onge! m ater ial.
Ho w e v e r , t h e Io a d ca n b e i n c!_easeil!y r .,s- in9 i- "tiite.
;"t".- ;i

(ie a mare;iEf-iiEfi-E-rar=gei-modulus6t
-.a1-eii"i nr. Atso rhe
be
incre,ased
bydistriburios
"riiti"ity
*r"i;-"d:ifr=;:;l_:Cl-.tr_
.I.
as
t o i n c r e a se th e se co n d -n o nent

just as a beam rnav be nade stiffer


T h e s e c o n d mo n e n o f .r" u ,1.
^iy

of ir ea
of ine closs section
U_Vi".."""i.g
the value of .I,
uZ i"Ji"l"ijoy
distr ibutioq

lji,llo hl;.:li,1
l
ho
' tubular

gl r he.cross sect i on. Hence.


::Lf^:::^
:n_"_:.:!:-.
st-rucrules
are
m6
r;
;
: ^ ; ; ; , : --; " : ^ i: ! ! rv
c olr'
lu mn s t h a n ' ' esnc
-"
o l ied'

di mensions wI-flJ-TEEEf n
increases iTe-EucF[fn

e c r o s s s e c r io n a l E E E c 6 F E T a n tr is inciEaie[
p r o c e s s h a s a p ra cti ca
h
o
we
v e r b e c a u E E - E ien t u a I t v th e
I lr t , Then local
wa] I itself
b e C o me su n sta ble.
ised buckling
ecause

o c c u l s i n th e fo rm o f sma l l colr ugations

or wr intlis.

If-a stru t or c ol umn 1s fre e t o b u c k le in any dir ection,


then i t
wi .Il b e n d about the ax i .s w it h t h e s m a lle i seconal
mornent of area.

enat qes m a l @
a q u ar e

Effect

of

lateral

restraint

(c)

(5)

(()

rh e d l a g ra m (b) abov e s ho ws .
t h e s t r u t o r c o lu r n n ig
laterally
- h o w,i". if ti,. .iaij!,
restrained from bu.ckling
n a y b e carri ed but ev enrua lt y a i a r o ia ' i- . ii' ii. i. " i'Iarger j.load
b u ckll n g l oad then buc k l i ng ir it t o " " o , ilr r - T r r . - ' . J in . t, h e f r sr
si m il a r l y,
1f that buc k l i l q is p , ! iv e q ! g a t r r " n 1 o " ir in g
" n otrhe
n.
in
-(c)
will o " " o i- . i' "
:tr.mes
ltl l d the
.To d e-.ass how n i n di ag ia n
r
o
a
d
n
in
e
flrs! Ioad.
rhe Euler vaiue ig tfriJit-rni"n
buckling
would first occur for an unrestrained strut.--- -- -"-

8f.f ect of
betraviour

l a rg e

d e fl e cti o ns.

imper fections

and r nelasti.q

T h e Eu l e r e q u a ti o n fo r th e buck- ling load was der ived


tor an idea l
strut
o r co Iu mn i n w h i cb.the
aef I ections
ir e
sm af f , tn e
c o n s t r u c t i o n i s p e rfe ct a n d t- he- - m ater ial follows floofl,"
lu*.
e"
a c o n s e q u e n ce , th e si d e w a vs deflection
is-s;;ii
undefined
in
che
Euler
-jeiie
folmuta.
rhus rhe srrui ft.ay h^-r; ;.y
it ron, wrricir
r n a y b e . v e rj .fi -e d e xp e l i me n ta lly and is shown in the
diagr
am below
b y h o ! i z o n ta I l i n e 'A '.

g.lhendeflectionE become larger


a more exact analysis shows tha t
an d l a rg e r l o a d i s necesar y to cause an incr ease
1
l
i
r
g
e
l
in the
q e ! r e c t t o n s (a s sh o w n b y l i n e .8.)
If

the strut

:::r,,

"
-.^:"

Fi n a l l y . -

i s n o t D e rfe ctl y

str a_ight etc then small deflections

from rhe onser-of rr;li;;-;;':ii:ii"c.

wirt be

i f_ w e co n si d e r i rh a t happens when

the str esses exceed the


etasric linit and rhe nateriar,ir-o r ongei-'ro-ii.;; -H;;k;.;-i;;:
i;i;
curve for inelastic behaviour ,0, depJiis iio. ii,"--"i""tic
-ar;;;";;;i.
curve
continues upwald, reaches a maximum;rd

T he . d e ta i l ed. s hape
th-e c u r v e s d e p e n d s o n c h e m a t e r j. aI
pro p e r tj.e s and the c ol_of
umn di m e n s io n s b u i t h e g " n " r it n a t u ! e o f
th e b e h a vi our i s as s how n.
I

Th e b a s i c Eu l e r

fo rn u l a

a ssumes ,r pinnedo ends but in p!actice

are possi-brei""n
:1." .iiJ,'tixed enas,
1,"11?-th::_:gl9itions
erastlc
supports etc.
""
The diagrarns belorr,
shor^, t'he four main
support conditions

aasuted in practice.

,P

lo_
Il

i-i
F
I
I

I i!
-fi-i'
I I lr

lr ti

-Lr_t'
\F
(4)

l
r

va I idit

linit

Th e Eu le r

fo i

E u l e r's

_z_ _

f ormul a

is

n a y b e writ t e n

-?le

( L/k

theor

as

tr- EAk'

Cg_
tL/k) \

known as the s l e n d er ness r at io )

F _ r o me q ua ti o n (2 ) i .t n a y be
that for a par ticular
value
! r a c u r ve ma y b e d ra w n of .seen
oucKl r ng str ess against slender ne s of
s
It^',
I J.e.r.1 Lc,s.": v.o
+l,a_
-r,.""r.F
(" -1 re * . v *
T l"
-rt v v r
cu.\ \(n(L
. { . -. . , t i.
\ $ ^ ! -.
t h . . c a f rc a , , d q
it ll, " . , ! . * J " , . . , ,
(L-g
ts
leu>
r"aro
tl^,.r,Lo,
)

S1(e9s

L /t'

Ho w e ve r , i t w i l l be aD D a r e n t t h a t f o r
s m a ll v a lu e s o f L , / k
y:]:: :f the E ul er _U uc i i i n g s t r e s s wilt U" . o . .
n e n ce m u s t be i nappl i qabte.
" "olio
o - f li' rn" o
" ,* icaanl " t
lh - " . , " " " o n - i" ,
any particular materiat rhe buckling
n"J#r
exceed
rnaximun compressive stress and i." f;c; ";.;'";
i;
;;h1'noi'io
.x.eea
el a tsic 1j .ni t s tres s for a s a r e q e s t g n .
I r r t r e f a q t i c-e -i t
g rl l
b 9 h e l pf
as a guide to
a r r m a t e r t a l s L ,/k va l u e s b elot!r l 100 wi
l1 make
d a n g e r o u s to u se .

the
an d
to,
the
r"

iildnF"o&'#il

Rankine fornula
Because

th e

l i mi te d

range- of

the Euler equatr on and its


. of
unsuitabilit.y
with snalI L/k v-aIu:_s,6ilprijlli
- r=o".*.li'u"have been
s
a
t
i
s
f
y
a
t
I
v
a
l
u
e
s
o
l
L
/k:
r # r e - - .r " m a n y of
:J : -l" id, r o

j';*."*"il,.tirli*:;
l"t"rn"'o?1""',i:.it'rT!?".!,-ri
iii"'"'rrT*"rf
bet
the roaa

s h o u l d b e a co n p ro mi se

wourdcausei;ii";-;;;

;;'J;?.t1'.."n1t"'"iJ:.u i:u
I

"_,\

.rl

-'1"-'

thai

The forrnula

becoll|es:

6"4
l+ e /!\"
where d< and
given be lo!r.

a re n a telial

c ons tants,

typical

Material

Cast fron

L/7 500
540

Wood

r/L600
L/3 0 0 0

coDparison

af Euler

anal RankLne forDulae

ll

S t a n d a rd p ro ce d u re (BS 449)

BS - 4 4 9 , t h e sta n d a rd fo r B tructur al
steelh,or k,
v a l u e s f o r sta n d a rd a e cti o n s in a tabular for m.'
The table

a!e

Low carbon steel s

British

values

gives
- aIIowabIe
'

ls based on the perry-Robeltgon formula as follows3


Vtitht load!o.,or N .ppud,rh. pcrry_Robcn&n
cqu.rionbccom.3
No

_ l{lo,+ttt+uo.l,
-lo,+lt_+tlc,J
2
r-j
V [L

t
t-

_- -",".

The Perry-RobertEon formula


_is based on the isssurnptlon tltag any
inperf,ecrj.on oJ rhe strur, through
fa-uliy ;;.i;;;;i;
marerlat
i ty of l oadi .ns c a n ie a lr o ie d io i- 6 f ' ! 5 so,
u
m
: . n eu r a t
::^
"
::"
_
1
!r
i
"
E ne str u t haE an i ni ti al
qu r v a t u r e .
r o r e a s e . o i- c a f c u ia iio n
this assuned to be a coslne
.ttfroog-; tirl -."-ti,jf shape has
ve ry l i ttl e
effec t on the l es_cu..r.
urr.

t*

I
i

UNIVERSIOTy OF WOLVERHA-MPTON
SCIIOOI OF CONSTRUCTION, ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

B Sc COMPUTER
AIDED PRODUCTDESIGN
TUTORIAL SHEET -

struts

1)

G i v e fo u r d i ffe re n t

2)

St a t e th e E u l e r fo l mu la and hence descr i.be the factor s


i n f l u en ce th e b u ckl i n g load and r r ow ic m iy- Ue"i.;;;;;,

e xam ples of instability

w h y j.s th e E u l e r fo rmu la only valid

for

failur e.

tn at

1on9 slender str uts

A c i r cu l a r b a r,
2 5 mm diam eter is 1 m ] o n g .
If both
b e c o n sj .d e re d to b e p i nned, calculate t h e b u c k lin g lo a de n d s m a v
by :-( a ) T h e E u L e r th e o ry
( b ) T h e R a n kj .n e th e o l y
E = 20 0 GN /m2
Ans

d s = 3 25 MN,/m2

(a ) 3 7 .8 5 kN

.a. =
!/' ,OOA

(b ) 37.98 kN

W h i . c ho f th e so l i d
sections shown would be the
s h a p e fo r a stru t su b j e c t to buckl ing ?

optirnum

@ EA,

Ans

The .shape if ith the largest second momeDt of area


for
a qiiven cross sectional
area.
For
most
people,
j .n tu i ti o n - su g g e sts that the
cir cular
ii- u"".
ou t
Ir
ca n b e sh o w n hathem atically that "i,ip"
the shape of a n
e q u i ta te ra l
rri a n gte gives a 2it i,iqn.i- .iilii.r
Ioad
rn a n d o e s a ci rcu l ar closs section oi the sar near ea.

ol

C a I c u I ate th e E u l e r b u ck 1i ng loadfo!astr ut2m long


( a ) w i th th e cro ss se ction sbown in fig

Q5( a)

( b ) wi th th e cro ss se ction shom in f 19 06( b)


The ends may be considered to be pinned.
fig

f is

Q6 (a )
. __l

7l

06(b)

--T

50,"-

(b)

An s { a ) 2 . 0 5 6 kN

E = 200GN,/rn2

151, 7 s k N

An 'I'
E e cl i o n i s b o l ted thr ough the web and hence nav be
considered
to have pinned ends when bnding about the- x-x
axls
as 6hown but to have fixed endg when lending about the
y - y a xi s.
c a l c u l , a te th e E u l e r b uckling load for . the cr oss- aection
shown of length I0 m,
E
200 cN/nz
-

N3. c
n:.c
I

I
I

Ans 95.8 kN

t
t -- Ipf

2+ Is

T
i_

Buckling

r
f
T
{

I
!

t
t
I
{

ilIiT'

ffi

Pr"t'J

/l

l;

ti
\

Pi""J -Pi""J

f ir"tr-linJ

{ir"ol' ['.t

h =tf

n = l-

(br)+
'=#'o
T= r<-o|t

(,.cf

6+ -

I = A.Ka

rcY-:

tr

f/ o"

\6
o{

K= rJus

3y6dion

n*"F{
rcY =
P""
- _T_.
--r _T
:>

nfc "EAttt
EAt(

l=-=

V- = *Q.J"*.tt
-

'.-<

^7--\

- -l:"

1T6

^ca*io -- tK
^

nna-

--> ba"-#..

u(/f.)

.r
A

Qq)

or)

eoo6

0_

r-=no&fu

ir

Y\o

tet sion

tu"\'[j

\r )

Cc-pvess ive,

b,"F!%

\ii)

@v pre-s:ive,

b,"k$Z

iv)

\a

v)

e*to.^*-[

nn3ea
?ct =
z

4J =
33. \6 r'J

bu.\<1.^6
!ra< ure.
\oo ltoo9
\?-

L".t.4-1
a

U-egt---r.zx#**\
\z

.n

Bu"KYn*'
L..)

f'"A"

- @r.pves: iva.

,A

_ S*v&:c.r"Z

t,

tL^

- i"st -bihy
eQn"t;.

o-

J6^a
d

s!e^Jnv-

cv'+;c^0lr^J

ott

- E t't..."n^L Presstr<- on

s\el\s

$=P.A

Eu\-er 6",ti"-0 Q""1,


f\5 nuv,'!er o+ Jupn""lts
c'"J*tio'"s

B.".Avb

E= louy
I =

ll

wl-\,,

>e.on d,

nt/

L= )teylh

on

rronenT

ol

4hz

o+

3tvut,

C;rqzx, vt4

r/r\

e,.oL'.A f i^"rio".' or'

FATIGUE
F ailule

of

rate r ials

by f ar igue

lvpes

r es ur ! s

l)

rroh

Ioads

ehi.h

are

i;' .;i:
;:;'i: ;:"i"ffi::.i"fl".;:".T:iT'i.:#.1",";;;"'i;;i,.;
T he

h ost

srrikrng
r ealur e or
f at ique
in i he r egion of f r ac r ule

of

fa ti q @

str e ss

svstd s

p i r e ct.tr e ss
The sinplest
stress systen.
A component i s su b j e ct d
tension or compression a l o n g i ts l e n g th .
At a n y l n sta n t
s t r e ss
is
u n i fo m l y
d i str i b u te d
a cr o ss

to
th e

*';;J::
" iif:'t:
::;::,";;:'li:*li::,:1ru"1,"i,:;i:i::"i:J:
Fatique

rarture

is

lne

tact

or

fractures

fhe_ -fracrute
s ur r ae
oI par r 6
generarry
h ave a c har ac t er is t ic

t haL hav e r a r t p d
am er

due

to

tariaue

HI ::
mnil;::.,'.:Xt":;:.::i:ii;"is:.:r.ffi:":",:*:",;i:r

2l
A co m p o n e n t i s r e p e a r e d l y b e n i a b o u t a p a r ti cu l a r
a x i s.
q l e a f sp r r n g s o I a l o !r y.

n e u tr a l

final
zone of flacture
{6 a r s e
appearance)

Roud

6d.

s \.r .u

3)

ar e!

A round th e leg ion

of or igin

of pr op a g a t i o n
(fatigue
r s m ot h a p p e t u e c e )

zone)

Rotatirq
bendlnq
A
co m p o Eo t
is
bent
about
a n e u tr a l
a xi s
e h i ch
is
c o n r i n u d sl y
r o ta r e d u i r h
r o th p .6 p o n An r
F9 r h e
'p
sp
e
cr
r a r r va y t!u ck.
Th e to a d o n r h e j o u r n a ts
n n d r n e r scti o n .r
th e u h e e ts b e n d s L h e a yl e a r r h e ce n r r e
u h i l st
n o ti o n co n r i n u a
y ch d n q e s r h p
u ..Ji n f
v i E h i n tn e a ! r .
",,"".i ".
"r

tff.",:'":r:
::*i:::;-"i:i;il:';:ri:y:i.:i;:::!i_l!1.iiilil"
of

t he c r r

s pr e a d r e l a t i v e t y

: : T . il""
ano

, second z onc is dis r ineuis habr ei


ocorle d
uher e
t he c r : ; r
,

this

is

6 l *l y .

ress sborh

na s
p."r,.p",.-"""iiii
.i":.:::":"'ii"..i;,:TS,"$':,,[:::"]I
"i;::;

rhis,-is

the a rea on { hr c h

t he

f inal

I r ac lu r e

ocdrred

when

repearedly

te i ste d

a b o u t a fi xe d

a xi s.

rhe

;iil:::.""i;. i:gt":io':L.T;;n",'t'"utt'"'.tii--,,!"';:;i"'i;:
3!i:,"il;""."tl"fi#."::',"i,:,TIiii:::"e

is

or ribrous apperance

5)
T h e te r n
prev i @s l y

si D p l y

i h p ti e s

a co n b r n a ti o h

E nti oD ed.

o f th e typ e s

of

6 tr e ss

atrels cEre r rl.

;^-

s"J'^t

rrt

o{ tle.

gtr.g;-{-.

l-.-o.ardl

v.pz-te{
Peri"*s\\r.
Itfe; are subjcted to Y

uany conponerts,
dur1n9 thelr selvtce
l o a il r bic b v ar les .ith tihe and 60 the atre.s
lepleaented aB a 6 1 n . ta ve .E sh d n

cycle

can often

S-l| curve
A f a t r g u e te st i 5 u su 6 l l y ca r r i e d o u r H i th a r Ip a sr e j g h r sl m i l a r
t . s L p r e c es.
Th e se
are
r .ste d
u si n g
o i fr e r e n r
va tu e s
ol
alternating
3 tr e 6 5 b u t th e
( th e n e a n str e ss ts
orrcn
rero'
Th e a tr e r M ti n g
sr ,.ss
i s r e p e a L e d ty.p p r i .a
on i
restprece
unril
!t fa i tB o r r e .ch e s a r ,r e d e r Fr n i n e d
humber of

be

9\r,"

fhe
or

,N .
r e s u lts a r . r h e n p l o tte d o n d g r a p h d s sh o h .
th e n u m b e r
. y c r e s to r r a ctu r e
i s u su a y p ) o ! r e d o n . Io sa r i r h n i c
sca te
tu y r a n g e fr cn a fe { th o u sa n d r o m a n v n l l l r o n _

9fi=

\ir

3.o

Ir o

,*"

F.i3_

ar.v e

'*-=oYl!.^12*.

tb da.te

n.l"r'1te.tuLo1
v

b r l,"? tl

ln.

h-^

{.t"
a",f

*l"(-.t.5.";
-u-.
_._

d'lku"..
c ' l. r .

io

F* i .ru!

{N)

Thele
are
so n e o a te r i a l s
fo r u h i ch fa i l u r e
se l d o n
o ccu r
a fte r
c n d u r a n c .s sr e a r e r r h a n .
nirlion
o r fl o cycl p s,
e v- n It .h e r e sl
r o r a s m a n y a s ) 0 " o r t0 . cvcte s.
The s-N diagran
i B th e n drah
as a s l opi ng
l i ne
Lhrouqh
the
testpieces
r h a t fr a cttr r e d and a l b.i z ontal
I i ne abov e rhos e w hi c h

rL scrua a,n c

rc-s.!

Avetu4e 3tt 5> beCu'czn r'.si*-ltretr. For * vrcteu5eJ- oa"l,^l-;*.^


,- <-- 5.9-.-r: .-r.'\A 6" Z"l<'the

6tfta-> z

nlaa*j

-.1
5.*r,

el^o''
z p1 tust f c",r^*&r
''tr"'ts
o[^^;.
{a,tiq,.,'- te9'(,.o^e f,r!-* th<.
n
o.(qetI";.
llk"r, .t- bztvJe-e alp
r"X

d,"^.L ,--,

a\let

\-

4^L

?c:rL4-,

the
s t r e ss a t u b i ch r h e cu r ve b e cse s h o r i zo n ta l
i 6 kn o m a s th e
f a E i q u e ttfi t.
xe r a l s u h i ch sh o w a fa ti su e
r i .r !
i .l i r l "_ - .i "i
a n d 6 o 'rg h t
i r o n s,
to r a n d r e d i u D sr r tr g th
ste e l s,
sta i n r e s;
s t e e l s a n d sm e ti ta n i u n
a l l o vs.
Hoever,
r h e _ .n a j o r .i ty
o r m e i a l s a n d p r o b a D l y a tj n o n _ m e l a ts
do
'tn e e ' j n th e o n ;
n o L s h d a d e fi n i te
bur d; rqa
t"* ,a s
."."
limitiDg
va l u e a t ve r y ta .g e n sb r s
o f cycr e ;.
As can
.b e - se e n fr o n i h e se tw o s- N cu r ve s l h e r e
s c a t t e r i n fa ti g u e r e su l ts.

is

co h si d e r a b l e

liLta',t:
,? o
FLo.tvoL-\
6.-t i'"a*r61 6f
n
idcJl c K".> C"-fuereb
t eter>el
5lrws

||rnn atr.nr

oth.r

than rero

j o r n . ti e tyo kn o r n p o tn ts e tr h
ctr L e r r o n
a p .r .b o l a .
j o i n 6 th e o r l th
drldion
a Br r a tq h r
ti n :.
xo 6 r
a o q u tr e d d a r a fa l l
b e tr e e D th e se i i n e E.
cr
r
r
e
r
i
o
o
,
r h tcb i s m r cd se r u a ti ve ,
e rt g
u5e6 rhe
y'nr eer, d r spooerr tr
a s r h e e n d p o i n t o f th e tr n c.
s b dn .i s.a
l j n e d ,.,n .t
a 5 fl o n th e yi e l .t st.e 6 s.
A) o n q
^rso
:l:
- c *Fr
e r p e l r E n ta l l y

!(xrl.') s.o

iH.:f
,;T"Ti:.":i.::l:'*i;1",;::;ii":
#:i:';i:;:::""
copE.live

ieln

so far
.ero.rs

.i L ..p p e .r s
to d e cr e a a e

.rr..s
th r l

th e
appried eirhoutr"ir*".
tli'r
rs
the
r6n
strs
tatlgira
6trenqth
dereas.

is

ircrc.sed

eneo
rhs

far_iqNe

lirtt

F or n etrta
ihici
s hor _a @lt def ineit f at ig G
tltrir,
cuwes
. Dov e typ e ca n b e us ed r o buit d up t ne r o r t r i r g
aiigran.

rld
of

the

(n4|rt\

Ihla
diagrah shoes the alternating
srress rnat can be usal
th e , c or E . pddt ng
s rra s to e * u e
the _rp-" .t;;;"
ra rr by r at ique.
"on
tbe ti&e consudng .rxr erpdsi E tEring
requi red
.9f .Dove
tn.
o.ve,
eq,ilil
crireria
r,.u" u"in pio"i.a
the f.tigue properties

6a

Ditrl
-;;;
ro
i"

i."

:*i:t,i!;i."i!i];f*i-#.""::;:::,::"::.x".*".:"i::ff":
5 tr e 3 s

.r-.ss

rhan

co.preEsiv
Ean stres*s
are ar
g:,1:..
yr.ra-i"iii-i"-i;;iElli*,l"iil
:i=9,,.
fi ;lli:i .li:
arrohbre
a r te m a ttn g
str e ss.
In fi (

susee.red
thst 1," r.tii*'!i,liiii
zero rean

H.tu

o th e r

iii"i"-ri j:':*$?r*'::.,;l:"X"H

tor purpcs-of
design cal@tati@s
provideal_rhar
Dean stress des
not erceed che viel;

,664!.1!d(r

*_":y.
pr@lce
predict

th e e fr e t
o f a n e a n str e 6 s
.l l o Eb l e
alk

rele

a cttD o _

the

conpressive

fr 'l:.ilJ"tf,:.:i,il,":. i;

De8lo

clldlatlds

for

fatlque

conditlong

Effect

Fatigtre
proceea and one rbich
is
a very cdplex
is
6rltl
nor
f ullt
un de rsto d.
The appr oac h * e s ha t t u s e i s . v a r i a t i o D
of
the
cla.sical
S-N nethod.
Ir shoul.t be noted that
the
.ore
-fllcture
advanced
ethods
of
oecluntcs'
are replacing
the
s-N
met hoa fo! 'h igh t ec h' applic at i66.
F a c t u l e n *t h n i ;
is based
on ca lcu latid s
of c r ac k s ior t h.
Facto!s

affectinq

!atide

bebavidr

Expelirents
lndicate
that
the sMe factors
rhich
affecr
the
tenBlle
atlagth
of a naterial
arso affecr
the faciae
stremrhconseq ue ^ t)y
arr enpr a
hav e beer nade r o
rerate
rhe
rarioe
strength ,ith
th e t ens it e
s t r engr h.
Thi6 is rcr a pr.ctice
to
b. e ge ne hlly
rec or er ' dd
but in r he abs c e n o f
mor;
leliabre
infomation,
it
is
one rhich the ilesigner ,ill
find usrtrl
in
nany aitu atlo ns.
F or
ate ela
ha v lng
a t ens ile
s t r 6gr h
upto
l3oo uN/n2 it
is
u6ually.ccep red
t hat a geFr . li6ed
iat iqir e drve
My be poduceit
,h1ch p.oviites
a useful apploxihatlon.

of

tvp e o f

loadina

stnce
n o st r a ti g u e te sti h g
i s p e r fo m d i n r o ta ti n g
bending,
it
is
c o n v e d i e n t to r e l a te o th e r fo r n s o f l o a d i n q to th i s b v n e a n g
of a led
co r r e cti o n
fa cto r d e si g n a l e d |( L th r s;
Tvpe of

loadinq

l o d d co r r e .r i o n

rotatinq
reverseal

benaing
bending

reverseat

torsion

0 .8 5
0 .5 8

to Ei o n

is

Effect

surface

texture

in

te m s

of

sh e a r stl e sse s)

B e 6 u s e fa ti g u e
generally
fa i l u r e
o r i si n a te s
a t r h e su r r a ce ,
th e
quality
of
th e su r fa ce te xtu .e
i s i n p o r ta n r .
Th e p o o r e r
th e
texture
th e p @!e r th e fa ti g u e str e n g r h .
Al so th e h i g b e !
th e
tensile
str e n g th th m o r a cr i ti "ca l
i s r h 3 u r fa ce fi n i sb .
it ha6
i . e e n s u g g e ste d th a t th e su r fa ce te xtu r e
sh o u l d b e cl a ssi fi e d
i n to
5 brcd
etegories:
r)
2)
3)
,)
5)

p o l i sh e d
sr u n d
o a ch i r e d
bot rolled
as folgeil

Fo!
t h e p u r p o se o f d e si g n i t i s co n ve n i st
to u ti l i se
a
texture
factor
r(s rhich My be obtained
from aliagram A.

ind ic at es
s uc h an s - N @r v e r o r l o r a t i n e
bendine.
Ar
1l:
lgr-Tpo tntr
t he 9rurhe r . t ig@
t inil
t s a6quG d r o b e e q u a r r o i / 2 o (
the ,ten sile
stle ngr h uhile ! t . r he lor p o i n r i r i s 'a 6 s u r e d
ih;a
E ne r.trg ue
s* en gt h
t s 0. 9 x t eniit e
s t r en q t h
.
on tin_too co_
ordinate s
r straig hr
line is u6ed r o ioin L i s e p o i n t s .
A t lor ing
for the c ons ider able
s c at t er uhich e x i s t s a m n q
fatiae
test s
for
vatlo us
6r eeI s
produces
r his Er hod
; *. ; ; ; ; i ;
.Pproxlnation
to lhe fatlgue
cur@ uhich
"
be ottaineit
Fight
fron
fat lg ue
t.e sL s o n 6Landr r d
s p* ir ens
ud e r
the
condition
of
rot arrn g
De nd lnq .
F or oEh er na ter l. ls
t he s - N c ur v e d@ s n o r t e v e t
ort
aL hioh
cycles b ut co ntrn ues ddNdd
! r a v er y 6l i q h t
.r"a".
e"-.ai""i"
insrea d o I a fatis ue
r inr t , .
c o", pec ir y . - r . t i q " !
iti"""ir,-.i
l
6pec lrred
n umr'e r ot c y c t . d.
A r ule of t hu m b i 5 f o u s .
fat igue

e tren gth

ut

lo"

. y "t ""

0. 25 a t e n s i l e

stleusth

( X, )

{r e v e r s e d
of

i a cL o r

su l fa ce

T h e c m mn p r a cti e
i s to i g n o r e tb e su r fa ce te xtu r e e ffe ct
fo r
hetals
o th e r th a n ste e l a l tl b u g h
so r e r i r e s
a n a l l tr a n ce
nay be
@ d e b y i d cr e a si n g
a n o ve r a l L sa fe ty r a cto r .

Effecr

EF;ECT Or sviF^ce

TGtruRE

(sTE!)

of

si ze

ll:,:::i:;"".;:':::;'":i"?,::'::';:,
".;."1,
i"::i"":l:::'
H:l;l:

i:ri;:ilt;.,:l::iiii;,:;i:i:li":iT"rj:;:i
n;".".r
!ri",;rii".
""."jr
.;;;t;;';.-;::;;:;;
ffi:t':#,iiil'.i":"'1":ii,s.::.,::g':H.bG
The

d e s i gn

a p p r o a ch r o th i s

p .o b r e fr

is

to u ti l i ze

a si ze

fa cto r

:s.""::"i:T:::.::i:T.":;:
;i'ffi';",:i".-.;";a.a-".i*""'iii
TvE

of

loadirs

r o t a t i nq
r e v e r se d

si k

@e cr r o n

b e n d i !9
bending

ta cfo r

i xD )

0.3 5
I
0.3 5

;l!.:r:lil
lt:i::.':::::ri
ii::i3;:ii:ii.
f $::r:"{i.::.!i::ii,
4gl!.!gatioa

of

fa cto r s

to q e n e r a l i * d

fa ti q u e

cu r ve

:',.j.li.
ii::ffiiri;i":ri."i."::;*ri::i'iii::::3:i"l
:l'rij:i
::

ratisue orve

"utuii,eat"i'u-stj,a.;;

";:JT:iL:""

E";;i;;;

I' l
'["
i.
. *.
1l :::
?i ;:;" ::::,_ "*^'

er r or r nvor vd i. r his pr ocedur e b u t th e m e th o d


euidance in t he absence o f e xp e r i n e n ta l

6^' :
-ki
r ENsr !!

sr R NGr H

M ^ /n2

tr^ .

f-\i.?

d^ : .fr{.trn

\6.t

oa K. K- K5
,pr("{-

{,6.

bn\<

\.r

&-?.^+r

C olr osior

Frtlqu e

Effect

qenerally
latigre
t$ts
dre
cdilucted
in atr
as a reference
practice
coDdition'
but
in
Dany c@ponents
are
subjeted
to
cyclic
alre ss i! t he pr es enc of a s lloEiv e
envirdcst.
the
GJor po lnls to not e ar er 1.

A n eta l
hr v lng .
o ne in a mr r os iv e

2.

la p
ra tei
iB
a ' c or r os t v eenv ir cm a t ,
it
can
fa tigu e
st.enqt hs
up t o 50* in t he r i g h t c i l c u s t a n c e s .

l.

Fat.ig ue

5.

The

Metals

{b)

in a i !

no lohger

possesses
reduce

iieta ls
con s lder ed r es is t ant
t o c or bs i o
suffer
reductidg
in fatig ue
s t r engt h,
eg br as s es , br o n z e s . n i c k e r t
alMiniud
some na qn es lws
and aluninit r n
all o y s
alt
shd
reduced
qat
er
fatig ue 6tre n9t h
in t ap
and t o a g r a t e r e *t e n t i n s e a

4.

{a)

f at igue
lim it
env ir oNeDt .

llhitinq
can

gr owt h

crac h

be

crack

r at es

size

for

protected
floo
by the aililition

a! e

increased

plop6gation

corlosion
or inhibitors

is

in

by

fatigue
by sulface
to
rhe
orrosive

surfa ce
coat ings pr ov lde pr or ec t ion
in tro rays
either
by
p reveu ting
ac c es s of t he c or los iv e
nedium to the base retal
or
if
th c oat ing is anodic t o r he b a s e r e t a l .
they
cas
re strict
th e elt r o
c henic al aLLac k.
zinc,
a coarino or
th e scpn d t y pe has , at pEes enr , pr ov d
rhe rcsr successful,
giv e pr ot ec t ion
lnh ibiL ors
by f o! nr n9 a n a d h e r e n r
corrosion
re srstan !
r r lm on t he net al Eur f ac e.
The inhrbiLors
nosL
wide ly
ln ve s is at ed
f or us e , it h
sreels are rhe
chrcFtes
a nd d i-ch rm at es ,
s oaim c ar boc t es
and eDulslfvina
oirs
h ave be en us ed.

Frettinq
If
two Eo lid
s ur f ac es in c onc ac t ar e E u b j e c t e d r o
a repeated
let ative
mo vd en t of s m alI am plit ude,
sde danage Lo rhe surtace
lin th e forn of piLt inq)
nay oc c ut and Lh i s i s t n o n
as freLrinq.
rr
i a ro rm or nehanic al
wear r hic h c a n o c . u r e i L h o r
wirhdl
the
added facto!
or co.tusld
but rhich is furthe.
aggravaLed by
the presence of a corro3ive
eoviloment.
tbe a no ud t o f rel at iv e

t r eed only

be in t he o r d r

of a fractioD

of

pre se nce
Ite
is
us uar ly r ec os nied
bt
the
corrosion
fatigue
produ cts
h htch
c onEis r of f t nely div ided
pa.tictes,
oxide
tn
steel
tbis
is ir on ox ide Fe, or r hic h is a r e d d i s h b r o , n
colour
rhit e
in ha qn esium and aLum iniui alloy s
the fineLy divided
oxide
patticle s
ap pe a! blac R.
The ac c or pany i n g l o c d i p r L L r n q o t i h e
th e r r er r r ng
r eq: on c an les ut t
in serious
reituctions
( r r on s - t 0t '
in fa tiqu e
stren qt h.

o n ste e l s

t4pratures

Ih e i n fo m a ti o D
so fa r d e scr i b d l e l a te s
to
room
t e t r p e r a t ul e
+2 0 C .
ie
As te r p r a r u r e 3
d e cr e a se
th e
t n si l e
strength6
a n d th u s
fa tl g u
6 tl e n g th s
of
ste e l s
i n cr e a se .
IioEver.
b r i ttl e n e ss
a n d th u s n o tcr ! se n si ti vi r y
d e cr e a se .
th
rcsulting
ch a h g e tn
rarigue
sL r e n o r h d o {n fa - a o c
rs
rhus
Elevated

tenperatures

o p to 3 0 0 c th e r e i s l i ttl e
e ffe ct
o n th e
fatrqup
l j n i t,
a b o ve Eh a t fe m p e r a tu r e d r cm b i l a ti o n
ot
r a ti g u e
a n d c r e ep
td ke s p r .ce u i r h l h e c!"- p r a p i d l y
n e .o i n g
r ,r e n o sl
lnportant
a s tsh e td p e l a tl r e
r i se s.
Sumary:
Effect

corrosive

reduced

Le

o f T n p e r a tu l e

negrigble
of

sulface

e ffe ct

b e tw e e n

- 4 0 C a n d +3 0 0 C .

rreatnents

g r e th
The crack
i s ca u se d b y r e n si te
sl r e sse s
crack.
th u s @h p r e ssi ve
r h e su r fa ce
the
crack
fr o d p r o p a g a ti n g a n d a n y p r o ce ss th a t
s t r e s s e s i s u su r r y
b e n e fi ci a r
e s sh o r p e e n i n q .

-opening,
th e
te n d to i n h i b i t
p l o d u ce s
su ch

Th e r e
i 6 a n a r l e d r e d u cti o n
in
fa ti q u e
str e n g th
folldinq
su .fa ce
d e e r b u r i sa ti o n
a D d th i s b a s b e ;n
sh o e n - to
r e s u l t f ro m b o th l o 3 s o f ca r b o b a n d g r a i n b o u .d a r y o r i d a r i o n .
rlalne

ba-4e!=rng ald

inductis.

iardenirs

conpressive s*esss near rh surrace 3i::^'::::^il::.,:?:i'"::;


c a n c o n si d e r a b l y
qqsC _hqrdeDi4q
These

pr o e sse s

improE

fa ti q u e

by gajburisilgr
i D p r o ve

str e n g th .
nitliding

rarigue

sr r e n g r h

ai4

ljya4idiog

o r a cm r o n - n r

b e ca u s-

l r ) t he h l g h e r str e n q th o f th e h a r d e n e d ca se
( 2 ) t he cd Fe ssi ve
r e si d u a t
sr r e sse s p r o d u ce {i
Nirriding
i s p r o b d b l y L h e b e r te r p r o ce ss tr o m th e p o j n t o r
vi e w
o r r a t r q ue cd sr d e r a ti o n s
d e sp i r e r h e ve r y r h i n ca se b Fca u se r h e
subsequent
p r o ce ss i s u su a tl y o n ty h o n i n J o r l d p p r n g
p r ce sse s
/e q u r r e 9 .i r d i n g
and in addrLron rhere rs
a
d a n g r o f cr a cki n g d u r i n q q u e n ch i n q .
gaaliqsE a4 9!qe!
ferlolrg
Ete ctr o _ p l a ti n g
si th
n o o _ fe r r o u s
.
c o a t r n g s su ch a s ca a l n i u n , l e a i l r i n a n d zi n c h a ve r i ttl e
e ffe ct
in
g e n e r a l o n th e fa ti g l e
sr r p n g L h .
Bu L H i th L h e r yo h a r d - r m e ta l s
.h r o n r u m th e r e m y b e se r i o tr s ,- d u cL i o n s
in
fa r r o u e
lon

r2

lF

endulance fartque

iagglc

Hor k ot r f ari q u e s o fa ! c o n s i d e re d h as been conccrned ui rh


,atl
-rh e
Y t Q r S!9 !: 3! S E in t he ra n e e o r 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 ro )o o mrl ti on cvctes,
ovrna
7 ' , i, . . \.h i g h
s r r es s a n d s rl a tn c o n d i ti o n s pl esenr i n -5me hod.r;
pro ble hs,
deslg^
_t l / . /

der igher s
hav e t o c ds id p r
rhe Fssibilitv
ratrg ue
o ccurin g
in r he r ange 100 - 10,0 0 0 c y c t e s .
Thes
jnply s h o ; t l i f e
nun'b ers of cycles do not nee6s ar jly
rn tihe
a p resgu re
ve s Eet m ay r or L f or 25 y ear s u i l h
t,OOO cycles
clea n lng a od in sp ec t ion) .

of
lou
teq
oi

In low en du ran e
f at igue t he! is a m alk e d p t a s t i c
deforMtlon
in
every cycle a na l due ! o s r r ain
bar dedi. s
lo r s o f t s i n g )
efrects
it
beco re3
of
6o m e Bignif ic de
whet hr r he c y c t e i s
of
constant
stres s
a mplitu de o! ol c ons t anr s t r ar n a n p l i t u d e
a probtpn yhich
dos no t a rrse a t hiqh endur ees
and t ow ; c l e s j .

glll!!!.:!sE

B e c a u s e r i g i d i ty,
r a th e r th a n th e str e ss l e ve l ,
is
thFortant
i n - p l a sti c
p r o d u cts,
fa ti g l e
M y b e te ss
i n D e t d l p r o d u ctsH o Fve r ,
th e r ; cr r n d n y ca se s
r n p o r r a n h i n p l a sti c
des rq n.
Becausc,
rly.:I:

of
.T.

th e
csp l e r e l y
d i C tcr Fn t
n o l e cu l a r
sL r u c!u r e
of
r h e p r o ce ss o f cr a ca r n i L i cr r o n
d n o p r o p d sa r r o n a r e

j:lj^l:,;:::,iff:
;::",;::.;:1",."i"'
Ll!ii'i;.,ll,i "?ii"iti,
;*i:

;:: "::iT::i::"
t*.--i:
!iq?;:"*:'$""ff:"::.,:i:
skin raYe.hich
inhibits tiire" -....i
ii$*:r"i/"?:S;::i:e.

;::i;""": :"il*:. :j,:3:r.::t'1":"*:.;i,"il"'i:."t."i.":ii"^:


:ltgf.':il:i;''.^,'ii,.":fl
:ii.i:it ;*.1::;;:;_t:il:'ll:
-nu, .'.uin'u'.
i::"T::il::",i""i:':1";j":i:.T'i::::j:
".on"
t {h a n a p otl m e r

i s su b j e cr e d

L o a tw

a tr cr n a r i n g

sL r e ss

Lhe hiqh

:iTt'3:.,i'i"':t.::..**:,:sii;.:'::i"yil;,'
::..:::"":,n!l:;
i;l
li"'."1:T:l;t
:;.'l:.;:::i:*i:?..il,:"n:::,.1:,,;:li:i,,il"
i^:":ti::;:lii"-:lil.:'ti,
i.:::::ii:,:t:"tiil"ii:;'i.ix:;:];j

higher

te d p r a r u te .

$ r h e n l h e a l L e r n a ti n g

* t.;;;;;

i:::::;'"ti:
.*s.:iti::$:i,lJ-.t:.,1::'"1;
t:::il.n;:;""ilt
5S.:ti:":i,i":::::"?"::*i';"it,:::
ti.:i':i:";::;:: ;ii!:;
",,* ",;

The

ner

r e su l r

rs Lhai rhe rat

ique

cu r ve

hds

reo

d i sti n ct

f :' H: ."""t:,;":":l"":;j,:ll;:j:,
"i:ii, ::.i'"ii::l:l i i r,i-i''ia

In
s o n e p ta sti cs
th e fa ti g u e
r a r g e v a l ue s o f N r a th r l i ke

cD r ve te e n e s
r h e S- N cu r ve

a r m o st h o r i zo n ta l
fo r fe r r o D s m e ta l s

Effect

of

flequepcv

lf
th e-fre qu en cy
of c Fling
is t educ ed fr o m ( h e p r e v j d s
exanpte
rnen
a rrern arrn g
s r r e66 v ar ues r hat y out d h l v e p ! o d u c e d
ther;ar
E olte nin s
rajlu r es
pr
ev
t
ous
ar t he
rrequency,'
,""
...;ia
i;
a st6 bre rer'p er ar ur e and ev enr ual f ! r i9ue
f6j tutes.
Nomat tv,
t t is fo uDd tha t t hes e f at ique f ailur eE
fa l l
on the
extraporad;
curve Iro m the f at ique r ait ur es
at t he pr e v i d s
frauencv.EveD
.t
th e lore r fre quenc y t her e wir r be t h r @ l
sotte;inq
taitures
at
hrg he r. stre s 6 t ev els .
if r at igue
raitur.s
are
r4uired
ar
t hese
h i9h
stles s ps
t hen r he f r equenc y o u s r b e r e d u ; e d
srrl I

?r>=.-

l l ::g r

. I : t ) y :r:he
"

hat er i d l s

than

o th e r !.

I : 11 "1::-:lg 1:..
E fect

of

d e p c n d o n r.h e .d a mp i n e and LherE r


conducri vi ry
p o ry h e r 6 n d rh u s a re mo.e prcrcunced i n sd;

s ir h

For

e r a n p le ,

por y pr opy r ene

t her .

poryc;rboal e

is

yi th

a ve.v

a marked rendenry

in

uave forn

T he en erg y
Inp ur
depends upon t he s hap e o f t h p
uave forn
eo
square ra ve pro vi des nor e ener gy t t bn a si n u s o i d a l
rave which
r;
Fo r e t han . t r i_anqut a.
u. v e .
As niqht be ercerd
rhe m at
s or r enr ng r ailur es
Hill
srdri ro occ;r
at
rorer
a rtern aL rng
6t ! es 5es f or a giv en r r e q u s . a
khen dstna
a
squa.e sa ve ro rn t han f or a s inus oidal
ea v e _
Effect

of

testipq

control

hode

T he e ne lgy

d iasipaied
r n plas ( jc s
i6 pr opo r r i o E l
lo the
oroducL
a nd s lr ain.
r ! t he s t r es s i s m i n r a i n e d
co;sranE,
t hen
a ny te np er at ur e
jn
r ls e uill
lead r o a n i n c r . a s c
strai;
mo du r us dec r eas es wit h t enpe! at u r e .
The increase
in
m or e ener gy t s dis s ipar ed ,
readjng ro d furrher
jnc r eaEe i n s t r a i n .
orop
rn
rcdu rus anat a f ur t her
It r3 this
type of cha iD lea c t ion
v hic h leads t o t her e l
.otte"i"l
i"irui"l
if lh e h ea t tra n6 f er
r o t he s ur r oundinqs i s i n s u f r i c i e ; t -

l5

T h e a l t e r n a ti ve
mode of
te sti n g
is
ro
co n l r o t
th e
str a i n
anplitude.
In tb i s ca se a n i n c.e a se i n te n p e r a tu r e
a q a i n ca u se E
,r h a r e i s
a d r o p i n n o d u l u s b u r r h r s l e a d s r o a d r o p i ; sr r e ss.
t h u s a dr o p i n e n e r g y d i ssi p a r i o n
a n d h e n ce te n p e .a r u r e
r i se .
tn
this
c ase i t
i3
fo u n d th a t th i s
se r f
sta b l r i si n g
m e ch a n i sn
plevents
th e @cu r e n ce o f th e r m a l so fte n i n g
fa i tu r e s.
Th e n e t
result
i s th a t u n d e r th i s n o d e o f co n r r o l
th e
te m p e r a tu r e
r i se
a l u a y s s ta b i l i se s
a n d o n ty fa ti g u e typ e fa i r u r e s
o ;u r .
Effect

of rean

srrss

since
p o l yr e r s H i l l
cr e p p u n d e r r h e a cr i o n o t a m p a n str e ss r h i s
a d d s r o th e co m p l e xr r y b e ca u se i f L h e m Fa n str e ss r s ta r g e L h e n d
c r e p r u p tu r e fa i l u r e
m a y o ccu . b e fo r e a n y ta ti g u e fa i tu r e .

A-,6inilar
g r a p h to r h a t fo r n e ta ts ca n b e p r o d u ce d to
sh o {
th e
effect
o f n e a n sr r e ss.
o ve r th e r e si o n A to B r h e r ,"r ."u t"".
i"
similar
to th a t o f r e r a l 3 i n r h a r a s En e
the
a l t e r n a ti n g
str e ss n u sr b e r e d u ce d to
tu i f"."
i"
tn "
s a n e n m b e r o f cycl e s.
o ve r th e r e g i o n c to "uD"."th e m e a n sl r e ss i s
s o r a r 9 e th a t cr e e p r u p r u r e r a i l u r e s
p
o
i
n
r
a r e d o n r n a n t.
be obrained
r r o m cr e e p r u p tu r e Ja L a cL a r r n e
.q u a I
ro
rhai
necessa(y
r o g i ve N cycte s a t L h e r e sr
,r h e r e fo r e
fr e q u cn cy:
s cu r ve tu y b e p r o d u ce d tr o m A L o D i t sh o Jtd
depturnq

o n th e va l u e o f

Effect

typ e o f

of

t@d i n q

A sinilar
e ffe ct
h a s b e e n o b se r ve d to th a t i n n e ta t fa r i g u e
in
ItEt drrFt
d xi a l l o a d i n g i s n o r e se ve r e r h zn r cve r sp .t r ,.,j i "9
i"
t h . s a o e m a xi h m sfr e ss Ie ve t.
Fa r i su e cr a .r Fr o D a l a L i cn a D o ;a r s
t o b e s l octt
b e ca u se o t r h e sr r e ss g r a d i e n t,
ih"
.,;a r e n l
a r s o n e a ^ s th a t r h e o ccu r .n ce o r
so r r cn r n ";,-sssd r :""d 'h e m r t
E f f e c t of str e 3 s cd e n tr a ti o n
As rith
ainilar

n e ta l e
str e ss co n e n l r a ti o n s
,i 1 1 h a ve a n e ff ct
fo r
r e a so n s o r h i g h r o ca l str e ss a n d a r e t"r ""
i n t"
.""o o n l
n a n n e r u si n g
Xc th e str e ss c6 n ce n tl a ti o n
fa cto r .
l5

fttt t,it,t \:.


(rq n =,{o7aot
()

^<)

l/5 w =loTta'

b1b'"-$$q --3

ilrL= "
ly,' ==
, 0,r,oil];'.
cL

Tld= P
gLYtst

lisp= -:4

A-

Push- p"!!
Re,tetsd-ee"J-y

Rot ti^3

+-

wh'"

be.&'U
I ot.gloh

g=

F,lu"tr*tig

nr"e
Yhe.M

gtrei{,

gtres',
6t Ye,35

3tr"s3

Puhn

IrJ<t"a,r.!,*

Ftntre

!;(.

3- N

,l'WS
QSr-ate

ttY\u6

Terr,.(e*treyttr

Gert^"(-;""J- S-rv

(srve3

@ tot urL,
lo.txurs
"U"!*

fo.snrrtp #

Q 3)
c)

. g ey{".c e.

C'*;1"
4t-{e95

gize

trpe

-f, Y'"^A

a'

t\
r"6*

111s.-/5o

u"I6-i

t^Po-

4;,<tt

6a5'
["'^'

x='l
L

3?s

l0e

,ot \oc tf, \o

lf,

!'S st!'

O.1r uTs= 6a5 r'rPa


g?5 llP oO'5 (u Ts=
enJr*.o" -- s?5 Afcx
A<tl r,

hJto-- IoJto_
6+ 5- x

i r r)

t) ,on
,J
-&

-Ltt-4,""
67s- z7s

,o'

!"1n-1,0'

=u U:7

975_ B7s

n-3
\ oo

zl
%o o

\oo(n-s)

= \oo

e7s-x

tsoo

n-3

(-3

6+5-575
->

6 7 5 -sr

Intloduction

to Vib! at ions

Although

vi b !a ti o n
ca n so metim es be useful in an enqineer i.ng
vibratory
::lt:I!
.c-oneeyols, hoppers. sieves and cohpacrolsJ
n ce i s g e n e ra IIy
l' t s p r e s e1"9
u ndesir able for thr ee m ain r easons:_
1)

Damage to a componenl o! machine nay occur.


I n m ach i n e s vi b !a ti .o n s

can cause:-

a)

f a ti g u e
d u e to cyclic
var iation
of the induced
s tre ss,
b) more rapid irear of parts sl.rch as bealings and gears,
c ) f a ste n e rs su ch a s n u ts to become loose.
i ii,e u L !rx9
p ro cesses, vibr ation
^tt+r
w h i c h ca n l e a d to a p o o! sur face finish.
Th

h a t.1

can cause chatter

2)

? h e t r a n sl l l i ssi o n
o f vi br atj.on to hum an beinqs !esuICs in
d i s c o mfo rt a n d l o ss o f efficiency.
vibr ation
6i instr um ent
p a n e l s ca n ca u se th e i .r nalfunctio;
or difficulty
in r eading
t b e m e te rs.

3)

Vi . b l a ti o n o fte n cre a te s excessive noise in machines.

Thus one of the purposes of the study of vibratj.ons is to leduce


v rD r a r t o n t nro u 9 h p l o p e r d e sign of m achines and their moun!lnqs.
Vi brat ion
An y . m _ o t i o n -th a t re p e a ts i ts elf
after an inter val
of tim e is
c a l l e c t a v rb ra ti .o n o r o sci l l a- tion.
The sr r inging of a pendulum
r i r o ti o n , o fa
p l u cked gu- itar sr r in{
aie exam' pIes of
:vlS
lD_r _
a t! -: -l :o_n .
A vrb ra ti o n i s measur ed by two quir ntitiesr _
a)

F r e g u e n cy - th i s i s th e num ber of oscltlations


conpleted in
one seconal and is expressed in Bertz (Ez), r

b)

k r p l l t u de

i s th e maximun displacem ent


- th i s
fr om the
ce n t!a I
e q u ilibr iun
posiiion
and
hence
1sa
Linea!
roiasurement in'metres.
.

Oscr 0(.ot '.,"t:

c$-r

Flee vibration

'l;".F
.'.

If a s y s t e m, a fte .l a n i n i l i a I
distur bance, is teft to vlblate on
its o!.n, the ensding viblat1on i.s knotrn as a free vibration.
No
e x t! e rl D
n a lr
ro rce a cts o n th
fo
tn e syster n,
fhe system is
i
said to
vi b r a _ l e a t a n a tu ra l
fre q u encv.
The oscillalion
of a sim ple
p e n d u l u m i s a n e xa mp l e o f free vibr ation.
Danped Vibration
D u e t o v a r i o u s ca u se s. e 9 a ir lesistance or mater ial hyster esis,
there will
a l 'ra ys b e so me .loss- of
dur j.ng each- cycle oi
gy
v j . b r a t i o n a n d th i s e ffe ct i s catled - ener
danIin9.
a- ti.e vib!ation
'd i e a w a y.'
t
l
C
.
d
u
e
r
o
danping
E9
penautum wiIl
a
1 v1eI 1n.E u a . l . r y
e
sto p .sw -rn g 1 n g .
If the danping fo!ces ar e snaIl
c n e y \ d r l 1 n a ve trttte
a n ftu e nce on the fr equency of vibr ation and
a r e o f t e n n e g l e cte d to si mp l i fy the mathem itica' l soluELon.
Forced Vibla tion
I f a s y s t e m i s su b j e ct to a n exter nal folce ( often a r epeatinq
type of forqe known as the excitation) the resulling
k n o w r a s a fo rce d vi b !a ti o n .
"i.Ura'ti"n-i3
The oscill.ation
thiCoften
occuii
in d i e s e l en g i n e s i E a n e xa rnpleof for ced vibr afion.
I f t h e f l e q u -e n cy o f th e e xte rnal for ce coincides with the natur al
! re q u e n c y ot th e syste n , a condition known as r esgnance occur s
and the system undergoes dangelously Large o sc i ITlEi6iEl-Ta i lu
res
o ! s u c h s t r uctu re s a s b u i l d i n gs,. br j.dges. tur bines ana air plint
'ieio,.,-.rr...
'rings have been associ.ated with the o.jur6nce ol

lhere

are a number of cases whele vibrations can be naintained by


in fro n a ste a d y e xter DaL sour ce ( as aistinct
fr or n thi
: ! : lg
os
c ryr r a E{r"9
n 9 e xcrC a ti o n !e q u i r ed for for eed vib!ations) .
n e c e s s a r y c y cl i ca l va ri a ti o n s,ar e._pr oduced by the motion of The
Che
s y s t e m i t s e l f,
e q sti ck-sIi p
vj.br ations ( such as br ake squeal)
a risi n g f r o m th e d i i fe re n ce b etween ki.netic and static valuea
of
f ric t i o n ,
Ai rc!a ft
fl u tte r
ar d other *ina iiciiea
vibr ations
b ri d g e ..st!.uc_tur es, power caUles ana sr r ips- ,
: f : _ . rf :n:9 a
^ .! Ie1 .!-I:l
rr99
ca u se d b y -Ii ft'
for ces vhich fluctuate
wittr tr e
attit.ude
a n d L a te ra l -ve l o ci ty
of the vibr atinq
,".O"r .
The
f e a t u l e o f se tf e xci te d vi b ra ions iJ ttii- ir r "v' tJ!
ptace at a
nat u r a l
o f th e system and in this ' r jv in.y
,
f
r
e
qu
e
n
cy
o.
drstinguished
from forced vibra_tions rrhere the freluency rs
""ntnat
of th e e x c i t a ti o n
(o r fo rci n g ) tr equency.
Degrees of

Freedom

can !sually only- vibrate in one hode (eg a simple


::TB1:..t_y"-i:,i"pend u r u m s$ r n9rn9 i n a v e!ti c a1 p la n e ) .
Ihese a!e r6ferred-to
as sJ.n 9 te d e gree of freedon s y s t e n s . I n p r a c t ic e m a n y s y s t e m s
o-1:.d:9r9. of f r e e d o m ( e g i v e h ic le . u y p it c h ,
5:
:. _
D o_"
u n-I.^
ce or
r ot-l
ll) i i each having :ts
o h , n n a t u ra l

f re q u e n c v .

PRXE VIBRATIONS
The r e a r e !h!ee

types

of

sin g le

of fr eedom syster ns.

6\
\\

i \\)

ta/L' ^a a -

ls lo .

Spring-mas s vi. brations

FI

the mass'm

3
' i< .,1 6 h ^ r + a A

a spr ing of stiffness


' k' ( assum ed
^n
b e the displacement
'
m'
of
fr om its
S i n ce for ce = mass x acc' n
F= fn.od
Z
t
=
-k:c

L e t 'x'
eq u i 1 i b r i u m p o s j .t j .o n .

if

L.Jf =

k /m

Thesolution

i h6n

to

th i s

Y=-Y:*

T?'

d=!1' + r,o;ar

e q u a tj o n is nor m ally

:c
Th i . s c a n b e re -w l i rte n

'

) - ^.

!.,titteD

( cos r.,+i + D si^ urnE

as

,.-

*-#t

= O

'.

. . }Z 1

A c or ( ' - r "t - C) , )

--'
'A'is
th e a mp l i tu d e and depends entir ely
: le r . e
o rs p r a c e m e nt.
p rs a p h a se angle.

on the ini.tial

T h e m o t i . o n ca n b e - d i sp l a ye d gr aphically as shown below wher e it


m a y D e _ s e e n th a t x i s g i ve n by the plojection onto the ver tical
axr s o ! a v e cto r o f n a g n i tu d e ' A' r otat.ing at ang!lar velocj.ty
Fo r t h i s r e a so n
free vi br at i,on.
The natural
f re q u e n c y l i )

U )^

i s o fte n called

'-(.\= -*:

9''-o"i

ii?.\ii"!'"y+
!
no{UY'^L

n , _"\ {q'r^v4^i-\
\

lL \-

L\) n

"zrc
Ih.

P,'"d--

the

ir-.$

) -- --l--

,cir cular

fr equency. of

DAMPING

Th e s t a t e of f!e e vi b ra ti o n descr ibed.in. the analysis of simple


ha ! m o n i c
mo ti o n w o u l d e xist
indefinitely
ani tous 1s not
c o n s i s ! e n t w i th p ra cti ca l e xpe!ience. a sim ple pendulu]n wiII not
c a r r y o n n aki n g sma l l o sci l l a tions
indefj.nitety and neither vr ill
a t u n i n g f o rk co n ti n u e to r esonate for ever ]
j.n
Ther efor e,
p r a c t i c e , t h e re e xi sts a fo rce which ndaftps out " flee vibr ations
lh e s e d a m p i n g fo rce s e xi st i n m any for ns- eg hyster is ilue to non_
I il ] e a ! s t r a i n s w i th i n e l a sti c m en5er s_,damfing- for ces ar ising at
ru b b i d g s u !fa ce s, a i ! re si stance,
electr o- m agnetj.c
for ces and
qis l g u g f l u id fo rce s.
B e ca use it is difficult- to
deter r nine the
c a u s e s o f d a -mp i n g .i n ma n y p l a ctical system s damping is modeled as
o n e o f t h e fo l l o w i n g typ e s,
V is c o u s D a mp i n q
Be c a u s e o f th e e a se o f h a n d l ing the m athem atics viscous dam Dj.nq
is t h e m o s t cl n mo n l y u se d d a mping mechanisr rin
l viblation
I n . v i s c o u s d a mp i _ n g th e d a i npj.ng for ce is plopor tional ";iy;i;
to the
v e r o c J . ! y o ! th e vrb ra ti n 9
b ody,
Exa m p L e si n c l u d e I
t ) f l u i d fi l m b e tl r'e e n s 1iding s ulfaces
2 ) f l u i d f ]o !, a ro u n d a pj.ston in a cylinder
3 ) f L u i d fl o w th ro u g h an ori fice
4 ) f l ui d fl o w a ro u D d a journal i.n a bearing
Coulomb or Drv Frict i.on
Hele the damping iorce is constait in magnitude but opposite in
dire c r i o n
t o th a t o f rh e mo tion of. the ;iblating
Uody. It is
caused due to fricti.a[
between lubbing sulfaces tlat
a;e either
d ry o r h a v e i n su ffi ci e n t
1 u -b rication. Hy s t e r e t i c

D a mo ni s

wh e n m a t e ! i a ls a !e d e fo rme d , ener gy is abso- r bedand dissipated by


- due
t he . a a t e ! i a l .
T h e e ffe ct
is
to fr iction
ber ween the
int e r n a l
p l an e s, w h i ch sl i p and slide as the defor mations take
W he n a b o d y h a vi n g .m ater iat
p] . " 9 ". .
damping is subjected to
v J . D r a ! t - o nt n e stre ss-stra i n
d i agr am shows a hyster esis loop as in
t he d i a g r a m b e l o w . T h e a re a o f this loop den6tes the ener ay lost
p e r c y c l e d u e to d a mp i n g .

Hystees6 loop id elasl'c nreaals

F r e e v i b r a ti o n s

w i th vi sc!u s dam pinq

It is connon practj.ce in vibration analysis to leduce aLl danpinq


to - a n e q u i va l e n t
vi sco u s for ce which is pr opor tionaf
to' Cir6
velocity
a t a n y i n sta n t (i e dxldt) and shich - wiII pr oduqe th e
s a m e e n erg y l o ss p e r cycle.
It can be show; that
the
vtbratLona-l response wilI be simj.lar and largely independant of
th e a c t u a l so u !ce s o f d a n ping.
Dar ilping m ay be- inher ent in the
s y s t e m { o fte n a t.a ve ry l o w level as in str u- ctur at aamptr ,g or i n
b e a ! 1 n 9 . to sse s)
o r n a y be added wher e essential
o th e
tunctr.oning (as in the vehicle 'shock absorber. or in :.nstrunent
danping).
T h e d i a g r a n b e l o w sh o rrs a sp!Lng- lr ass
d a n p i n g c o e ffi cl e n t
su ch th at damplng is

system.wher e ,c. is the


' i' tim es the velocity.

k=

coyra= K/^
force opposesthe morion, rhe equatj.onof motion

l:"jl:":".ntrt

su b sti tu tin

R--'.-.;-|,

the equation

becones

&

+ e pu.r,.',d.=

dt2

dt

+ 1^rn2:c
_",_=\.

The soluCion to this


wh e r e

is (.-*:_^:"3_:t:)

equation

lr

a nd

--

\a

.'.

trz = -TF.n

l a a re

l .ha

a-r

e+ i a-

? Br.,,,n\. + r^.r,r2 = O

t+frT:G

4\
a

\-]
4 a
W^
" , an/-

N ot{ A
g r e a ter ,

1) rf

can be real
o r i maqina!y
Less thaD or e q u a l to l.

dep end ing

on i{ het her p is

p>l

Tt say !/il

a n d t h e s o l u ti o n

then

b e co me s

\
x =

= LJ,. (.-81{)
Ae

6" ( - Fr *) t

Beur ^( - F,- { ) t

Sin c e o { i s sma l l e r th a n F both indices ale negat.ive and thus


t he d i s p l a c e n e n t,
x, i s !e d u c ed exponentially
to zelo, so that
! he r e i s n o o scj .Il a ti o n .i e
the motion is aper j.odic.
The mass
! rh e n d i s t u r b e d f!o n re st w i II r ecu!n slowIy- TZ- TT!- equilibr ium
position.
The damping- is said to be hggyl and the systerd j-s said
to be overdanped.

?\

TF

A=I

sher

Xr =

x:

x. '- -Fa,'.
i. F' . , nE( A+ B)

T h e _ _ r . e s u l t i n9
mo ti o n i s a gain aper iodic
bu! the dam ping
c oe f f i c i e n t
n o w h a s th e l e a st value which will
pr oduce !uch
notion,
T h e d a h p i n g j .n th i s case is said to be cr itical.
A crj.tj.cally
d a mp e d syste n will
have the smallest
dampinq
lequ i r e d f o ! a p e ri o d i c mo ti o n and hence the m ass will r etur n t6
the position
o f re st i n th e sholtest
possible
tine
without
overshootjng.
propelty
of
critical
damping
is
u6ed
in nany
.The
prac t i c a l
a p p l-i ca ti o n s.
F or example, in lar ge guns have
'dash p o t s ' r i t h
a cri ti ca l
d a nping value, so that ihey r eEuln !o
poEition after recoj.l in the rniniftu time wj.thout
their original
v j. br a t i n g .
If th e d a l o p i n g p rovided was nor e than the cr itical
v a lu e s o m e d el a y w o u l d b e ca u sed befor e the next f,ir ing.
Sin c e p

= 1 1 5 .tr

qt^pti t\r.e

q fo !

cri ti ca l.

danping

2nur ^

3) rf

B<l
t!
c(d

r .fr <n A = - p tly


Bz-r = t
: c = A e ' ^( - A + i8 ) t
+ B e q ^ ( - A- jt) e

T h i s m a y be w rj .tte t

,.

i n te rms of sin and cos

( C..s
--F"^b

r .,^ KF + Ds.n ,,.r ^ kb )

T h i s . e q u a t i o n re p re se n ts a n osc.il lator y motion,


the ter m
4A- te
j:1r_l1df-a.ctor
)
rhar
s
ucces
sive
a
9.*oi,l1
mpr
i rudes
_indicating
o e c r e a s e-.h:.
e xp o n e n tj .a l ,l v.
In. o ter wor ds when ln"
i"
suddenly r e l e a s e d f r o m
u .p in g i ."
1 _ - a 5 q ]a *a !- ."tr i.i" r i!" a"y"t"*

insufficient
to prevent. overshooling
.qri l;r-ium position.
su ch d a m pi nq i s s ai d ro be s u b - c r ir ic a"f-'ti,Ll
r"is s a id t o
-"*
be underdamDed'
" r d ; i. ; ; ; i;-l-!ct
;

the peliodic
Periodic

t ire

time =

11f

i s e vi d e n t l y

arnT

("./F

and s i.nce

frequency =

Y -- 'I-1'Pz

"i-4=.

d a m - p e dfre
_ g u e n cy i s Io i d e r Enan the natura
1 frequency tJ^
is
2t

for s n a r t d an p i n g th e d i ffe re n ce

Uid.d.'npcd (p < l)

Comparisonot nblions wdhddere.r ry!s ot damping

but

Iogarithnic

decrenEnt

f t c a n b e sh o l rn th a t th e
anplitude is given by! -

r atio

of

the

initial

to

.nth.

the

F-". tn
where t^= interraL

betweea lhe first

Sin _ c e p q J ^t^ i s th e l o g a ri th n
( to
ca1led the loqarirhmic-decreirenr.

and the nth anplltudes.


base_e) of thls r atio
-__'
l-.,r" F;^;:
3t

it

is
--

-,'

This provides a conveni;nt- e*p.tir.n.h


nethod for a"F...i"rrn
the danpLng ratio in any slngle- degree of fieiaom syit"r.
p
, -- (\ +_
2'{,.'r. )/

valu e o f

cat led the


ratlo and usual Iy I ies
i"
between 0 and -damptng
I in nost practical sysrehs.

ryPe of danping

{structural

danping)

danped freguencv
natural fleouencv
I

tt

(vehiqle danping)
0,67

(instrunent dehping)

290

I
--.-l

rI

P\nor"wc'sg n/t'br',tio''
\,/n,

"-"'- ''latYue
uet'l
n
,
I tlp
vP oal'---'+ hstn
t,
ql"'sco"do|
,----,

--'+

|,r^on

hoise

l1t'rcvnaktcf
rn

/t|flwe^e"r
Vel*''t1

x
i

Ac.QZo*in

il

V--

\z-*r
tz- tr

A,r\= A" =i.

At

d,F
At-+"

*=y+-#:*;#=
Dqn4v".4s 3
LJ

*FvlU

rtForc.

ep"itA .= sd-(4r"-rt
Vv
N,\

lnei-rr

\_

o o"^-

YNX

CJryh stl1-z{

rF )

CX

+*"-

s-*Cee{+;"-l-

m'i+ei+rx

o
('":.*Y=

vnlo-n4

*.* +Kx:f

{ -:

L-*

f,ro

tn-fu/

.-Kx--tr

VrU"ation

tl

{"'"J

tl

unh^7rl

rAbroton

F = Fo Gs Lc^tt)
0.

f o -- A mgl+t'-de
= ?t,

f, =

)ve7o<*7

,T-*z

trvae-

oo

oo

>"> ml. =-KX

WtX 1K X:o

Crh,,,ltar
c,

1'1

'e

x=s

.\

F--

o:1

," .

L-

J7'-

AJI=

).X

L*e*)= rT:,

@2..= ( fp^\

h^t"t*l-

lrvlz

'---6-

*ry,^U

"*,

fvee

-vnJqnrpeo[

f vee-- Jn*g-L -t

=t

+K{a-

-'Yl

,.^^
T + Ci +Kx =- o

t Kx -- F
J**poJ.*'
-u.
^'{
"J
Fdcoia..[-&^".eu-'\*- n T-+ci +KX--F
(o'

tl2)

Nt= loor: fPm


7{2= Looo

\r-

n,= o'5 K3
V = 72-po

//n

tK _

fJ

:\l_o

<e c-

,-rLx \oo o
6o

l-tLn,

-r= -T ;

(rA= !-x\s5 =2\o

Qs)

foul

=\o5

ft'\

Not otceeptolla

) tJ4

3/

rnii+ ci +K^ = 4o 6s(t^rt)


\ o"**g (-..*

lvrI:=\y\.r+i.!

{""-

ei = &hf''h1 A.n

Kx = 16g"!,
Y'^= yv\.!es

[o,r-

ln ="\o \<-q

K= \

(K4\

L= oucz!2ar,16ioa( w41
,_ /3_ J
.

\:= 5

:= d"?'U cre'lt-';c.;"c
l4:1\
b I
;-/

X== ve\loci+q
velocr+Z (ry,r)
t-,\

^
k+ 9tr{['.gs

(rn)

X= /Lflsurent
f nl

(nt

#'= foo' n^gfit"L


1r;

6)=

[*"-.,

-x
f-=CX->c=
; Xv v r

=ru:_

-.. -_ looo

AI.
,/m

N'
lvl

l fun= tt(

i
i
)I

?
t
orr".\"**Z
t#S
t= h.e-

F=k* => k= \

YN

\ooo

=\O rurl
I

$D 5'1;Jt

9Jtut"';

ModuleCode:ET2006
Page1 of 5

UNIVERS]TY
OF

W O LV E RH AMP T O N
Schoolof Engineering
andthe BuiltEnvironment
PHASETESTPAPER

ET2006

SUSTAINABLE
TECHNOLOGY
2

Dateof Examination:

2 June2005

Timeol Examinatlon:

10:00

Examiner:

Dr Kadd6Yahiaoui

Examiner(s)
Roomi

SC113

TimeAllowed:

2 hours

Numberof Ouestions
to be attempted: Answerall questions
Bequired:
Additlonal
Materials
. Oneeightpageanswer
book
lnstructions
to Studenls:
. Answerg!! questions.
. Youshould
writelegibly
in blackor blueink.
. Checkyourworkcarefully
punctuation
forinaccurate
spelling,
and
grammar.
. Youmaynotleavetheexamination
roomuntilafterthefirsthourof the
examination.
. Anannouncement
willbemadewhenthereare30 minutes
oftheexam
timeleft.
. T HISI SA N ' O P E NB O O K"ASSESSM ENT

Module
Code:ET2006
page2 ot s

(a)

Ql

l)

Brieflyexplainwhatis meantbythetollowing
terms:
(i)
Bi-axial
stateof stress
(ii)
pureshear A
state
of
4t.--,
;,-l
(iii)
PrinciPal
stresses
t
..-i

rl

tt--_--)

Ao

51steh

9 ty e3,

'4-l

+r

,,
l----[! u"--"
.
oJ- rsr"
itYcts:a
No,^oI
IL-l
witL ^"
oJ ;.
rt".''' a.til o- l\o"
iii)
^^,
(b) Mohr'scirclefor stressis a grapiical

jil

glta^' su':s'

stressanalysis
methodthat is commonlyused by the designer.
Describe
howthiscirclecan be constructed
for the
case of a 2D stress systemand nam6 lhree
piacesof information
important
thatcan be readily
obtained
fromsuchconstruction.

i"

(c)

Nafet

s'v.

A rotatingshaftcarriessomeheavyequipment
that
inducesa dirctstressof 10 MN/mz,lt also
transmits
a torquethatconverts
to a shearstressof
5 MN/m'.Drawthe Mohr'sCirclefor this caseand
determine
the maximum
shearstressthatthe shaft
is experiencing.

(:;:, nc)
u3{ .e-t:rt

y'(6"-3f*+'r* =
A material point at the
cylindricalshell under intsrnalpressurecan be
shownto be subjectedto the following3D stress
state,

or = Pci/2t

IOL+ 4 l^ L 5 =a.O7
-

tro=Pd/4t

WhereP is the appliedpressure,d the diamterand


t the wallthickness.
lf ths shellhas a diameter-to-thickness
ratio(d/t) of
yield
50 and is madeof a materialwith a
strongthof
240 MN/m2,estlmatethe failurprssureusing:
(i)

oS:,*,*J

,,ii\

principal
Thgmaximum
( Ra"r,L )
streqscriterion

(iD

t5 dppkr\ti^tch G**
fke
tr Ogt ir""
^eo1
The Trescayieldcriterion - hcr6\ds

(iiD

The Von-Misesyieldcriterion

*l

b.,*r-

N,4odule
CodetET2006
Page3 of 5

By consideration of the complexity of the


calculationsinvolvedand the results obtained,
discuss the relativemerits of each of the above
threecriteria.
:-

?tv'
Q3

(a)

1oo%

Brieflyexplainthefollowing
termsas applidto
, dL, v v o

uc lqv r v ur ,

(i)
Stresscycle
(ii) l\4ean
stress
(iiD Alternatingstress
30vo
(b)

Sketcha generalised
fatigue,or S-Ncurvefor a
that
structural
material hasa tensilestrengthof 750
MN/m2,
andfromthiscqryeestimate:
* "ah
(i)Themaximum
alternating
shessthatthe
materialcansustainwithoutfatiguefailure
Y.-t.

(ii)Themaximum
alternating
stressif failureis not
to occurbelow100000cycles
n:1

(iii) The lifeof a component.


madefromthis
material,and stressedto i575 MN/mz
45'/.
( c)

Listfive factorsthatcan influencthe tatigue


behaviour
of a component,
25%

Q4

(a)

For each of the followingsituations,indicatethe


maintype of loadingand identifythe caseswhere
the bucklingmodeof failurecan be of concern:
i. A cablesupporting
a chandelier
that
hangsfroma ceiling
ii. The legof a tall bar stool
iii. An emptyplasticbottleusedby someone

ModuleCode:8T2006
Page4 of 5

to supporta bookshelf
The wingof an aircraftin flight
Theoutershellof a submarine
25%
(b)

An idealslender
columnis 5 m longandpinnedat
bothends.It is madeof hollowsquaresection
aluminium
witha Young'smodulusof 70 GPa.The
outerlengthof thesectionis 100mm andthewall
thickness
is 2 mm,as shownin thediagrambelow.

Calculate
itsEulerbuckling
load.

Pcr
(c)

50./"

Howwouldthe Eulercriticalloadvary if the end


conditions
wereto be changed
frompinned-pinned
to thefollowing?
i. Fixedjixed
ii. Fixedjree
iii. Fixed-pinned
givesthestrongest
WhichendJixing
condition
arrangemenl
as regardsbuckling?
25"/.

Givethreereasonswhy vibrationscan sometimes


be seriouslyundesirable
and brieflyifdescribe
two
situationswherevibrationsare actuallywanted.
25%
(b)

A designerhas developed
an impressivechild'stoy
with greatmarketpotential.lt is a two-speedgadget
that can rotateat 1000and 2000rpm.Detailed

LloduleCode:ET2006

analysishasshownthistoyto havean overallmass


of 0.5kganda stiffness
of 7200NUm.
As a feltow
designer,
whohasbeenentrusted
withsome
checks,youarerequired
lo:
i. Calculate
thnaturalfrequency
ol the
gaoger.
ii. Calculate
theforcingfrequencies
corresponding
to thetwooperating
spesds.
Explain
whyth6lowerspeedis acceptable
whilethehigheroneis not.
Suggesl
waysto helpimprovethedesign.
757c

lvlZWlTiVii.nnvproN
Schoolof Engineering
andthe BuiltEnvironment
PHASETESTPAPER

ET2006

SustainableTechnology2

Oaleof Examination;

Tuesday
30 N/ay2006

Timeof Examination:

j O.OO
am

Examlner:

K yahiaoui

Examination
Room:

MC401

TimeAllowed:

2 hours

Numberof Questions
to beatlemptd: Attempt
allS questions
All questlons are qualtyweighted(unlessotherwisestated)and are markod
on the grade poini syslem.
MaterlalsRequired:
.

Oneeightpageanswerbook

Copiesof approvedtexts

Instructionsto Studonts:
.
.

Programmable
calculators
are not permittedin the exam.
Answeralllyg questions
(allquestions
areequallyweighted).

Youshouldwritelegjblyin blackor blueink.

Youwill receivecreditfor appropriale


references
and quotations.

Checkyourworkcafefullyfor inaccurate
spelling,punctuation
and grammar.

Youmay not leavethe examination


roomuntilafterthe firsthourof the
examination.

An announcement
will be madewhenthereare 30 minutesof the examtimeleft.

dJ

t.
T--rr
<;l
t+ L ry

l.t

r^r* I

fr\fi/ p^\fu
' -l tn /

I+

I 6*

Q1: a) Givena 2-D stresssystem,with normal stresseso" ando, anda shearstress


r"r,,describehow Mohr's circle for this casecanbe constucted.Identify frorn this
circle constuction how priDcipalstrcsses,maximumshearstlessaudDrincipalstress
directions
canbe deduced.
(ZOW\
b) Considera casefor which:

| 6t=LeY
6 nn* = 50! I
;'1
\6r=-tot

. Ox- 200Mps
oF _1OO
M?a
T
xF 50Mlr

Calculate
theprincipalstresses,
thema.\imuqr
shea!strcssatd theprincipal
directions, /-1p =
,
rsnvi
'-'- - _ZJII =t=7 le e t"n-'l|i
,""rt""
aps-ar"'
c)A "weightless"
shaftis assumed
to transmit
anamount
ofpowbfi-m tt

rotatesat a giveprotationalspeed.It is rlot subjectedto any other loads.Without any


calculatioD,indicatewhat will be the maximw! principal stress.
_Ptl
| .,i (loo/o)b
' p ..l :c

.. _

. 6: = "

6J="

d) Expressthis abovesrress-through
a simpleformula,wheniiwer is d'e{roted

by P, theshaftradiusby R andtherotationalspeedby N rpm's,

P=T.u+ T--E

ua i-- g

, (2OVo)

4= +

a) Thestssstateontheoutsidesufface
ofa closed-en#d
cylindersu6jected
to anintemalpressure,
given
P,is
by:

Q2:

o1{=Pd./2t

oA=Pd/4t

ard

oR=O

Ifthe cylinderhasa diameterof 100Inm ard a thickness


of2 mm andis made
of a material
withlold shength
of25oMN/n2,estimate
thefailurepressure
using:
i)
,
/

,/

ii)
iiD

Thdmadmumprincipalstlesscriterior
TheTrcscayield criterion
Thevon-Misesleld criterion

0O%\
(20%)
(30%)

y/ b) How doesthe stess stateat the insidesurfacediffer from that ofthe


outside?
GO%)

l ) (*1
"

to

c) Give two reasonswhy engineersprefer the Trescacriterion.

vsv

(lO%)

a) Statethe completeengineeringdefidtion of a beamandcontrastrt with that


ofaplate. Give t,?ical exarnplesofpractical structuialcomponents,rrhich
canbe acceptablydescribedby designenandengi
- Beam JtYs.tu yqll 6r.9"re-c
;./'rh lio'rl
'istru.trr!
Lo"dzd. r'd^3t"r',
EL!
?o
tts
Plate
C"
itrvcirlrq.
,f,--r.XJ'\"
'.4*'""t t? tLn:
3D structure
[l,te'tl[ &i*"^giovr
e0%)

,d

Q:,

0"

*'
fo.Tornff*" !,,*.1 t.T""."'!

b) The overhangofa constructiol site cranecanbe consideredasbeiDs,built_


in' at rheverical columnendandcarryinga pointlconcenhared;
load-atits
other 'free eDd'.What engineeringterininologycorrectly describessucha

situation?Identify the locationsofmardmum sh,essandmaximum deflection


andcalculatethemaximummomentexperienced
by the overhangifit is 30 m
longandcaries a concrete
blockhayinga massofone metrictorine.

Qoya
c) Wlat *ould betheminimumrequiredseco[dmomentofareaifthe
maximumbendingstressis not to exceed300Mpa?you may assume
that,at
thelocationofinterest,thedistalcefrom theneutralaxisto the outerfibresof
thesectionis 0.5m.
(30%)
d) Calculatethedeflectionat theloadedndif thematerialhasa youne,s
modulus
of2l0 CPa.
r30l"r

nv / . _
-,/eq, t. a) Under what loadingconditionswould the fatiguemodeof failEe be of

concemto designers
ard engineers?
In particular,discussthet]?esofsh.esses
thatareofrolevanceto fati8ufailue arallsis.
(15%\

b) Constructa genemlised
S-N curvefor a materialwith anultimatetensile

strength
of 1200MPa.

(20%)

c) For a machinepart,madeofthe abovematcrial,Calculate;


a) The stesslimit belowwhichfatiguefailurewill not occw (10%)
b) The stlesslimit, whichmustnot be exceeded,
if theDartwereto
Iastfor 10,000
cycles
e5%\
c) The expecred
fatiguelife of rhepafl if ir werero operatearor
belowa sresslevelof 760MNrm2
e5%)

/?

d) Give briefviews on what elfect would the following haveon fatiguelife


exDectancv:

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

Surfacefinish
Materialdensity
Component
size
Stress
raisers
Appeara.nce

(s%)

Usingtheusualnotatioqthegeneralequationofmotion ofa secondorder


Q5:
vibration systemis written as:
nLi+ cx + lat = fo cosot
IdentiS/ eachofthe four forcesinvolved in this equation.

(20%)

b) Whatarethe SI systemunitsofeachoftbe variablesinvolvedin this

equation?

(20%)

t-

c) Calculatetheundanryed
ash[al ftcquencyofa vibratingsystemthatcan

b:gescriblg!y 8tre4uarion
ofthis rypewhenthemassislO kg, the
stiftiessI kl.{/mandthedampingcoefficient5 NVm.
(2OyO

vd) ExplainwhatwouldhappeDifthis systcmwereto beshake!at a


ftequcocy
of l.59IIz.?

eO%\

By howmuchwill thenatunl frquacybc changcdifboth &e massand


stifftiessofthe sy-stern
wcrcto bedoubled?
(2OyO

Y\"r"J

["5.,""%=

t,J!-