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# 2/9/2014

Bairstow Method

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Bairstow Method
Bairstow Method is an iterative method used to find both the real and complex roots of a
polynomial. It is based on the idea of synthetic division of the given polynomial by a quadratic
function and can be used to find all the roots of a polynomial. Given a polynomial say,
(B.1)

(B.2)

(B.3)

, i.e.
(B.4)

## Since the quotient

division the co-efficients

## can be obtained by the following recurrence

relation.
(B.5a)

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Bairstow Method

(B.5b)

for

If

is an exact factor of

real/complex roots of

(B.5c)

## considered based on some guess values for

determining the values of r and s such that

is

## . So Bairstow's method reduces to

is zero. For finding such values Bairstow's

Since both

and

## are functions of r and s we can have Taylor series expansion of

as:
(B.6a)

(B.6b)

For
neglected, so that

terms

## the improvement over guess value

may be obtained by

(B.7a)

(B.7b)

## , we need the partial derivatives of

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2/9/2014

Bairstow Method

w.r.t. r and s. Bairstow has shown that these partial derivatives can be obtained by synthetic
division of
, which amounts to using the recurrence relation
replacing

with

and

with

i.e.
(B.8a)

(B.8b)

(B.8c)

for
where
(B.9)

(B.10a)

(B.10b)

to

## Now we can calculate the percentage of approximate errors in (r,s) by

(B.11)
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Bairstow Method

If

or

, where

can be

determined by
(B.12)

## then at this point we have the following three

possibilities:
1. If the quotient polynomial

## is a third (or higher) order polynomial then we can

again apply the Bairstow's method to the quotient polynomial. The previous values of
can serve as the starting guesses for this application.
2. If the quotient polynomial
remaining two roots of

.

## single root is given by

Example:
Find all the roots of the polynomial

Solution:
Set iteration=1

## Using the recurrence relations (B.5a)-(B.5c) and (B.8a)-(B.8c) we get

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Bairstow Method

## the simultaneous equations for

and

are:

on solving we get

and

Set iteration=2

## now we have to solve

On solving we get

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Bairstow Method

Now on using

with

we get

## So at this point Quotient is a quadratic equation

Roots of

are:

Roots

are

i.e
Exercises:
(1) Use initial approximation
form

## using Bairstow method and hence find all its roots.

(2) Use initial approximaton

## of the polynomial equation

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Bairstow Method

## Next: Curve Fitting Up: Main Previous: Fixed point iteration:

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