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Proceedings of the 2 International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014
INTERNATIONAL
JOURNAL OF CIVIL
17 19, JulyENGINEERING
2014, Mysore, Karnataka, India
AND TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET)

ISSN 0976 6308 (Print)


ISSN 0976 6316(Online)
Volume 5, Issue 9, September (2014), pp. 90-99
IAEME: www.iaeme.com/Ijciet.asp
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IJCIET
IAEME

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN USING COPPER SLAG AS FINE AGGREGATE


M. C. Nataraja1,

G. N. Chandan2,

T. J. Rajeeth2

Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,


M.Tech. students, Department of Civil Engineering,
Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering, Mysore 570 006, India
2

ABSTRACT
This paper presents the experimental results of an on-going project to produce concrete with
copper slag as a fine aggregate. Sustainability and resource efficiency are becoming increasing
important issues. Here the potential use of granulated copper slag, a relatively heavy material, as a
replacement to sand in concrete mixes is explored. The effect of replacing fine aggregate by copper
slag on the compressive strength, flexural strength and split tensile strength of concrete are studied in
this work. The proposed mix design method was found to be satisfactory for producing concrete with
fine aggregates having contrasting properties.
Keywords: Compressive strength, Copper slag, Flexural strength, Heavy material, Mix design.
1. INTRODUCTION
River sand is being used as fine aggregate in concrete for centuries. However, river sand is
not a renewable natural resource. In some regions, river sand has been excessively exploited, which
has endangered the stability of river banks and the safety of bridges, and creates environmental
problems. On the other hand, river sand is expensive due to excessive cost of transportation from
natural sources. Seeking for river sand alternatives has become urgent. Manufactured sand is
produced by crushing rock depositions which is generally more angular and has rougher surface
texture than river sand particles [6]. The shape and texture of crushed sand particles could lead to
improvements in the strength of concrete due to better interlocking between particles. Water reducers
and mineral admixtures can be used to improve workability [6]. Few investigations have studied the
durability properties and performance characteristics of concrete with copper slag as fine aggregate
[3-5]. They have concluded that the copper slag performs similar or better compared to natural sand
concrete. Previous researches have shown that good quality concrete can be made using
manufactured sand with high amount of microfines. Generally the compressive strength, flexural
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Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014
17 19, July 2014, Mysore, Karnataka, India

strength, bond strength, water permeability, impact resistance, sulfate resistance and abrasion
resistance tend to increase to a certain limit within creasing proportions of microfines. After the limit
is reached, the strength decreases because there is not enough paste to coat the aggregate [6]. Since
the beginning of the industrial era, slags, the glassy materials left over when metals are
pyrometallurgically extracted from ores, have been considered waste. One such material is copper
slag which is produced during matte smelting and converting steps of pyrometallurgical production
of copper. During matte smelting two separate liquid phases, copper-rich matte (sulphides) and slag
(oxides) are formed. It has been estimated that for every ton of copper production about 2.2 tons of
slag is generated and in each year, approximately 24.6 million tons of slag is generated from world
copper production. Dumping or disposal of this slag causes wastage of metal values and leads to
environmental problems. Rather than disposing, these slags can be used taking full advantage of its
physico-mechanical properties. The major slag[1] producing regions with quantities is given in Table
1. Slag containing <0.8% copper are either discarded as waste or sold as products with properties
similar to those of natural basalt (crystalline) or obsidian(amorphous). Utilisation and recovery of
metal depend on the type of slag. Current options of management of this slag are recycling,
recovering of metal, production of value added products and disposal in slag dumps or stockpiles.
Processed air-cooled and granulated copper slag has number of favourable mechanical properties for
aggregate use, including excellent soundness characteristics, good abrasion resistance and good
stability. Since copper slag has a low content of CaO, granulated copper slag exhibits pozzolanic
properties (Deja and Malolepszy, 1989; Douglas and Mainwaring, 1985).
Table 1. Copper slag generation in various regions
Regions

Copper slag generation/annum in


million ton

Asia

7.26

North America

5.90

Europe

5.56

South America

4.18

Africa

1.23

Oceania

0.45

2. MIX DESIGN
2.1 Case Study
According to the studies by Brindha and Nagan (2011) the mix proportion considered is
1:1.66:3.76 with w/c = 0.45 and 0 to 60% (CC, S20, S40 and S60) of natural sand was replaced by
copper slag by weight. The four concrete mixtures with different proportion of copper slag are as
shown in Table 2.

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Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014
17 19, July 2014, Mysore, Karnataka, India

Table 2: Concrete mixtures with different proportion of copper slag


CC

S20

S40

S60

Kg/m3

Kg/m3

Kg/m3

Kg/m3

Cement

340

340

340

340

Copper slag (CS)

113.4

226.8

340.2

Water

153

153

153

153

Fine aggregate(NS)

567

453.6

340.2

226.8

Coarse aggregate

1278

1278

1278

1278

Total yield (Kg/m3)

2338

2338

2338

2338

Mix materials

In the above mix design, the total yield is less than one cubic meter as shown bellow
For control mixture CC (100% natural sand)
W
1
C
FA
CA
3
+
+
+
+ Air x
= 1m

3
G
G
G
G W
10
C
FA
CA
By substituting values of mix materials and corresponding specific gravities for control mixture
153 340 567 1278
1
3
1 + 3.15 + 2.57 + 2.6 + Air x 10 3 = 1m

[973.10 + Air]x
[973.10 + 30]x

1
3
= 1m
3
10

1
3
= 1m
3
10

By assuming around 3% of air voids, we will get 1m3 of concrete.


For control mixture S60 (60% copper slag)

W
G

+
W

C
G

FA
G

FA

FA
G

FA

CA
G

CA

+ Air x

1
3
= 1m
3
10

By substituting values of mix materials and respective specific gravities for (S60)
153 340 340.3 226.8 1278
1
3
1 + 3.15 + 3.91 + 2.57 + 2.6 + Air x 10 3 = 1m

[927.73 + Air]x

1
3
= 1m
3
10

By assuming around 3% of air voids, we will get 1m3 of concrete.

[927.73 + 30]x

1
3
= 0.95 1m
3
10

Therefore we can conclude that equivalent weight replacement of materials results in less yield.
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Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014
17 19, July 2014, Mysore, Karnataka, India

2515 - 2338
Percentage decrease in yield
x100 = 7.57%
2338
Hence we have to go by equivalent volume replacement by considering specific gravity.

Modified control mixture S60 (60% copper slag)

W
G

C
G

+
C

FA
G

FA

+
b

FA
G

FA

CA
G

+ Airx

CA

1
= 1m3
3
10

By substituting values of mix materials and respective specific gravities for (S60)

153 340 340.3 3.91 226.8 1278 1 3


1 + 3.15+ 3.91X 2.57 + 2.57 + 2.6 + Airx 3 = 1m

10

[973.13 + Air]x

1
3
= 1m
3
10

By assuming around 3% of air voids, we will get 1m3 of concrete.

[973.09 + 30]x

1
3
= 1m
3
10

Therefore by multiplying the specific gravity ratio to the fine aggregate proportion we will
end up with equal volume of concrete as that of control mix when copper slag used as natural sand.
Therefore modified mix proportion = 1: 2.52: 3.76 with w/c = 0.45 and Modified concrete mixtures
with different proportion of copper slag as shown in Table 3.
Table 3: Modified concrete mixtures with different proportion of copper slag
Mix materials

CC

S40

S20
3

S60
3

Kg/m

Kg/m

Kg/m

Kg/m3

Cement

340

340

340

340

Copper slag (CS)

172.36

344.74

517.1

Water

153

153

153

153

Fine aggregate(NS)

567

453.6

340.2

226.8

Coarse aggregate

1278

1278

1278

1278

Total yield (Kg/m3)

2338

2397

2456

2515

3. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES
3.1 Material
Ordinary Portland cement of 43 grade conforming to IS: 8112 (1989) [8] with a 28-day
compressive strength of 56 N/mm2 is used. Copper slag obtained from Sterlite Industries India
Limited (SIIL), Tuticorin, and Tamil Nadu is used. Its specific gravity is 3.91. The fine aggregates
used for this work are Natural River sand and copper slag. The physical properties of fine aggregates
such as sieve analysis, specific gravity, bulk density, percentage voids etc., were determined as per
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Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014
17 19, July 2014, Mysore, Karnataka, India

IS: 2386 (1963) [9] and angle of internal friction is determined as per IS 2720 (1986) [10] as shown
in Table 4. Chemical composition of copper slag and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) as shown in
Table 5. Potable fresh water which is free from organic substances is used for mixing and curing of
specimens.
Table 4: Physical Properties of Natural Sand and Copper Slag
Physical properties

Natural sand

Copper slag

Particle shape

Irregular

Irregular

Appearance

Brownish
yellow

Black and
glassy

Specific gravity

2.61

3.91

Loose State

39

42

Compact state

34

37

Loose State

1.45

1.84

Compact state

1.65

2.15

Fineness modulus

3.14

3.17

Angle of internal friction

45

49.38

Water absorption, %

1.3

0.3

Moisture content, %

0.43

0.095

Percentage
voids, %
Bulk density
g/cc

Table 5: Chemical composition of copper slag and ordinary Portland cement (OPC)
Materials

Chemical components
by mass percentage
OPC

Copper
slag

Al2O3

0.47

2.52

SiO2

1.91

31.92

SO3

6.50

1.34

CaO

91.12

1.25

Na2O

1.40

MgO

1.65

K2O

0.81

Fe2O3

59.11

3.2 Sample preparation


Cement mortar samples were compacted in three layers using a vibrating table. After 24 h,
specimens were removed from the moulds and cured in a water tank for later testing at 3, 7, 28, 56
and 90 days. Concrete specimens were prepared and compacted. The required amounts of coarse
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Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014
17 19, July 2014, Mysore, Karnataka, India

aggregate, fine aggregate, cement, water, and copper were weighed in separate buckets. The
materials were mixed in accordance with IS 10262:2009[11]. The slump of the fresh concrete was
determined to ensure that it would be within the designed value.
4. USE OF COPPER SLAG IN OTHER AREAS
4.1 Abrasive tools
Utilization of granulated copper slag as a ceramic raw material, especially its use as a
component in ceramic binders was investigated by Herman (1989). It was found that the introduction
of copper slag instead of frit into the binder led to an improvement of mechanical service properties
of ceramic abrasive tools [1]. Copper slag was characterised by Szyrle and Wozniak (1988) to find
its use in abrasive blasting treatment or in the manufacture of abrasive tools.
4.2 Pavement
The use of copper slag aggregates in hot mix asphalt pavements was investigated by
Transportation Research Board, Washington (Collins and Cielieski, 1994). Fine copper slag has
reportedly been used in hot mix asphalt pavements in California and granulated copper slag has been
incorporated into asphalt mixes in Georgia to improve stability. Although it is rarely used, Michigan
Department of Transportation Specifications consider reverberatory copper slag to be a conventional
coarse and fine aggregate for hot mix asphalt pavement [1].
4.3 Cutting tools, tiles and glass
Use of copper slag as filler instead of conventional lithophone filler was investigated (Szyrle
et al., 1988). To improve the properties of grinding and cutting wheels, copper slag filler (0.043 kg of
particle size B150 mm) was added to a mixture of an abrasive powder (0.868 kg), powder novolak
resin (0.147 kg), a liquid phenol formaldehyde resin (0.037 kg) and iron red pigment (0.013 kg) and
this was compacted and hardened for 16 h at B /180 8C. The resulting wheel was used for cutting a
steel rod of 60 mm diameter at 3800 rpm. Cutting property of the wheel was superior to the wheel
made of conventional lithophone filler. Use of copper slag in the production of tiles was reported by
Yasuo (1992).
Pictorial representation of copper slag uses in other areas as shown in Fig 1.

Fig 1: Pictorial representation of copper slag uses in other areas


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Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014
17 19, July 2014, Mysore, Karnataka, India

Fig 2: Compression test


Table 6: Experimental programme
Test type
Test name
Test standard
Slump test
IS: 7320 : 1974
Fresh concrete
Compaction factor
IS: 5515 : 1983
test
Static test
Compression
IS: 516-1959
strength test
Mechanical
properties
Flexure strength test
IS: 9399 [1979]
Tensile splitting
strength test

IS: 5816 [1999]

5. TESTING PROCEDURE
Table 6 outlines the experimental programme of this study. Tests were carried out on fresh and
hardened concrete specimens to evaluate their mechanical properties, concrete design mix
proportions and compressive strength results are given in Tables 7 and 8 respectively.
Table 7: Mix proportion used in the study

351.33

100%CS
(EW)
(kg/m3)
351.33

100%CS
(EV)
(kg/m3)
351.33

Coarse aggregate

1206

1206

1206

Natural sand

706

Copper slag

706

1057.53

Water

158.1

158.1

158.1

w/c ratio

0.5

0.5

0.5

Ingredients

0%CS
(kg/m3)

OPC 43 grade

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Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014
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Table 8: Compressive strength at 7 and 28 Days for w/c =0.5


Type of sand
Natural Sand
Copper Slag
(equivalent volume)
Copper Slag
(equivalent weight)

7- days compressive
strength (MPa)
35.06

28- days compressive


strength (MPa)
40.07

36.00

41.57

37.26

44.05

Fig 3: NS and CS passing through 4.75mm and retained on 2.36mm sieves


6. TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The effect of replacing fine aggregate (NS) by copper slag on the compressive strength,
flexural strength and split tensile strength are attempted in this work. However, only compressive
strength at 7 and 28 days is presented in Table 8. The surface characteristics of CS and NS can be
seen in the photo image taken from 20 pixel camera as shown in Fig 3. From the Table 8 it can be
see that in any combination of the aggregate is definitely able to give up the same required strength
and the workability is also not a problem, but in case of copper (CS) slag when CS is replaced with
equivalent weight because of the availability of more mortar surrounding the aggregate and as result
the workability increased in terms of slump. However the compaction factor is more or less same
comparable to that of the natural sand. The results of slump and compaction factor are given in Table
9 and the variation of slump as shown in Fig 5. From Table 9 it is clear that the workability for given
water is more or less same and hence the sensitivity of the workability behaviour is not critical.
Schematic representation of the mix design as shown in Fig 4.
Table 9: Slump and Compaction factor results
Type
of
sand
NS
CSEW
CSEV

Slump, in
mm

Compaction
factor

115
140
120

0.966
0.958
0.978

97

CS
C

CS
C
W C

Deficiency
(reduction in Yield)

W C

FA
C
W C

Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014
17 19, July 2014, Mysore, Karnataka, India

Copper Slag

Natural sand

Copper Slag

Fig 4: Schematic representation of the mix design


Variation of slump for NS and CS
CSV
140

140

CSW
120

NS
115

120

Slump in mm

100
80
60
40
20
0

Fig 5: Variation of slump


The properties of cement-OPC 43 are determined as per IS: 4031-1988 and as shown in Table 10.
Table 10. Properties of cement-OPC 43 grade
Sl.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6

Properties
Standard Consistency,
%
Initial setting time,
minutes
Final setting time,
minutes
Specific gravity
Soundness,
Lechateliers value, mm

Test
Results

IS: 8112-1989
Requirements

31.50

No standard value

125

30 (minimum)

275

600 (maximum)

3.15

No standard value

10

32.57
42.20
53.67

23 (minimum)
33 (minimum)
43 (minimum)

Compressive Strength,
MPa
3 Days
7 Days
28 Days
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Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014
17 19, July 2014, Mysore, Karnataka, India

7. CONCLUSIONS
From the above studies following conclusion can be drawn,
Copper slag can be used as an alternative to natural sand in concrete. When copper slag(CS)
is replaced with equivalent weight because of the fact more mortar is there to surround the aggregate
therefore may workability will increase in terms of slump, however the compaction factor is more or
less same comparable to that of the natural sand. Compared to the control mix, there was a slight
increase in the strength is due to copper slag.
When there is the significant difference in the specific gravity, it is advisable to go by
equivalent volume replacement by taking the specific gravity in to account rather than by weight
replacement and for lower percentage of replacement of copper slag equivalent weight replacement
may also be used with better performance though the yield of the material decreases substantially.
Proper mix design taking specific gravity of sand is the criteria to ensure certain performance
requirements satisfying the yield.
8. REFERENCES
1.

Gorai P, Jana R.K., and Premchand, Characteristics and utilisation of copper slag a
review, Resources, Conservation and Recycling 2003, Vol. 39, pp. 299313.
2. Brindha D and Nagan S, Durability studies on copper slag admixed concrete, Asian journal
of civil engineering (building and housing), Vol.12, No.5, 2011, pp. 563-578.
3. Khalifa S. Al-Jabri , Abdullah H, Al-Saidy, and Ramzi Taha, Effect of Copper Slag as a Fine
Aggregate on the Properties of Cement Mortars and Concrete, Construction and Building
Materials,Vol. 25, 2011, pp. 933938.
4. Khalifa S. Al-Jabri, Makoto Hisada, Abdullah H. Al-Saidy, and S.K. Al-Oraimi, Performance
of high strength concrete made with copper slag as a fine aggregate. Construction and
Building Materials, 2009, Vol. 23, pp. 21322140.
5. Khalifa S. Al-Jabri, Makoto Hisada, Salem K. Al-Oraimi, Abdullah H. Al-Saidy, Copper slag
as sand replacement for high performance concrete, Cement and Concrete Composites, 2009,
No. 7, Vol.31, pp. 483488.
6. Li B.X, Ke GJ, Zhou M.K, Influence of manufactured sand characteristics on strength and
abrasion resistance of pavement cement concrete, Construction and Building Materials,
2011, Vol. 25, No.10, pp. 384953.
7. IS: 5515-1983, Specification for compaction factor apparatus, Bureau of Indian Standards,
New Delhi.
8. IS: 8112-1989, Specification for 43 grade ordinary Portland cement, Bureau of Indian
Standards, New Delhi.
9. IS: 2386-1963, Methods of Test for Aggregates for Concrete, Bureau of Indian Standards,
New Delhi.
10. IS: 2720: Part 13 -1986, Methods of Test for Soils - Direct Shear Test, Bureau of Indian
Standards, New Delhi.
11. IS: 10262-2009, Proportioning of Concrete Mixes, Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi.

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