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Proposed Teaching Scheme for Physics Year 9

DURATION
Topics SUB-TOPIC OBJECTIVES ACTIVITIES RESOURCES
(WEEKS)

SECTION 1 - GENERAL PHYSICS 3


Practical activity:-

Describe how to measure a


variety of lengths with appropriate
accuracy using tapes, rules, All appropriates instruments http://www.phy.n
micrometers and calipers using a for measuring mass, length, tnu.edu.tw/ntnuj
1. PHYSICAL verneir. time and volume ava/viewtopic.ph
MEASUREMENT p?t=69
QUANTITIES
TECHNIQUES
AND UNITS
Describe how to measure a
Practical activity:- Using
variety of time intervals using
stopwatch, pendulum
clocks and stopwatches
Describe how to measure mass
Lever balance & spring
and weight by using appropriate
balance
balances
Recognise and use conventions
and symbols contained in 'signs,
Symbols and Systematics.'
associations for Science
UNITS AND
Education, 1995 Citation of examples
SYMBOLS
2. KINEMATICS 5

State what is meant by speed and


velocity.

Calculate average speed using


distance travelled / time taken.
SPEED, State what is meant by uniform Practical activity:- Ticker http:www.walterf
VELOCITY AND acceleration timer, ticker tape, trolleys and endt.de/ph14e/
ACCELERATION inclined plane
Calculate the value of
acceleration using change in
velocity / time-taken
Calculate the value of
acceleration using change in
velocity / time-taken.
GRAPHICAL Plot and interpret a speed-time
ANALYSIS OF graph
MOTION Recognise shape of a speed-time
graph when body is
1. at rest
2. moving with uniform speed Graph plotting
and
3. moving with uniform
acceleration
4. moving with non-uniform
acceleration
Calculate the area under speed- Problem solving
time graph to determine the
distance travelled for motion with
uniform speed or uniform
acceleration
State that the acceleration of free-
fall for a body near to the earth is
constant and is approximately 10
m/s2.
FREE FALL describe qualitatively the motion Graph sketches
of bodies with constant weight
falling with and without air
resistance (including reference to
terminal velocity)
3. DYNAMICS 4
State Newton's third law
describe the effect of balanced Citation of examples
BALANCED AND
and unbalanced forces on a body
UNBALANCED
FORCES Do calculations using the
equation Force = mass × Problem solving
acceleration
Explain the effects of friction on
Citation of examples
the motion of the body.
*Discuss the effect of friction on Slide presentation
FRICTION the motion of a vehicle in the
context of tyre surface, road
conditions (including skidding),
braking force, braking distance
and stopping distance)
CIRCULAR Describe qualitatively motion in a
MOTION circular path due to a constant
perpendicular force, including
electrostatic forces on an electron
in an atom and gravitational
forces on a satellite, (F = mv2/r is
not required)
Discuss how ideas of circular
motion are related to the motion
of planets in the solar system
4. MASS, WEIGHT & DENSITY 2
State that mass is a measure of
MASS & WEIGHT the amount of substance in a
body
State that mass of a body resists
change from its state of rest or
Demonstration
motion
State that a gravitational field is a
region in which mass experience
a force due to gravitational
attraction
Calculate weight from the
equation: weight = mass Problem solving
× gravitational field strength
Explain that two weights, and
therefore masses, can be Beam balance
compared using a balance

DENSITY Describe how to use a


measuring cylinder to measure Measuring cylinder
the volume of solid or liquid
Describe experiments to Practical activity -Plasticine,
determine the density of a thread, measuring cylinder,
liquid, of a regularly shaped eureka can, vernier calipers
solid, of an irregularly shaped
solid which sinks in water
(method of displacement)
Make calculations using
formula: density = mass/ Problem solving
volume
SCALARS AND Define the terms scalar and
VECTORS vector
List the vectors and scalars
from distance, displacement,
Citation of examples
length, speed, velocity, time,
acceleration, mass and force
Determine the resultant of two
construction
vectors by a graphical method
5. TURNING EFFECT OF FORCES 3
MOMENTS Describe the moment of a
Demonstration: Balancing a
force in terms of its turning
lever, weights, wedge,
effect and give everyday
metre rule
examples
State the principle of moments
for a body in equilibrium
Make calculations using:
1. Moment of a force = force
× perpendicular distance from Problem solving
the pivot
2. the principles of moments
perform and describe Practical Activity - Meter
experiment to verify principle of rule, pin, weights, string,
moments stand, clamp, boss
Describe how to determine the Practical activity: Thick
position of the centre of mass uniform card, plumbline,
of a plane lamina stand, clamp, boss
Describe qualitatively the effect
of the position of the centre of
Citation of examples
mass on the stability of simple
objects
6. DEFORMATION 2
state that a force may produce Practical Activity:-
a change in size and shape of Plasticene, spring slotted
a body weight
plot, draw and interpret
extension-load graphs for
elastic solids and describe the
ELASTIC associated experimental
DEFORMATION procedure Graph work
Recognise the significance of
the term 'Limit of
proportionality' for an elastic
solid
Calculate extensions for an
elastic solid using Problem solving
proportionality

7. PRESSURE 2
PRESSURE Define the term pressure in Problem solving
terms of force and area, and
do calculations using the
equation: pressure = force ×
area

Explain how pressure varies


with force and area in the Citation of examples
context of everyday examples.
Describe how the height of a
liquid column may be used to
Barometer
measure the atmospheric
pressure
PRESSURE Explain quantitatively how the
CHANGES pressure beneath a liquid
Citation of examples and
surfaces changes with depth
problem solving
and density of the liquid in
appropriate examples
Describe the use of a
manometer in the
Manometer
measurement of pressure
difference
Describe and explain the Hydraulic model, citation of
transmission of pressure in examples, problem solving
hydraulic systems with
particular reference to the
hydraulic press and hydraulic
brakes on vehicles
Describe how a change in
volume of a fixed mass of gas
at constant temperature is Citation of examples
caused by a change in
pressure applied to the gas
Do calculations using p1v1 =
Problem solving
p2v2
8. ENERGY, WORK & POWER 3
List the different forms of
energy with examples in which Citation of simple examples
each forms occurs
state the principle of the
ENERGY conservation of energy and
CONVERSION apply this principle to the Application of examples
AND conversion of energy from one
CONSERVATION form to another
State that kinetic energy Ek =
1/2 mv2 and that potential
Problem solving
energy Ep = mgh and use
these equations in calculations
MAJOR List renewable and non-
SOURCES OF Citation of simple examples
renewable energy sources
ENERGY Describe quantitively the Group Presentation
processes of the following (project)
sources of energy being
converted from one form to
another:
1. chemical/fuel energy (a
regrouping of atoms)
2. hydroelectric generation
(emphasising the mechanical
energies involved)
3. Solar energy (nuclei of
atoms in the Sun)
4. nuclear energy
5. geothermal energy
6. wind energy
Explain nuclear fusion and
fission in terms of energy
releasing processes
Do calculations using the
Problem solving
mass-energy equation E = mc2
Descibe the process of
electricity generation and draw
BLOCK DIAGRAM
a block diagram of the process
DRAWING
from the fuel input to electricity
output
Descibe the environmental
issues associated with power Class Project
generation
WORK Calculate workdone from the Problem solving
formula work = force
× distance moved in the
line of action of the force
Calculate the efficiency of the
energy conversion using the
formula: Energy = energy Problem solving
converted to the required
form / total energy output
Discuss the efficiency of
EFFICIENCY energy conversions in common
citation of examples
use, particularly those giving
electrical output
Discuss the usefulness of the
energy output from a number citation of examples
of energy conversions
calculate power from the
POWER formula: power = workdone / Problem solving
time taken
9. TRANSFER OF THERMAL ENERGY 2
Describe experiments on how
to distinguish between good
and bad conductors of heat Demonstration: Conduction
CONDUCTION
Describe in molecular terms kits
how heat transfer occurs in
solids
Describe convection in fluids in Demonstration: Convection
CONVECTION
terms of density changes kits
RADIATION Describe the process of heat Demonstration: Radiation
transfer by radiation. Kits
Describe how to distinguish
between good and bad
emitters and good and bad
absorbers on infra-red
radiation
Describe how heat is
transferred to or from a
buildings and to or from a room
TOTAL
State and explain the use of citation of examples
TRANSFER
the important practical
methods of heat insulation for
buildings.
10. TEMPERATURE 2
Explain how a physical
property which vary with
temperature being used for the
measurement of temperature
and state examples of such
properties
9.1 PRINCIPLES Explain the need for fixed
OF points and state what is meant Thermometer model
THERMOMETRY by the ice-point and steam
point
Discuss sensitivity, range and
linearity of thermometers
describe how a given property
is used to measure
temperature
Describe the structure and
action of liquid-in-glass
thermometers (including
LIQUID-IN- Laboratory and clinical
clinical) and of a thermocouple
GLASS thermometer, and
thermometer, showing an
THERMOMETER thermocouple
appreciation of its use for
measuring high temperatures
and those which vary rapidly.
PROPOSED TEACHING SCHEME FOR PHYSICS (5054) YEAR 10

DURATION
TOPICS SUB-TOPICS OBJECTIVES ACTIVITIES RESOURCES
(WEEKS)
11. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER 5
SPECIFIC HEAT Describe a rise in temperature
CAPACITY of a body in terms of an
increase in its internal energy
(random thermal energy) Slide presentation
Describe the terms heat
capacity and specific heat
capacity
calculate heat transferred
using the formula thermal
energy = mass x specific Problem solving
heat capacity x change in
temperature
Describe melting / solidification Slide presentation
and boiling / condensation in
terms of energy transfer
without the change in
temperature.
MELTING AND state the meaning of melting
BOILING point and boiling point

Explain the difference


BOILING AND
between boiling and
EVAPORATION
evaporation

define the terms latent heat


and specific latent heat

Explain latent heat in terms of


SPECIFIC molecular behaviour
LATENT HEAT
calculate heat transferred in
the change of state using the
Problem solving
formula thermal energy =
mass x specific latent heat

THERMAL Describe qualitatively the Slide presentation


EXPANSION OF thermal expansion of solids,
SOLIDS, liquids and gases
LIQUIDS AND describe the relative order of
GASES magnitude of the expansion of
solids, liquids and gases
Identify and explain some of
the everday applications and
Citation of examples
consequences of thermal
expansion

Describe qualitatively the effect


of a change of temperature on
Graph work
the volume of gas at constant
pressure.

12. KINETIC MODEL OF MATTER 2


State the distinguishing Slide presentation and
STATES OF
properties of solids, liquids and demonstration
MATTER
gases
MOLECULAR
MODEL Describe qualitatively the
molecular structure of solids,
liquids and gases, relating their
properties to the forces and
distances between molecules
and to the motion of molecules

Describe the relationship


between the motion of the
molecules and temperature.
Explain the pressure of a gas
in terms of the motion of its
molecules

describe evaporation in terms


of the escape of more
energetic molecules from the
surface of a liquid

EVAPORATION
describe how temperature,
surface area and draught over
a surface influence evaporation

explain that evaporation


causes cooling
13. GENERAL WAVE PROPERTIES 3

Describe what is meant by


wave motion as illustrated by
DESCRIBING
vibration in ropes, springs and Slinky spring, ripple tank
WAVE MOTION
by experiments using a ripple
tank

WAVE TERMS state what is meant by the term Slide Presentation


wavefront
Define the terms speed,
frequency, wavelength and Wave drawing & problem
amplitude and do calculation solving
using c = f × λ

Describe longitudinal and


tranverse waves in such a way
as to illustrate the differences
between them
describe the use of a ripple Slinky spring, ripple tank
tank to show
WAVE
1. reflection at a plane surface
BEHAVIOUR
2. refraction due to a change in
speed at constant frequency
Signal generator,
describe simple experiments to
Microphone, tube, C.R.O.,
show the reflection and
balloon filled with carbon
refraction of sound waves
dioxide gas
14. LIGHT 4
REFLECTION OF Practical activity: Ray-box,
LIGHT Define the terms used in plane mirror, Optical pins,
reflection including normal, Constructions, angle
angle of incidence and angle of measurement & Problem
reflection solving
Describe an experiment to
illustrate the laws of reflection
Describe an experiment to find
the position and characteristics
of an optical image formed by
a plane mirror

state that for reflection, the


angle of incidence is equal to
the angle of reflection and use
this in constructions,
measurements and
calculations
REFRACTION
OF LIGHT Define the terms used in
refraction including angle of
incidence, angle of refraction Practical Activity: Ray-box,
and refractive index glass blocks, Light ray
construction, drawing paper
Describe experiments to show
refraction of light through glass
blocks
Use equation sin i / sin r = n
Problem solving
(refractive index)
Semicircular glass block,
Define the terms critical angle ray box
and total internal reflection
Describe experiments to show
total internal reflection
Describe the use of optical
fibres in telecommunications
and state the advantanges of
their use.

THIN Describe the action of a thin Practical Activity: Convex


CONVERGING converging lens on a beam of and concave lenses, ray
LENS light box
Define the term focal length
*Draw ray diagrams to illustrate
the formation of real and virtual construction
images of an object by lens
Define the terms linear
magnification and *draw scale
diagrams to determine the
focal length needed for construction
particular values of
magnification (converging lens
only)
Describe the use of a single construction
lens as a magnifying glass and
in a camera, projector and
photographic enlarger and
draw ray diagrams to show
how each forms an image
Draw ray-diagrams to show
formation of images in the
normal eye, a short-sighted
eye and a long-sighted eye Ray diagram construction

Describe the correction of


short-sighted and long sighted
TOPIC 18: STATIC ELECTRICITY 2
Describe experiments to show
electrostatic charging by
friction.
Explain that charging of solids
involves a movement of
LAWS OF electrons.
ELECTROSTATI State that there are positive Electrostatics Kit
CS and negative charges and that
charge is measured in
coulombs.

State that unlike charges


attract and like charges repel.
Principles of Describe an electric field as a
electrostatics region in which an electric
charge experiences a force.
State the direction of lines of
force and describe simple field
patterns.
Describe the separation of
charges by induction.

Discuss the differences


between electrical conductors Citation of examples
and insulators and state
examples of each.

state what is meant by


"earthing" a charged object.
Describe examples where
Applications of charging could be a problem Citation of examples
electrostatics e.g. lightning
Describe examples where
charging is helpful e.g's Citation of examples
photocopier and electrostatic
precipitator.
TOPIC 19: CURRENT ELECTRICITY 4
Current State that a current is a flow of
charge and that current is
measured in amperes.
Do calculations using the
equation charge = current x Problem solving
time.

Describe the use of an ammeter, milliammeter,


ammeter with different ranges. multimeter

Explain that electromotive


force (e.m.f.) is measured by
the energy dissipated by a
Electromotive source in driving a unit charge
force around a complete circuit.

State that e.m.f. is work


Problem solving
done/charge.
Electromotive State that the volt is given by
Problem solving
force J/C.

Calculate the total e.m.f. where


several sources are arranged
in series and discuss how this
is used in the design of
batteries.

Discuss the advantage of


making a battery from several
equal voltage sources of e.m.f.
arranged in parallel.
State that the potential
difference across a circuit
component is measured in
volts.

state that the p.d. across a


Potential component in a circuit is given
difference by the work done in the
component/charge passed
through the component

(k) describe the use of a


Voltmeter, multimeter
voltmeter with different ranges.
Resistance State that resistance =
p.d./current and use the
equation resistance = Problem solving
voltage/current in
calculations.

Describe an experiment to
measure the resistance of a
Voltmeter, leads, ammeter,
metallic conductor using a
variable resistors, battery &
voltmeter and an ammeter and
Problem solving
make the necessary
calculations.

Discuss the temperature


limitation on Ohm's Law.
*use quantitatively the
proportionality between
resistance and the length and I.T. Presentation
the crosssectional area of a
wire.
Calculate the net effect of a
number of resistors in series Problem solving
and in parallel.

Describe the effect of


temperature increase on the
resistance of a resistor and a
Graph work
filament lamp and draw the
Resistance respective sketch graphs of
current/voltage.

Describe the operation of a


Light dependeng resistor
light-dependent resistor.
TOPIC 20: D.C. CIRCUITS 3
*Draw circuit diagrams with
power sources (cell, battery or
a.c. mains), switches (closed
Current and
and open), resistors (fixed and
potential
variable), light dependent IT Presentation
difference in
resistors, lamps, ammeters,
circuits
voltmeters, magnetising coils,
bells, fuses, relays, light-
emitting diodes and

Series and State that the current at every Problem solving


parallel circuits point in a series circuit is the
same, and use this in
calculations.
Difference across the whole
circuit and use this in
calculations.
State that the current from the
source is the sum of the
currents in the separate
branches of a parallel circuit.
Do calculations on the whole
circuit, recalling and using
formulae including R = V/I and
of a parallel circuit.

TOPIC 21: PRACTICAL ELECTRICITY 2


Describe the use of electricity
Citation of examples
in heating, lighting and motors.

Do calculations using the


equations power = voltage x
Problem solving
Uses of electricity current, and energy = voltage
x current x time.

Calculate the cost of using


electrical appliances where the
energy unit is the kWh.

State the hazards of damaged


Dangers of
insulation, overheating of Citation of examples
electricity
cables and damp conditions.
Safe use of Explain the use of fuses and Fuses, circuit breaker 2
electricity in the circuit breakers and fuse
home ratings and circuit breaker
settings.
Explain the need for earthing
metal cases and for double
insulation.

State the meaning of the terms


live, neutral and earth.
Describe how to wire a mains
3-pin plug
plug.

Explain why switches, fuses


and circuit breakers are wired
into the live conductor.
PROPOSED TEACHING SCHEME FOR PHYSICS (5054) YEAR 11

DURATION
TOPICS SUB-TOPICS OBJECTIVES ACTIVITIES RESOURCES
(WEEKS)
TOPIC 22: ELECTROMAGNETISM 3
Describe experiments to show
the force on a current-carrying
conductor, and on a beam of
charged particles, in a d.c power supply, insulated
Force on a magnetic field, including the tong wire, major magnet
current-carrying effect of reversing (1) the
conductor current, (2) the direction of the
field.
State the relative directions of
force, field and current.
Force on a Describe the field patterns Vertical parallel thick wire,
current-carrying between currents in parallel low voltage power supply
conductor conductors and relate these to
the forces which exist between
the conductors (excluding the
Earth's field).
Explain how a current-carrying
coil in a magnetic field
experiences a turning effect
and that the effect is increased
by increasing (1) the number of
turns on the coil (2) the current.
The d.c. motor Discuss how this turning effect
d.c. power supply, d.c.
is used in the action of an
motor
electric motor.
Describe the action of a split-
ring commutator in a two-pole,
single coil motor and the effect model of d.c. motor
of winding the coil onto a soft-
iron cylinder.
TOPIC 23: ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION 3
Principles of Describe an experiment which
electromagnetic shows that a changing Galvanometer, permanent
induction magnetic field can induce an magnet and Solenoid
e.m.f. in a circuit.
State the factors affecting the
magnitude of the induced
e.m.f.
State that the direction of a
current produced by an
induced e.m.f. opposes the
change producing it (Lenz's
Law) and describe how this law
may be demonstrated.
Describe a simple form of a.c.
generator (rotating coil or
Dynamo
rotating magnet) and the use of
The a.c.
slip rings where needed.
generator
*Sketch a graph of voltage
output against time for a simple
a.c. generator.

Describe the structure and


principle of operation of a transformer model
simple iron-cored transformer.
State the advantages of high
The transformer voltage transmission.
Discuss the environmental and
cost implications of
underground power
transmission compared to
overhead lines.
24. Introductory Electronics 4
Thermionic
emission State that electrons are emitted
by a hot metal filament.
Explain that to cause a
continuous flow of emitted
electrons requires (1) high
positive potential and (2) very
low gas pressure.
Describe the deflection of an
electron beam by electric fields
and magnetic fields.
State that the flow of electrons
(electron current) is from
negative to positive and is in
the opposite direction to
conventional current
Describe in outline the basic
structure and action of a
cathode-ray oscilloscope
(detailed circuits are not
Simple treatment required).
of cathode-ray Describe the use of a cathode- Demonstration of CRO
oscilloscope ray oscilloscope to display
waveforms and to measure
p.d.'s and short intervals of
time (detailed circuits are not
required).
Action and use of Explain how the values of
circuit resistors are chosen according
components to a colour code and why
widely different values are
needed in different types of
circuit.
Discuss the need to choose
components with suitable
power ratings.
Describe the action of
thermistors and light-
dependent resistors and Demonstration of LDR
explain their use as input
sensors.
Describe the action of a
Demonstration of
variable potential divider
potentiometer
(potentiometer).
Describe the action of a
capacitor as a charge store
and explain its use in time
delay circuits.
Describe the action of a reed
switch and reed relay.
Explain the use of reed relays Demonstration of
in switching circuits. Capacitors, reed switch and
Describe and explain circuits reed relay
operating as light-sensitive
switches and temperature
operated alarms (using a reed
relay or other circuits).
State the meaning of the terms
processor, output device and
feedback.
TOPIC 25: ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS 2
Describe the action of a bipolar
*Electronic
npn transistor as an electrically
Systems are
operated switch and explain its
Optional topic
use in switching circuits.
State in words and in truth
table form, the action of the
Switching and
following logic gates, AND,
logic circuits
OR, NAND, NOR and
NOT(inverter).
State the symbols for the logic
gates listed above (American
ANSI Y 32.14 symbols will be Handson Electronic Logic
used). Kit
Describe the use of a bistable
circuit.
Discuss the fact that bistable
circuits exhibit the property of
memory.
Bistable and
astable circuits Describe the use of an astable
circuit (pulse generator).
Describe how the frequency of
an astable circuit is related to
the values of the resistive and
capacitative components.
SECTION VI ATOMIC PHYSICS
TOPIC 26. RADIOACTIVITY 4
Describe the detection of
Detection of alpha-particles, beta-particles
radioactivity and gamma-rays by
appropriate methods. 3 Radioactive resources
State and explain the random
emission of radioactivity in
direction and time.
State, for radioactive IT Presentation
emissions, their nature, relative
Characteristics of ionising effects and relative
the three types of penetrating powers.
emission Describe the deflection of
radioactive emissions in
electric fields and magnetic
fields.
Explain what is meant by
radioactive decay.
Explain the processes of fusion
and fission.
Describe with the aid of a block
diagram one type of fission
Nuclear reactions reactor for use in a power
station.
Discuss theories of star
formation and their energy
production by fusion.
Half-life Explain what is meant by the
term half-life.
Make calculations based on
half-life which might involve
information in tables or shown
by decay curves.
Describe how radioactive
materials are handled, used
and stored in a safe way.
Uses of Discuss the way in which the
radioactive type of radiation emitted and
isotopes including the half-life determine the use
safety for the material.
precautions Discuss the origins and effect
of background radiation.

Discuss the dating of objects


by the use of 14C.
TOPIC 27: THE NUCLEAR ATOM 2
Describe the structure of the IT Presentation
atom in terms of nucleus and
electrons.
Atomic model Describe how the Geiger-
Marsden alpha-particle
scattering experiment provides
evidence for the nuclear atom.
Nucleus Describe the composition of
the nucleus in terms of protons
and neutrons.
Define the terms proton
number (atomic number), Z
and nucleon number (mass
number), A.
Explain the term nuclide and
use the nuclide notation A Z X to
construct equations where
radioactive decay leads to
changes in the composition of
the nucleus.
Define the term isotope.
Explain, using nuclide notation,
how one element may have a
number of isotopes.

ANY QUERIES PLEASE REFER TO MOHD KHAIRUL AZMI BIN KASSIM – MAKTAB SAINS PADUKA SERI BEGAWAN
SULTAN
E-mail address khairolazmi.kassim@msains.moe.edu.bn