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# HBSC4103

## Name : Lim Mooi Siam

ID:831230095066001
H/P:0192878993
Email:lovesharon863@gmail.com
Centre : Petaling Jaya Centre

HBSC4103
TABLE OF CONTENT
NO.
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TITLE

PAGE NO.
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INTRODUCTION

2.0

DAILY LIFE

3.0

2.1 X-RAY

## ANALYZE HOW THE WAVES YOU HAVE

STATED COULD AFFECT THE LIFESTYLE OF
THE PEOPLE IN MALAYSIA.
3.1 X-RAY

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SUGGEST

HOW

YOU

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CHANGE

YOUR

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## LIFESTYLE TO MINIMIZE THE NEGATIVE

EFFECTS OF THESE ELECTROMAGNETIC
WAVES.
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CONCLUSION

6.0

REFERENCE

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INTRODUCTION
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Electromagnetic wave can be defined as electrically charged particle that travels through
space to create waves. Such waves are also created by the vibration of electric charge with electric
and its magnetic component.
The energy travels itself through a vacuum at the speed of light (3.00 x 108 m/s). As the
energy travels through material medium, the atoms found inside the medium absorbs and reemits
wave energy, causing electrons of atoms to vibrate. Such vibration creates first electromagnetic
wave. The repetition of electron vibration creates a series of electromagnetic waves with the same
frequency. Figure 1.1 shows electromagnetic wave and its components. As the wave travels the
electric field and magnetic field oscillate but perpendicular from each other. Electromagnetic
waves can be calculated based on their wavelengths (), energy (E) and frequency (f) and is
represented by equation f* =c and equation E=h*f. Wavelength can be found by measuring the
distance between wave crests in micron (m). Frequency is the number of wave that passes per
second. In E=h*f equation, h is directly proportional to f. the higher the frequency the higher the
energy contained in the wave. As for f* =c equation, f is directly proportional to . The higher the
f and the higher the speed (c).

## Figure 1.1: Electromagnetic waves and its components.

Electromagnetic waves with different wavelength are required to form electromagnetic
spectrum. Electromagnetic spectrum is the entire continuous spectrum of all forms of
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electromagnetic radiation, from gamma rays to long radio waves (Kernerman Webster's College
Dictionary, 2005). The range of electromagnetic spectrum is from 1023 hertz to 0 hertz or, 10 -13
centimeters to infinity in wavelength. Figure 1.2 shows electromagnetic spectrum with various
kinds of electromagnetic wave. Radio waves have the longest wavelength followed by
microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultra violet, X-rays and Gamma rays.

2.0

## TYPES OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES IN DAILY LIFE

Electromagnetic waves are crucial for the betterment of our daily life. There are 7

fundamental electromagnetic waves in our daily life: radio waves, microwave, infrared wave,
visible wave, ultraviolet wave, X-rays and Gamma rays. Each wave differentiates from one another
depending on the frequency of the waves.

2.1

X-RAY

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X-ray is a kind of radiation with a wave length of 0.01 to 10 nanometers and frequencies in
the range of 31016 Hz to 31019 Hz. The radiation is discovered by Wilhelm Rontgen, a German
physicist who accidentally discovered it during an experiment. He wanted to investigate the
external effects from all types of vacuum tube equipment by passing electrical charges through
them. Surprisingly, he noticed that the there was a fluorescent effect on the cardboard painted with
barium platinocyanide. He assumed that the invincible cathode rays are the cause. Later, he
conducted similar experiment with various kinds of vacuum tube and similar occurrence happened.
One day, he had successfully captured a picture of his wife x-rays photo showing her skeleton.
Based on the research he had conducted, he concluded that X-ray can penetrate substances more
easily than the other, depending on the substance density and thickness.

## Figure 2.1.1: Wilhelm Rontgen and X-rays creation.

2.2

Radio waves are another type of electromagnetic waves with wavelengths ranging from 1

milimeter to 100 kilometers. Radio waves have longer wavelengths than infrared waves and travels
at light speed. There are two types of radio waves: artificial radio waves and naturally occurring
forth. Naturally occurring radio waves can be generated by lighting strike or by astronomical
objects.
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Radio waves were discovered by James Clerk, a Scottish mathematician who predicted that
there are similarities of wavelike properties in electrical and magnetic field. He also predicted that
electromagnetic field propagation speed is almost the same as the speed of light. Radio waves is
used extensively especially in communication to transmit information from one place to another, in
medical research and so forth.

Figure 2.2.1: How radio waves are transmitted in ionosphere and through space.

2.3

INFRARED WAVES
Infrared waves or infrared radiation (IR) are waves which gives thermal effect on

substances. Infrared has wavelengths from 0.78 to 1000um. Most substances that generates thermal
emits infrared.
Infrared waves were discovered by William Hershel, an astronomer who conducted a
simple test by allowing a stream of light passes through a prism to show a spectrum. He then
placed a thermometer beside the red part of the spectrum and found that the thermometer shows
higher temperature compared to the temperature from red spectrum. He concluded that the infrared
exists although it cannot be seen by naked eyes.

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Due to its thermal characteristics, infrared is used on thermal-infrared imaging such as nigh
vision, target acquisition and so on.

Figure 2.3.1: Photographic image produced from night vision goggles. Night vision goggles
are useful to get a clear view on surrounding areas at night.

2.4

ULTRAVIOLET WAVES
Ultraviolet ray (UV) is a kind of electromagnetic waves with a wavelength shorter than

visible light but longer than X-ray. The wave has wavelengths of 310nm to 100nm. The ray was
discovered by Johann Wilhelm Ritter, a Poland physicist who share the same experiment apparatus
as Sir Frederick William Herschel did but with different discovery. Johann heard about William
Herschels discovery on infrared through his experiment. He decided to conduct the same
experiment to determine whether there is an invisible light beyond the violet. He then put silver
chloride at the end of the violet spectrum. To his surprise, the salt showed darkened color at the
violet end of the spectrum. He concluded that ultraviolet waves are responsible for turning the salt
into dark color.

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Figure 2.4.1: Frederick William Herschels simple experiment to detect the presence of
infrared waves.

3.0

ANALYZE HOW THE WAVES YOU HAVE STATED COULD AFFECT THE
LIFESTYLE OF THE PEOPLE IN MALAYSIA.
Different electromagnetic waves have its uses thanks to the scientific researches conducted

by scientists. The purpose of conducting research by scientists is to make our life easier and
3.1

X-RAY
Because X-rays have higher energy than light waves, they can pass through the body (X-

rays benefits and risks). The discovery of X-rays becomes valuable tool in medical field.
X-ray is used in radiography, fluoroscopy, nuclear medicine, computed tomography and
PET scan) in hospital. In radiography, an x-ray machine produces x-rays beam and direct it to
human body and on to a special film to make a picture. The picture produced enables doctors and
medical staffs to take a glimpse or analyze body condition of patient such as bone fracture, knee
injury and so forth. As for fluoroscopy, it produces a moving image on TV screen. The doctors or
medical staffs can either choose to save picture or the entire video. Fluoroscopy is needed during
surgery for implants or to examine flowing blood in blood vessels. For example, fluoroscopy is
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needed during surgery so that screws can be properly fitted onto the bone fracture. In nuclear
medicine, a radioactive isotope is injected into a vein of human body. The isotope accumulates in
certain organ or tissue. It releases gamma rays and a special camera detects the rays to build a
picture of the body. Computed tomography (CT) scan is a sophisticated machine that produces
different slices of picture and 3D pictures of human body. The machine consists of a circular hole
so that patient can lie on a table and the table moves into the hole. As the table moves, many tiny
X-rays beams pass through the patients body to generate X-ray images for further diagnosis. PET
scan is a medical scan that detects radiation from radioactive substance given to patient through
injection. PET scan is very useful in detecting cancer cells from the patient.

## Figure 3.1.1: Radiography machine for medical use.

But, frequency exposure of X-rays poses adverse effects on human body. Because X-rays
are high energy waves which can pass through human body easily, frequent exposure of X-rays
will develop cancer cells in human body. This is because X-rays might induce cell mutation by
altering genetic code found in human body. Such alteration will cause cells to function abnormally.
If mutated cells are multiplied to produce new cells, the cells will pass the mutated genetic code to
one another, risking someones life. Besides, over exposure of X-rays can cause skin reddening

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(300 rads). 1500 rads of X-rays can cause serious skin burns with blistering whereas 3000 rads can
cause very serious burns.

## Figure 3.1.2: Reddening or sensation skin burn of X-rays.

3.2

Radio waves are low energy long waves which enables itself to travel over a long distance.

The wavelength of radio waves can be as much as 10 meter or longer, making it to become less
interfered by obstacles such as mountains and buildings. When travel into the atmosphere, radio
waves longer than 10 meters can bounce back and forth between ionosphere and the ground,
giving it an ideal type to transmit information or signals over the horizon. The signal must be
encoded in the form of Amplitude Modulation (AM) or Frequency Modulation (FM). Besides,
Radio waves are used as radio astronomy to detect and explore stars, galaxies, quasars, pulsars and
Because radio waves have long wavelength, it enables radio waves to pass through a very long
distance such as galaxies and stars found in space.

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Figure 3.2.1: Telco tower with reflective dish on it. Reflective dish uses radio waves to
transmit data.
However, over exposure of radio waves will pose negative effect on human body. Radio
wave found in mobile phones and radar can cause heating on tissues of human body. The tissues
absorb the wave, making it vulnerable to mutation process to develop cancer cells such as
leukemia. Besides, prolong exposure to radio waves can cause cataracts, the clouding of the lens
inside the eyes to decrease vision.

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Figure 3.2.2: Radio waves triggers tumor or cancel cells in our brain.

3.3

INFRARED WAVES
Although infrared waves cannot be seen through naked eyes, it does have negative effect

on human body. Workers from furnace in steel mill often exposed to this kind of radiation. Molten
steel iron, heated glass and so forth releases infrared waves which gradually damage eyes known
as cataracts. Besides, infrared waves can also cause reddening of eyes, swelling, hemorrhaging and
so forth. Since infrared has thermal effect, slight exposure to infrared rays cause reddening of skin.
If individuals are exposed to infrared waves for a long period of time, the waves are absorbed by
body cells causes burning sensation of the cells.

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Figure 3.3.1: Reddening of eyes after exposure of infrared waves for a long period of time.

3.4

ULTRAVIOLET RAYS
We cant avoid ourselves from being exposed to ultraviolet rays during outdoor activities

such as cycling, hiking and so on. As we are enjoying outdoor activities, our skin will absorb
ultraviolet rays released from the sun to induce tanning. Tanning means darkening skin color with
the presence of melanin in large concentrations. Melanin is needed to protect skin cells to avoid
excessive absorption of ultraviolet rays which could damage skin. In other words, the presence of
ultraviolet radiation provides free melanin underneath our skin to effectively repel ultraviolet rays
from worsening skin condition.
Ultraviolet rays aid the synthesis of vitamin D in our skin. Vitamin D is required to
strengthen bones and teeth. This is because vitamin D induces absorption of calcium and
magnesium in bones and teeth, making them thicker and tougher. Besides, Ultraviolet tanning has
been linked to improved energy and elevated mood. (Sivamani, 2009). A study on tanning adults in
2007 found that 81% of individuals felt that a tan improved appearance. Furthermore, tanning
effect provides a natural defense against sunburn with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 3-4.

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## Figure 3.4.1: Before and after tanning effect on individual.

Hospital uses ultraviolet rays to sterilize germs found in medical knife. Known as
Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation (UVGI), this methodology uses sufficient UV wavelength to
destroy nucleic acids in germs and bacteria to disrupt their DNA. The destruction of DNA will lead
to prohibition of cellular functions. Portable ultraviolet lamp is used widely especially in banking
and finance to enable worker to identify whether the bank notes are fake or real.

Figure 3.4.2: Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation (UVGI) is used extensively to kill germs in
medical field.

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We are risking ourselves if over exposed with ultraviolet rays. Overexposure of such rays
can cause sun burns as well as premature skin aging. Survey suggests that UV rays accounts for
80% of skin ageing. Skin aging includes presence of wrinkles, skin pigmentation, reduction of skin
elasticity, degradation of skin texture and so on.

Figure 3.4.3: UV rays causes the loss of skin elasticity and skin aging.

4.0

## SUGGEST HOW YOU CHANGE YOUR LIFESTYLE TO MINIMIZE THE

NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF THESE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES.
Electric fields such as infrared waves and so forth could pose negative effect on our body.

Therefore, preventative measures must be taken into consideration to lessen the negative effect of
being harmed by the waves.
We can minimize the negative effect of electromagnetic waves by avoiding yourself to live
in urban cities. This is because urban cities are usually packed with telecommunication towers,
power generators, high tension power line and so forth which generate electromagnetic waves such
as infrared waves and radio waves. You can also live in a house at least half away from the nearest
microwave tower or high tension tower (Wilson, 2014). If possible, do not choose to live in high
density residential areas such as apartments, flats and condominium because the higher the
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population density in the area, the high chance of getting exposed to electromagnetic waves
emitted from electrical appliances such as computer and television.
Besides, do not let authority to install smart meters on your house. Smart meters are a
device to record electrical consumption of each house. Unlike conventional meters, smart meters
can gather data about electrical consumption and send to central system for reporting. Smart
meters emit radio waves which poses harmful effect on human body.

## Figure 4.1: Smart meter is used to record daily usage of electricity.

Lessen the use of cell phones could decrease the risks of electromagnetic waves exposure.
For cell phone use, use simple chorded cell phone chargers, headset or speakerphone will be the
best choice. Also, keep your conversation as short as possible by not more than 15 minutes of talk
so that the waves emitted will be minimized.
Do not sit too near to the computers as it emits electromagnetic waves. Use laptop
computers as it has lower power screens. Use external keyboards and mouse for your laptop so that
you can sit further away from the laptop. If you are computer heavy user, go for a short outdoor
activity for several minutes because it will decrease your electromagnetic stress.

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## Figure 4.2: Power line behind residential area.

Locate wireless routers and networks far away from you, as it generates radio frequencies.
Other wireless transmitters and receivers such as refrigerators and televisions should be located as
far as possible from you as all of them emit radio frequencies. As for television sets or computer
monitors, use conventional television screen, the cathode ray tube than LCD monitors as it
produces large quantities of electromagnetic waves. Do not place remote or wireless devices in or
near your bedroom. Laptop or personal computers should be kept away from your bedroom as it
will distract your sleep. Turn off the computers and other electrical devices before going to sleep.

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## Figure 4.3: Cathode-Ray Tube or CRT monitor for personal computer.

Lastly, prepare yourself a nutritional balancing program to reduce electromagnetic
hypersensitivity. Electromagnetic sensitivity often shows symptoms such as fatigue, headache,
sleep disturbance and so forth. Following a designated nutritional balancing program helps you to
restore sufficient minerals in your body and restoration of adrenal glands. Besides, the program
helps to rebuild lungs and bronchials caused by electromagnetic waves damage. Furthermore,
metal with high toxicity such as iron and chopper can be removed if nutritional balancing program
is implemented.

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CONCLUSION
The discoveries and introduction of electromagnetic spectrum by physicists and scientist

several centuries ago proved that electromagnetic spectrum is crucial for daily life. Therefore,
research and development (R&D) is required to discover and study the importance of
electromagnetic spectrum followed by development of prototype for implementation.
Each electromagnetic waves has its own use but in proper regulation. For example, the
discovery of X-rays on 8 November 1895 by German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen has led
to the creation of X-ray film and X-ray generator for medical use. Radiographer must undergo
proper regulation so that it does not pose a negative effect on patient who uses them. The discovery
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of infrared waves has led to the extensive use of thermography to determine the temperature of
Space Shuttle thermal protection system (Jeff Beard, 2007).
Although electromagnetic spectrum benefits us for its extensive uses, it also poses a threat
to our health. The presence of Ultraviolet Rays in large quantity will cause burning sensation to
our skin and increase the chance of suffering skin cancer. The presence of various electromagnetic
waves from electrical appliances and the surrounding areas will affect us from having symptoms
such as headache, low immunity and so forth. Therefore, preventative measures must be taken to
lessen the negative effect of electromagnetic waves. Government has to do something by
implementing laws regarding the development of power lines as well as radio or microwave
antennas in suitable distance away from residential areas so that it does not harm residents from
that area. Besides, federal government must cooperate with state government to govern and
monitor the development of industrial areas or commercial areas so that the development will meet
our countrys protocol.
In conclusion, we hope that the implementation of electromagnetic waves has more
benefits than disadvantages for the betterment of our future.

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6.0

REFERENCE

Sankpill, J.P. (2007). Protection Update. New York City: Penton Media.
Moss, C.E., Ellis, R.J., Murray, W.E., Parr. (n.d.). W.H. Infrared Radiation. WHO int Publication.
Sivamani, R.K., Crane, L.A., Dellavalle, R.P. (2010). The Benefits and Risks of Ultraviolet (UV)
Tanning and Its Alternatives: The Role of Prudent Sun Exposure. University of Colorado:
NIH Public Access. Prescott: The Center For Development Inc.
The Australian and New Zealand Bone and Mineral Society, Osteoporosis Australia (2008). Risks
and Benefits of Sun Exposure Position Statement. Australia.
Wilson, L. (2014). Reducing Electromagnetic Stress Smart Meters and Microwave Generators.
Chapter 25 Electromagnetic Waves. Retrieved June 1 2014, from http://www.phyastr.gsu.edu/hsu/LCh25.pdf
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Eelctromagnetic

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