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02.01.

2014

COMPOSTES
Groover

Composite Material Defined


A materials system composed of two or more
distinct phases whose combination
produces aggregate properties that are
different from those of its constituents
 Examples:
 Cemented carbides (WC with Co binder)
 Plastic molding compounds with fillers
 Rubber mixed with carbon black
 Wood (a natural composite as
distinguished from a synthesized
composite)
2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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Our Classification of Composite Materials


1. Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) - mixtures of
ceramics and metals, such as cemented
carbides and other cermets
2. Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) - Al2O3
and SiC imbedded with fibers to improve
properties
3. Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs) - polymer
resins imbedded with filler or reinforcing agent
 Examples: epoxy and polyester with fiber
reinforcement, and phenolic with powders

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Functions of the Matrix Material


 Primary phase provides the bulk form of the
part or product made of the composite material
 Holds the imbedded phase in place, usually
enclosing and often concealing it
 When a load is applied, the matrix shares the
load with the secondary phase, in some cases
deforming so that the stress is essentially born
by the reinforcing agent

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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The Reinforcing Phase


 Function is to reinforce the primary phase
 Imbedded phase is most commonly one of the
following shapes:
 Fibers
 Particles
 Flakes
 Also, secondary phase can take the form of an
infiltrated phase in a skeletal or porous matrix
 Example: a powder metallurgy part
infiltrated with polymer

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Physical Shapes of Imbedded Phase


Figure 9.1 Possible physical shapes of imbedded phases in
composite materials: (a) fiber, (b) particle, and (c) flake.

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

02.01.2014

Fibers
Filaments of reinforcing material, usually circular
in cross-section
 Diameters from less than 0.0025 mm to about
0.13 mm, depending on material
 Filaments provide greatest opportunity for
strength enhancement of composites
 Filament form of most materials is
significantly stronger than the bulk form
 As diameter is reduced, the material
becomes oriented in the fiber axis direction
and probability of defects in the structure
decreases significantly
2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Continuous vs. Discontinuous Fibers


 Continuous fibers - very long; in theory, they
offer a continuous path by which a load can be
carried by the composite part
 Discontinuous fibers (chopped sections of
continuous fibers) - short lengths (L/D =
roughly 100)
 Whiskers = discontinuous fibers of hair-like
single crystals with diameters down to about
0.001 mm (0.00004 in.) and very high
strength

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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Fiber Orientation Three Cases


 One-dimensional reinforcement, in which
maximum strength and stiffness are obtained in
the direction of the fiber
 Planar reinforcement, in some cases in the
form of a two-dimensional woven fabric
 Random or three-dimensional in which the
composite material tends to possess isotropic
properties

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Fiber Orientation

Figure 9.3 Fiber orientation in composite materials: (a)


one-dimensional, continuous fibers; (b) planar,
continuous fibers in the form of a woven fabric; and (c)
random, discontinuous fibers.

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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Materials for Fibers


 Fiber materials in fiber-reinforced composites
 Glass most widely used filament
 Carbon high elastic modulus
 Boron very high elastic modulus
 Polymers - Kevlar
 Ceramics SiC and Al2O3
 Metals - steel
 Most important commercial use of fibers is in
polymer composites

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Particles and Flakes


 A second common shape of imbedded phase
is particulate, ranging in size from microscopic
to macroscopic
 Flakes are basically two-dimensional
particles - small flat platelets
 Distribution of particles in the composite matrix
is random
 Strength and other properties of the
composite material are usually isotropic

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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The Interface
 There is always an interface between
constituent phases in a composite material
 For the composite to function, the phases must
bond where they join at the interface

Figure 9.4 Interfaces between phases in a composite material: (a)


direct bonding between primary and secondary phases.
2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Other Composite Structures


 Laminar composite structure conventional
 Sandwich structure
 Honeycomb sandwich structure

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

02.01.2014

Laminar Composite Structure


Two or more layers bonded together in an
integral piece
 Example: plywood, in which layers are the
same wood, but grains are oriented
differently to increase overall strength

Figure 9.7 Laminar composite


structures: (a) conventional
laminar structure.

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Sandwich Structure: Foam Core


Relatively thick core of low density foam
bonded on both faces to thin sheets of a
different material

Figure 9.7 Laminar


composite structures:
(b) sandwich structure
using foam core.

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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Sandwich Structure: Honeycomb Core


Alternative to foam core
 Foam or honeycomb achieve high ratios of
strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight

Figure 9.7 Laminar


composite structures:
(c) sandwich structure
using honeycomb core.

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Other Laminar Composite Structures


 Automotive tires - multiple layers of rubber
bonded together with reinforcing agent
 FRPs - multi-layered, fiber-reinforced plastic
panels for aircraft, boat hulls, other products
 Printed circuit boards - layers of reinforced
copper and plastic for electrical conductivity
and insulation, respectively
 Snow skis - layers of metals, particle board,
and phenolic plastic
 Windshield glass - two layers of glass on
either side of a sheet of tough plastic
2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

02.01.2014

Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs)


Metal matrix reinforced by a second phase
 Reinforcing phases:
1. Particles of ceramic

These MMCs are commonly called


cermets
2. Fibers of various materials

Other metals, ceramics, carbon, and


boron

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Cermets
MMC with ceramic contained in a metallic matrix
 The ceramic often dominates the mixture,
sometimes up to 96% by volume
 Bonding can be enhanced by slight solubility
between phases at elevated temperatures
used in processing
 Cermets can be subdivided into
1. Cemented carbides most common
2. Oxide-based cermets less common

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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Figure 9.8 Photomicrograph (about 1500X) of cemented


carbide with 85% WC and 15% Co (photo courtesty of
Kennametal Inc.).
2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs)


Ceramic primary phase imbedded with a
secondary phase, usually consisting of fibers
 Attractive properties of ceramics: high stiffness,
hardness, hot hardness, and compressive
strength; and relatively low density
 Weaknesses of ceramics: low toughness and
bulk tensile strength, susceptibility to thermal
cracking
 CMCs represent an attempt to retain the
desirable properties of ceramics while
compensating for their weaknesses
2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs)


Polymer primary phase in which a secondary
phase is imbedded as fibers, particles, or
flakes
 Commercially, PMCs are more important than
MMCs or CMCs
 Examples: most plastic molding
compounds, rubber reinforced with carbon
black, and fiber-reinforced polymers (FRPs)
 FRPs are most closely identified with the term
composite

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Fiber-Reinforced Polymers (FRPs)


PMC consisting of a polymer matrix imbedded
with high-strength fibers
 Polymer matrix materials:
 Usually a thermosetting plastic such as
unsaturated polyester or epoxy
 Can also be thermoplastic, such as nylons
(polyamides), polycarbonate, polystyrene,
and polyvinylchloride
 Fiber reinforcement is widely used in rubber
products such as tires and conveyor belts

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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Fibers in PMCs
 Various forms: discontinuous (chopped),
continuous, or woven as a fabric
 Principal fiber materials in FRPs are glass,
carbon, and Kevlar 49
 Less common fibers include boron, SiC, and
Al2O3, and steel
 Glass (in particular E-glass) is the most
common fiber material in today's FRPs
 Its use to reinforce plastics dates from
around 1920

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Common FRP Structure


 Most widely used form of FRP is a laminar
structure
 Made by stacking and bonding thin layers of
fiber and polymer until desired thickness is
obtained
 By varying fiber orientation among layers, a
specified level of anisotropy in properties
can be achieved in the laminate
 Applications: boat hulls, aircraft wing and
fuselage sections, automobile and truck body
panels
2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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FRP Applications
 Aerospace much of the structural weight of
todays airplanes and helicopters consist of
advanced FRPs
 Example: Boeing 787
 Automotive some body panels for cars and
truck cabs
 Low-carbon sheet steel still widely used due
to its low cost and ease of processing
 Sports and recreation
 FRPs used for boat hulls since 1940s
 Fishing rods, tennis rackets, golf club shafts,
helmets, skis, bows and arrows
2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Figure 9.11 Composite materials in the Boeing 757 (photo courtesy


of Boeing Commercial Airplane Co.).
2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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Guide to Processing Composite Materials


 The two phases are typically produced
separately before being combined into the
composite part
 Processing techniques to fabricate MMC
and CMC components are similar to those
used for powdered metals and ceramics
 Molding processes are commonly used for
PMCs with particles and chopped fibers
 Specialized processes have been
developed for FRPs

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

SHAPING PROCESSES FOR


POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES
A polymer matrix composite (PMC) is a composite
material consisting of a polymer imbedded with a
reinforcing phase such as fibers or powders
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Starting Materials for PMCs


Open Mold Processes
Closed Mold Processes
Filament Winding
Pultrusion Processes
Other PMC Shaping Processes

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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PMC Shape Processing


 Many PMC shaping processes are slow and
labor intensive
 In general, techniques for shaping composites
are less efficient than for other materials Why?
 Composites are more complex than other
materials, consisting of two or more phases
 For FRPs, there is the need to orient the
reinforcing phase
 Composite processing technologies have
not been the object of refinement over as
many years as processes for other materials
2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Categories of FRP Shape Processes


 Open mold processes - some of the original
FRP manual procedures for laying resins and
fibers onto forms
 Closed mold processes - much the same as
those used in plastic molding
 Filament winding - continuous filaments are
dipped in liquid resin and wrapped around a
rotating mandrel, producing a rigid, hollow,
cylindrical shape
 Pultrusion - similar to extrusion only adapted to
include continuous fiber reinforcement
 Other - operations not in previous categories
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Starting Materials for PMCs


 In a PMC, the starting materials are:
 A polymer
 A reinforcing phase
 They are processed separately before
becoming phases in the composite

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Polymer Matrix
 Thermosetting (TS) polymers are the most
common matrix materials
 Principal TS polymers are:
 Phenolics used with particulate
reinforcing phases
 Polyesters and epoxies - most closely
associated with FRPs
 Thermoplastic molding compounds include
fillers or reinforcing agents
 Nearly all rubbers are reinforced with carbon
black
2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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Reinforcing Agent
 Possible geometries - fibers, particles, and
flakes
 Possible materials - ceramics, metals, other
polymers, or elements such as carbon or boron
 Particles and flakes are used in many plastic
molding compounds
 Of most engineering interest is the use of fibers
as the reinforcing phase in FRPs

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Combining Matrix and Reinforcement


1. The starting materials arrive at the fabrication
operation as separate entities and are
combined into the composite during shaping
 Filament winding and pultrusion, in which
reinforcing phase = continuous fibers
2. The two component materials are combined
into some starting form that is convenient for
use in the shaping process
 Molding compounds
 Prepregs

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Molding Compounds
FRP composite molding compounds consist of
the resin matrix with short randomly dispersed
fibers, similar to those used in plastic molding
 Most molding compounds for composite
processing are thermosetting polymers
 Since they are designed for molding, they must
be capable of flowing
 Accordingly, they have not been cured prior
to shape processing
 Curing is done during and/or after final
shaping
2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Prepregs
Fibers impregnated with partially cured TS resins
to facilitate shape processing
 Available as tapes or cross-plied sheets or
fabrics
 Curing is completed during and/or after
shaping
 Advantage: prepregs are fabricated with
continuous filaments rather than chopped
random fibers, thus increasing strength and
modulus

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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Open Mold Processes


Family of FRP shaping processes that use a
single positive or negative mold surface to
produce laminated FRP structures
 The starting materials (resins, fibers, mats, and
woven rovings) are applied to the mold in
layers, building up to the desired thickness
 This is followed by curing and part removal
 Common resins are unsaturated polyesters
and epoxies, using fiberglass as the
reinforcement

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Open Mold FRP Processes


1.
2.
3.


Hand lay-up
Spray-up
Automated tape-laying machines
The differences are in the methods of applying
the laminations to the mold, alternative curing
techniques, and other differences

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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Hand Lay-Up Method


Open mold shaping method in which successive
layers of resin and reinforcement are manually
applied to an open mold to build the laminated
FRP composite structure
 Labor-intensive
 Finished molding must usually be trimmed with
a power saw to size outside edges
 Oldest open mold method for FRP laminates,
dating to the 1940s when it was first used for
boat hulls

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Hand Lay-Up Method

Figure 15.4 Hand lay-up : (1) mold is treated with mold release agent; (2) thin gel
coat (resin) is applied, to the outside surface of molding; (3) when gel coat has
partially set, layers of resin and fiber are applied, the fiber is in the form of mat
or cloth; each layer is rolled to impregnate the fiber with resin and remove air;
(4) part is cured; (5) fully hardened part is removed from mold.
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Products Made by Hand Lay-Up


 Generally large in size but low in production
quantity - not economical for high production
 Applications:
 Boat hulls
 Swimming pools
 Large container tanks
 Movie and stage props
 Other formed sheets
 The largest molding ever made was ship hulls
for the British Royal Navy: 85 m (280 ft) long

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Spray-Up Method
Liquid resin and chopped fibers are sprayed onto
an open mold to build successive FRP
laminations
 Attempt to mechanize application of resin-fiber
layers and reduce lay-up time
 Alternative for step (3) in the hand lay-up
procedure

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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Spray-Up Method

Figure 15.5 Spray-up method

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Products Made by Spray-Up


 Boat hulls, bathtubs, shower stalls, automobile
and truck body parts, recreational vehicle
components, furniture, large structural panels,
and containers
 Movie and stage props are sometimes made
by this method
 Since products made by spray-up have
randomly oriented short fibers, they are not as
strong as those made by lay-up, in which the
fibers are continuous and directed

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Automated Tape-Laying Machines


Automated tape-laying machines operate by
dispensing a prepreg tape onto an open mold
following a programmed path
 Typical machine consists of overhead gantry to
which the dispensing head is attached
 The gantry permits x-y-z travel of the head, for
positioning and following a defined continuous
path

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Figure 15.6 Automated tape-laying machine (photo


courtesy of Cincinnati Milacron).
2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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Curing in Open Mold Processes





Curing is required of all thermosetting resins


used in FRP laminated composites
Curing cross-links the polymer, transforming it
from its liquid or highly plastic condition into a
hardened product
Three principal process parameters in curing:
1. Time
2. Temperature
3. Pressure

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Closed Mold Processes


 Performed in molds consisting of two sections
that open and close each molding cycle
 Tooling cost is more than twice the cost of a
comparable open mold due to the more
complex equipment required in these
processes
 Advantages of a closed mold are: (1) good
finish on all part surfaces, (2) higher production
rates, (3) closer control over tolerances, and
(4) more complex three-dimensional shapes
are possible

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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Classification of Closed Mold Processes




Three classes based on their counterparts in


conventional plastic molding:
1. Compression molding
2. Transfer molding
3. Injection molding
The terminology is often different when
polymer matrix composites are molded

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Compression Molding PMC Processes


A charge is placed in lower mold section, and the
sections are brought together under pressure,
causing charge to take the shape of the cavity
 Mold halves are heated to cure TS polymer
 When molding is sufficiently cured, the mold
is opened and part is removed
 Several shaping processes for PMCs based on
compression molding
 The differences are mostly in the form of the
starting materials

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

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Transfer Molding PMC Processes


A charge of thermosetting resin with short fibers is
placed in a pot or chamber, heated, and
squeezed by ram action into one or more mold
cavities
 The mold is heated to cure the resin
 Name of the process derives from the fact that
the fluid polymer is transferred from a pot into a
mold

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Injection Molding PMC Processes


 Injection molding is noted for low cost
production of plastic parts in large quantities
 Although most closely associated with
thermoplastics, the process can also be
adapted to thermosets
 Processes of interest in the context of PMCs:
 Conventional injection molding
 Reinforced reaction injection molding

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Filament Winding
Resin-impregnated continuous fibers are wrapped
around a rotating mandrel that has the internal
shape of the desired FRP product; the resin is
then cured and the mandrel removed
 The fiber rovings are pulled through a resin bath
immediately before being wound in a helical
pattern onto the mandrel
 The operation is repeated to form additional
layers, each having a criss-cross pattern with the
previous, until the desired part thickness has
been obtained

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Filament Winding

Figure 15.8 Filament winding.


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Filament Winding Machine

Figure 15.10 Filament winding machine (photo courtesy


of Cincinnati Milacron).
2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Pultrusion Processes
Similar to extrusion (hence the name similarity)
but workpiece is pulled through die (so prefix
"pul-" in place of "ex-")
 Like extrusion, pultrusion produces continuous
straight sections of constant cross section
 Developed around 1950 for making fishing
rods of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP)
 A related process, called pulforming, is used to
make parts that are curved and which may
have variations in cross section throughout
their lengths
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Pultrusion
Continuous fiber rovings are dipped into a resin
bath and pulled through a shaping die where
the impregnated resin cures
 The sections produced are reinforced
throughout their length by continuous fibers
 Like extrusion, the pieces have a constant
cross section, whose profile is determined by
the shape of the die opening
 The cured product is cut into long straight
sections

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Pultrusion Process

Figure 15.11 Pultrusion process


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Pulforming
Pultrusion with additional steps to form the length
into a semicircular contour and alter the cross
section at one or more locations along the
length
 Pultrusion is limited to straight sections of
constant cross section
 There is also a need for long parts with
continuous fiber reinforcement that are curved
rather than straight and whose cross sections
may vary throughout length
 Pulforming is suited to these less regular
shapes

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e

Pulforming Process

Figure 15.12 Pulforming process (not shown in the


sketch is the cut-off of the pulformed part).
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Other PMC Shaping Processes








Centrifugal casting
Tube rolling
Continuous laminating
Cutting of FRPs
In addition, many traditional thermoplastic
shaping processes are applicable to FRPs with
short fibers based on TP polymers
 Blow molding
 Thermoforming
 Extrusion

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