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Water turbines are widely used throughout the world to generate power. In the type of
water turbine referred to as a Pelton wheel, one or more water jets are directed tangentially
on to vanes or buckets that are fastened to the rim of the turbine disc. The impact of the water
on the vanes generates a torque on the wheel, causing it to rotate and to develop power.
Although the concept is essentially simple, such turbines can generate considerable output at
high efficiency. Powers in excess of 100 MW, and hydraulic efficiencies greater than 95%,
are not uncommon. It may be noted that the Pelton wheel is best suited to conditions where
the available head of water is great, and the flow rate is comparatively small. For example,
with a head of 100 m and a flow rate of 1 m3/s, a Pelton wheel running at some 250 rev/min
could be used to develop about 900 kW. The same water power would be available if the
head were only 10 m and the flow were 10m3/s, but a different type of turbine would then be
To predict the output of a Pelton wheel, and to determine its optimum rotational speed,
we need to understand how the deflection of the jet generates a force on the buckets, and how
the force is related to the rate of momentum flow in the jet.

To verify theories of forces generated by impact of the jet on 3 type of vanes that is flat
plate, 120 curved plate and hemispherical cup vane.


At the end of experiment, students are able to :

Describe the deflection of the jet generates forces on the vane.

Identify the relationship between force and rate of momentum flow in the jet.

Measure the force generated by a jet of water striking a plate.

A jet of water is produced when water is fed to a vertical pipe terminating in a tapered
nozzle. The jet will impinge on a vane, of different shapes. Vanes usually are flat plate,
curved plate and hemispherical cup. Equation used to determine the force of jet impact Fy is
given as :
Fy = Q (Vy1 Vy2 cos
Vy1 = Initial velocity
Vy2 = Final velocity (after impingement)


Flat plate
Fy = Q(Q/A -0) = 2/A

Flat plate


Hemispherical cup
Fy = Q[Q/A (-Q/A)] = 2 Q2/A

Velocity ater impingement, Vy2 = - Q/A

Hemispherical cup


120 curved plate

Fy = Q[Q/A (-1/2 x Q/A)]
Fy = Q2/A + Q2/2A = 3 Q2/2A

Velocity ater impingement, Vy2 = -1/2V = -(1/2 x Q/A)

120 curved plate


1. Hydraulic bench

2. Jet impact apparatus

3. Stop watch

4. Vernier Caliper

5. Vanes (Flat plate, 120 curved plate, and Hemispherical cup)

Flat plate

Hemispherical cup

120 curved plate

1. First, take off the plate and the transparent cylinder. Then measure the diameter of the
nozzle. Assemble the flat plate to the lever that cariies jockey weight.
2. Assemble the top plate and cylinder to the apparatus. Connect the supply pipe from
the hydraulic bench to the inlet pipe of the apparatus.

3. The apparatus is first levelled and lever is set to a balanced position (as indicated by a
tally supported from it) by placing the jockey weight at its zero position, and then
adjusting the knurled nut above the spring.

4. Any force generated by impact of the jet on the vane is measured by moving the
jockey weight along the lever until the tally shows that it has been restored to its
original balanced position.
5. Nominal weight is place on the lever first (it is suggested that initial weight and
incremental weight is 20g). Water is then admitted through the bench supply valve.

6. The force on the vane will displace the lever, which is then restored to its balanced
position by sliding the jockey along the lever. Then, cover the opening at the base of
the hydraulic bench.
7. Record the volume of water and time to determine the flow rate. Also, record the
weight of the lever.

8. Repeat the procedure (step 1 to 7) for 120 curved plate and hemispherical cup.