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Contents

Introduction
1.1 Preamble
1.2 Notation
1.3 Sample applications
(1.3.1 KimberleyClark warehouse 1.3.2 Sleipner A offshore platform
1.3.3 Frame corner 1.3.4 Base slabs in LNG storage tank)
The question of accuracy (1.4.1 Reasons for caution)

1.4
1.5 Challenges remaining
1.6 Objectives
1.7 Scope of report
1.8 References
Design using linear stress analysis
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Membrane structures

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(2.2.1 Notation 2.2.2 General 2.2.3 Reinforcement in one direction


2.2.4 Isotropically reinforced panels 2.2.5 The general solution
2.2.6 Some comments on the angle 2.2.7 The design concrete
compression strength, fcd. 2.2.8 Example Design of a reinforced concrete
squat shear wall)

2.3

Slabs and shells

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(2.3.1 General 2.3.2 Stress resultants 2.3.3 Equilibrium, stress


transformation and boundary conditions for slabs 2.3.4 Normal moment
yield criterion for slabs 2.3.5 Sandwich model for the dimensioning of shell
elements 2.3.6 Dimensioning of slab and shell elements in design practice
2.3.7 Example 1 2.3.8 Example 2)

2.4

3D solid modelling

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(2.4.1 Introduction 2.4.2 Background 2.4.3 Application to reinforced


concrete 2.4.4 Reinforcement dimensioning for 3D stresses example 1
2.4.5 Reinforcement dimensioning for 3D stresses example 2)

2.5 References
Essential nonlinear modelling concepts
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Nonlinear concrete behaviour

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(3.2.1 Concrete in compression 3.2.2 Concrete in tension


3.2.3 Modelling of tension stiffening 3.2.4 Modelling of concrete cracks
3.2.5 Modelling of reinforcement)

3.3

Nonlinear concrete modelling framework

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(3.3.1 Elasticity 3.3.2 Plasticity 3.3.3 Damage 3.3.4 Mixed models


3.3.5 Discrete modelling frameworks)

3.4

Solution methods

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(3.4.1 NewtonRaphson method 3.4.2 Modified NewtonRaphson


method)

3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
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Precision of nonlinear concrete FE analyses


Safety and reliability
Statistical analyses
Concluding remarks
References

Analysis and design of frame structures using nonlinear models


4.1 Introduction
4.2 Notation

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4.3

Nonlinear models of frame elements

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(4.3.1 Lumped versus distributed plasticity 4.3.2 Distributed models


4.3.3 Section models: fibre elements vs. strutandtie 4.3.4 Modelling of
shear 4.3.5 Modelling Bond Slip in Beams 4.3.6 Analysis of a section)

4.4

Interpretation of results

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(4.4.1 Localisation problems 4.4.2 Physical characteristics of localised


failure in concrete 4.4.3 Regularisation techniques for forcebased frame
elements 4.4.4 Practical considerations)

4.5
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References

Analysis and design of surface and solid structures using nonlinear models
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Notation
5.3 2D Structures with inplane loading
5.4 Plate and shell structures (5.4.1 Layered elements)
5.5 Three dimensional solid structures

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(5.5.1 Introduction 5.5.2 Models based on nonlinear elasticity


5.5.3 Fractureplasticity modelling 5.5.4 Microplane model
5.5.5 Examples of the application of 3D FE modeling)

5.6 References
Advanced modelling and analysis concepts
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Constitutive frameworks

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(6.2.1 Nonlinear elasticity 6.2.2 Plasticity 6.2.3 Continuum damage


mechanics 6.2.4 Smeared crack models 6.2.5 Microplane models)

6.3

Solution strategies

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(6.3.1 Introduction 6.3.2 NewtonRaphson method 6.3.3 Modified


NewtonRaphson method 6.3.4 Incremental displacement method
6.3.5 The constant arc length method 6.3.6 Line searches
6.3.7 Convergence criteria 6.3.8 Loaddisplacement incrementation)

6.4

Other issues

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(6.4.1 Post peak response of compression elements 6.4.2 Effects of ageing


and distress in concrete 6.4.3 Effects of ageing and distress in reinforcing
steel 6.4.4 Second order effects)

6.5 References
Benchmark tests and validation procedures
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Calibration and validation of NLFEA models

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(7.2.1 Overview of model calibration and validation process 7.2.2 Level 1:


model calibration with material properties 7.2.3 Level 2: validation and
calibration with systematically arranged elementlevel benchmark tests
7.2.4 Level 3: validation and calibration at structural level)

7.3
7.4

Selection of global safety factor


Other issues in the use and validation of NLFEA programs

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(7.4.1 Problem definition and model selection 7.4.2 Working within the
domain of the programs capability)

7.5

Case 1: Design of a shear wall with openings

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(7.5.1 Objective 7.5.2 Level 1 calibration 7.5.3 Level 2 and 3


validation 7.5.4 Evaluation of global safety)

7.6

Case study II: design of simply supported deep beam

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(7.6.1 Objective 7.6.2 Calibration and validation of NLFEAP1


7.6.3 Calibration and validation of NLFEAP2 7.6.4 Analysis of deep
beam)
fib Bulletin 45: Practitioners guide to finite element modelling of reinforced concrete structures

7.7
7.8
7.9
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Summary and future trends in model validation


Future trends in model validation
References

Strutandtie modelling
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Notation
8.3 Overview of the STM
8.4
8.5

(8.3.1 Strutandtie models 8.3.2 Components of strutandtie models


8.3.3 Admissible strutandtie models)
STM design steps (8.4.1 Complications in STM design)

Some considerations in using the STM

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(8.5.1 Rules in defining Dregions 8.5.2 Two and threedimensional


Dregions 8.5.3 Capacity of struts 8.5.4 Uniqueness of strutandtie
models 8.5.5 Strain incompatibility of struts and ties 8.5.6 Tension
stiffening in ties 8.5.7 Influence of tie anchorages 8.5.8 Size, geometry,
and strength of nodal zones 8.5.9 Load redistribution and ductility
requirements)

8.6
8.7

Computerbased STM
Modelling aspects using computerbased STM

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(8.7.1 Identifying strutandtie models 8.7.2 Refining strutandtie


models 8.7.3 Other considerations 8.7.4 Static indeterminacy of
strutandtie models 8.7.5 Procedures to solve statically indeterminate
strutandtie models 8.7.6 Dimensioning nodal regions)

8.8

Design example using computerbased tools

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(8.8.1 Problem statement 8.8.2 Solution)

8.9 References
Special purpose design methods for surface structures
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Notation
9.3 Design of slabs and shear walls: perfect plastic approach

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(9.3.1 Slabs subjected to bending loads 9.3.2 Ultimate load determination


9.3.3 Failure mode determination 9.3.4 Material optimization
9.3.5 Plates subjected to inplane loads)

9.4

Design of slabs using the reinforcement field approach

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(9.4.1 Linear yield conditions for element nodal forces 9.4.2 Material
optimisation through stress redistribution 9.4.3 Slab subjected to bending
loads 9.4.4 Dimensioning procedure)

9.5

Design of shearwalls: the stringerpanel approach

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(9.5.1 Linearelastic version 9.5.2 Nonlinear version


9.5.3 A threestep design procedure 9.5.4 Example)

9.6 References
10 Concluding remarks
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Structural performance based design in practice
10.3 Benefits of nonlinear modelling and analyses
10.4 Code provisions
10.5 Specification of design loads
10.6 Maintenance
10.7 References

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