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Submitted By:Group 2

Akaash Tonk
1311211
Amit Kumar
1311214
Rakesh Mondal 1311247
Shikha Rath
1311261

Q. 1. Mention 3 inadequacies of the Turing test, as Turing designed it, as a


measure of thinking. Give reasons why.
1) The Turing Test can be passed by Force machines: Turing test only examines the machines output; hence it can be passed by unintelligent machine.
This type of machine can be dubbed because it generally uses a large look-up table for its operation.
It focuses on external behavior and thus encourages the notion that only algorithmic structure
produces intelligences.
2) The Turing Test doesnt provide gradient of intelligence: The Turing test doesnt allow the interrogator to define a level of intelligence as it only asks for
binary results. Moreover, it does not properly guide AI research. AI proceed by emulating biological
intelligence or by attempting to solve particular practical problem.
3) The Turing Test doesnt test for Human Experience or Non-Human Intelligence: Turing Test is fundamentally considered as the test for human intelligence. It cant answer a Sub
cognitive questions which is related to the experience of a human being. Moreover, It is fatally
subjective. There is no demonstration that results are reproducible even with a single observer.

Q. 2. What is a state-space representation for the traveling salesman problem


and the DONALD+GERALD=ROBERT problems. Specify the initial state, the
goal state, the operators, the successor function, the path cost for each
State space representations:
The state space representations of a problem involve an initial state, the goal states, a set of
operators that transform one state to successor state. Whether the successor state is a goal state or
not is determined by goal test.
Travelling Salesman Problem
Suppose there are a total of 26 cities to be visited, each represented by an alphabet {a,b,c,d,,y,z}.
Let the salesman begin his journey from city a(initial state).
To ensure we visit every city atleast once, We need to keep track of the cities that have already been
visited in each state.
State-space representation for travelling salesman problem:
Initial State: a
Visited states: {a}
Goal State: z
Operators: Move to any state from current state if the state is connected to the other state.
Successor Function: If the current city is x, then p(x) is any city connected directly to x.
Crypt Arithmetic Problem
Problem Statement :
Assign the integers 0-9 to the alphabets in the words DONALD , GERALD and ROBERT such that
a) The assignment satisfies the below equation
DONALD
+
GERALD
--------------ROBERT

b) Each integer should be assigned to unique alphabets


c) The integer 5 is assigned to the letter D
In the notational form the problem can be represented as, formulate a set of assignments
State : lnteger digit
where lnteger = { D , T , L , R , A , E , N , B , O ,G}
Digit = { 0 ,1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ,7 , 8 , 9 }
State Space Representation :
I.

Initial State

The initial state is represented by the state State consisting only of the single assignment Digit 5
State : { Digit 5 }
II.

Goal State :

Final state State: { lnteger digit } such that the sum is correct.
Goal test function:
-All assignments lnteger Digit have been completed
-Sum (d) == True for equation "DONALD + GERALD = ROBERT"

III.

Operators :
Q : Assignment Operator given by lnteger digit ,
Apply Q2

Q1
S3
S3

S2

S3

It processes the column by taking information from the state about the three letters and the carry
(t) in the column The output is an expression with respect to the variable with missing
information in the state

E.g. For column 1

ti (carry)
PC (C1)

s1
D=5

s2

= s3

D=5

ti +1(carry)
?

Output
T=0 ; t2 =1

TO : Test Operator
The input to 'TO Operator' is the letter and information known with respect to the letter , along
with the digit to be assigned . The output is whether the assignment is valid or invalid based on
current state information.
E.g. For TO(D , 1 )
The operator will check if 1 has been assigned to another letter , or if the letter D has been assigned
another digit. In this case the operator will return invalid , since D has been assigned the letter 5 in
the initial state
GA : Generate Alternatives
The input to the GA operator is the letter and the information known with respect to the letter in
the given state. The output is the set of admissible values not taking into account whether or not the
digit has been assigned to another letter or not
E.g. GA (R , R is odd and R <5) => 1 , 3
The process flow for a variable can occur in the following manner
GA (T) -> TO (T,0) -> PC (C1) Q1( T<-0)

Initial

Q1
S2
S2

The termination of a branch will occur when any of three conditions defined for the goal state are
violated by the assignment.

Q. 3. Read up on the Means-Ends analysis method proposed by Newell and

Simon. How would you apply the means-ends analysis technique for solving
the water jug problem discussed in class? Provide a clear description of the
goals, sub-goals and operators and draw a diagram of the search path. Can you
specify a heuristic that will help curtail the search space (possibly a heuristic
better than the one discussed in class)?
Means-Ends Analysis
In the means-ends analysis, two key features are
1. Difference reduction
2. Sub-goaling
In this method, we carry out state space searching by state evaluation and operator ordering. If a
difference is detected between the current and goal states, then a sub-goal to eliminate the
difference is created. We then apply the operator that will make the most important difference to
the current state. In selecting the operator to apply, we match the conditions of the operator to the
current state to identify the most important difference.
Water jug problem
There are two jugs 3-litre and 4-litre. Initially both of them are empty i.e (0,0) state. The goal is to
fill 2-litre water in 3-litre jug i.e. final goal state is (2,0). We can use Means-Ends analysis to solve
the Water jug problem. We can start from the goal state and do backward search to arrive at the
initial state. Before proceeding, we need to define the generators and operators for solving the
problem.
Generators for water jug problem
1. Fill 3 (Fill 3-litre jug)
2. Fill 4 (Fill 4-litre jug)
3. Pour34 (Pour water from 3-litre jug to 4-litre jug)
4. Pour43 (Pour water from 4-litre jug to 3-litre jug)
5. Empty 3 (Empty 3-litre jug)
6. Empty 4 (Empty 4-litre jug)
Generators can be classified into three operators which are
being using in solving the water jug problem

3-litre jug

AAa

Operators using which states are modified


1. Fill jugs.
Op1- Fill 3-litre jug
Op2- Fill 4-litre jug
2. Pour from one jugs to another
Op3-Pour water from 3-litre to 4-litre jug
Op4- Pour water from 4-litre to 3-litre
3. Empty either jugs

4-litre jug

Op5-Empty 3-litre jug


Op6-Empty 4-litre jug
Heuristic Applied
1. First we determine difference between current state and goal state.
2. Then we choose operator that removes largest part of difference.
3. We apply operators and continue until goal is reached.
4. If operator cannot be applied, do not abandon it; find operator that enables it
5. We leave that sub-goal, if we have encountered in the any previous steps.
6. We stop only when we find the initial state.
Step 1.
We calculate the difference between the current
sub-goal and goal state. Sub-goal obtained are
(2,1),(1,1),(2,4),(0,2) and (2,3) We find that
(2,4) has 4 as maximum absolute difference.
(Absolute value is indicated as Superscript). So
we proceed with (2,4) state.
Step 2.
Using the same heuristic, we get current states
as (2,1),(3,3),(2,2) and (2,3) as intermediate
stages we find that (3,3) sub-goal has the
maximum absolute value as difference when
compared with goal state.
Step 3
Current states in this step are (2,4) and (0,3)
with 4 and 5 as absolute difference with goal
state (2,0).Also (2,4) is a redundant state, so we
proceed with (0,3).
Step 4
Using only (3,0) as current state we can proceed
to sub-goal (0,3) by applying only one operator.
Step 5
Here current state we found was (0,0) from
which (3,0) can be obtained and also this step
gives the initial goal stat as well which is (0,0).

(2,0) ---Goal State

(2,1)1 (1,1)2 (2,4)4

(2,1)1

(2,4)4

(3,3)4 (2,2)2

(0,2)4 (2,3)3

(2,3)3

(0,3)5

(3,0)5

(0,0)---Initial State

Q. 4. Draw the search tree for a depth-first search for the problem below. You may go
up to 4 levels. Assume all letters have a unique assignment of numerals.
SEND
+
MORE
---------------------------M ONEY
Identifying the Constraints
{S,E,N,D,M,O,R,Y} in {0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9}
D+EY
N+R+C1 E
E+O+C2 N
S+ M+C3 O

carrying over C1
carrying over C2
carrying over C3
carrying over C4

We know that M=1


M

0 (C4=1, By backtracking S=9)

2X
3X
4X
5X
6X
7X
8X
9 (For S=9,C3=1, M=O=1 which is not possible, therefore C3=0)
2X
3X
4X
5 (C2=1 as EN)
6 ( N= E+1)

2X
3X
4X
7X
8 (For C1=0, R=S=9 which is not possible, so C1=1)
2X
3X
4X
7
2
Therefore the digits assigned to { M,O,S,E,N,D,R,Y} map as {1,0,9,5,6,7,8,2}