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## The Winplot software consists of a single program, winplot.exe. Follow these

1. Create a directory on your C drive and name it "winplot".
2.
3.
4.
5.

## Left-click on this icon:

to connect to the Winplot website.
Click on the Winplot link at the top of the Winplot website.
Open Windows Explorer or My Computer, navigate to your C:\winplot
this file; unzip it into your C:\winplot directory. (With earlier versions of Windows

## you might have to use an unzipping program.)

6. Your C:\winplot directory will now contain a programwinplot.exe, represented by a
yellow icon. Drag this icon to your desktop.
7. Double click the yellow Winplot icon on your desktop to start the program. You may
have to resize the window to your liking. Read the instructions below to learn how to
draw graphs.

Introduction
Winplot is a graphing program written by Richard Parris, a teacher at Phillips
Exeter Academy in Exeter, New Hampshire. Mr. Parris generously allows free
use and distribution of the software, and provides frequent updates. The latest
http://math.exeter.edu/rparris/winplot.html
Although the program is free, it is of top quality and easy to use. These
instructions expand on those found in the program's help menus; they discuss
some techniques of two-dimensional plotting, useful in an algebra or calculus
class. It is assumed that the reader has already installed the program in
Microsoft Windows, and is familiar with the basic workings of that operating
system. (These instructions apply to the August 22, 2008, version of Winplot.)

## Here is a step-by-step procedure for getting a quick preliminary graph of an

equation in two variables. For most equations you will probably want to make
later refinements to the graph.
1.
2.
3.
1.
2.
3.
4.

## Double-click the yellow Winplot icon to begin the program.

Click Window - 2-dim.
Click Equa, then click
Explicit for an equation of the form y = f(x),
Parametric for parametric equations x = f(t), y = g(t),
Implicit for a function defined implicitly by an equation involving x and y,
Polar for an equation r = f(t) in polar coordinates (t represents the angle q).

5. In the function window, type the formula for the function you want to graph. The
remaining items in the window are optional. If you wish you can click color to
choose the color of the graph. For explicit formulas, you may fill in low x and high x
(or low t and high t) - the endpoints of the interval where the function is to be
graphed. (For equations y = f(x) this is usually unnecessary, as normally there is no
reason to restrict the graphing interval - but if you do fill in endpoints, you must
check the lock interval box to activate them. For graphs in polar coordinates
you will probably want to accept the default values of low t = 0, high t = 2p =
6.28318...). The pen width and plotting density boxes affect the thickness
and density of the graph - usually there is no reason to fiddle with these. When you
are finished with this window, click OK to draw the graph. Winplot will draw the
graph in a window extending over the the x-interval [-5,5]. (See later instructions for
changing this interval.) To make changes to the function you typed in, click it in the
inventory window, then clickedit and make the changes in the edit window.
Click OK and the graph is modified accordingly.
6. To draw another graph on the same screen, go back and repeat steps 3 & 4. Indeed,
you can draw many graphs on the same screen. The inventory window lists all the
functions you have already graphed. You can edit any of these by clicking its
formula and then edit. To delete a function from the inventory, click it and
then delete. If you click a function and next graph, the graph is erased but the
function remains in the inventory - to bring back its graph, click the function
and graph again. If you click a function in the inventory and then equa, the
formula for the function appears in the top left corner of the graphing window.
Repeating this maneuver removes the formula from the graphing window.
7. If the inventory window gets in your way, use the mouse to move it, or to close it
with the close button. To bring back a closed inventory window, click Equa Inventory or type Control - i.

Typing equations
There are certain rules to follow when typing equations.
1. Multiplication is denoted by *, and exponentiation by ^. Usually the multiplication
sign is not needed. For example, 3x and 3*x mean the same. You can type in the
square of x in three ways:
x^2 , x*x , xx .
The notation xy means the product of x and y, and x/y the quotient. Instead of typing
a decimal representation of p, you may just type pi. However, to multiply p and x,
type pi*x but not pix. You may also type the base of the natural logarithms as e,
rather than its decimal approximation.
2. When typing functions, use parentheses to avoid ambiguity. For example, suppose
you want to type the fraction with numerator x+2 and denominator x+3. If you type
only x+2/x+3, Winplot will think you mean
x + (2/x) + 3 ,
because multiplications and divisions are performed before additions and
subtractions. Instead you must use parentheses, typing
(x+2)/(x+3) .
(General rule : When unsure whether parentheses are needed, use them!)
3. When typing a function with a name, be sure to use parentheses around the
argument. For example, type sin(x) but not sin x. Similarly, type log(5x) but not log
5x. The function log is the base 10 logarithm, while ln is base e. Also, exp(x) means
ex, but you may type also e^x. The function sqr(x) denotes the square root of x. The
absolute value of x is typed as abs(x). Here is a list of some common functions
Winplot recognizes :
sin

cos

tan

csc

sec

cot

arcsin

arccos

arctan

sinh

cosh

tanh

ln

log

exp

sqr

abs

sgn

(To see more functions, click Equa - Library.) The n-th root of x is root(n,x);
for example, root(3,x) denotes the cube root of x. Alternatively, you can type
x^(1/3), but then the graph appears only for nonnegative values of x.

All trig functions work in radians. To make them work in degrees, use the
constant deg, an abbreviation for p/180. For example, sin(x deg) will multiply
x by p/180, to produce the graph of the sine of x when x is given in degrees.

Winplot's initial graphing window extends from x = - 5 to x = + 5, with the x-axis
and y-axis having the same scaling. In most cases you will want to make
alterations to suit your particular graphing problem.
1. You can specify precisely the four extremes of the graphing window. Click View View to open the view menu, and checkset corners. The

boxes left and right refer to the x-values at the left and right of the graphing
window, while down and up refer to the y-values at the bottom and top of this
window. After specifying these, click apply and the window boundaries change to
your new ones. Usually this procedure will cause some distortion in the graph, as the
axes must be rescaled to conform to the new settings. If unhappy with your new
settings, you can get back your previous ones by clicking View - Last window.
To return to the original default settings for the graphing window, click View Restore. (This option is sometimes a useful last resort when you have hopelessly
messed up the scaling.)
2. To specify the center and width of the graphing window, clickView - View to
open the view menu, and then check set center. Fill in the x-value (hori) and yvalue (vert) you want for the center of the graphing window, and then the desired
width of this window. Click apply to redraw the screen with these specifications.
3. The set center option makes the scaling along the x and y axes the same; this is
useful for example if you want true angles between curves, as when graphing
perpendicular lines. But theset corners option is more flexible, and indeed even
necessary for graphs whose x-values and y-values are of different orders of
magnitude.
4. You can zoom in on a graph with the page up key, and zoom outwith page
down. The four arrow keys move the center of the graphing window up or down,
or left or right, as the arrows indicate.
5. Sometimes a graph cannot be seen because it lies entirely outside the graphing
window. A good way to find a graph hiding off the screen is to choose distant
corners in the set corners menu. For example, setting left = - 20, right = 20,
down = - 1000 and up = 1000 will probably locate most graphs you will ever want to

plot. After locating a graph by this method you can revise the corners to focus on the
region of interest. (You can also try zooming outuntil you find the graph.)

## Labels and markings

Winplot can place useful labels, markings, and other descriptive information on
a graph.
1. The View - Grid dialog box controls the display of the coordinate system.
Checking axes in this box displays both x and y axes - or only one of these, as you
choose. Checking tickscreates tick marks - these are evenly spaced little marks
appearing along the two axes. You can check arrows to place small arrows at the
positive ends of the coordinates axes, you can check dots to place a grid of dots in
the graphing window lining up with tick marks along the axes, and labels to label
the axes. The interval boxes specify the distance between tick marks along the
two axes. Checking scale places numbers beside tick marks to indicate the scaling,
and the places box specifies the number of decimal places displayed in these
numbers. (For an uncluttered graph you should probably enter 0 or 1 here, unless
more precision is needed.) The number in the freq box controls how often tick
marks are numbered; 1 numbers every tick mark,2 every second tick mark, etc. A
check mark in the pi box numbers the tick marks in terms of multiples of p. (To see
actual Greek p symbols, click Misc - Fonts - Scale on axes and choose a
symbol font; otherwise you might see another letter representing p. You might also
have to click Misc - Fonts - Pi symbol and fill in the character code for p in
that particular font; if you don't know the code, try 112 first.)
2. Checking mark scale on axes in the grid dialog box places numbers indicating
the scaling along the coordinate axes, while checking mark scale on
border places these numbers along the left and bottom borders of the graphing
window. (The latter option might be necessary if either coordinate axis does not
appear in the graphing window.)
3. To place rectangular grid lines on the graph, check rectangularand then the
quadrants in which you want the grid. For a polar grid check polar sectors and
fill in the desired number of sectors. Checking dotted gives dotted grids.
4. You must check apply in the grid dialog box to activate any changes.
5. You can insert text into the graphing window with help of the mouse. First make
certain that Btns - Text is checked. Place the mouse pointer at the spot in the
graphing window where you want to enter text, click the right mouse button to open
an edit text box, and type there the desired text. You may click font to choose

a font as well as its size, style, and color. Click OK and the text appears on the screen
where you clicked the right mouse button. You can move this text around - just click
it with the left mouse button and drag it anywhere you want. (You can also drag
around any equations you insert from the inventory window.)
6. The View - Axes menu allows you to set the color of the coordinate axes, as well
as their thickness, and to relabel these axes with letters of your choosing.
7. You can plot a single point with Winplot - this is useful in highlighting points of
interest on a graph. Click Equa - Point, choose either (x,y) for Cartesian or (r,t)
for polar, and enter the coordinates of the point. The dot size box controls the
size of the point - different sizes might be optimal for different printers. To edit a
point, click it in the inventory window.

Printing
You can print your graph, along with all labels, markings, and other
embellishments that appear in the graphing window. Of course, your computer
must be connected to a printer recognized by Windows.
1. Click File - Format to open a print format window. In this window you
specify the width in centimeters of the printed graph, and the vertical and horizontal
offsets. A width of 15 or 16 centimeters pretty much takes up the whole width of a
printed page. The horizontal and vertical offset numbers measure the distance form
the upper left corner of the graphing window to the left of the page and top of the
page, respectively. Setting these at about 2.5 centimeters will position the graph
nicely at the upper left corner of the page. Check the frame image box to place a
rectangular frame around your graph. Check color printer if your printer prints
in color and you wish to do so. ClickOK to record your print format settings.
2. Click File - Print to open the Windows print window. As a graph takes up only
one page, probably you will not need to change any of the default settings.
Click OK to print your graph.
3. Sometimes a graph might print too faintly because of a low printer ink supply or
some other reason. You might remedy this problem by increasing the pen
width number in the function edit window, or by clicking Misc - Thicken
print.

File management
After working on a graph, you may want to save it before exiting Winplot;
otherwise, you will have to retype everything if you want to look at it again.

1. If you try to exit Winplot without saving your graph, the program will ask if you
want to save it. Click Yes if you do, and type in the desired filename and choose the
desired folder - then click Saveto save the graph.
2. You can save a graph also on your own initiative by clicking File - Save As. If
working on a graph that has already been saved, you may click File - Save to
save an updated version. To keep both old and new versions of a graph, click File
- Save As and give the updated version a new name - the old version will be
retained with the old name.
3. To open a file that has been saved, click File - Open. Choose a folder and the
desired file from that folder, and click Open. (If you want to open two files at once,
you must open two graphing windows and open one file in each window. When you
open a file in a window, any file already open in that window is closed.)
4. You can delete files by opening Windows Explorer and navigating to the directory
suffix .wp2. Select the ones you want to delete and click File - Delete.

Function information
Winplot can give useful information about functions, such as the location of
zeros and extreme values. It can also create tables of values, and find points of
intersection of different graphs.
1. To locate the zeros of a function (i.e., the x-intercepts, where the graph crosses the xaxis), first graph the function. Then click One - Zeros to get an xintercepts window. This window already lists a function from your inventory click the down arrow to choose the function you want. Winplot gives the x-value
of a zero of the function, marking it with a red arrow on the graph. Clicknext to
move to successive zeros of the function. The program runs through the zeros from
left to right and then starts over again on the left. This procedure is meant to locate
all zeros in the graphing window - it does not locate zeros that may occur outside this
window. You can specify the number of decimal places retained in the zeros by
clicking Misc - Decimal places. After locating zeros of a function, you can
see the list of zeros by clicking Misc - Data - Inspect.
2. Locating the extreme values of a function (i.e., the relative high points and low
points on the graph) is similar to locating the zeros. Click One - Extremes, and
use the down arrow to select the function of your choice. Click repeatedly
the next extreme of button to run through the extreme values. You have the
option of clicking mark pt to place a point on the graph at an extreme point. The
program finds only those extreme values whose x-coordinate appears within the
domain of the graphing window. You can specify the number of decimal places by

clickingMisc - Decimal Places. You may see the list of extreme values you
found by clicking Misc - Data - Inspect.
3. To create a table of values for a function, select the function in the inventory window
and click table. To specify the low and high endpoints of the table, as well as the
number of steps in the table, click Params on the table menu bar. It is best if the
number of steps in the table divides nicely into the difference between the low and
high points, so that you get terminating decimals as x-values in the table. To specify
the number of decimal places in the table, click Misc - Decimal Places. You
can print the table by clicking File - Print on the table menu bar.
4. Click One - Slider to trace the graph of a function. Use the down arrow to
choose a function to trace. Slide the scrollbar to move the cursor along the graph corresponding x and y values change with the cursor. If you specify an x value of
interest by entering it in the box, Winplot returns the corresponding y-value.
5. To locate where two different graphs intersect, click Two - Intersections and
then the down arrows to select the two functions of interest from the inventory.
Click next intersection to locate succeeding points of intersection; you may
mark these points as you go. The program locates only points of intersection visible
in the graphing window. You can see the list of intersection points you found by
clicking Misc - Data - Inspect. Click Misc - Decimal Places to
specify the desired number of decimal places.

Numerical integration
Winplot uses numerical methods to estimate definite integrals. To get an
approximation of a definite integral of a function of one variable, first graph the
function on the desired interval of integration; then follow these steps.
1. Click One - Measurement - Integrate f(x) dx to open
theintegration window. Click the down arrow to select from the inventory list
the function you want to integrate.
2. Fill in the lower and upper limits of integration. In subintervalsenter the number
of subintervals into which you wish to divide the interval of integration. (The default
is 1000 - in general you get better approximations with more subintervals, but roundoff errors and time considerations make it counterproductive to enter too large a
number.)
3. Check the numerical integration methods you wish Winplot to employ. (Probably the
parabolic method will give the best approximation, but that is not always the case.)
Check overlay if you want Winplot to draw approximating rectangles (or
trapezoids or parabolas, depending on the method) in the region whose area will be

## approximated by the integration. If the number of subintervals is large, these figures

blend together and the visual effect is that the region is shaded.
4. Finally click definite to view the approximations to the integral under the
methods chosen. Remember that these are only approximations - but they can be
quite accurate if the number of subintervals is large and the function not too badly
behaved.

Differential equations
Winplot can draw slope fields for a first order ordinary differential equation of the
form
dy/dx = f(x,y) .
It can also solve numerically initial value problems for the equation.
1. Perform the sequence of clicks Window - 2-dim - Equa - Differential
- dy/dx to open the differential equation dialog box.
2. Type the formula for f(x,y) in the box. Make sure that slopes is checked. You can
adjust the lengths and number of rows of slope segments by changing the numbers in
the corresponding boxes - you can also alter the pen widths of these segments.
Click OK to view the slope field.
described for the graphing of equations. You may also superimpose on the slope
field the graphs of one or more equations. (It is informative to graph solutions of the
ordinary differential equation on top of the slope field, to see how the solution curves
4. To solve an initial value problem numerically, first graph the slope fields as
described above, and next click One - dy/dx trajectory to open the initial
value problem dialog box. In this box enter the initial x and y values and the step size
h. Check either the Euler, modified Euler, or Runge-Kutta circle, depending on the
numerical method you wish to use. Finally, clickdraw to see a graph of the
approximate solution. The approximate solution can be quite accurate if a small step
size is used - but excessively small step sizes are accompanied by long wait times,
and produce diminishing accuracy because of round-off errors.
5. To see a table of values for the approximate solution, click tablein the initial value
problem dialog box. You may specify the number of steps in the table - starting at
the initial x-value and increasing in increments of h. If you are interested in the value
of the solution at a particular value of x, scroll through the table until you find this xvalue. (You may have to increase the number of steps in the table to reach your point
of interest.)

6. You can use the mouse to quickly draw solution trajectories with different initial
values but for the same differential equation. While the initial value problem dialog
box is open, position the mouse cursor at an initial point on the screen and click the
left mouse button; Winplot draws the solution trajectory beginning at that point. You
can fill up the screen with trajectories by doing this at many initial points.