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Preliminary Core 1: Better Health for Individuals

Meanings of health
- Definitions of health
Up until Mid 20th century health was defined as the absence of illness or
In 1947 WHO defined health as a state of complete, physical, metal and
social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
- Dimensions of health
Physical Health: is the wellness of the body and the absence of chronic pain
or discomfort.
Social health: is the ability to form and maintain positive relationships with
parents, teachers and friends. It also being able to interact positively in
group situations and follow accepted standards of behavior.
Spiritual health: relates to a sense of purpose and meaning in and to feeling
connected with others and society
Emotional Health
Mental Heath
- Relative and dynamic nature of health
Relative nature of health refers to how we judge our health compared to
other people or other points of time in our lives.
Health is relative to our own circumstances
Dynamic Health: the health of a person is constantly changing and never
remains static. E.g. can change if you face a challenge or come across a
situation that may affect the dimensions of health. Sports injury suffer
physically, emotionally and mentally.
The Health continuum:

Measures a persons health at any given moment. A persons health can

change in the matter of minutes, hours or days

The interactions between the dimensions:

If one dimension of health is compromised, the other dimensions will be

affected. For example when a person is ill they feel less inclined to interact
with others and may also feel depressed. Impaired physical wellness affects
the other dimensions
How health changes over time:
How an individuals circumstances impacts on health:
Health potential is determined by heredity, experiences, ability to make
informed health decisions and access to health services

Perceptions of Health
- perceptions of their health
a persons perception of health is highly subjective. These different
perceptions impact the priority we place on health and the type of actions
- perceptions of the health of others
- implications of different perceptions of health
On an individual level, peoples perceptions of health have a significant
influence on their lifestyle choices an behaviors relating to health
- perceptions of health as social constructs
Social construct is a concept that recognizes that people have different
views based on their social circumstances and ways of seeing, interpreting,
interrelating and interacting with their environment

These factors have an influence on:

- The expectations we form about our health potential
- Understanding of what good health is
- Ability we have to act on information
- The value we place on the importance of working to improve our health

Choices whether we use helth products and services

How we respond to challenges that affect our health and well being
impact of the media, peers and family




-Includes television,
magazines, print
- Can have a significant
influence on young
peoples attitudes related
to health
- For example tobacco
advertising may influence
teenagers to smoke by
portraying smoking in
advertisements as
attractive and claiming
weightloss effects

- Teenagers security is usually found in the

approval of their peers

- Children can learn healthy or

unhealthy habits by observing the
behaviour of parents
- Behaviors include smoking, alcoh
intake, level of physical activity and
eating patterns

Health Behaviors of Young People

- The positive health status of young people
- protective behaviors and risk behaviors
Protective behaviors are those behaviors that are likely to enhance a persons
level of health. For example, participating in the recommended physical
activity requirements
Risk behaviors are those health behaviors that have been found to
contribute to the development of health problems or poorer levels of health.
For example, binge drinking, smoking.
The more health protective behaviors present in a young persons life, the
greater the benefit to overall benefit of health
Behaviors relating to levels of physical activity, eating habits, sexual activity,
seeking help, social connectedness and risk taking have a big impact on
young peoples health.

Mental health

Food habits

Protective behaviors
- positive family
- stress management
- meditation
- acknowledging normal
people can suffer from
mental health issues
- exercising/eating well
- understanding mental
health issues can be
treated and managed
- eating a well balanced
- following Australian
dietary guidelines

Physical activity

- participating in regular
physical activity
- understanding exercise
can improve your health

Body image

- fixing body issues

- knowing it is ok to eat a
balanced diet that
includes all foods, some
in moderation
- positive body image
- coping skills
- high self-esteem

Drug use
Sexual Health

Road safety

- informed how you

contract a STI
- abstaining from or
delayinfg sexual
- regular health checks
- not using electronic
devices while driving
- recognizing risky

Risk behaviors
- not seeking help
- self-harm
believing mental health
as a weakness

- skipping meals
- crash/fad diets
- starving yourself
- not eating enough for
body needs
- over exercising
- exercising when injured
- choosing technology
over exercise
- not knowing the health
benefits of participating
in physical activity
- not eating before
- FAD diets
- execesively exercising
- low-self esteem
-interpreting magazines
in the wrong way

- binge drinking
- good communication
- startinging sex early
- having unprotected
sexual intercourse
- Not being aware of how
you contract a STI
- drink driving
- speeding
- road rage

- Not drinking and
- Seat belts
- Planning trips
- have car service

- Jay-walking
- Driving long distances
without a break
- BAC higher than the
- drag racing

Core 1: What influences the health of indiviudals?

The determinants of health

Health Determinants are the individual, socioeconomic, sociocultural and
environmental factors that can have a positive or negative influence on
the health of individuals or populations
- Individual factors
Knowledge, skills, genetics
- Sociocultural factors
Family, peers, media, religion, culture
- Socioeconomic factors
Employment, education, income
- Environmental factors
Geographic location, access to health services and technology
The degree of control individuals can exert over their health
- Modifiable an non-modifiable determinants
Modifiable health determinants are those determinants that can be
changed or controlled so they have a different influence on our health.
- The changing influence of determinants through different life stages
Health as a social construct
- Recognizes the interrelationship of determinants
- Challenges the notion that health is solely an individuals

Core 1: What Strategies help promote the health of individuals?

What is health promotion

Health promotion involves activities that are aimed at enabling people to
increase control over their health, to improve their health and prevent
In 1986, the WHO incorporated this definition in a document known as
the Ottawa Charter for health promotion.
The Ottawa Charter outlines the factors essential for promotion and is
based on the understanding that health is socially determined.
Responsibility for Health promotion
- Individuals

Play a key role in determining health status

- Community groups
- Government
- International organizations