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Roman Cultural Questions for MYTH V Dr. McGay

Legendary Heroes of Early Rome509-458 B.C.


Pages 7-9

1.

Why was Tarquinius Superbus, the 7th king of Rome, expelled from the city in 509 BC? Explain

2.

What form of government replaced the monarchy in 509 BC?

3.

4.

How many consuls were there, and how often were consuls elected? The 7 Kings of Rome:
1. Romulus [753-716]
2. Numa Pompilius [716-674]
3. Tullus Hostilius [673-642]
Describe the relationship between the consuls and the Senate?
4. Ancus Marcius (Ancus
Martius) [641-617]
5. Tarquinius Priscus [616-579]
6. Servius Tullius [578-535]
7. Tarquinius Superbus [534- 509]

5.

The Greek word for a city-state is a polis. Name at least 3 other famous city states?

6.

What was the term for firm loyalty and devotion to ones country, gods, and family?

7.

When did the Roman historian Livy live?


Example #1 of virtus and Romanitas: Horatius at the Bridge

8.

Who was Lars Porsenna? (also spelled Porsinna)

9.

What did Tarquinius Superbus convince Lars Porsenna to do?

10.

Which enemy of Rome was attempting to cross the Tiber River at the Pons Sublicius?

11.

What did Horatius Cocles order the people to do? Then what did he do himself?

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What does SPQR mean in Latin and English?

12.

Horatius taunted the Etruscans. Give 2 examples of things he might have said:

13.

To whom did Horatius pray before jumping into the River Tiber?

14.

Identify the heros act of courage (virtus) and explain why the Romans would identify with it so much?

15.

How or why would this action be considered to be patriotic?

16.

What value does it represent?

17.

Would this be an act of heroism today? Why or why not?

Example #2 of virtus and Romanitas: Mucius Scaevola


18.

(a) What was Mucius Scaevolas original mission, and (b) who granted him permission to carry it out?

19.

On what day did Mucius arrive at the Etruscan camp?

20.

Whom did Gaius Mucius actually kill while attempting to kill the Etruscan king?

21.

Now captured, Mucius proudly exclaimed Ego sum civis Romanus! Translate:

22.

Describe what Mucius next did after Lars Porsenna threatened to have him burned alive?

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KEY TERMS: Aequi, Cincinnatus, Cloelia, consul, dictator, Etruscans, Horatius Cocles, Lars Porsenna, Mucius
Scaevola, piets, polis (polij), Pons Sublicius, res publica, Romanits, SPQR, Tiber
23.

Why did the king release Mucius Scaevola?

24.

What is the nickname that Mucius was given by his fellow Romans? Explain its meaning:

25.

Identify the heros act of courage (virtus) and explain why the Romans would identify with it so much?

26.

How or why would this action be considered to be patriotic?

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27.

What value does it represent?

28.

Would this be an act of heroism today? Why or why not?

Example #3 of virtus and Romanitas: Cloelia


29.

Why or how did Cloelia become an hostage of Lars Porsenna and the Etruscans?

30.

What did Cloelia do when she realized she was near the Tiber?

31.

(a) How did Lars Porsenna react at Cloelias successful escape? (b) What did he say about her?

32.

How did the Romans honor Cloelia?

33.

Identify the heroines act of courage (virtus) and explain why the Romans would identify with it so much?

KEY TERMS: Aequi, Cincinnatus, Cloelia, consul, dictator, Etruscans, Horatius Cocles, Lars Porsenna, Mucius
Scaevola, piets, polis (polij), Pons Sublicius, res publica, Romanits, SPQR, Tiber
34.

What value does it represent?

35.

Would this be an act of heroism today? Why or why not?

Example #4 of virtus and Romanitas: Cincinnatus


36.

Whom were the Romans fighting in 458 BC?

37.

What did the senate do when the Aequi had surrounded a Roman army near Mt. Algidus?

38.

Define the term dictator:

39.

What was Cincinnatus doing when the senates representatives found him?

40.

What did Cincinnatus command his wife to do and why?

41.

What did Cincinnatus, on the day after he was hailed as dictator, order every citizen of military age to do?

42.

Describe why the Aequi surrendered:

43.

Identify the heros act of courage (virtus) and explain why the Romans would identify with it so much?

44.

What value does it represent?

45.

Would this be an act of heroism today? Why or why not?

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Legacy of Cincinnatus: Named in his honor are the towns of Cincinnato, in Lazio, Italy; the United States town of Cincinnatus, New
York; and the Society of the Cincinnati which, in turn, lent its name to the U.S. city of Cincinnati, Ohio. George Washington was often
compared to Cincinnatus for his willingness to give up near-absolute power once the crisis of the American Revolution had passed and
victory had been won, and the Society of the Cincinnati is an historical association founded in the aftermath of the American
Revolutionary War to preserve the ideals of the military officer's role in the new American Republic.