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# PhasedArray

Phased
ArrayTraining
Training
I.PhasedArray:BasicTheory
BasicPrincipals
Basic Principals
Beamsteering
BeamFocusing
Questions

II. PhasedArray:TheViews
TypeofScans
ViewingdefectsontheSScan
Questions

III PhasedArray:Probes&Wedges
III.
Phased Array: Probes & Wedges
Probes
Wedges
Questions

I.PhasedArray:BasicPrincipals
Bell
Absorbent Material

I.PhasedArray:BasicPrincipals
Producing Ultrasound

Pulser

Probe

I.PhasedArray:BasicPrincipals
Square Pulse
Pulse Width is function of the probe frequency

PW =

500
500
=
= 100ns
f ( MHz
MH )
5

## Pulse Height is function of the voltage

100 ns

40 V
80

I.PhasedArray:BasicPrincipals
Pulse Length & Height
Pulse length is related to the probe frequency (bell size):
Small bell (high frequency) = small pulse
Big bell (low frequency) = large pulse

Dong!

Pulse
P l height
h i ht is
i related
l t d to
t voltage
lt
(volume
( l
off sound):
d)
Small pulse height = weak sound
Large pulse height = loud sound

5 MHz = 100 ns

5 MHz
2 MHz
= 100
= ns
250 ns
80 V
40 V

40 V

Ding!

I.PhasedArray:BasicPrincipals
Wavelets
Conventional

Phased-Array
y

Thebeamoriginatesfromone
The
beam originates from one
element

Thebeamisformedbythecombined
The
beam is formed by the combined
ultrasoundwavesoriginatingfrom
themultipleelements

I.PhasedArray:BasicPrincipals
WaveFront
Ifallelementsofaphased
If
all elements of a phasedarray
arrayprobearefiredatthesametime,the
probe are fired at the same time the
resultwillbeasinglewavefront

I.PhasedArray:BasicPrincipals
Beamforming,Delay&Sum
Delay
lines

Digitalising

Sum

+
AScan

Transmission
Echo

SScan

I.PhasedArray:BasicPrincipals
SnellsLaw

sin
i

V1 = 2,340 m/s
V2 = 3,240 m/s

Focalpoint

sin
i

I.PhasedArray:BasicPrincipals
FocalLaw:TOF
Fermatprinciple:
A travelling beam of light (or sound) always take the shortest
Atravellingbeamoflight(orsound)alwaystaketheshortest
pathbetweentwopoints.
2,340 m/s

Time

3,240 m/s

Focalpoint

10s 8s 6s 5s 6s 7s 8s 9s

I.PhasedArray:BasicPrincipals
FocalLaw: Delays
To calculate the delay for each
elements:
Thelongesttotalsoundpathofall
elementsisdetermined
Fromthevalueofthatsoundpaththe
valueofagivensoundpathis
subtracted

10s 8s 6s 5s 6s 7s 8s 9s

10s - 8s = 2s
Thisgivesthefiringdelayforeach
element

0s 2s 4s 5s 4s 3s 2s 1s

I.PhasedArray:BasicPrincipals
Coverage
Conventional UT
Raster
needed
Rasterneeded
Phased-Array UT
Noneedtoraster
Awholeregioncanbecoveredinasinglepass
A h l
i
b
di
i l

350

700

I.PhasedArray:BasicPrincipals
AngularResolution
Angular
resolution:
g
SScaniscomposedofAScan
AngularresolutionisthenumberofAScanperdegree
Lowangularresolution
Highangularresolution

I.PhasedArray:BasicPrincipals
Digitalization:Resolution
TheanalogAScanisdigitalizedwithafinitenumberofpointsdependingonthe
digitalizingfrequency(typically100MHz)
Ifthenumberofpointisinsufficient,thesignalwillbedistortedandcouldmiss
vitalinformation.Hencetheimportanceofahighdigitalizationrate

TOF

I.PhasedArray:BasicPrincipals
Digitalization:Resolution:Effect
5MHzAnalogSignal

5MHzDigitalSignal
5MHz
Digital Signal
3.125MHz=9samples
6.25MHz=18samples
12.5MHz=36samples
100MHz=288samples
50MHz=144samples
25MHz=72samples

I.PhasedArray:BasicPrincipals
Digitalization:Compression
Tokeepfilessizemanageable,compressionisused
Foragivennumberofpointsoverarange,thepointofhighestvalueiskept
For a given number of points over a range the point of highest value is kept
Thispointisthenpositionedinthemiddleoftherange

I.PhasedArray:BasicPrincipals
Digitalization:Compression:Effect
Lownumberofpoints
Highnumberofpoints

I.PhasedArray:BasicPrincipals
Filters

Amplitude (%))
A

HighPass:Definesthelowestfrequencyallowed
LowPass:Definesthehighestfrequencyallowed
BandPass:Centersthefiltersonthefrequency

Frequency (MHz)

I.PhasedArray:BasicPrincipals
Filters:Effect

Amplitude ((%)

NoFilterona10MHzsignal
BandPass:Fora10MHzsignal(5.5MHzto15MHz)

Frequency (MHz)

I.PhasedArray:BasicPrincipals
Smoothing:Tomoview

Amplitude (%)

Nonsmoothed10MHzsignal
SmoothingisdonewithaLowpassFilter

F
Frequency
(MH )
(MHz)

I.PhasedArray:BasicPrincipals
Smoothing:Effect
10MHzProbe
No
smoothing
10
10MHzsmoothing
1 Nosmoothing
1MHzsmoothing
MHz
MHz
smoothing
smoothing

I.PhasedArray:BasicPrincipals
PRF: Pulse Repetition Frequency
PRF on the Omniscan:1(5)
5=NumberofAScanpersecond.
DependingontheunitoneAScancanbecomposedof16to128pulses
fromindividualelements
1=NumberofSScanpersecond
b
f
1 second = 5
1 A-Scan
S-Scan

I.PhasedArray:BasicPrincipals
PRF: Example 1
SScanfrom35to75degreeswithabeameverydegree.Thus40AScans
PRFat200Hz(200AScans/second).Thus200/40=5SScan/second
EncoderissetatoneSScan/mm.Maxacquisitionspeed=5mm/second
1second

5 mm

Scanaxis

0 mm

750

350

I.PhasedArray:BasicPrincipals
PRF: Example 2

SScanfrom35to75degreeswithabeameverydegree.Thus40AScans
LScan14elementswithstepsof1ona64elementprobe.Thus50AScans
PRFat180Hz(180AScans/second).Thus180/90=(2SScan+2LScan)/second
Encoderissetatone(SScan+LScan)/mm.Maxacquisitionspeed=2mm/second
2 seconds

Scanaxis

0 mm

4 mm

750

350

I.PhasedArray:BasicPrincipals
PRF: Ghost Echo
PRF too high for the length of the path
OK:Theendofthewindowfinishesbeforethefirstechofromthenextscanarrives
h
d f h
d f h b f
h f
h f
h
PRFtoohigh:Thefirstechofromthenextscanisrecordedinthepreviousscan
Indoubt,lowerthePRF.Ifitisaghostecho,itshoulddisappear

Listening Window

Listening Window
GhostEcho

PhasedArray
Phased
ArrayTraining
Training
I.PhasedArray:BasicTheory
BasicPrincipals
Basic Principals

Beamsteering
BeamFocusing
Questions

II. PhasedArray:TheViews
TypeofScans
ViewingdefectsontheSScan
Questions

III PhasedArray:Probes&Wedges
III.
Phased Array: Probes & Wedges
Probes
Wedges
Questions

I.PhasedArray:BeamSteering
Definition
Isthecapabilitytomodifytherefractedangle ofthebeamgenerated
bythearrayprobe
Allowsformultipleangleinspections,usingasingleprobe
Appliesasymmetrical(e.g.,linear)focallaws
Canonlybeperformedinsteeringplane,whenusing1Darrays
CangeneratebothL(compression)andSV(shearvertical)waves,
using a single probe
usingasingleprobe

I.PhasedArray:BeamSteering
Principals
front will be angled
frontwillbeangled

I.PhasedArray:BeamSteering
Limits
Thelimitsofbeamsteeringaremainlydeterminedbythesizeoftheelements.The
smallertheelementsthehigherthesteeringlimits.Frequencywillalsoinfluencethe
limits.
v 1

## MaximumSteeringangle(6dB)isgivenby: sin st = 0.5 * = 0.5 * *

e
f e

16 X 4
16X4mm=64mmaperture
64
9degrees

p
16X2mm=32mmaperture
18degrees

## 16 X 1mm = 16mm aperture

16X1mm=16mmaperture
32degrees

I.PhasedArray:BeamSteering
Calculation
Maximumsteeringangle(at6dB),givenby:
Sinst =0.514*/e
Maximumsteeringangle(at20dB),givenby:
Sin st =0.8*/e
Sin
0 8 * /e

=c/f
= divergencehalfangle

I.PhasedArray:BeamSteering
AngleGainDifference
InPAUTasinconventionalUT,thereisanoptimalangleforeachwedge.This
optimalangleisdeterminebytheangleofthewedgeitselfandSnellslaw.
Thestrengthoftheresponseobtainfromasidedrillholewillbemaximalatthis
angle.Allotheranglesbelowandabovewillhavealesserresponse.
This
optimal angle is calculated with the following formula:
Thisoptimalangleiscalculatedwiththefollowingformula:
* sin
= sin 1 1

Amplitudevs.Angle

Amplitudevariaation(dB)

10

15
60

50

40

30

20

10

10

20

AngleinSteelSWave(degree)

30

40

50

60

I.PhasedArray:BeamSteering
Range:0degree wedge

I.PhasedArray:BeamSteering
Range: 35degreewedge

PhasedArray
Phased
ArrayTraining
Training
I.PhasedArray:BasicTheory
BasicPrincipals
Basic Principals
Beamsteering

BeamFocusing
Questions

II. PhasedArray:TheViews
TypeofScans
ViewingdefectsontheSScan
Questions

III PhasedArray:Probes&Wedges
III.
Phased Array: Probes & Wedges
Probes
Wedges
Questions

I.PhasedArray:BeamFocusing
Definition
B
Beamfocusing
f
i
Isthecapabilitytoconvergetheacousticenergy intoasmallfocalspot
Allowsforfocusingatseveraldepths,usingasingleprobe
Symmetrical(e.g.,parabolic)focallaws(timedelayvs.elementposition)
IslimitedtoPhasedarrayprobenearfieldonly
Canonlyperformedinthesteeringplane,whenusinga1D
Can only performed in the steering plane when using a 1Darray
array

I.PhasedArray:BeamFocusing
Principals
Iftheapplieddelaysarecalculatedsoallthesingleswavesfromeachelements
pp
y
g
arriveatthesametimeonaspecificspot,thePAbeamwillbefocused

I.PhasedArray:BeamFocusing
NearField
1 mm pitch
12 elements
Conventional near-field

Composite
p
near-field

A2 f
N=
4v

NC=(1)2*5/(4*5,890)=0,21mm
Ncom=(1*12)2*5/(4*5,890)=30,6mm

I.PhasedArray:BeamFocusing
NearField:EffectiveActiveAperture
Realangleandbeamdimension
Effectiveangleandbeamdimension
EffectiveApertureisgivenbytheequation:
Aeff =

A cos R
cos I

## WhereI andR are:

I
Aeff

R
Focal
Point

I.PhasedArray:BeamFocusing
NearField:MinimumActiveAperture
Minimumactiveapertureistheminimumactiveapertureneededtofocusata
specificdepthalongthebeamofthemaximumrefractedangle
MinimumActiveApertureisgivenbytheequation:
Amin

2
F( 2 2*
)

R I sin R

f * R * cos2
R

Where:
I

I =velocityinfirstmedium(wedge,water)
R =velocityintestpiece
f=ultrasoundfrequency
F =focaldepthformaximumrefractedangle
R =maximumrefractedangleintestpiece
maximum refracted angle in test piece
R
Focal
Point

I.PhasedArray:BeamFocusing
NearField:RecommendedPassiveAperture
Thepassiveapertureistheelementlengthinthenonactiveaxis.
Tooptimizethebeamshape,thereisarecommendedpassiveaperture
Therecommendedpassiveapertureisgivenbytheequation:
W = 1.4

[ (F min + Fmax )]

0 .5

Where:
Fmin =minimalfocaldepth
Fmax =maximalfocaldepth
i lf ld h
=Wavelength

Passive
Focalization
Active
Focalization

I.PhasedArray:BeamFocusing
NearField
FocusedBeam:
Divergence(halfangle,at6dB)

0.44
0.44
=
a
(
)
sin(
L = a sin( L )
W
W
Beamdimension(atdepthz)

2 * 0.44z
W

L =

2 * 0.44z
L

I.PhasedArray:BeamFocusing
TypeofFocus

True
Depth

Half
Path

Projection

## Focal Plane (3D))

I.PhasedArray:BeamFocusing
TypeofFocus:TrueDepth
32elementsof0.6mm

I.PhasedArray:BeamFocusing
TypeofFocus:HalfPath
32elementsof0.6mm

I.PhasedArray:BeamFocusing
TypeofFocus:Projection
32elementsof0.6mm

I.PhasedArray:BeamFocusing
NumberofElements:Focus50mm
16elementsof0.6mm
32elementsof0.6mm
32 elements of 0 6mm
64elementsof0.6mm

I.PhasedArray:BeamFocusing
NumberofElements:Focus100mm
16elementsof0.6mm
32elementsof0.6mm
32 elements of 0 6mm
64elementsof0.6mm

I.PhasedArray:BeamFocusing
FocalZoneVsSignalamplitude
Ona50mmthickpart,thefocaldistanceissetat25mm
ForthesameGain,theamplitudeofthesignalreturnedbyareflectorwill
For the same Gain the amplitude of the signal returned by a reflector will
changealongthebeam
Itwillbelowerinthenearandfarfields
Andhigherinthefocalzone

I.PhasedArray:BeamFocusing
DynamicDepthFocusing(DDF)
O
One focallawisusedinTX
f ll i
d i TX
Several focallawsareusedinRX
ThebeamspotproducedbytheDDFisequalorsmallerthantheone
producedbystandardphasedarray.
S/Nratio isequivalentorhigherthantheoneobtainedwithstandard
PhasedArray

I.PhasedArray:BeamFocusing
DynamicDepthFocusing

Tx

Rx 3
Rx 2
Rx 1

I.PhasedArray:BeamFocusing
DynamicDepthFocusing

Tx

Rx 3
Rx 2
Rx 1

I.PhasedArray:BeamFocusing
DynamicDepthFocusing
DDFisanexcellentwayofinspectingthickcomponentsina
DDF
is an excellent way of inspecting thick components in a
singlepulse.Thebeamisrefocusedelectronicallyonitsreturn.

FocusDepth(Pulser)

I.PhasedArray:BeamFocusing
DynamicDepthFocusing

Standardfocusing

DDF

I.PhasedArray:BasicPrincipals
Definitions
FocalLaw:
A
Afilewhichdefinestheelementstobefired,timedelays,voltages,forboththe
file which defines the elements to be fired, time delays, voltages, for both the

Beamsteering:
Capacitytoelectronicallysteerthephasedarrayultrasoundbeam

BeamFocusing:
Capacitytoelectronicallychangethefocalpointofaphasedarraybeam

DelayandSumbeamforming:
y
g
CreatingacompositeAScanfromseveralindividualAScans(oneforeach
individualelements)

SScan:
Sectorialscan:Representsasliceofthepartbetweensetangles

LinearScanning:
Electronicscanningusingagroupofelementsfromaprobewithahighernumber
ofelementsthenthegroups
f l
t th th

PhasedArray
Phased
ArrayTraining
Training
I.PhasedArray:BasicTheory
BasicPrincipals
Basic Principals
Beamsteering
BeamFocusing

Questions
II. PhasedArray:TheViews
TypeofScans
ViewingdefectsontheSScan
Questions

III PhasedArray:Probes&Wedges
III.
Phased Array: Probes & Wedges
Probes
Wedges
Questions

I.PhasedArray:Questions
Question1
Q: IfA isfora5MHzat80V,whatisB:

a)
b)
c)
d)

Aspikepulse200ns,80V
Asquarepulse200ns,80V
Asquarepulse200ns,40V
None of the above
Noneoftheabove

I.PhasedArray:Questions
A: C)Squarepulse200ns40V

200 ns
40 V

Thefrequencyoftheprobedefinesthelengthofthepulseandthevoltage
the height
theheight

I.PhasedArray:Questions
Question2
Q: Identifythefollowing:

a)
b)
c)
d)

UTprobe
PAUTprobe
TOFDprobe
None of the above
Noneoftheabove

I.PhasedArray:Questions
A: b)PAUTprobe

Theactivesurfaceoftheprobeisdividedinseveralelements(6)

I.PhasedArray:Questions
Question3
Q:WhatdifferentiateaPAUTAScanfromaconventionalUTAScan?

I.PhasedArray:Questions
A:ThePAUTAScanisacompositeAScan.ItisasummationofallAScan
A
Th PAUT A S
i
it A S
It i
ti
f ll A S
fromeachelementsoftheprobe.
Delay
D
l
lines

Digitalising

Sum

Composite A-Scan

I.PhasedArray:Questions
Question4
Q:WhencreatingaUTbeamatacertainangle,areallthesoundpathlengths
equal?
a)
b)
c)
d)

Generally, yes
Depends on the focus
Depends on the voltage
Generally no
Generally,

I.PhasedArray:Questions
d:InPAUTeachUTwave
d I PAUT
h UT
producedbythedifferent
soundpathlength.However
d hl
h H
thereisoneexception,when
thebeamisatzerodegreeand
focusedatinfinite.

2,340 m/s

3,240 m/s

Focalpoint

I.PhasedArray:Questions
Question5
Q: Whatwouldbethelengthofthenearfield,insteelLwave(5.9mm/s),fora
5MHzPhasedarrayprobe?

7mm
1 mm
1mm

a)
b)
c)
d)

7mm
7
mm
0,21mm
10,40mm
1 mm
1mm

N=D2f/(4c)

I.PhasedArray:Questions
A: C)10,40mm.Aphasedarrayprobecanonlyfocuswithinitsnearfield.

7mm

N=D2f/(4c)

1 mm
1mm

N=72*5/(4*5,9)=10,40mm

I.PhasedArray:Questions
Question6
Q:Whichofthefollowingsetofdelayswillcreateafocusedphasedarraybeam?

a)

b)

c)
d) Noneoftheabove

I.PhasedArray:Questions
Q:d)NoneoftheAbove

Afocusedbeamisproducedbycalculatingthefiringdelayforeachindividual
elementssoalloftheindividualwaveswillarriveatafocalpointatthesame
time.
time

I.PhasedArray:Questions
Question7
Q: Thesizeofindividualelementsismoreimportantforwhat?

1 mm
1mm

a)
b)
c)
d)

Focusing
Steering
Dynamicfocusing
None of the above
Noneoftheabove

I.PhasedArray:Questions
A: Itisimportantforsteering.Ingeneralthesmallertheelements,thebetter
thesteering.

I.PhasedArray:Questions
Question8
Q:Identifythefollowing:

Rx 1
2
3

a)
b)
c)
d)

SectorialScan
Linear/ElectronicScan
DDF
None of the above
Noneoftheabove

I.PhasedArray:Questions