Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 147

'-rr-$*

\.

1"':t

'

':

I
I
I

WORKSHO
GPU I D E
CUTS
BASICWOODWORKING
Whether tt te aa baetc ae a buLt joinL
or aa elaborate aa a curved throu7h
doveLail, any joinL can be made with one
or more of the baotc cuLe ehown below.
A tenon, for example, ie formed wtth
Lwo or more rabbeL cut6; a morLtee
te noLhinq more Lhan a deep etopped
7roave. A lap jotnL ia made from
Lwo dadoea or wide rabbeLo.

The aecret tn creal;inq any jotnl; ie mak'


in4 Lheee otmple cute precieely and tn
rha

ANATOMY
OFA BOARD

rnrrar+

---*-t:t--\

Ed7e

Compoundcut
Thtckneea

Eevelcut

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

Miter cut
Croaacut.

Rip cut

I
I
I

End notah

I
I

9topped groove

t
I
I

. Wearappropriate
safetygear:safety
g l a s s e sa, f a c es h i e l df o r e x t r ap r o t e c t i o na
, n d h e a r i n gp r o t e c t i o nl f.
t h e r ei s n o d u s tc o l l e c t i o sn y s t e m ,
weara dust mask.Forexoticwoods,
t ay
u s ea r e s p i r a t otrh; e s a w d u sm
r ork
c a u s ea n a l l e r g i rce a c t i o nW. e a w
glovew
s h e nh a n d l i n g
r o u g hl u m b e r .
o Keepyourworkareacleanandtidy;
c l u t t e rc a n l e a dt o a c c i d e n t sa,n d
s a w d u sat n dw o o ds c r a p sc a n b e
a Iire hazard.
o D o n o t u s ea t o o li f a n yp a r ti s w o r n
ordamaged.

o Drapethe powercordof a portable


p o w e r t o ool v e r y o u r s h o u l d e rkt e
oep
i t o u to f t h ew a y .

o Usethe appropriate
tool for the
j o b a t h a n d ;d o n o t t r y t o m a k ea
t o o ld o s o m e t h i nfgo r w h i c hi t w a s
n o ti n t e n d e d .

. Usesafetyaccessories
such as
p u s hs t i c k sf,e a t h e r b o a r d
a sn ,dh o l d d o w nw h e e l s .

r C l a m py o u rw o r k p i e cteo f r e eb o t h
h a n d sf o r a n o p e r a t i o n .

o K e e py o u rh a n d sw e l la w a yf r o m
a turningbladeor bit.

. C u ta w a yf r o my o u r s e rl fa t h e trh a n
towardyourbody.

. C o n c e n t r a toen t h e . l o b ;d o n o t
rush.Neverworkwhenyouaretired,
s t r e s s e do,r h a v eb e e nd r i n k i n g
a l c o h ool r u s i n gm e d i c a t i o ntsh a t
i n d u c ed r o w s i n e s s .

. D o n o tf o r c ea t o o l ;i f p o s s i b l et r,y
removinglessstock.
. A l w a y ks e e pt h e e d g e so f c u t t i n g
t o o l ss h a r p .

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I

THEARTOFWOODWORKING

HANDBOOK

oFIOTNERY

THEART OF WOODWORKING

NDBOOK

oFIOTNERY

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

TIME.LIFE
BOOKS
ALEXANDRIA,
VIRGINIA
ST.REMYPRESS
MONTREAL.
NEWYORK

t
I
I
THE ART OF WOODWORKING was produced by
ST. REMYPRESS
PUBLISHER
PRESIDENT
SeriesEditor
SeriesArt Director
SeniorEditors
Art Directors
Designers
ResearchEditor
Picture Editor
Writers
Research
Assistant
Cont r ibuting lllu strators

Administrator
ProductionManager
SystemCoordinator
Photographer
Proofreader
Indexer

KennethWinchester
PierreL6veill6
PierreHome-Douglas
FrancineLemieux
Marc Cassini(Text)
HeatherMills (Research)
Normand Boudreault,Luc Germain,
SolangeLaberge
Jean-GuyDoiron, Michel Gigubre,
HdldneDion
Iim McRae
Christopherfackson
Andrew Jones,Rob Lutes
BryanQuinn
GillesBeauchemin,RollandBergera,
Jean-PierreBourgeois,Michel Blais,
RonaldDurepos,RobertPaquet,
famesThrien
NatalieWatanabe
Michelle Turbide
fean-LucRoy
RobertChartier
JudithYelon
ChristineM. Iacobs

Time-Life Booksis a division of Time-Life Inc.,


a wholly ownedsubsidiaryof
THE TIME INC. BOOK COMPANY

TIME-LIFEBOOKS
President
Vice-President
Editor-in-Chief
Director of Editorial Resources
MarketingDirector
EditorialDirector
ConsuhingEditor
ProductionManager

JohnD. Hall
NancyK. fones
ThomasH. Flaherty
EliseD. Ritter-Clough
ReginaHall
LeeHassig
John R. Sullivan
MarleneZack

THECONSUTTANTS
JonArno is a consultant,cabinetmakerand
freelancewriter who lives in Tioy, Michigan. He
alsoconductsseminarson wood identification
and earlyAmerican furniture design.
GilesMiller-Mead taught advancedcabinetmaking at Montreal technicalschoolsfor more
than ten years.A nativeofNew Zealand,he has
worked asa restorerof antiquefurniture.
fosephlruini is SeniorEditor of Horne
Mechanixmagazine.
A former Shopand Tools
Editor of PopularMechanics,
he hasworked as
a cabinetmaker,home improvementcontractor
and carpenter.

Handbook offoinery
p. cm.-(The Art of Woodworking)
Includesindex.
(trade)
ISBN0-8094-9941-X
(lib)
rsBN 0-8094-9942-8
l. foinery
I. Time-Life Books.II. Series
TH'663.H36 1993
694'.6-4c20
93-24638
CIP
For information about any Time-Life book,
pleasecall I-800-621-7026,or write:
ReaderInformation
Time-Life CustomerService
P.O.Box C-32068
Richmond,Virginia
2326r-2068
@ 1993Time-Life BooksInc.
All rights reserved.
No part of this book may be reproducedin
any form or by any electronicor mechanical
means,including information storageand
retrievaldevicesor systems,without prior
written permissionfrom the publisher,except
that briefpassages
may be quoted for reviews.
First printing. Printed in U.S.A.
Publishedsimultaneouslyin Canada.
TIME-LIFE is a trademarkof Time Warner
Inc. U.S.A.

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I

t
t
t
t
I
I

t
I

CONTENTS

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
T
I

INTRODUCTION

T2
14
16
18

JOINERYBASICS
Wood movement
Form and function
Bondingwood

20
22
24
27
28
32
36
38
39

BUTT IOTNTS
A catalogof butt joints
Making butt joints
Through bolts
Dowel joints
Platejoints
Pocketholes
Splinejoints
Butterfly key joints

40
42
43
44
45
47
48
49
51
54

MrTER IOTNTS
Common miter joints
|igs and accessories
Making miter joints
Facemiters
Copedjoints
Miter-and-splinejoints
Feather-splinejoints
Edgemiter joints
Mitered platejoints

s6 LAR RABBET,GROOVE,
AND DADO JOINTS
58 Lapjoints
60 Rabbetjoints
6L Tongue-and-groovejoints
62 Dado joints
64 Corner half-lapjoints
66 Crosshalf-lapjoints
67 Half-blind half-lapjoints
68 Angledhalf-lapjoints
69 Dovetailedhalf-lapjoints
70 Glazingbar half-lapjoints

73
75
76
77
79
80
81
83
84

Rabbetjoints
Stoppedrabbetjoints
Mitered rabbetjoints
Tongue-and-groovejoints
Gluejoints
Through dadojoints
Blind dadojoints
Slidingdovetailjoints
Doubledadojoints

86
88
9I
94
97
101
103
106
108
110

MORTTSE-AND-TENONIOINTS
joints andjigs
Mortise-and-tenon
joints
Openmortise-and-tenon
joints
Blind mortise-and-tenon
Wedgedthrough mortise-and-tenonjoints
joints
Haunchedmortise-and-tenon
joints
Angledmortise-and-tenon
Tusktenonjoints
joints
Twin mortise-and-tenon
joints
Roundmortise-and-tenon

rr2
114
115
116
118
126
128
130
L32
134

DOVETATLAND BOX IOINTS


A selectionof dovetailand box ioints
Designingand marking dovetails
figs and accessories
Through dovetailjoints
Curvedthrough dovetailjoints
Outlined through dovetailjoints
Half-blind dovetailjoints
Box joints
Fingerjoints

136 IAPANESEIOINERY
140 GTOSSARY
I42

INDEX

I44

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

INTRODUCTION

Mike Dunbar discusses

MAKING
\AINDSORCHAIRS
withthem
chairsfor 20yearsandI amstillasfascinated
{ havebeenmaking\,Vindsor
I aswhenI began.
Thischair'sdurabilityislegendary-afamethatiswellearned.
200years
or moreof hardusebut
TherearemanyWindsorchairsthathavesurvived
isin thejoints,whicharehighly
remainassolidasthedaytheywerebuilt.Thesecret
engineered.
Windsors
usesocketconstruction-aroundtenonthat
Likemostcommonchairs.
of a
fitsinto a roundhole.Thereisverylittleedgegrainaroundthecircumference
is endgrain,a
mostof thecircumference
holeto create
a goodgluejoint.Because
apart.Itsonlyvirtue
roundtenonin a drilledholeisaverypoorjoint thatsooncomes
quicklyandeasily.
Tomakeit worksomeadditional
strenghisthatit canbeproduced
eningis required.
theturnedlegsto theseat.
Themajorjointsin aWndsorarethosethatconnect
with a lockingtaper,similarto thedevicethatholds-or
Theseareheldtogether
headstock.
Thelegtenonismadeconelikewhile
locks-thedrivgcenterin alathe's
thepartisstillin thelathe.Theholein ttreseatisthenfittedto thetenonwith atapered
in abrace,
liketheoneI'm holdingin thephoreamer,
atypeof conicalbit inserted
holelocktogether,
securing
the
Whenassembled,
thetenonandmatching
tograph.
joint.Shouldthejointeverloosen,
theweightof apersonsittingin thechairtightens
wearsthejoints.
in othertypesof chairstheactof sittingactually
it again,whereas
system.
Thechairmaker
ensures
that
A Windsor's
legsareconnected
bya stretcher
jointsremainpermanently
The
themundercompression.
secure
byassembling
these
thelegswhilethechairisbeingassembled.
thedistance
between
trickisto measure
distance.
Beingatad
Thestretchers
arethenmadeslightlylongerthanthemeasured
toolong,theypushthelegsapart.Fortheirpart,thelegsholdthejointsin compression.Asa result,theycannotcomeapart-evenif thegluefails.

in
Mike Dunbarbuildsfinefurniture at hisworlcshop
NewHampshire.Theauthorof sevenboolcs
Portsmouth,
and a contributingeditoro/AmericanWoodworker
Dunbarako offers
andEarly AmericanLife magazines,
NorthAmerica.
Windsorchairmakingseminarsacross

INTRODUCTION

LyleKrugertalksabout

IIGSANDIOINTS
s a youngboy,thebesttoysthat I possessed
were-in order-TinkerToys,
LincolnLogs,anErectorset,andAmerican
Flyerelectric
trains.These
toys
preparedme for an adulthoodin which I am not afraidto tacklecomplexmechanicalproblems.
As mostof my powertoolsareoldermodels(my tablesawis a 1940sSearsthat I
inheritedfrom my wife'sgrandfather),
I mustgetasmuchaccuracy
asI canfrom my
variousjigsandattachments.
years
Overthe
I havefoundthat,with a bit of time and
patience,you can adjustand fine-tunemanyolder toolsand makethem perform
almostaswellasthedaytheyleftthefactory.I geta certainsatisfaction
out of restoring
theseauctionand garagesalebargainsto usableitems.
I takedelightin applyingonetechnologyto anotherdiscipline.Thehome-made
tenoningjig in thephoto,for example,worla muchlike the crossfeedon a metallathe.
It slidesbackandforth on waysmadeof walnutandfeatures
a feedscrewthatindexes
movementto Yo+inch.With a little thoughtandextracarein thefinish,thesejigscan
becomeheirloom-qualityandbe passeddown througha familywith pride.I would
evensuggest
that you signand dateyour betterjigs.
I find that when I am in my shoptrying to figureout a problemor a betterway
to build a jig, my creativejuicesgetgoingandtime seemsto fly by.BeforeI know it,
the eveningis over-and I've missedthe final baseballscoreson the radio.
joint that
RecentlyI haveexperimented
with a Southwestern-American-inspired
joint
lockstogetirerwithout glueandyetis stillverystrong.This
hasa steppedcorner
and a specialkeythat slidesinto a mortiseandlocksthejoint. It canbe madeon the
jigsandon thedrill pressfittedwith
tablesawwiththehelpof a coupleof shop-made
a mortisingbit. Thesteppedcorneris cut without changingthebladeor fencesetting
on the tablesaw.

LyleKrugeris a professional
landsurveyor
from Effingham,
Illinois,whoenjoysbuildingfull-scale
woodenreplicasof
antiquesurveyinstruments.
He haspublishedarticles
and shoptipson woodworking
in variousmagazines.

H
Ir
I

I
I
I

INTRODUCTION

PatWarner on

JOINE,RYAND
THE,ROI.]TER
-w

'
I

'

,l

T
t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I*
I
I

: a

' ,1
. . f

-j
.'i
;*
.

tri

r{
'i
,3

.{t
if
.,{

lu i F'.f

I,i

i $
F

s$
I rf'f

of contemporary
furnitureandcabinets.
I usehardr,l,ood
$ ama desigr-rer-craftsman
A lumberfor nearlyeverlahing
I make.Thereare,holveveq
occasions
rvhenI must
useplpvoodor fiberboard,
suchasin dralverbottoms,doorpanels,
or cabinetbacks.
\{4riietheyareoftenessential,
I don'tfind thesematerialsasenjoyable
to rvorkassolid
lumber,sincethewoodjoinerymethodsI oftenusecannotbe appliedto them.
Plpvoodis gluedup in laversthatlie in somanydifferentplanesthat it cannotachieve
thestructureof solidrvood.Solidlunber,on theotherhand,consists
of cellsthatare
distinctlyoriented-likea br.rndle
Thislong-axisarchitecture,
of strarvs.
in ntyr,ielv,
ailowsmanyjoinerypossibilities.
No matterhowcomplexthepieceof furniture,there
is alwaysa meansof joiningthepiecestogether.
I findtheelectric
routerveryhandyforjoinerybecause
ofits abiliqv
to accept
a rvide
varietyofjigs,flLxtures,
andaccessories.
\\hetherthetoolisguidedbv a pilotedcutter,
anedgeguide,a template
collaror sub-base,
in a table,therouterprovides
or secured
thekind of controlthatmakesit ideailyusefulfor joiner,v.
No othersinglepowertool
canproduce
thesamerangeofjoints,including
tongues,
grooves,
rabbets,
tenons,
morjointises,
dadoes,
dovetails,
laps,notches,
fingers,
andkeys.Complernentary
template
er1,-orjoineryalongcun edlines-canonlybedonewith a router.Thetoolcanalso
be usedto maketheprecisiontemplates
requiredfor theprocess.
Because
it issousefula too1,I havecollected
lB differentrouters.
Theycanbecoujigs,andcutters
pledwith anynumberof accessories,
to expandtheirjoint-making
capabilities.
Fortunately,
thisisusuallyquitesimpleandinexpensir,e.
Mostrouterjigs
areeasyto makeanduse.
Mostof my portableroutingis donewith theassistance
of an acryiicoffsetsubbaselike the oneattached
to the routerin the pl-roto.
It pror,ides
extrasupporton
thebase,makingit indispensable
for routingcertaintemplates,
Anotheljig that
I find handyis my tenoningjig; in the photoit is upsidedownrvithther,vorkpiece
clampedin placeagainstanadjustable
fence.I liketo useit rvitha plungerouter,which
can be adjustedto cut diff-erent
depthsmore easil.v
than a standardrouter.
Bothjigshaveprovedso usefulthat I havestartedmanufacturing
them for the
commercial
market.

i','.';

Pst Warner rnakescontetnporary.firttittrre ht Esco


rttlido,Colifortria,arul worksns a cotrstiltant
the
rotfter
arul
tool
bit irdustry.
for
He is o contributingeditor forWoodwork mtgazineartd teacltes
rotrtirtgttt Palonnr Cortrnunity Collegein SanMarcos.

ll

I
I
I
I
I

IOINERYBASICS
I oinery,the foundationof woodJ working,isa subtleblendof artand
Whether
theproductis a
engineering.
simpletabletopor an ornatechest,its
joinerywill establish
its worth:Strong
jointswill giveit longevity,
andtheir
will enhance
designandcraftsmanship
itsbeauty.
Theneedfor jointmakingderives
make
from thefactthatwoodworkers
demands
on theirmaterialthatnature
neverintended.
Interlocking
curvesof
fiberlink a branchto thetreetrunk.
whilea legis attached
to a tableat an
abrupt90ointersection.
Thus,although
a properlygluedjoint is stronger
than
woodfiber.thatbondaloneis seldom
ableto withstandtheforcesexerted
on
chairs,cabinets,
anddoorsdurtables,
ingnormaluse.

TYPES
BASIC
JOINT

Mostjoints needsomesort of mechanicalaid-a reinforcement


designed
to meetthe stresses
head-on.Fromthat
needspringsthe craftofjoinery.
The simplestsupportsare nails,
screws)splines,biscuits,and dowels.
Theserequiresimplycuttinga holeand
addingwood or metalto the intersection of thepieces.
Often,thisis enough
to satisfrstructuralandestheticneeds.
Sometimes-mostoftenwhenfurniture is involved-greater strengh and
beautyarecalledfor. The solutionthen
is to cut the intersectingpiecesso that
thegluingareais increased
or theyform
an interlockingbond.
Theblind andthroughmortise-andtenon joints shown below at right
improvethe strengthof a right-angle
joint and increase
the long-grainglu-

ing area.Theblind versionalsopartially conceals


the joint; the throughversion,in whichthetenonpasses
through
the matingworkpiece,canbe tightened
by the additionof smallwedges.
In addition to lendingmechanical
strengthand gluingareato a connection, joinery must alsoallow for the
movementof wood-its swellingand
shrinkageas it absorbsand releases
moisture.The bestjoineryrelatesall
threeneeds.
Thestresses
on joints andsomeways
to relievethem aredetailedon the facing page.Wood'smoisture-absorbing
characteristics
arediscussed
on pages
l4 and 15.Jointselectionis discussed
on pages16 and 17.Pages18 and 19
containusefirlinformationaboutchoosing and usinggluesand clamps.

Blind joint

?aneljoint

'iiii

i'ri
irr:i:i i
t 1
ir;

li i' i !
iri
Framejoint

i'{. ,'
,:.
il..

fnror6n

r: 1 ,
Reinforced
joint

I2

t
I
I
T
t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
T

.1
I

joint

I
I
T
I
T
I

I
I
I
I
I
I
I

TOINERYBASICS

I
I

()FSTRESS
TYPES
Recognizing
thestresses
onjoints
Theillustration
at leftshows
thefourbasic
typesof forces
thataffectjoints:compression,tension,
vertical
shear,
andracking.
Compression
forces
a jointtogether,
while
pullsit apart.A typicalexample
tension
of tension
is anoverloaded
shelfjoined
joints;
to a carcase
withdado
theweight
ontheshelfwilltendto pulltheshelfout
of thedadoes.
Vertical
shear
occurs
when
thetwohalves
of a jointslideagainst
each
other,
common
withbuttjoints.Racking,
characterized
bytwisting
andbending,
is
thetoughest
stress
fora jointto endure.

I
T
I
I
I
I
T
I
\

I
I

/:

V
/

T
I
I
I
I
I

IMPROVING
A JOINT'S
RESISTANCE
T()STRESS
1topped aliding dovetail joint
Fixinqa ahelf to a carcaee eide
with a etopped olidinqdovetail
allowethe joint
to regtgt teneian
a5 weilaa compreeeion,ohear,
and rackinq

I
I
I

t
I
I

t
I

Tong ue-a nd -g roovejoi nt


?imple,unreinforcedbuLLjointe reaiet compreeeiononly:they providepoor reetatance
to Lenaion,ehear,and rackinq.Keplacinqan
edqebuLt wiTha tonque-and-4roove
joinL
makestL muchmoresLreog^reaietant

Dadojoint
A aimpledadojoint reaieta compreooion,ehear,and rackinq,buL
Leneioncan pull if, apart

I
I
I
I

t3

WOODMOVEMENT
woodasa hygrodescribe
Q cientists
r.) scopicmaterial-thatis,it absorbs
moisture.Longaftera treehasbeen
felledanditswoodmilledandmadeinto
furniture.thefibrouscellsabsorband
release
moisture,
mirroringthehumidity of thesurrounding
air.
The consequences
for the woodworkercanbeserious:
Woodswellsas
moistureandshrinksasit
it absorbs
expels
it, causing
motionthataccounts
for mostfailedjoints,wobblychairs,
stickingdoors,andsplitpictureframes.
is unAlthoughwoodmovement
avoidable,
suchconsequences
arenot:
An understanding
of wood'scharacteristicswill enableyou to accommo-

date this swellingand contractionand


producejoinery that is both durable
and stable.
Thewoodof mostspecies
is characterizedby growthrings,which areconcentricbandsperpendicularto the axis
of the trunk. The mannerin which the
ringsareexposed
on a woodsurfacecan
help you anticipatehow the piecewill
reactto humidity changes.
As the illustration below shows,there is more
swellingandshrinkagealongthe growth
ringsthan acrossthem.The waylumber is cut from a log hasa crucialeffect
on how muchthewoodwill shrinkand
which dimension-length, width, or
thickness-will be most affected.

t
I
T
I
I
I
I
T
I
T
I
I

Anypieceof woodprovidesthreeviewsof theannualgrowthrings.


5sslisn-lies at right anglesto the
Thetransverss
sssfisn-sv svs55
grain and is visiblein theendgrain of stock.Thetangentialand
radialsections
areat right anglesto thetransverse
section.Being
ableto distinguishthedffirent viewsof theringson a workpiece
canhelpyou compensate
for woodmovementin yourjoinery.

t
I
I

RINGS
ANDMOVEMENT
GROWTH
Anticipating
woodmovement
Lumber
doesnotshrinkuniformly.
Tangential
shrinkage-parallel
to theannual
growthrings-isalmosttwicetheradial
shrinkage,
whichoccurs
across
therings.
Thisdifference
forthewarping
accounts
andpanels
aswoodcontracts
of boards
withf luctuations
in moisandexoands
turecontent.
Radially
cutboards,
also
knownasquartersawn.
aremoredimenthantangentially
cut,or
sionally
stable
plain-sawn
boards
because
theyshrink
andswelllessacross
theirwidth.Plainsawnboards
tendto cupat theedges.
Greater
tangential
thanradialshrinkage
cancausesquare
boards
to become
diamondshaped
andcylindrical
onesto
become
oval,asshownbythepieces
on
theright-hand
sideof theillustration.

T4

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
T
T
I
T
I
T
I

I
I
I
I
I
I
I

IOINERYBASICS

Logsaresawnin two basicways,with


manyvariations.Themostcommonsystem, calledplain-sawing,slicesthe log
tangentto the growth rings.The other
method,lesscommonlyused,is called
quartersawing
or edge-grainsawing.It
takesslicesat right anglesto the growth
rings.Althoughthe techniquesusedin

eachsystem
areverydifferent,
eachwill
producesomeboardswith characteristicsof theother.Forexample,
plain-sawingthroughthecenterofalogproduces
a pieceof stockthatlooksmuchlikea
quarter-sawn
board.
boards
havetheirannuQuartersawn
algrowthringspeqpendicular
to theface.
Thisorientationof the growthrings
accounts
for thesuperiordimensional
stabilityof quartersawn
boards.Wood
shrinksandexpands
roughlytwiceas
muchtangentiallyto
theringsasitsdoes
radially.
Whenquartersawn
boardsswell
or shrinktheydosomostlyin thickness,
whichisminimal,whereas
aolain-sawn
boardchanges
across
itswidih.A table
madefromplain-sawn
pineboards,
for
example,
canchange
asmuchasI inch
in width;a similartablemadefrom
quartersawn
boardswouldonlyswellor
shrinkby one-quarter
asmuchor less,
depending
on thespecies.

Althoughyou maynot be ableto control the environmentwhereyour furniture will be used,you can makeyour
joinerychoicesto compensate
for wood
movement.Orient the growth rings in
the matingpiecesof a joint sothat they
movetogether.For example,the rings
ofthe two partsofa cornerjoint should
be parallelto eachother so that they
shrink or swellin tandem.When the
ringsof thepiecesmeetat right angles,
joint, make
asin a mortise-and-tenon
suretheirtangentialsurfaces
arealigned.
Workpiecesthat featureirregular
grain requireparticularattention.A
squarechairlegwith growth ringsthat
run diagonallythroughit whenviewed
in crosssection,for example,will eventuallyloseits squareshapeandbecome
a diamondshape,pullingthechairframe
out of squarewith it.

"fi1-ll|l"llll'lll'llll
1lrtIr1flrfir1lr'fif1fll
llll'llll'llllllllllllllll
1HO?TI?

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

Theannualgrowthringsin the
plain-sawn oak board (top) appear
on thefaceasan ellipticallandscapefigure. Plain-sawnstockis
slicedtangentto the rings.The
growth ringsin thequartersawn
oakboard(bottom) appearas
linesperpendicularto theface.

Theimportanae
of grain alignment
A drawer6luedup from plaineawnboardeilluetrrateshow
6rainaliqnmenlcan makeor
breaka joinL.by aliqninqthe
boardsso I'hat Lheannual
qrowth ringecurveinward
(toil, vheioint may oeparare
aI the too and bottom when
lhe fron| cuze ae it dries.
lf the boardeare ali1nedoo
thallhe annualringecurve
outv'tard(bottom), dryinq of
Nhewoodwilltend oushlhe
top and bolt om biswardthe
mating Viece,keepinqthe
joinlNoqether.

15

FORMAND FUNCTION

I
I

t
I
I
I
I
T
I
I

Selecting
thejoineryfor a projectinvolvesbothstructuraland
ThecurvedthroughdovetaiUabove)
esthetic
considerations.
blendsstrengthand attractiveness
for drawersthat will bethe
highlightof a piece.Theutilitarian dadojoint (right) ls a
goodchoiceto anchortheshelvingin a moderncabinet.

joineryshouldachieve
yourjoinery,
Onceyouhavechosen
a bal- solid wood, plywood, and particlef deally,
joint and
prepare
yourstock.Carefully
form andfunction. board.A joint like the frame butt, for
I ancebetween
Thefoltheover- example,canbe usedwith any mater- smoothall matingsurfaces.
Eachjointmustcomplement
lowingchapters
illustratedozensof
the ial, but only if the connectionis reinall designof a piecewhileresisting
jointsandprovidedetailed
instructions
stresses
to whichit will besubjected. forced.(As a rule of thumb, anyjoint
Thechoiceof a joint will oftenbe involvingendgrainmustbe reinforced for makingthem.If you areunsure
aboutwhichjoint to selectfor a given
dictatedby its functionandlocation. in someway.)The dovetail,while it
application,
choose
thesimplest
one,
cornerscanbejoinedwith a reouires no reinforcement.is only
Carcase
particularlyif it will behidden.
hostof joinerymethods,
but a carcase appropriatewith solidwood.
thatis morelikelyto bevisible,suchas
a drawer,will benefitfrom a visually
joint likea half-blinddovetail
pleasing
JOIl{ERY
TIPS
or boxjoint.Forotherprojectcomponents,theoptionsaremorelimited.A
.Avoidworking
rWhenarranging
the matingboards
withfreshlycut lumframe-and-panel
door,for example,
of a joint,alwaystakeintoaccount
ber,as it will shrinkafterthejointis
of theelements,
and
Usewoodthat hasdriedto
thegraindirection
maycallfor eitherblind or haunched
assembled.
for
the
orientthe piecesto compensate
a moisture
contentapproximating
mortise-and-tenons,
whilea chairwith
woodmovement.
in whichthe
levelof theenvironment
roundrungsshouldideallybeassempiecewillbe used.
finished
.Cut theelements
of a jointparallel
to
bledwith roundmortise-and-tenons.
rWhendesigning
thegrain,
a pieceof furniture
thegrain.A tenoncut across
will alsohave
Thewoodyouchoose
forexample,
will notwithstand
shear
thatwill beara heavyload,uselarger
a bearingon youroptions.Thechart
jointsor jointswith largerstructural
andrackingstress.
members,
liststhevariousjointsshown
suchastwin mortise-andopposite
r Forsomejoints,suchasdovetails,
use
t e n o n sT. h i sw i l ld i s t r i b u t eh e l o a d
in thisbookandratestheirutilitywith
joint(thepins)
part
overa widerareaandreducestresson
thejoint.lf the designof a pieceprohibitsthe useof largejoints,usea
jointsto spread
the
number
of smaller
loadandreducestress.

o Makesuretheelements
of a jointare
properly
proportioned.
lf a tenonin a
jointis toothick,the
mortise-and-tenon
mortise
member
willbeweakened.

16

thecompleted of the
to layoutthe matingpart(thetails)
to reduceinaccuracies.

rAvoidlayingoutjointsbyeye;usethe
appropriate
measuring
andmarking
tools.
r lf a jointrequires
reinforcement,
use
gluealongwithfasteners,
dowels,
biscuits,or splines.

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
t
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I

I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

IOINERY BASICS

APPROPRIATE
JOINTS
F(|RW()OD
TYPES
TYPEOFJOINT
Butt joints (page22)

SOLIDWOOD

PLYWOOD

PARTICLEBOARD

Frame
andcasebutt
Panelbutt
Edgebutt

(reinforce)
Excellent

Good(reinforce)
Poor
Good(reinforce)

Fair(reinforce)
Poor
Fair(reinforce)

Face-to-face
butt
joint
Scarf
andpocketholes
joint
Butterfly

Excellent
Good(reinforce)

Excellent
Notused

Excel
lent
Notused

Excel
lent

Notused

Notused

Good(reinforce)
(reinforce)
Excellent
Good(reinforce)

Good(reinforce)
Good(reinforce)

Good(reinforce)
Good(reinforce)

Fair(reinforce)

Fair(reinforce)

Excellent

Fair
Poor

Fai
Poor

Notused

Notused

Excel
lent
Excellent

Miterjoints (page42)
Facemiter
Edgemiter
Endmiter
Miter-and-spl
ine
Feather-spl
ine
joint
Coped

Fair
Good(reinforce)

Lapjoints (page58)
Fulllap,Halflaps:T, mitered,
dovetailed,keyed
dovetail,
angled,
cross,
glazing
edge,half-blind,
corner,
bar
Rabbetioints (page60)

(reinforce)
Excellent

Fair

Fai

Rabbet,
shiplap,
stopped
rabbet,
mitered
rabbet,
doublerabbet,
dovetail
rabbet
joints (page61)
Tongue-and-groove

Good

Fair

Fair

Through
tongue-and-groove,
blindtonguegluejoint
and-groove,
Dadojoints (page62)

Excellent

Fai

Fair

Through,
blind,andstopped
dado

Good

Good

Fair

Dado-and-rabbet,
tongue-and-dado,
doubledado
Lockmiter

Good
Excellent

Fair

Fair

Good

Fair

I
I
I

Slidingdovetail,
slidinghalf-dovetai
l,
stopped
slidinghalf-dovetail
joints (page88)
Mortise-and-tenon

Excellent

Notused

Notused

Blind,haunched,
angled,
loose,
round,
twin,through,
wedged
through,pegged
through,
tusk,open
Dovetaifioints@age114)

Excel
lent

Notused

Notused

Through,
blind,half-blind,
curved
through,
outlined
through,
boxjoint,
half-blind
boxjoint,fingerjoint

Excellent

Notused

Notused

I
I

I
T
I
I

r
I
I

t7

BONDINGWOOD
f) roperbondingof matingsurfaces
I canbe achieved
in threesteps:
preparingthe surfacemeticulously,
applyingtherighttypeandamountof
adhesive,
andproperclamping.
First,thematingsurfaces
of ajoint
mustbe madeasflat andsmoothas
possible
with ajointeror handplane.
Roughsurfaces
havehundredsoftiny
airpockets
thatcancause
unevengluing.Surfaces
shouldalsobeclean;oil,
grease,
anddirt canweaken
sawdust,
a gluebond.Someoily woods,such
haveextracasteakand rosewood.
tivesthat inhibit the gluingprocess,
but planingor jointingthesewoods
just beforeglue-upremoves
mostof
the residuefrom thesurfaces.
While gluesmadefrom organic
Over-tightening
theclampson a
gluejoint cansqueeze
outall the materials
suchasfishglueandhide
"starved" glue
adhesive,
resultingin a
havebeenin usefor centuries,
joint. Applya thin, evenlayerof
mostmodernadhesives
arederived
glueon thematingsurfaces
and
fromsyntheticcompounds.
Gluessuch
stoptighteningwhen
a smallbead asresorcinol
andepoxycurebv chemicalreaction,whilevellowandwhite
of adhesive
squeezes
out ofthejoint.

ACCESSORIES
GTUING

Glue bruah
Longhandleamakebruah
ideal for delicate work;
to prevent rust stains,
linen-woundferrule has
no metal parto
Printer's brayer
Rubberroller evenlyapreada
a thin film of 4lue over a
widearea; can be cleaned
by repeatedly rollin7 it over
a ocrap Doard

For ocrapinq away excega


qlue.?laatia type leao likely
to mar wood

gluecureby evaporation
of thesolvent
theycontain.Mostgluesseepinto the
wood,lockingthewoodfiberstogetherandcreatinga bondthatisstronger
thanthewooditself.Toselectthepropfor your ioinerytasks,see
er adhesive
thechartopporit..
Whenapplyingglue,spreadit evenly overboth matingsurfaces
of the
joint; it is betterto applya thin coat
to both surfaces
thana heavycoatto
one.Avoidspreading
gluewith your
fingers;a setof stiff-bristled
brushes
of differentsizescanhandlemostgluing tasks.Someotherapplicators
are
shownbelow.
Iointsshouldbeclamoed
immediatelyaftertheadhesive
isapplied;position your clampscarefullyto avoid
cuppingor bowingof theworkpieces.
Clampingpresses
theglueinto a uniform thin film betweenthe mating
surfaces,
whileholdingthepieces
until
curingtakesplace.Seethebackendpapers
for a selection
of clamps.

Plate joiner
glue applicator
Holde qlue bottle
upeide-down
ao that adheaive
remains near tip,
keepinqit ready
for application;
nozzleia ehaped
to apread qlue
evenryon 5Ee9
of alota cut by
plate joiner

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

Olue ayringe
For applyin4qlue in awkwardplacea:available with flexibleor curved tip whichcan
be cut back for faater flow

t
t
t
I

l8

I
I

t
t
T
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

IOINERY BASICS

I(lINERY
ADHESIVES
TYPE

CHARACTERISTICS

USES

White
glue

. Strongbonding;
Polyvinyl-acetate
based;nottoxicor flammable
working
time3 to 5
o Setting
minutes
timeabout30 to 45 minutes;
curesfullyin 24to 72 hours. Dries
o Doesnotsandaswellasyellowglue
clearandcolorless

General
woodworking

Yellow
glue

o Betterimmediate
Aliphatic-resin
based;
nottoxicor flammable
adhesion
forfasrer General
woodworking
grabthanwhiteglue;working
o Setting
time3 to 5 minutes
timeabout30 to 40 minutes;
(fadedyellow);
curesfullyin 24to72hoursr Driesopaque
moreheat-resistant
for better
properties
sanding
thanwhiteglue

Epory
glue

Resinandhardener
mustbe mixedpriorto use;notflammable
butmaybe
Bonding
acidicwoodssuchas
toxicr Strong,
waterproof
bonding;
working
time5 minutes
to 2 hours(depending
on
oak;useon exoticwoodsthat
type)o Setting
time5 minutes
to 2 hours(depending
ontype);curesfullyin 24 hours bondpoorly
withotherglues
. Average
Protein-based;
nottoxicor flammable
bonding;
working
time60 to 90
Furniture
construction,
luthier
. Setting
minutes
andcuringtime12 hourso Sandable,
driesanopaque
color,resists work,antique
restoration
andtasks
r Notwater-resistant:
solvents
Gluebondcanbesoftened
withwaterfor disassembly thatrequire
a longworking
time
. Strongbond- Cabi
Protein-based;
available
in granular
or liquidform;nottoxicorflammable
netconstruction,
antique
r Setting
ing,working
time3-5 minutes
timet hour;curestullyin 24 hoursr Sandable, restoration,
veneering,
andfine
gluebondcanbesoftened
driesa darkcolorr Notwater+esistant,
withwaterfordisassembly woodworking

Fishglue

Hideglue

Casein
glue

. Average
Milk-based,
comesin powdered
form;nottoxicorflammable
bonding;
working 0ily woodsthat bondpoorly
. Setting
time l5 to 20 minutes
withotherglues,
time15 to 20 minutes,
suchasteak,
curesfullyin 8 to 12 hours
e Highresistance
yew,andlemonwood;
laminating
to water,driesan opaque
color,sandscleanly,
stainsacidicwoods

Plastic
resin

Urea-formaldehyde-based,
available
in powdered
form;notflammable
buttoxic
. Strongbonding,
working
time20 minutes. Settingtime4 to 6 hours;curesfully
in 3 days. Waterresistance
glues,doesnotstainacidic
higherthanthatof aliphatic
woods,
sandscleanly

REMOVING
EXCESS
GLUE
Scraping
awayadhesive
Onceall yourclampshavebeentightened,usea puttyknifeto remove
as
glueasposmuchof thesqueezed-out
sibleafterit setsbutbefore
it cures.
Themoisture
fromadhesive
leftonthe
surface
will beabsorbed
bythewood,
causing
swelling
andslowing
drying
time;
gluecanalsoclogsandpaper,
hardened
dullplanerknives,
andrepelwoodstain.
Oncetheadhesive
hasdried,usea paint
scraper
to remove
anysqueeze-out
thatremains(/eff).

t
I

r
I
I
t
I
t

r
I
I
I

Veneering,
laminating,
and
edge-gluing
hardwood

t9

I
I

I
I
I
t
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I

r
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

BrrTTIONTS
pocketholes,
isdetailed
on page36.
f allthejointsusedto assemjoinery
joint
needsare
Most
other
is
the
butt
bleboards,
filled
by
dowels,
compressed-wood
most
straightforward.
certainlythe
"biscuitsl'
which
or splines,
wafers
or
Affixingthe edge,end,or faceof
parts
of a
to
align
can
also
serve
another
may
oneboardto that of
joint
not
require
reinforcethat
do
produce
the strongest
not always
mastery
of a
ment.Eachdemands
joint. However,
a properlyreinprothe
technique-but
joint
specialized
is an excellent
forcedbutt
aresimpleandtheyallow
cedures
ofwoodworking
optionfor dozens
quick
assembly
of strong,attracjoining
the
smallerboards
tasks,from
in
which
themechanical
tive
ioints
carintoawidepanelto assembling
parts
hidden
fromview.
can
be
cases
andframes.
techjoint
At
least
one
butt-joining
no
Thesimplebutt contains
joint-is
key
nique-the
butterfly
parts,relyinginstead
interlocking
jig shownabovecutsaccurate
notmeantto behidden;in factit is
Thecommercial
on thegluebondfor its strength.
asfor
usedasmuchfor decoration
pocket
of
setup
time.
a
minimum
holeswith
Thesolidityof thatbondis deterjoint
jig
In
this
a
doublestrength.
the
the
damped
in
Wth thewo*piece
minedby thegrainorientationof
dovetailkey-the butterfly-is cut
router-likecutterispivotedinto thefaceof
the matingboards.Gluinglong
woodandused
froma contrasting
hole.
cut
the
theboardto
grainto longgrain,asin panel,edge,
Docket
joints
two
edge-joined
(page
to
tie
together
22),
andface-to-face
keycan
patience,
but
a
well-set
demands
The
butterfly
All
boards.
requiringno reinforcement.
produces
a solidconnection,
The
steps
to
making
oneare
joints
feature
of
a
tabletop.
proa
striking
be
involveendgrain;thisporoussurface
otherbutt
page
39.
gluingsur{acethan
anequivalentarea shownon
videsamuchleseffective
scale
istheuseof
At theotherendof theform-to-function
endgrainjointsmustbereinforced.
of longgrain.Therefore,
asbutcher
workaday
surfaces
rods
to
reinforce
such
but cabi- threaded
Nailsandscrewscanbeusedfor reinforcement,
builtup
These
are
often
and
countertops.
netmakerstry to avoidthem for two principalreasons: blocla,workbenches,
page
rods
27
andthe
serveto
on
stochasshown
thefasteners,
andnei- of face-glued
Additionalworkis requiredto conceal
,
joining
humidity
changes.
job
when
room
theheavyslab
endgrainassomeof thealter- stabilize
therdoesasgooda
startingonpage28;bisareexplained
Dowelingtechniques
superiorfor oneapplication,
areconsidered
natives.
Screws
joinery
page
and
the
correctuseof splines
32,
beginson
atabletopto itssup- cuit
however,
andthatis thetaskof fastening
page
on
38.
drillingangled is detailed
whichinvolves
portingrails.Thetechnique,

provideeffective
buttjoint reinforcement.
Biscuits
Here,theovalwafersare usedtojoin thesidesof
Thegluecausesthebiscuitsto expandin
a carcase.
strongjoint.
their slots,creatingan excePtionally

2l

A CATALOGOF BUTT IOINTS


SIMPTE
BUTT
IOINTS
(Seepage24)

Edge-to-edge;
panel butt

PTATE
JOINTS
(Seepage32)

I
I
I
I

BUTTIOINTS

DOWET
JOINTS
(Seepage28)

t
I
t
t

Edge-to-faae

iri
irti
l\rl

liii
il"'ji

it :ii: i

I
I
I

ii r qiii i ."'

I
I

t
t

ij, ii

\ 1

'

, "

SPTINE
JOINTS
(Seepage38)
, '

End-to-edge

,#jt"t-i

a '

f-'i':'

Atina
ffi,,
I.
I:
I:

';t\1
ii li

iiIl
l J[ i
ifil

II ri

ll li l!i l i

I;
Ir
Ii

l il i
l ll i
ir'Ni

Ir

- :
I:

ilil1
""

ii ti

lili

ill.

r : t , r
i."':1/

Edge-to-edge

,Z

',,/ i
,,)

ir,i
i..-l
:i .l

ii:%

BUTTERFTY
'(lINT
(Seepage39)

I
I
I

Ed6e-to-face

MAKINGBUTTIOINTS
T umberis seldomavailablein planls
I--r wide enoughfor a tabletopor a
panel;sometimesit cannotbe
carcase
found thick enough for a specific
task-a tableleg,for example.Often,
whenyou canfind suchstock,it is prohibitivelyexpensive.
To compensate
for
theseshortcomings,
woodworkersglue
individualboardstogether.Panelsare
constructedfrom edge-to-edge
butt
joints, asshownbelow.Legblanksare
madeby facegluing boards (page25).
Providedthe matingsurfaces
havebeen
jointed smoothand square,and the
propergluingand clampingtechniques
arefollowed,the resultsarestrongand
durable.In fact,a well-assembled
edgeto-edgeor face-to-face
butt joint pro-

videsa sturdierbondthanthewood
fibersthemselves.
Beforeedgegluingboards,
arrange
thestocksothefaceof thepanelwill be
visuallyinteresting.
Thepinel should
createthe illusionof a singlepiece

of wood ratherthan a composite.To


minimizewarping,mostwoodworkers
arrangethe piecessothat the endgrain
ofadjacentboards
facesin opposite
directions(page25).
Usea pencilto markthe
endgrainorientationon eachboard.

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

A jointerproduces
a smooth,
straight,evenedge.Gluingjointed
boardstogetheredge-to-edge
will
panel
a
that
is
every
bit
as
form
strongasa singlepieceof lumber.

I
I

EDGE
GTUING
theglue
1 Applying
I Settwobarclamps
ona worksurface
andlaythe boards
on top.Useasmany
clamps
asyouneedto support
thepieces
at 24-Io 36-inchintervals.
Keepthebars
uprightbyplacing
themin notched
wood
blocks.
Arrange
thestockto enhance
its
appearance,
making
suretheendgrain
o f t h e b o a r d rsu n si n a l t e r n a tdei r e c tions.Withthe piecesbuttededge-toedge,marka triangleon the stockto
helpyourearrange
theboards
at glueup.
Nextcut two protective
woodpadsat
leastaslongastheboards.
Leaving
the
firstboardfacedown,standtheother
pieces
onedgewiththetriangle
marks
facingawayfromyou.Applya thinglue
beadto eachedge(right),then usea
small,stiff-bristled
brushto spread
the
adhesive
evenlv.

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
24

t
t

I
I
I
I
I

BUTTIOINTS

t
I
I
I

t
I
I
.

t
I
I
I
I

r) Tightening
theclamps
L Settheboards
facedownandlineuptheirends,making
surethesidesof thetriangle
align.Tighten
theclamps
under
justenough
theboards
to press
Install
themtogether.
a third
clampacross
thetop centerof thestock.Finishtightening
theclamps(above)
untiltherearenogapsbetween
theboards
anda thin beadof gluesqueezes
outof thejoints.To level

adjacent
boards
thatdo notlie perfectly
flushwitheachother,
usea C clampanda woodpadcentered
overthejointnearthe
endof the boards;
usea stripof waxpaperto prevent
the pad
fromsticking
to theboards.
Thentightentheclampuntilthe
boards
arealigned(insef).

FACE
GTUING

I
I
I
I
I
I

Gluing
upboards
face-to-face
Cutyourstockslightly
longer
andwider
youto square
thannecessary
to enable
theblankif theboards
shiftduringglueup.Layouttheboards
face-to-face,
alternating
t h ee n dg r a i no f t h ep i e c eas n d
grainand
arranging
thestockto maximize
glueononematingsurface
color.Spread
of eachjoint,thenuseC clamps
to hold
thepieces
together.
Starting
neartheends
of the boards,
spacethe clampsat 3protect
to 4-inchintervals;
thestockwith
. ighten
w o o dp a d s T
t h e c l a m p sj u s t
enough
to presstheboards
together.
Turn
theassembly
overso it sitson thef irst
rowof clamos
andinstalla second
row
alongthe otheredge(/eft).Finishtight
e n i n ga l lt h ec l a m p us n t i tl h e r ea r en o
gapsbetween
theboards
anda thinglue
beadsqueezes
outof thejoints.

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

25

BUTTTOINTS

I
I

t
I
I
I
I

CLAMPING
TECHNIOUES
F(lRTHREE
BUTT
JOINTS

t
I

t
t
t
t

Gluing
upa jointwithendgrain
gluingalongendgrain,
Sincebothjointsshown
above
involve
youwill needto reinforce
theconnection;
useoneof themethodspresented
laterin thischapter,
suchasdowels,
biscuits,
or
glueonthecontacting
splines.
Spread
surfaces,
thenusebar
clampsto holdthejointtogether.
Forthecasebutt loint(above,
left),settheclampon itssideandtheboards
onedgeon a
worksurface.
Tighten
theclampasyouholdthestocksnug
upagainst
thebarandkeepthejointsquare.
Fora framebutt

I
I
I
right),seItwobarclampsuprightin notched
wood
loinl(above,
blocks
asyouwouldforgluingupa panel(page
24).(Thesecondclampserves
to keeptheboards
level.)
Laytheboards
face
downontheclamps,
making
surethestockiswellsupported.
Applytheadhesive,
buttthepieces
together,
andtighten
the
clamps
whileholding
theboards
in alignment.
Forbothsetups,
usewoodpadsto protectyourstock.

I
I
I
I
I
I
I

Clamping
anedgebuttioint
Settwobarclampson a worksurface
and
laytheboards
ontop,onefacedownand
oneonedge.Usenotched
blocks
andwood
pads.
Spread
someglueonthemating
edge
piece
andboard
face.Holdtheupright
flush
against
thebarwhiletightening
theclamps
a littleat a timeuntiladhesrve
soueezes
out
of thejoint(right).lnslallasmanyadditional clampsas necessary
between
the.first
twoto closeanygapsbetween
the boards.

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
26

t
I

t
I
I

BUTTIOINTS

BOLTS
THROUGH

I
I
I
I
I

Throughboltsare an effectivemeans
of reinforcingworkbench
topsor butcher blocksmadebyfacegluing boards.
In additionto helpingto aligntheboards,
the boltswill reducethepossibility
of splittingor warpingas thewood's
moisturecontentfluctuatesfrom seasonto season.

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

WITHTHROUGH
BOTTS
BUTT
J(IINTS
REINF(|RCING

I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
t
I
I
I
I

thepanel
Gluing
upandholting
placing
Markthreeholesfortheboltsonthefaceof oneboard,
center
onea fewinches
fromeachendandonein themiddle;
Installabit in thedrillpressthat
themarks
between
theedges.
isslightly
larger
thantheboltsandalignthebitwiththemiddle
mark.Clampa stopblockagainst
theendoftheboardanda wood
fenceagainst
itsedge.Usethissetupto drilltheendholesin all
(above,
/eff).Usea similarsetupto borethemiddle
theboards
thetwofaceoieces
to accommodate
thenuts.
holes.Counterbore
a nutononeendof eachthreaded
Prepare
theboltsbythreading

andpunchto jam
rod;striketheendof eachrodwitha hammer
thenutin place.
Stand
thefrontpiece
onedgeandlayalltheothSqueeze
someglueonthe boards
ersfaceupona worksurface.
witha brush(above,
right).Press
the board
andspreadit evenly
keeping
theirendsaligned.
Feedtheboltsthrough
facestogether,
washers
andnuts,andgivean
theholes,
slipontheremaining
to press
theboards
together
as
initialtightening.
Usebarclamps
in thephotoabove.
Finish
tightening
theboltswitha socket
wrench
andadda thirdclampacross
thetopof theassembly.

27

DOWELIOINTS

t
I
I
I
I

t
I

Dowelscantransforma weakbuttjoint into solidjoinery.


In edgegluing(right), thewoodenpins helpalign the
boards.In frame (above,left) and case(above,right) bun
joinery,thedowelsreinforcetherelativelyweakbond
betweenendgrain and longgrain.Doweljointsgenerally
hold up well to shearstress-whenthepiecesarebeing
pushedpasteachother;theyare lesseffective
at resisting
tension-whenthepieces
arebeingpulledapart (pageI 5).

I
I
I
I

r
t
I
I
I

EDGE
WITHDOWEL
GTUING
JOINTS
thedowelholes
1 Marking
yourstockon barclamps
I Arrange
as
for edgegluing(page24). Leauingone
boardfacedown,standtheotherpieces
on edge.Toensure
thatthedowels
are
precisely
centered,
marklinesacross
the
edgesof the boards---one
about4 inches
fromeachendandoneinthemiddle.
Then
adjusta cuttinggaugeto one-half
the
t h i c k n e sosf t h e s t o c ka n du s ei t t o
m a r kt h e c e n t e o
r f t h e e d g ea t e a c h
point(right).
dowellocation
Theinterl i n e sw i l la c c u r a t epl yl a c et h e
secting
Forlonger
dowels.
stock,youmaywant
t o m a r ka d d i t i o n da ol w ehl o l e s .

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
28

I
I

BUTTJOINTS

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
t
I
t

t
t
I

tlltll|l'fl|l
llltlltlllltlllllltlltl]llfillilullllfilltllllluljlllll]
1HO?TI?
Dowelingjig
Thecommercial
dowelina
jiq ehownhereauLomalicallycenlero S1
dowelholeeon
$b.\
Lhe eLock and

epa.ceeLhem n#-"t
aT,tnT,ervala
you choooe.Clampthe workpiece \...
in handecrews,Lhee
ncureNhe
\
boardto a worksurtace.Clampthe jiq
ontroIheed4eof the etock.FiIyourdrill
wibha biILhe samediameheras Nhedowele,
Nheninolalla sloo collarNocontrollhe
drillinqdepIh.)lideNherecLanqular
buehinq
carrieralonqLhe)iq,and ineerl lhe appropriate buehin7io keeVthe bit equareLo Lhe
board.Holdinqlhe drillfirmly,borethe hole.

t
I
I

29

/) Boring
thedowelholes
yourstockwith
l to avoidsplitting
thepins,usegrooved
dowels
thatareno
morethanone-half
thethickness
of the
boards.
Fita drillpress
witha twistor
brad-ooint
bitthesamediameter
asthe
d o w e l st h, e ns e tt h ed r i l l i n g
d e p t ht o
%ainchmorethanone-half
thelength
of thedowels.
Clamp
a fenceto thedrill
press
tableto helpkeeptheboard
edges
perpendicular
to thebit asyouborethe
holes.
Then,holding
theworkpiece
flush
against
thefence,position
onemarked
poind
t i r e c t luyn d etrh eb i t a n db o r e
thehole.Repeat
to drilltheremaining
holeshbovd.

I
I
I
I
I

BUTTIOINTS

Forholeson a boardedge,clampthe
JIG
CENTER.DRILTING
andsetthejig onthe
Thissimplejig willletyouboreholes stockedge-up
on a board's
thatarealways
centered
faceor edge.Cutthe 18-incharm
trom2-by-2stock,Markthe center
of thetoofaceof the armandborea
(inset).The
holefor a guidebushing
larger
than
shouldbeslightly
bushing
the holesyouplanto drill,Sizethe
g i l lf i t s n u g l y ,
h o l es ot h eb u s h i nw
thenpressit in place.
Turnthearmoverandmarka line
downits middle.Markoointsonthe
lineroughly1 inchfromeachend
fromthecenter,
thenbore
equidistant
through
the
a %-inchholehalfway
armat eachmark.Dabsomegluein
dowels.
the holesandinsertgrooved
Theyshouldprotrude
byabout%inch,
To usethejig, placeit on theworkpiecesothatthedowelsbuttagainst
opposite
edgesof thestock,Fit the
d r i l lb i t i n t ot h e b u s h i n ag n db o r e
the hole (right).

themating
dowelholes
Q Pinpointing
r-J lnsertdowelcenters
thesamediamet e r a st h ed o w e l si n e a c ho f t h e h o l e s
(right),thenlaythe boardsonthe clamps
w i t ht h et r i a n g lm
e a r k fsa c i n gu p .A l i g n
the marksandpressthe boardedges
endsof thedowel
Thepointed
together,
pierce
edgeof theadjawill
the
centers
pointsfor
providing
board,
starting
cent
Bore
these
holes
mating
dowel
holes.
the
2.
as
in
step
to thesamedepth

flushagainst
stockwiththedowels
facesof the board.
opposite

I
I
I

t
t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

30

I
I

I
I

BUTTIOINTS

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I

t
I

t
I
I
I

uptheboards
1l Gluing
-T
Arrange
theboards
on barclamps,
usingwoodpadsandnotched
blocks,
24).
asyouwouldfor edgegluing(page
Applya thingluebeadontheedges
to
joined
and
spread
it
evenly.
Use
a
be
s t i c kt o d a ba s m a lal m o u not f a d h e sivein the bottomof eachdowelhole.
gluedirectly
Donotspread
onthedowels;themoisture
willcause
themto swell.
Insert
thedowels
andusea hammer
to
poundAvoid
tapthemintofinalposition.
ingw
, h i c hc a nc a u s a
e b o a r tdo s p l i t .
C l a m tph ej o i n tu n t itl h eg l u ei sc u r e d .

Iltilllttllllll]tlllI]l}tljltll]tlljtll}Illlflltlll1
fiI]llltfit]ultlll1
5HO7Tt?
Ueing a dowelbo etrengthen a butt joint,
)crewe do noNholdwellin endqrain,so a fasNeneron iNeownie eelTo
dom eNronqenouqhNokeepan end-No-face
buLt,joinLNoqebher.
reinforceIhe connecNion,
holeverlically
borea 3/e-inch-diameter
Nhrough
NheendgrainpieceabouNl/z
inchfrom iIe end,Gluea dowel
in Nheholeand leNLheadheeive
dry.Thendriveyour ocrewethrouqh
the maLinqpieceinNothe dowel.The
ecrewewillbewell
anchoredin Ihe lonqqrainof trhedowel.

I
I

t
I
t
I
I

31

PLATEJOINTS
tt,.

'f'..,
'

,',,

'-

Theplate,or biscuit,joint is strongand simple,althoughit recluires


theuseof a specialized
toolcalleda platejoiner,shownonpage33.
Thetool'sretractable
bladeplungesinto thematingboqrds,cutting
beech.Once
semicircular
slotsthat acceptovalwafersof compressed
glueis added,thebiscuitsswell,creatinga solid,durablejoint-even
permitin endgrain. Theslotsarecut slightlylargerthan thebiscuits,
proper
ting a smallmarginof errorwhileensuring
alignment.

EDGE
GTUING
BOARDS

;]
I _,

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
slotlocations
1t Markins
I Arrange
theboards
to bejoinedandmarka triangle
onthesurfaces
asin edge
(above).
gluing(page24.fhen
markcenterlinesfortheslotsacrosstheboardseams
Startatleast2 inches
in fromeachendandadda markabouteverv
8 inches.

JZ

I
I
I
I
I

BUTTIOINTS

I
I
I

r) Cutting
theslots
L Setthe platejoiner's
depthof cut
t o s u i tt h eb i s c u i tyso ua r eu s i n ga n d
adjustthefenceto centertheslotsin
the board
edges.
Laying
thefenceontop
of thestock,aligntheguideline
onthe
faceplate
witha slotlocation
markon
t h ew o r k p i e c T
eu
. r no n t h e t o o la n d
plunge
thebladeintotheboardto cut
theslot(/eff).Repeat
the procedure
at
theotherslotlocation
marks.
Withthin
stock,thetool'sbaseplatemaytouch
theworksurface,
shifting
thealignment
of theslots.Toprevent
this,position
the
workpiece
at theedgeof thetablesothe
baseplatedoesnotrestonthetabletop.

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I

thebiscuits
Q Inserting
r-,1andgluinguptheboards
Onceall theslotshavebeencut,Ieave
thelastboardfacedownandstandthe
others
on edgewiththeslotsfacingup.
A p p l ya b e a do f g l u ea l o n gt h e b o a r d
edges
andin theslots,insertrng
biscuits
asyougo (right).(lf youareworking
with
longboards
it is betterto waituntilallthe
adhesive
hasbeenapplied
before
inserti n gt h e b i s c u i ttso p r e v e nt th e mf r o m
youhavetimeto complete
swelling
before
g l u eu p . )T h eb o t t l es h o w ni n t h e i l l u s t r a t i o ni s s p e c i a l ldye s i g n etdo a p p l y
adhesive
evenly
onthesidesof theslots;
gluebottle,
if youareusinga standard
s p r e atdh eg l u ew i t ha s m a l w
l ooden
stick.Spread
theadhesive
evenly
onthe
board
edges,
thenfit theboards
together
q u i c k l yt o p r e v e nt th e b i s c u i t fsr o m
s w e l l i npgr e m a t u r eHl yo. l dt h e b o a r d s
together
withbarclamps
asin edgegluing.

JJ

BUTTIOINTS

WITHPLATE
JOINTS
A CARCASE
ASSEMBLING

theslotsat thecorners
1 Cutting
youwill
here,
J. Withthesetupshown
beableto cutalltheslotsforonecarcase
t o v i ntgh ep a n e l sS. e t
c o r n ew
r i t h o um
outside-face
down
oneof thesidepanels
upon
andlaythetoppieceoutside-face
letters
to identitopof it, usingreference
thetoppancorners.
Offset
fy thecarcase
thenclampthe
el bythestockthickness,
p i e c eisn p l a c eP
. l a c ea s u p p o rbt o a r d
asthestockin front
the samethickness
thenmarkthe slotlocaof thepanels,
Setting
theplate
tionson thetoppanel.
j o i n eor nt h es u p p o rbt o a r da, l i g nt h e
g u i d e l i noen t h ef a c e p l a twei t ha s l o t
locatiom
n a r ko n t h e s t o c k G
. r i pt h e
j o i n ew
r i t hb o t hh a n d a
s n dc u tt h es l o t
(above).
Repeat
theprocess
at theother
theplatejoiner
marks
andthen,turning
o ne n d a
, l i g nt h eg u i d e l i ni net h ec e n t e r
witha slotmark
of thetool'sbaseplate
(right).
Pushthetooldownto cut the
g r o o v ei n
s t h es i d ep a n e lr;e p e atth e
forthe
clamping
andcuttingprocedure
othercarcase
corners.

34

I
I
t
I
I
T
I
I
t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
t
I
I
I
I
I

I
I
t
t
I

BUTTIOINTS

t
I
I
I
I
I

'7+-==rz
I

uidepanel

Keferenceletter

t
I
I

r) Cutting
slotsfora shelf
L MarV,
slotlocation
linesat bothendsof theshelf.Mark
youwishto
where
linesacross
theinside
faceof bothsidepanels
position
panel,
thensettheshelfatoponeside
aligning
theshelf,
line.Clamp
theworkpieces
in place.
itsedgewiththereference
tool'sbaseplateagainst
Cuttheslotsinthepanel
byholdingthe

guideline
theshelfandaligningthe
in thecenter
of theplate
withthe location
marksontheshelf(above,
left).Usetheguidelinesonthetool'sfaceplate
to alignandcuttheslotsin theshelf
(above,
righ).Reposition
theshelfontheothersidepaneland
procedure.
repeat
the

upthecarcase
Q Gluing
r-,f Oncealltheslotshavebeencut,set
theoanels
andshelfontheworksurface
outside-face
down.Applyglueandinsert
b i s c u i tisn t ot h e i rs l o t sa n da l o n gt h e i r
edges
asforgluingup boards
33).
@age
Assemble
thecarcase,
f ittingthetopand
bottom
oanels
andtheshelfontooneside
andthenadding
theotherside(seephoto,
page20). Installtwobarclampsacross
thetopandbottom,
usingwoodpadsto
protect
thestock.Close
theshelfjoints
withbarclamps
at thefrontandbackof
placing
a %-inchlhick
wood
thecarcase,
pad
maintain
shimunder
each to
clamping
pressure
at themiddleof theshelf.Tighten
t h es h i mc l a m p as l i t t l ea t a t i m eu n t i l
therearenogapsbetween
the contacti n gs u r f a c easn da s m a l b
l e a do f g l u e
squeezes
outof the joints(left).

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I

35

POCKE,T
HOLES
Pockctltolcsart'ctttrrrrronls,
trsadwitlr
- . c r c r r , - s .tlrbt rt o c h i n gt t t t b l e t o p t o t l t c
s t r p p o r l i r trgo i l s .I ) r i l l et l o t o r t n r t g l e ,
tlrey s111t,,
tlrcprLtblurrLt.l-lnt,ittg
to screu/
straiglrttlrrLttrgh
3- or 4-irrch-widestock;
tltcy olsocorrccolthe.firsturcrs.
Otreo.ltltc rrtttttl,pockat
lrclc ligstrt,silsble
, thc
t t t o t l c ls l t o w tnr t r i g l t tc l o r t t ptsl t ay , o r k picccitt positiort
rtnd.f'cotttres
o ltttsltirtg
t l r a t k c c p st l t e t l r i l l l t i t a t t l t c c o r r e c t
nrtglc.TlrccottrLtintttiort
ltit sltowrrborcs
n clcurortcc
lutlc.fitrthc screy,sltortkarrd
c o t r r t t c r s i r t tkhsc l r o l c . l ' otrh c h e n d i r r
t t r r co p c r o t i o t tA
. s t o pc o l l o ra t t o c h e d
t o t l t cI t i t r c g t r l o t ct sh c d r i l l i t r gd c p t h .

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
REINFORCING
A BUTTJ()INTWITHP()CKET
HOLES

t
t
t

J o i n i n rga i l st o a t a b l e t o p
B o r et h e p o c k eht o l e st h r o u g thh e r a r l s .
L qn p a n e l e r ^ t rdi rr i l lw i t ha c o m m e r c i a l
l r g l r k et h e o n es h o w na b o v eo, r a d r i l l
p r e s sa r d a s h o p - m a d1et g( p a g e3 7 ) .
spart.
S p a c et h e h o l e sa b o r t4 i n c h e a
L fy o ua " eu s i n ga d r r l lw i t ha s p e c i aclo m
b i n a t i o nb i t ,t h e h o l e sc a n b e b o r e di n a
sirgleoperation.
Othenryise,
borethe holes
i n t w os t e p sw i t ht w od r f f e r e nbtr a d - p o i n t
b i t s :S t a r tw i t ho n es l r g h t llya r g etrh a nt h e
d i a m e t eor f I h e s c r e wh e a d s s. o t h e y
can be recessed
asshown,andthenbore
r h eo l h e ra l i t l l e' a r p etrh a nt h e s c r e w
shanks
to allowfor somemovement.
Once
^l
dr

+L^ f,^l^^
lilc ilurc)

f,^.,^ a^^^
ildvv uccr

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

^,,+ ^^r +L^ r^Lt^


L u L , ) c L L rr c L d u r c

topfacedownon a worksurfaceand mark


l l n e so n i t s u n d e r s i dt o
e h e l py o u p o s i . l i g na r a i lw i t ho n eo f
t i o nt h e r a l l s A
t h el i n e sa n dd r i v e
t h es c r e wtso a t t a c ht h e
b o a r dt o t h e t o p ( r i g h t ) .R e p e a tf o r t h e
o t h er a i l s .

36

I
I
I
I

BUTTIOINTS

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

A POCKET
HOI.E
JIG
To boreoocketholeson thedrill
press,usea pocketholejig (right),
plywood
from3/a-inch
shop-made
of solidstock.
andtwosmallpieces
Referto the illustration
forsuggesteddimensions.
Screwthetwosidesof the cradle
to forman L. Thencut a
together
fromeachsupport
90'anglewedge
bracket
sothatthe widesideof the
willsit at anangleof 15"from
cradle
to
thevertical.
Screwthe brackets
the jig base,andattachthecradle
ontopof the brackets.
Tousethejig,seattheworkpiece
i n t h ec r a d l ew i t ht h es i d et o b e
drilledfacingoutanditstopedgesitBorethe
tingin theV of thecradle.
holesin twosteoswithtwodifferentbitsasyouwouldwithanelectric
drill(page36). ln thiscase,a Forstner
bit areshown.
bitanda brad-ooint
TheForstner
bit cutsa flai-bottomed
holeidealforrecessing
screwheads.
F i r s ti,n s t a l l t h be r a d - p o ibnitt
s n ds e tt h ej i g o n
i n t h ed r i l lp r e s a
W
t h et o o l ' st a b l e . i t ht h em a c h i n e
the
off. lowerthe bit andposition
j i g t o a l i g nt h eb i t w i t ht h ec e n t e r
of thebottomedgeof theworkpiece

9upport bracket
| 1/2"x 3" x 41/2".

(below,lefil. Clampthe jig to the


thebrad-point
with
tableandreplace
the Forstner
bit.
firmlyin the
Holding
theworkpiece
j i g ,f e e dt h e b i t s l o w l tyo b o r et h e

T
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I

37

holesjustdeepenough
to recess
the screwheads(below,right).To
reinstall
complete
thepocketholes,
thebrad-point
bitandborethrough
theworkpiece.

SPLINEIOINTS

I
t
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
Splines
arethin stripsof woodcommonlyusedto alignandreinforcebux
joints,liketheedge,case,andpaneljointsshownaboye(clockwisefrom
top left). Madefrom plywoodor solidwoodno morethan1/:thethickness
of thestoclgsplinesextendintogrooves
cut in bothmatingsurfaces.
Solidwoodsplinesshouldbecut with thegrain runningacross
theirwidth,
ratherthanlengthwise,
toprovidemaximumstrength.Thewidth of the
grooves
shouldequalthethickness
of thesplines;
theirdepthshouldbe
slightlymorethanone-halfthewidth of thesplinesto allowfor excess
glue.

REINFORCING
A BUTT
WITHA SPLINE
JOINT

I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I

grooves
Cutting
andinserting
splines
Markthethickness
of thesolineon the
leading
endof oneboard.Installa dado
headof theappropriate
widthonthetable
sawandsetthedepthof cut.Alignthe
m a r k so n t h ew o r k o i e cwei t ht h ed a d o
head,thenbuttthefenceagainst
theface
of thestock.Tosecure
theworkpiece
duri n gt h ec u t ,c l a m pa s h i mt o t h et a b l e
andscrewa featherboard
on top.The
shimwillallowthefeatherboard
to suoportthe middleof theworkpiece.
Turn
onthesawandfeedthe boardintothe
dadohead,keeping
theworkpiece
firmly
against
thefence(right).lf youareworkingwithnarrow
stock,usea pushstick
to complete
thepass.Repeat
thecuton
thematingboard,
thenspread
someglue
inthegrooves,
insert
thespline,
andclamp
theboards
as in panel(page25) or edge
buttgluing(page26). (Caution:
Blade
guardremoved
for clarity.)

t
t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
38

t
I
I
t

KEYIOINTS
BUTTERFLY
Alsoknown as a doubledovetail,the butterfly keyjoint servesto strengthenpanel
joints. If it is cut from a contrastinghardwood, the key adds a decoratiueelement.
Thereare severalmethodsfor making the
joint, but here,the keysarefashionedon
a table sqw and the recesses
for the keys
areplowed with a router.

I
I
I

t
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I

A BUTTERFLY
KEYJOINT
MAKING

t
I
keyjoint
Making
a butterfly
shape
on
Tomakeseveral
keys,
outline
thedouble-wing
your
grain
runs
stock,
making
sure
the
along
the
theendof
Adjust
key
rather
than
across
its
width.
the
length
of the
bladeangleonthetablesawto 10",alignoneof thekey
m a r k so n t h e b o a r dw i t ht h e b l a d ea n db u t tt h ef e n c e
witha featheragainst
thestock,Support
theworkpiece
each
sideof the
setatopa shim.Makea ripcuton
board
it
overandsaw twicemoreto
workpiece,
thenturntheboard
pattern.
Feedthestockwitha push
cutoutthebutterfly
(/eft).
keysfromtheboardontheband
stick
Cutindivioual
and
saw.Routtherecesses
forthekeysusinga template
outlineone
straight
bit.Tomakethetemplate,
a top-piloted
andcut outthepattern
of thekeyson a pieceof plywood
reference
linesfor
witha saber
saw.Thenmarkintersecting
Clamp
thelocation
of thekeyonthepanelandtemplate.
thereference
lines
thetemplate
atopthestock,aligning
(abovd,androuttherecess
to a depthequalto thethickwitha chisnessof thekey.Square
thecorners
of therecess
adhesive
intherecess
andinsert
el.Toglueinthekey,spread
thepanel,
usingclamps
at
thekey.Laya woodpadacross
itsendsto holdthekeyin placewhilethegluedries.

I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
T
I
I
I
I
I

39

-.t

"ff
i
.

i
I

'

,
:
llr,.

: l

, l

l
i

; ':1."J' .
i li

,l
rr1

. i i,,t:,,

t
I

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

r
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

r
I
I

MITERIOINTS
joints,theyarestronger.
iters are among
thecommonest
of
Still,anyend-grainmiter
joints.Buildersusethem
mustbe reinforcedwith
glueblods,
whentrimming around
splines,
dowels,
windowsanddoors;cabior biscuits.
netmakers
miter
Insertingsplinesis the
usually
: ,
methodmostcommonly
carcase
comersandprcture
framesbecause
themiter
usedto providereinforceconcealsend grain. Alment(page48).Consistthoughframesandboxes
ing of nothingmorethan
stripsof hardwoodor plyusuallydemand90ocorners,a miterjoint maybe
wood,splinesare glued
intogrooves
anyangle.All areequally
thatarecutin
A miter boxis invaluablefor makingaccurateanglecuts.
simpleto make,solongas
bothhalves
of ajoint.The
the rulesof miteringare
Thecommercial
modelshownabovecomeswith itsown
resultis a strong,durable
followed:Eachintersectsmu,a solid metalbase,and legsthat canbefasteneddown
bond-even though its
ingendmustbecutexactto a work surfacefor addedstability.
intention may be more
lv at one-halfthe total
decorative
thanfunctional,
forminga90oangleare likethefeathered
splinedemonstrated
on page49.
angleofthecomer.Thus,thetwopieces
Theanglesof a miterjoint canmakeit difficultto align
cutat45oeach;thoseforminga 45oanglearecutat22L/zo.
joints:
Therearetwo tfpesof miter
facemitersandedge duringassembly;
usespecialclampsandjigslike thoseillus(page
miters.Facemiters
45)arecut across
thefacesof the tratedonpages
50and55to maketheglue-upprocess
easier.
pieces,
andareoftenusedto connectstilesandrailsin frame- And,properlymade,
thereinforcements
themselves
canassure
and-panel
construction
orjoin themembers
of apictureframe. properalignment.
Edgemiters(page51)canbemadealongtheedges
oftheworkWhetherreinforced
or not,thesuccess
of everymiterjoint
pieces
or across
theendgrain-alsoknownasendmitersor
depends
on accurate
cutting.Thetablesawmiterjig on page
bevelmiters.Because
edgemitersconceal
thematingsurfaces, 46is designed
to easethattask.Butwhetheryouareusinga
theyareusedextensively
in plywoodcarcase
construction.
tablesaw,radialarmsaw,or abaclsawwitha miterbox,careMiter jointsarenot onlypreferredfor their cleanlines. ful measurement
andpropersetupwill producestrong,attracBecause
they offer more gluing areathan ordinarybutt
tivejointsthatwill lastfor years.

I
I

r
I

t
I
I

Makingan octagonal
carcaselilethetablesupportshownat
lefi calkfor a seria of identicalbevelcuts.For theeightpieces
tofit properly,eachedgemustbecut at an angleof 221/2"
so
that the total of all theanglesaddsup to 360".

4I

t
I

COMMON MITE,RIOINTS

I
I
I
End miter
(eee page 51)
Face mit'er
(aeepage 45)

Ed6e miter
(eeepaqe 51)
Mitered doweljoint
Dowelainaerted ae
in butt doweljoint
(paqe 28)

Eeveled plate joint


(aee page 54)

I
I
I
I
T
I
I
I
I
I

Mitered plate joint,


(aee paqe 54)

Miter-and-apline
(oee paqe 4B)

%
Copedjoint
(aee paqe 47)

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

Feat'her-apline
(eee paqe 49)

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

I
I

JIGSAND ACCESSORIES

gggg

| i l | l r l{bi l l r | J
(fP
tlP.J/
For clampinqcarcaeee,eepeciallythoee
with beveledcorners; includeabracketa of
vanoualengthato keepcornerggquare

This commercial miter box. which comeswith


its own handsaw,can be adjustedto make a cut
at any anglebetween0" and 90".For maximum
convenience,thejig isfastenedto a plywood base,
which is then clamped to the work surface.

Corner clamp
Clampemiter joinLe up to 3
tncheawtdea0 thaL adjointnq
pieceaare kep| at riqht anqlea
to each other; four clampeare
required to qlue up frame in
one operation

Piature frame alamp


Four-cornerclamp uoedto aoaemble
picture framea and other rectanqular
work;2- to 4B-tnch clampin4capacity

A $ \

red

Miter box
Uaedw'rtha backaawto cut mitera and bevele.
Modelahownfeaturea alota for atrai4ht cute,
45" miter cuta, and 45" bevelcute; clampe
at each end hold workpiecein place

N
Webalamp
AIao knownae eLrap clamp:used to apply equalpreaoure
around the ctrcumferenceof a pteceae whenclamptnga
carcaaeaaaembledwith aeveralbeveledpiecee(paqe40),
Typicallyfeaturea a f-inch-wide,l5-foot-lonq nylonatrap with
a raLchettnqbuckle,four corner bracketa,and a wrench

t
I

MAKING MITERJOINTS

The radial arm saw cuts miter joints cluicklyand accurately.The arm
that supportsthe motor and bladeswivelsto either sidefor face miter
cuts. The motor can also be tilted for bevelcuts. Swivelingthe arm
and tilting the motor producesa compoundcut.

A MITER
BOX
frontandbackpieces
sothatthe
piecesof
Cutthree15-inch-long
depthof the boxwill be% inchless
plywood
hardwood
or 3/a-inch
for the
thanthewidthof yourbacksaw
blade
baseandthefrontandbackoieces. fromits teethto the bottomof the
Makethe basewideenough
for the
s p i n eC
. u tt h ef r o n tp i e c e1 i n c h
stockyouwill be sawing.
Ripthe
widerthanthebackoieceto forma

f) esistthetemptationto cul.miters
r\ freehand;
theslightest
errorwill
resultin gapsthat arJesthetically
and
structurally
unsound.If you aremaking a standard45ocut, usea combinationsquareto setup your tablesaw
or radialarm saw;or usea miter box
with a backsawFor a miter or bevel
cut at anyotherangle,adjustyour saw
usinga slidingbevelanda protractor.
Maketestcutson a scrapboard,then
checkyour results.Throughuse,the
slots in a wooden miter box can
becomeout-of-square
or too wide,
resultingin a poorlyfittingjoint; you
canachievea goodfit by sawingone
halfof a joint faceup andthe mating
piecefacedown.

T
I
I
I
I
T
I
I
I
T

t
I
I
I

lip at the bottomof the box.Screw


thefrontandbackoieces
to thebase
sothatthetopedgesof the boxare
level.Usea combination
souare
to
markcuttinglinesfortheslotson
the box'stop edges.Layouta 90'
angleslot3 inchesfromoneend,
anda 45' angleslot3 inches
from
theotherend.Outline
a second
45o
slotin theopposite
direction
between
thefirsttwoslots.Makethecutswith
a backsaw,
usingblocks
clamped
to
e i t h esr i d eo f t h ec u t t i n gl i n e st o
guidetheblade.
To usethebox,secure
the lip in a
vise,thensettheworkpiece
onthe
aligning
base,
thecuttinglinewith
theappropriate
slot;clampthe
boardto thebackpiece.Startthe
you
cut bypullingthebladetoward
push
a fewtimes,thenfinishwith
andpullstrokes(/eft).

t
I
I
I
t
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

I
I
I
I
I

FACEMITERS
A FACE
MITERJ()INT
MAKING

I
T
I
I
I
I
I
I

Facemiter joints are a popular


choicefor pictureframes;they hide
end grain end direct the eye toward
the centerof theframe.

I
t
t
I
I
I
I
I

themiter
1 Cutting
I Tousethecommercial
miterbox
shown,
secure
thelegsto a worksurface.Swivel
thesawassembly
until
thepointer
indicates
themiterangle
youneed;
check
theangle.
Raise
the
sawassembly
ontheguidepostsand
s l i pt h ew o r k p i e cuen d etrh eb l a d e
a n do n t h e b a s eo f t h e m i t e rb o x .
A l i g nt h ec u t t i n g
l i n ew i t ht h eb l a d e
andbuttthe boardagainst
thefence,
thenlower
thebladeontotheworkpiece,
Holding
thestockf irmly,
make
thecutasyouwouldwitha shop-made
miterbox(above).

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
t
I
I

r) Clamping
thejoint
L Apply
adhesive
onthecontacting
surfaces
of thejoint.lf youareusing
corner
clamps
forglueup,youwillneedan individual
clampforeachcorner
boards
in theclamps
andtighten
thetwoscrews
of theframe.Fitadjoining
alternately
untilthejointsareIighI(above).

I
I
I

MITER IOINTS

t
I
A MITER
JIGFOR
THETABTE
SAW
Making
mitercutson long,wide,or
%"x31/z"x20'1"
heavy
workpieces
canbetricky.The
Clearplaettc
shop-built
miterjig at rightmakes
the
4uard
Referto the illustration
taskeasier.
for suggested
dimensions.
Keinforctnqblock
% "x 1 ' 1 x" 6 % "
Cuttwo25-inch-long
hardwood
runners
thesamewidthasthesaw's
mitergaugeslots.Boreclearance
holesforscrews
intotheundersides
of
fromeachend
therunners,
3 inches
andevery
6 inches
in between.
Place
therunners
in theslots,thenslide
themoutto overhang
the backend
With
of thetablebyabout8 inches.
the bladelowered
belowthetable,
Kerf
position
thejig basesquarely
onthe
Dackauppoft piece
runners,
itsedgeflushwiththeirover%"x3k"x13"
hanging
ends;thenscrewtherunners
to thebase,
countersinking
thescrews.
Slidetherunners
andthebaseoffthe
pieceand
frontendof thetableanddrivein the
thejig,centered
between
therunners. a cutthrough
thesupport
remaining
screws.
Attachtheback
Then,withtherunners
in themiter
three-quarters
of thewayacross
the
piecealongtherearedgeof
gauge
support
slots,raisethebladeandmake base.
Turnoffthesawandlowerthe
blade.Next,placethemiterarmsat
90oto eachotherin themiddleof the
jig,centered
onthekerf.Screwthe
piecein
armsandthefrontsupport
place.Attachthereinforcing
blocks
to
pieces
thesupport
andfasten
a clear
plastic
guardtotheblocks
blade
with
hanger
bolts,washers,
andwingnuts.
Tousethejig,fit therunners
into
jig
themitergauge
slots.Slidethe
toward
thebackof thetableuntilthe
bladeentersthe kerf.Butttheworkpieceagainst
theleftarmof thejig,
alignthecuttinglinewiththe saw
blade,
andclampa stopblockto the
armat theendof theboard.
Cutthe
miter,holding
theworkpiece
f irmly
against
thearmandstopblock(left).
Makethe matingcut thesameway
usingtherightarmof thejig.
Frnnt

attnnnrl

niere

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

46

I
I

coPEDIOINTS

I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

Copedjoints are often usedto connecttwo piecesof contouredmolding


at inside corners.They are superior to standard mitersfor concealing
slight inaccuraciesin thefit of thepieces.Coping is a two-stepoperation.
First, a standard 45" bevelcut is made at the end of onepiece.This
revealsa contour line, which can then befollowed with a copingsaw.

CUTTING
A COPED
JOINT
Coping
contoured
molding
Cuttheendof a pieceof molding
at a
45" angle
to reveal
thecontour
lineon
theface.Tomakethecopedcut,clamp
themolding
face-up
on a worksurface,
protecting
theworkpiece
witha wood
pad.Install
a narrow
bladeona coping
saw,making
surethattheteetharefacingthehandle
sothatthesawcutson
thepullstroke.
Cutalongthecontour
l i n ec a r eufl l yw i t ht h es a wb l a d eh e l d
perfectly
upright(left).Fora tightf it,
undercut
thejointslightly,
sothatonly
thefrontof theboardcontacts
theface
prece.
ofthemating
lf theblade
bindsin
thekerf,makeoccasional
release
cuts
intothewaste
to letsmallpieces
fall
away.Position
thecopedendagainst
the
faceof thematingpieceto testthef it.
Smooth
outanyslightirregularities
with
a roundfileorfinesandpaper
wrapped
around
a dowel.

r
I
I
t
I
I
I

t
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

47

MITER-AND.SPLINEIOINTS
Themiter-and-spline
is basicallya facemiter with a splineglued
into groovescut in the mitered ends.For maximum strength,
the spline should be cut so that its grain runs acrossits

width, ratherthan lengthwise,


or bemadefrom plywood.

I
I

t
I
I
I
I

t
I
I

t
I
I
ROUTING
A MITER.AND.SPTINE
'OINT

I
I

thegrooves
Cutting
Makethe45" mitercutsin eachworkpiecef irst.Installa three-wing
slotting
cutterin yourrouterandmountthetool
in a table.Position
thefencein linewith
the bit pilot,thenplacetheworkpiece
f lat on thetableandcenterthe bit on
theedgeof thestock.Feedtheworkpiece
holdintothecutterwitha mitergauge,
ingthe edgeof the boardflushagainst
thegaugeandonemitered
endflatagainst
the fence(right).(Youcanalsoroutthe
jointsbyusing
grooves
for miter-and-spline
a straightbit andfeeding
the stockon
end intothe bit.)Onceall thegrooves
havebeenmade,cut a splinefor each
joint;makeit twiceaswideasthedepthof
thegroove,
less%zinchforclearance.
Glue
upthejointasyouwoulda standard
miter
(page45),spreading
gluein thegrooves.

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I

48

I
I
I
I

FEATHER-SPLINE
IOINTS

T
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

joint serves
Thesplinein a feather-spline
moreoJ
a decorative
rolethana structuralone.In contrast
to themiter-and-spline,
thegroovefor thefeather
splineis cut afterthecornerisgluedup.

I
t
I
I
I
I

MAKING
A FEATHER-SPLINE
J()INT
thejig
1 Making
I Youcancutthesrooves
fora featherj o i n to nt t r ei a U t e
spline
s a wu s i n g
the
jig shown
fence-straddling
at left.The
jig feedsthecorner
of a mitered
frame
across
thetableandsquarely
intothe
blade.
Cutthebodyandbracefrom3/qinchplywood
andthearmsfroml-by-2
stock.Makethebody,spacer,
andbrace
a b o u1t 6 i n c h elso n ga n dt h ea r m s1 2
inches
long;thebodyshould
beabout5
inches
wide.(Thethickness
of thespacerandthewidthof thebrace
depend
on
thedimensions
of yoursaw'sripfence.)
Attachthespacer
to the bodyandthe
brace
to thespacer
sothejig slidesfreely
a l o n gt h ef e n c ew i t h o uwt o b b l i n T
go
.
prepare
thearms,cut45" mitersat both
endsandscrew
themto thebodysothat
theyareperpendicular
to eachother;
check
thatthejointbetween
themformsa 90"
angle.
Tocomplete
thejig,screw
a shim
tothebodyandfastena toggleclampto
theshim(left),ffakecertainthereare
noscrews
closeto the bottomof thejig
where
thebladecouldstrikeone.

r
I

t
I
I
I

t
t
I

t
I

t
I
I
I

49

MITER IOINTS

r) Cutting
thegrooves
L t o u s et h ej i g ,p l a c ei t a s t r i dteh e
fenceandposition
thetwosothecutwill
bemadein themiddleof theworkpiece.
Slidethejig along
thefenceto cutgrooves
through
themitered
endsof thearms.Turn
o f ft h es a wa n dp u l lt h ej i g b a c kt o t h e
frontof thetable.Seattheframein the
jig soa corner
is butiedagainst
thecenter
o f t h eV f o r m e b
d yt h ea r m sa n dc l a m p
in olace.Feedthestock
theworkoiece
holding
intotheblade(right),
thejig with
b o t hh a n d sC. u t r i a n g u l sapr l i n etso f i t
in thegrooves.
Spread
a littlegluein the
grooves
andinsert
thesplines.
Oncethe
gluehascured,cutandsandtheprojectionsflushwiththeframe.

MITER
BTOCKS
CTAMPING
Youcanglueup mitered
withcorners
outspecial
clamps,instead
using
handscrews
andthesoecial
blocks
shownat right.Youwill needone
clamoandtwoblocksfor eachcorner.Usestockthesamethickness
asyourworkpiece
fortheblocks;
on
oneedge,
cutthe45'angleandthe
V-shaped
notch(rnsef).
Tousetheblocks,
applyglueto the
contacting
surfaces
andpressthem
together.
At eachcorner,
usestring
to tie theblocks
snugly
to theedges
of theframe,securing
thelooseend
in thenotch.Setthejawsof thehandscrewagainst
the 45'angleedges
of theblocks
andtighten
theclamp
(right)unliltherearenogapsbetween
themitered
endsanda thin beadof
gluesqueezes
outofthejoint.Tokeep
theframesquare,
tighten
thehandscrews
a littleat a time,checking
the
corner
witha combination
souare.

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

I
I
I
I
I
I
I

EDGEMITERIOINTS

cutsin
Edgemiterjointsfeaturematchingbevel
thematingpieces,
eitheracrosstheworkpiece
end (beIow) or alongthe edge(far right). The
corners
edgemiter is a popularjoint for carcase
it conceals
endgrain.Both examples
because
shownarereinforcedwith splines.

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

MITER
CUTTING
ANEDGE
JOINT
Making
thebevelcut
Tocuta standard
edgemiterjointonthe
tablesaw,setthebladeangleat 45" and
position
theripfenceforthewidthof cut,
thatthe bladeteetharepointensuring
ingawayfromthefence.Raise
thesplif
terto keeothekerfooenwhilethecut is
b e i n gm a d ew, h i c hw i l lp r e v e nbti n d i n g
andkickback.
Feedtheworkoiece
into
theblade,
usinga pushstickto keepthe
boardflat onthesawIable(left).(Caution:
guardremoved
forclari$.)Tocutthe
Blade
bevelacross
theendof a board,
movethe
fenceasideandfeedtheworkpiece
into
withthemitergauge.
Onceallthe
theblade
the
bevelcutshavebeenmade,reinforce
jointswithsplines(page52),glueblocks
(page53),or biscuits(page54).

I
I
I
I
I

r
I
I
I
I
I
I

5l

MITER TOINTS

I
I
I
I

REINF()RCING
EDGE
MITERS
WITHSPTINES

t
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
t
I
I
I
t

Cutting
thegrooves
on a tablesaw
I n s t a lal d a d ob l a d e a, d j u s t i n g
it to cuta groove
t h e s a m ew i d t ha st h e t h i c k n e sosf y o u rs p l i n e s oftent/qinch,Setthe bladeangleat 45'and make
t h e c u t t i n gd e p t hs l i g h t l ym o r et h a no n e - h a lt fh e
w i d t h o f t h e s p l i n e s - o tf e n 3 / qi n c h .A l i g nt h e
m i t e r e de d g eo f t h e w o r k p i e cw
e i t ht h e d a d oh e a d
s o t h e g r o o v ew r l l b e c l o s e rt o t h e i n s i d ec o r n e r
o f t h e j o i n tt o e n s u r et h a tt h e c u t w i l l n o t p e n e t r a t et h e t o p f a c eo f t h e b o a r d B
. u t tt h e r i p f e n c e
a g a i n stth e w o r k p i e c eW. r t ht h e s a wu n p l u g g e d ,
rotatethe dadoheadby handto makecertainthat
i t c l e a r st h e f e n c e .l f n o t ,a t t a c ha n a u x i l i a rwy o o d
f e n c e r, e p o s i t i ot nh e r i p f e n c ea c c o r d i n g layn, d
makea reliefcut.Cutthegroove
asyouwoulda bevel, usinga pushstickto applypressure
on the table
(above).
To cut a grooveacrossbeveledend grain,
s e t u p t h e d a d oh e a da n df e n c ea s y o uw o u l df o r
a c u t a l o n gt h e e d g e T
. h e nf e e dt h e w o r k p i e c e
w r t ht h e m i t e rg a u g e( r i g h t ) .k e e p i n gt h e b o a r d
f l u s ha g a i n stth e g a u g ea n dt h e f e n c e .F a s h i o n
s p l i n e sa n dg l u eu p t h e l o i n ta s y o uw o u l da m i t e r joinl (page46t.
and-spline

I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
JL

t
I
I

I
I

MITER IOINTS

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I

grooves
Routing
for a splineYoucanalsocut thegrooves
reinforced
edgemiterusinga routerfitted
the
edgeguide.Secure
witha commercial
in a vise,beveled
surfaces
matingpieces
surethattheirendsand
facing
out,making
a straight
bitasthick
edges
areflush.Install
andsetthecuttingdepthat
asyoursplines
thesplinewidth.
morethanone-half
slightly
Attachan edgeguideon the routerand
edges
alignthebit overoneof the beveled
will becloser
to the inside
sothegroove
cornerof thejoint.Thenbutttheguide
edgeand
fenceagainst
theotherbeveled
by riding
f ix it in place.Routthegroove
the baseplateflatontheedgeto becut
the
theguidefenceagainst
whilepressing
piece.
Turntherouter
around
and
mating
repeatthe cut in the olherpiece(right).

I
I
I
I
I
I

BLOCKS
EDGE
MITERS
WITHGLUE
REINFORCING
glueblocks
Making
andattaching
U s e1 - b y - 1s t o c ka s l o n ga st h e
joint.Before
assembling
thecarcase,
aligning
screwa blockto onepiece,
theedgeof theblockwiththeinside
glueonthe
edgeof the bevel.Spread
press
the boards
beveled
surfaces,
thenattachtheblockto the
together,
withthe
otherpiece(/eff).Repeat
remaining
corners
of thecarcase,
using
to holdthe
barclampsif necessary
assembly
square.

t
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I

r
I
I

53

MITEREDPLMEIOINTS

I
I
I
I
I

Platejoinery is a simpleway to
fastenboardsor panelstogether,
whetherthejoiningsurfaces
are
miteredor beveled.
Onceglueis
added,thebiscuitsswell,creating
joint.
a strong,durable

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

JOINING
BEVELED
CORNERS
WITHBISCUITS

I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
uptheplatejoiner
1 Setting
panels
I Placetwoadjacent
on a worksurface,
inside-face
up,andmarkslotlocations
on bothpieces;
alsoaddreference
letters
foreaseof assembly.
Startabout2 inchesin fromthe
edges,
spacing
thelinesat 4- to 8-inchintervals.
Repeat
the
procedure
at theotherthreecorners
of thecarcase.
Adjustthe
platejoiner's
fenceto theproper
angle,
following
themanufac-

turer's
directions.
Forthemodel
shown,
thepanelisclamped
to theworksurface
withonebeveled
endprojecting
offthe
edge.Restthetool'sfaceplate
against
theend,loosen
the
fencelocking
leverandswivel
thefencedownward
against
the
faceof thepanel.
Lockit in place
whilethefaceplate
isflush
against
the bevel(above)

54

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

I
I

MITER TOINTS

t
I
I

r) Cutting
theslots
I V,ontngthe
toolfirmlyagainst
the
stock,aligntheguideline
onthefaceplatewitha slotlocation
mark.Switch
onthetoolandplunge
thecutterinto
(left).RepeaIthe procethe workpiece
dureto cuttheremaining
slots.

I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
t
t
I
t
I
t
t
I
I
I
t

r
r
I
I

upthecarcase
Q Gluing
r-,f Oncealltheslotshavebeencut,setthepanels
onthework beveled
edges
fromslipping
outof alignment
astheadhesive
glueintotheslotsandalong is drying,
surface
inside-face
up.Squeeze
secure
thecarcase
withwebclamps.
Thetypeshown
theedges
of thepanels,
inserting
pressure
biscuits
asyougo.Assemble hereusescornerbrackets
to distribute
evenlyalong
quickly
thecarcase,
working
to prevent
thebiscuits
fromswelling thelength
of eachjoint.Wrapstraps
around
theunitandtighten
youhavehadtimeto complete
before
theglueup.Tokeepthe themwiththebuckles
before
locking
themin place(above).

55

-*"-""-'Fntt-

;.,:.tj: :;:.:i!,' i :..:l

I
I
I
I
I
I

IAB RABBETGROO\TE,
ATDDADOIONTS

t
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I

t
t
t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

thesecond
group
hethreedozenjointsfeatured
Rabbetjoints,
in this chapterare usedin
described,
aremostfrequently
used
to join carcase
anddrawercorners,
applications
asvariedasbuilding
and lessoftenfor edgejoining.
cabinetcarcases
andpiecingtogethSomevariants,like the stopped
er framesanddoors.Thisis a verrabbet(page75)andthemitered
satilefamilyofjoins,withtheadded
rabbet(page76),
areintendedto
virtueof beingstrongandsimple.
In addition,almostall of these
conceal
theendgrainofthepieces.
jointscanbemadein several
however,
ways,
Remember,
thatanycornerjoinerythatmatesendgrain
usingeitherhandor powertools.
requiresreinforcement
in theform
Forexample,
adadocanbecutwith
of dowels,screws,
or glueblocks.
arouter,atablesawor aradialarm
A thirdgroup,tongue-and-groove
saw;it canbe startedwith a hand
joints,aremostoftenusedfor edgesawand finishedwith a chisel.
joinery.Theymaybe
glued,
However,thetypicalwoodworker
to-edge
butsometimes
areassembled
dryso
will probablyproducebetter-fitting
jointsin les timeusingpowertools.
areoftenfued to carcase
sides
thatthewood
canmoveashumidiShelves
tvalters
themoisturecontent.
Perhaps
thesimplestof alljoints
with dadojoints. Here,a routerplowsa through
'
in
Dadojoints,illustrated
atleftand
arelapjoints,thefirst covered
dado.An edgepide helpskeepthecutparallel
Asthenamesuggests,
to theendof thepanel.
ontheoppositepage,
aresimpleand
thischapter.
useful;they are the method of
a lapjoint is formedby layingone
thetwoattherequiredangle. choicefor installingshelves
or assembling
drawers.
A self-lockboardoveranotherandfastening
Thesimplelap is weakandunattractive,
but thejoint canbe ingjoint canbemadeby addinga dovetail.
groov,
A catalog
oflap,rabbetr
anddadojointsbeginson
renderedstrongandelegantby first cuttinga dadoin oneor
lieflushwith eachother.Thelap page58;a sectionon techniques
for makingthembeginson
bottrboardssothattheirfaces
provides
goodlong-grainsurface
with themethodsshown,or alterthem
contactfor gluing,andaddi- page64.Experiment
is seldomrequiredunlessthejoint will
to suityour ownskillsandthe toolsyou own.Theresults
tionalreinforcement
stress.
shouldbeusefulandenlightening.
besubjected
to tensional

Thedadojoint is a popularchoice
for assembling
drawers.Thedado-and-rabbet
workswellfor joining the backto thesides,while thedrawerfront
demandsa strongerjoint suchasa doubledado.

)/

LAPIOINTS

-f

h. lap,rabbet,tongue-and-groove,
I anddadoiointsillustrated
on the
following pagesappearquite different,
but all arelinkedby a commonfeature:
Eachowesits strengthto a channelof
somesort in one piecethat accepts
a
matingpiece.Somejoints,likethedovetailedhalf-lap (page69),areessentially
variationson a theme,introducinga decorativeeffector a slightmodification
that addsan extrameasureof strength.
Otherssolvea particularproblem;for
instance,the glazingbar half-Iap(page
Z0)connectsthe muntinsof a window
sashor a glazeddoor.
Most of thetechniques
shownon the
followingpagescanbi appliedto make
otherjoints shownin the chapterwhen
a similartypeof cut isneeded.
Forexample,the handsawand chiseltechnique
shownon page68 canbe usedto make
a dado,endrabbet,or lap cut;a baclaaw
andedgeguideclampedonto theworkpiececantakethe placeof a miter box.

tAPJ(IINTS

T half-lap joint
ldentical to croee half-lap ioint
(paqe 66), exceptone or 6oth
pieceainteraect betweenende,
rather than at enda

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

()FA C()RNER
ANATOMY
HALF-LAP
J()INT
(Seepage64)

Full lap joint


Dado in onepieceio
deepenou1hto houae
full thickneaaof matin4 board;dado is cut
ae in croea half-lap
(paqe66)

I
Mitered half4ap joint
I
Similarto cornerhaff-lap
(paqe64); cheekof one t
pieceand ahoulderof
matinq board are
t
mitered at 45"
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
t
I
I
I
I

I
I

LAP.RABBET.GROOVE.AND DADO TOINTS

I
I
I
I
I
I
I

Crose half-lapjoint
(eeepaqe66)
Half-blind
half-lapjoint
(.eeepaqe67)

Edge half-lapjoint
ldent.tcal
to otandard croaa half-lap
@aqe66), except
joint ia cuL in edqee
of workptecesrather
t han in facee

t
t
I
I
I
I
I
I

Angled halfIapjoint
( e e ep a q e6 B )

Glazing bar half-lapjoint


(eeepaqe7a)
,';::;:,

I
I
I
I

r
I
I
I
I
I
|-

I
I

Dovetailed
half-lapjoint
( ao,

nano

6\Q\

Keyeddovetail
half-lapjoint
9tmtlarto T half-lap,
avront

fha

+^h

o).a

of lap and ahouldera


of maLtn7 dado are
beveled Lo tncrease
LenetonaleLren7th
of jotnL

RABBETIOINTS

I
I
T
I

t
I
t

TONGUE-AND-GROOVE IOTNTS
J()INING
S()LIDWOOD
EDGING
T()PLYWO()D

()FA T()NGUE-AND-GR()()VE
ANATOMY
J()INT
(Seepage77)

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
OIuejoint
(oeepaqe79)

I
T
I
I

Blind tongueand-groove
Tonqueand
qroovebo'h otop
ahorLof one or
both ende;qroove
ia cuL likeblind
dado (pageb1)

Plywood
hasonemajordrawb a c kf o rc a b i n e t m a k i T
nh
ge
:
m u l t i - p lcyo m p o s i t i o fnt h e
panels
isclearly
visible
ontheir
edgea
s n de n d sT. h e r ea r e
several
waysto conceal
the
plies.Pressure-senunsightly
sitivewoodgraintapeor selfa d h e s i veed g eb a n d i ncga n
b ea p p l i e dT.h ei l l u s t r a t i o n
aboveshowsa number
of more
involved
edgetreatments
for
plywood;
eachisa variation
on
joint
thetongue-and-groove
in whicha stripof woodbandi n go r m o l d i nigs b o n d etdo
theedges
of thepanel.

I
I

T
I
I
I

r
I

6 eveledto ng ue-a nd -gro ove


Identtcalto etandardtonque-andqroove(paqe77),except,
aurfacea abovetonqueand qroove
are beveledto concealjoinL

r
t

6l

DADOIOINTS
5topped dadojoint
)imilar to blinddado (pa7e
B1),except dado ebopa
ahort of one end while
mating piecehae
matchinqnotch

T
T
T
I
I
I
I
I

Elind dado joint


(eeepaqeB1)

I
I
I
I
I
I

t
Tongue-and-dadojoint
Featureaa ton7ue (paqe
7B\ houaedin a throuah
Dado-and-rabbet joint
Containsa dado (paqeBO)
cut to houaethe ton4ue of
a rabbet(paqe73)

62

I
I
I
I
I
I
T
I
T

I
I

LAR RABBET,
GROOVE,
AND DADO IOINTS

5liding dovetail joint


(eeegaqeBb)

' : j

I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
T
I

t
I
I
I
I

Loak miter joint


Also knownaa mitered
lock rabbet joint. Type
ahownmade up of dado
(paqeBO) and miter
cut; variation can be
cut with apecially
deai4nedehaper cutter or router bit

dado joint
(eeepaqeO4)

9lidin6 half-dovetail joint


Featurea a throuqh dado
(paqe BO) with a half-dovetail
cut alon6 one eide(paqeB3);
matinq piecehao matching
ha lf-d oveta iI cut a lon4
one aide

5topped aliding
half-dovetail joint
)imilar to alidinqdovetail(paqe
BZ), except qroove atopa ahort
of one ed7eand dovetail ie cut
alonq only one eide of alide
and groove

63

I
I

CORNERHALF-LAP
IOINTS

I
I
I
I
I

MAKING
A CORNER
HALF.LAP
JOINT

\=\

I
I
t
I
I

theshoulders
1 Cutting
I Makea half-lap
onthetablesawbycuttingtheshoulders
first,andthenthecheeks.
Markthedepthandwidthof the
half-lap
ontheedgeof theworkpiece,
thenrnstall
a crosscut
thestockthickbladeandsetthecuttingheightto one-half
ness.
Clampa stopblockto theripfence;position
theblock
sothatthestockwillclearit before
reaching
theblade.Align
thewidthmarkwiththebladeandoosition
thefenceforthe
widthof cut.Thenbutttheendof theworkpiece
against
it in position
onthemitergauge,
thestopblockandholding
feedit intothebladehbovd.

Thesimplecornerhalf-lapjoint is
frequentlyusedto makeframes.
Addingdowelsor screwsto thejoint
providesan extrame*sureof strength.

I
I
I
I
T
I
I
I
I
I

r) Cutting
thecheeks
jig
tenoning
L lnslalla commercial
themanufacturer's
on thetablefollowing
instructions;
themodelshownslidesin
forbuilding
themiterslot.(lnstructions
a
jig areon page93.)
shop-made
tenoning
theworkpiece
to thejig,usinga
Clamp
woodpadto protect
thestock.Raisethe
then
bladeto thewidthof the half-lap,
shiftthejig laterally
to lineupthedepth
markwiththeblade.Pushthejigforward
to makethecut (right).

I
I

t
I
I
T

t
I
64

t
I

I
I
I

LAP,RABBET,
GROOVE,AND DADO IOINTS

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I

CORNER
HAIF-IAP
JOINT
JIG
lf youhaveto makecorner
half-laps
in several
boards
of thesamesize,
it is worthtakingthetimeto build
thejig at right.Cutthetwobase
pieces
andthestopblockfromplywoodthatisthesamethickness
as
yourstock.Thebasepieces
should
bewideenough
to accommodate
the
edgeguidesandsupport
therouter
baseplateasyoucut the half-laps.
Usesolidwoodstriosfor thefour

9tde4urde

End quide

pdoo or ridoc

To assemble
the jig, markthe
shoulder
of thehaltlapononeworkpieceandsettheboardface-up
ona
worksurface.
Buttthebaseoieces
the edgesof the boardso
against
markis nearthe
thattheshoulder
Installa
middleof thebasepieces.
straight
bit in therouterandalign
thecutterwiththeshoulder
mark.
Position
oneendguideacross
the
basepieces
andagainst
thetool's
baseplate.Without
moving
theworkpiece,repeatthe procedure
to posiguide.Nowalignthe
tiontheopposite
bit withthe edgesof theworkpiece
andattachthesideguides,
leaving
the routerbase
a slightgapbetween
plateandeachguide.(Thefirsthalflapyoumakewiththejig willrout
grooves
reference
in thebasepieces.)
Slipthestopblockundertheend
guide,buttit against
theendof the
workpiece,
andscrewit in place.
Countersink
alI fasteners.
T o u s et h ej i g ,c l a m pi t t o t h e
worksurface
andslidetheworkoiece
between
the basepiecesuntil it
buttsagainst
the stopblock.Protectingthestockwitha woodpad,
in place.
Adjust
clamptheworkpiece
therouter's
cuttingdepthto one-half

9top block

Then,withthe
thestockthickness.
cuttheoutside
edges
of thehalf-lap,
positioned
router
inside
theguides, keeping
thebaseplateflushagainst
gripthetoolfirmly,turnit onandlowa guideat alltimes.Thenroutoutthe
Guide remaining
waste,feeding
thetool
erthe bit intotheworkpiece.
against
thedirection
of bit rotation.
therouterin a clockwise
direction
to

r
r
I

Eaoe
piecee

65

HALF-LAPIOINTS
CROSS

Formedby cuttingdadoesin two boards


of equalthickness,
thecrosshalf-lapis
an excellentmethodofjoiningtheinterjoint
sectingpiecesoffaceframes.This
requiresno reinforcement.

I
I
I
I
I
T
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
t

ROUTING
A CROSS
HALF-LAP
JOINT
jig
Using
a router
anda shop-made
B u i l da j i g l i k et h eo n es h o w on n p a g e
65,buteliminate
thestopblock;
thiswill
a l l o wy o ut o a l i g na n ys e c t i o n
ofthe
w o r k p i e cwei t ht h em i d d l e
o f t h ej i g .
Makea testcut in a scraoboardto rout
grooves
reference
in thebasepieces.
will makeit easyto lineupthe
These
cuts.Markshoulder
linesforthehalflapsontheworkpieces,
theninstall
a
straight
bit in therouter
andsetthecuttingdepthfor halfthethickness
of the
stock.Position
thestockin thejig,aligningtheshoulder
markswiththe referencegrooves
in thebasepieces.
Clamp
thejigto theworksurface,
theninstall
a second
clampto secure
theworkpiece
(right)asyou
in place.
Routthehalf-lap
joint.
wouldto makea corner
half-lap

I
t
I
I
I
I
T
I
I
I

66

I
I
I
T
I
I
I

I
I
I
I
I

HALF-BLINDHALF-LAPIOINTS
A variation of the T halfJap, the halfblind halfJapjoint conceals
theend
grain of onemember.Thesocket
for the
halfJapcanbecut with a roLtter,
as
shownbelow,or by handusinga chisel.

I
I
I
I

t
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
T
I
I
T

MAKING
A HALF.BTIND
HAIF.LAP
J(|INT

I
I
I
I

t
I
I

thehalf-lap
1 Gutting
I Makethisjointbycutting
thehalf-lap
onthetablesawfirst,andthenrouting
outthesocket.
Marktheshoulder
of thehalf-lap
onthe leading
edgeof onepiece.
Installa dadoheadandsetthecuttingheightto one-half
thestockthickness.
Butt
theshoulder
markagainst
theoutside
bladeof thedadohead,thenposition
therip
passes,
fenceflushagainst
theworkpiece.
Cutawaythewastein successive
workingfromtheendof theboard
to theshoulder
mark.Makethefinalpasswiththe
(Caution:
guardremoved
boardflushagainst
thefence(above).
Blade
forclarity.)

I
I
I

67

r") Cutting
thejointsocket
plywood
Z A
templateis usedto rout
outthesocket.
Outline
thehalf-lao
cut
in Step1 onthetemplate,
thencutout
the patternwith a bandsaw,saber
sawor copingsaw.Fasten
a fenceto
the cut-outedgeof thetemplate
with
countersunk
screws.
Secure
thetemplate
andtheworkpiece
in a vise,aligning
the
cut-out
withtheoutlineonthestock.
Install
a top-piloted
straight
bit in your
routerandmakethecutting
depthequal
plusthe
to one-half
thestockthickness
thickness
of thetemplate.
Routtheoutlineof thesocket
bykeeping
thebitpilot
against
thetemplate,
thenremove
the
remaining
wastebymoving
therouterin
a clockwise
direction,
against
thedirectionof bitrotation.
Usea chisel
to souare
thecorners.

ANGLEDHALF-LAPIOINTS
Woodworkers
usethe
angledhalf-Iap-or
obliquelapjoint-to
join boardsthqt cross
at
anglesotherthan 90",
suchasdiagonaltable
Iegstretchers.

I
I
I
I
T
I
I
I
I
I

rf*tj

I
I
I
I

ANANGLED
CUTTING
HALF.LAP
JOINT

I
T
T

t
I
I
I
I
I

kerfsin thehalf-lap
outline
1 Cutting
I Marktheshoulders
of the half-lap
on thefaceof the
workpiece,
angling
thelinesto suitthejobat hand.Thecuts
canbemadewitha radialarmsaw,tablesaw,router,
or,as
shownhere,a handsaw
andmiterbox.Settheworkpiece
in
themiterboxwiththeedgeagainst
thefenceandalignone
shoulder
markwiththeblade.Lockthebladeat thisangle
andadjustthedepthto one-half
thestockthickness.
Hold
the boardin position
asyousawintoit. Repeat
to cut the
othershoulder
line.Thensawa number
of kerfsbetween
the
twocuts(above).

t
r') Chiseling
outthewaste
L Clamp
theworkpiece
face-up
onthebench,protecting
pads.
thestockwithwood
Holding
a woodchiselbevel-up
horizontally,
strikethehandle
witha mallet
to splitoffthe
wastebetween
theshoulder
cutshbove).Afterthe bulkof
parethe bottomof thehalfthe wastehasbeenremoved,
laountilit is smooth
andeven.

68

I
I
I
I
t
I
I

DOVETAILEDHALF-LAPJOINTS

I
t
I
I
I
I
I
I

Combiningthestrengthof thedovetail
joint with thesimplicityof thehalf-Iap,
half-lapisafavoritejoinery
thedovetailed
methodfor framesand tablestretchers.
tension.
Thejoint stronglyresists

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

iljr.
'*.
\

t
\"

HAIF.IAPJ(lINT
A DOVETAITED
MAKING

t
t
t

thedovetailed
Cutting
half-lap
andthesocket
I n o n ew o r k p i e cceu, ta c o r n ehr a l f - l a p
(page64).Then,outlinethedovetail
on
andcut it outon
thecheek
of thehalf-lap
the bandsaw(lefil;usean angleof 1:8
withhardwood,
or a 1:6
if youareworking
Usethedovetailed
anglefor softwood.
in themating
thesocket
half-lap
to outline
of the
makesuretheshoulder
workoiece:
theedgeof the
half-lap
is buttedagainst
Make
boardasyoumarkthe lines(above).
usinga routerwitha template
thesocket
(page67),a tablesaw,a radialarmsaw,
andmiterbox(page68),
or a handsaw
thestockthickness.
cuttingto one-half

I
I

r
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

69

GLAZINGBARHALF-LAPIOINTS

I
I

t
I
I
I
For nnny of us,theglazirtg,or sash,bar hnlf-lapjohtt
is asfantiliar as the view frortr the kitclrcn window.
Featuringa miteredhalfJap utt irtto a ntoldedwood
strip, thejoint has traditionnlly beenusedto createo
grid to hold the glasspanesof a cabinetdoor or wirrdow. Thepanes sit in robbetsrouted along the edgesof
the barsand are held in placewith thin stripsof nnlding.

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

MAKING
A GTAZING
BARHALF.LAP
J()INT
M o l d i ntgh eg l a z i n g
bar
1
I Thisjointis madein threestages:
First,
r r o f i l ei s c u t i n t ot h e g l a z i n g
t h e p r o p ep
bar,as shownat right;next,rabbets
arecut
intothe opposite
sideof the barto holdthe
glassand moldingstrips(sfep2); finally,
( s t e p s3
t h e m i t e r e dh a l f - l a pi s p r o d u c e d
For
install
to 5).
the first stage,
a piloted
round-ove
b ri t i n a r o u t e rm
, o u n t h et o o l
i n a t a b l e ,a n da l i g nt h e f e n c ew i t ht h e
l - r i t ' sn i l o t h e a r i n pT h e s t o c ks h o ul d b e
w i d ee n o u g hs o t h a t m a k i n ga p a s so n
e a c hs i d eo f t h e b a rw i l l l e a v ea r / r i n c h w i d el r p b e t w e e tnh e c u t s .S u p p o rtth e
w o r k p i e cdeu r i n gt h e o p e r a t i own i t ht h r e e
featherboards:
Clamponeto thetableoppos i t et h e b i t a n dt w ot o t h e f e n c eo n e i t h e r
s i d eo f t h e c u t t e r (. l n t h e i l l u s t r a t i otnh,e
f e a t h e r b o a rodn t h e o u t f e e ds i d eo f t h e
fencehasbeenremoved
for clarity.)Feed
t h e b a r i n t ot h e b i t u n t i ly o u rf i n g e r s
a p p r o a cthh e b i t ,t h e nu s et h e n e x tp i e c e
asa pushstickor moveto the othersideof
t h e t a b l ea n d p u l lt h e w o r k p i e cpea s t h e
c t r t i e rR c n e atth e r ^ r rnt n t h e O t h eS
r i d eO f
the bar (right).Preparean extrabarto help

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
t
I
I
I
I
I

c . p fr r n i h p n r r i i n s t o n ?

70

I
I
I

I
I

LAP,RABBET,GROOVE,AND DADO JOINTS

t
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

r) Cutting
rabbets
fortheglasspanes
widerthan
L lnstalla dadoheadonyourtablesawslightly
aftertherabbets
remaining
rabbets.
Thetongue
thedesired
a wooden
measure
at leastVqinch.lnstall
arecutshould
fenceandmarkthe rabbetdepthon it-the comauxiliary
strip.Position
andthemolding
oftheglass
bined
thickness
thatthe
fenceoverthedadohead,ensuring
theauxiliary
Turnonthesawandslowly
metalfenceisclearof thecutters,
c r a n ku p t h ed a d oh e a du n t i li t f o r m sa r e l i ecf u tt o t h e
marked
line.Turnoffthesawandmarkthewidthof therabbar.Buttoneof the
endof the glazing
betson the leading
thenpositheouterbladeof thedadohead,
marks
against
thebar.Usethreefeatherboards
tionthefenceflushagainst
a support
t o s u p p o tr ht ew o r k p i e caes i n s t e p1 , a d d i n g
clamped
forthefeatherboard
extrapressure
board
to provide
oneof thefeatherto thetable.(Againin thisillustration,
Feedthebarsbyhand
forclarity.)
hasbeenremoved
boards
(right)untilyourfingers
thenuse
approach
thefeatherboards,
the
t h en e x w
t o r k p i e ct oe p u s ht h eb a rt h r o u g hF. i n i s h
by pullingit fromtheoutfeed
cutsonthefinalworkpiece
sideof thetable.

Making
themitercuts
R e m o v teh e d a d oh e a da n d i n s t a lal

to
blade.
Adjust
thebladeangle
crosscut
extension.
45",thenattacha mitergauge
T os e tt h eb l a d eh e i g h th, o l dt h ee x t r a
glazing
baronthesawtablesothetongue
youcutin step2 isflushagainst
theextenbelevel
should
sion.Thetopof theblade
withthelower
sideof thelip.Makea test
h e i g hut n t i tl h e
c u ta n da d j u st th eb l a d e
the lip (inset).
cuttingedgejustscores
Thenmarkoutthemitercutsonbothsides
of the bars;at theirwidestpointtheVs
shouldbethesamewidthasthestock.
of the
Tomakethecut,holdthetongue
gauge
extension
flat
the
miter
bar against
withtheblade.
andalignoneof themarks
against
the
endof the
Butta stopblock
i
t
t
h
e
e
x
t e n s i ot on
s t o c ka n dc l a m p t o
theworkcuts.Clamp
lineupsubsequent
glazing
piece
feed
the
and
to theextension
h
o
l
d
i
n
i
g
t
firmly
while
b a ri n t ot h eb l a d e
place.
piece
repeat
to
Rotate
the
and
in
V
.
R
e
p
e
a
t
the
c u t t h eo t h e sr i d eo f t h e
process
side
to cuttheV ontheopposite
of thebar(left).

t
I
I
I
I

r
I
I

t
I
I

7I

t
LAR RABBET,GROOVE,AND DADO IOINTS

Cleaning
uptheV-cuts
Onceallthemitercutshavebeen
made,usea narrow
chiselto pareaway
thewaste.
Thewidthof thechannel
at
thebottom
of theV shouldeoualthe
widthof thelip.Holding
thechisel
bevel sideup,pareawaythewaste(/eft)
untilthebottom
of theV is smooth
and
f lat.Workcarefullv
to avoidtearout.

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
Cutting
thehalf-laps
Adiust
thetablesawdadoheadto
thewidthof thebar'slipandsetthe
cuttingheightto one-half
thestock
thickness.
Youwillbecutting
a haltlap
in thebottom
of oneglazing
bar,then
making
anidentical
cutin thetopof
piece.
themating
Setupthecutby
aligning
themiddle
of theV-cutwith
thedadohead,
whileholding
thebar
f lushagainst
the mitergaugeextension.Keep
theworkoiece
flatonthesaw
tableandflushagainst
theextension
(below).
asyoucutthehalf-laps

I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I

t
t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
t
72

t
I

I
I

RABBETJOINTS

I
I
I

Widely usedin carcaseand drawercona


struction,the rabbetjoint is essentially
modifiedbutt joint in which the end or
edgeof one bonrdfits in a rabbetctrt it'r
the ntatingpiece.The rabbet'swidth
shouldequalthe thicknessof the stock;
its depthshouldbe half that amotmt.

I
I

t
I
I
I

A RABBET
JOINT
MAKING

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I

Usinga router
Y o uc a n u s ee i t h e ra p i l o t e db i t o r a n o n - p i l c t ebdi t
w i t ha n e d g eg u i d e .I n e i t h e rc a s e c, l a m pt h e s t o c k
t o a w o r ks u r f a c eF. o ra n o n - p i l o t ebdt t , m a r kt h e
r a b b ew
t i d t ho n t h e t o p f a c eo f t h e s t o c k .A l i g nt h e
c u t t i n ge d g eo f t h e b i t w i t h t h e m a r k ,t h e nc l a m p
a n e d g eg u i d et o t h e w o r k p i e cfel u s ha g a i n stth e
l t h e w o r k p i e ceed g e .
r o u t ebr a s ep l a t ea n d p a r a l l et o
t i t h t h e p l a t eb u t t e da g a i n stth e
C u tt h e r a b b e w
guide(above).lf you areworkingwith a pilotedbit,
width
a c u t t e rt h a tw i l l p r o d u c teh e d e s i r e d
choose
o f r a b b e tT. h e n ,g r i p p i n tgh e r o u t e fr i r m l yw i t h
b o t hh a n d s g, u i d et h e b i t i n t ot h e w o r k p i e caet
o n ee n d .R i d et h e p i l o tb e a r i n ag l o n gt h e e d g e
(right)as you makethe cut.

73

LAP,RABBET,GROOVE,AND DADO IOINTS

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
Cutting
a rabbet
onthetablesaw
Install
a dadoheadslightly
widerthan
t h e r a b b eyt o uw i s ht o m a k et,h e n
install
an auxiliary
fenceandmakea
reliefcut in it asyouwouldwhencut(page71).
tinga glazing
barhalf-lap
Marka cuttinglinefortheinside
edge
of therabbet
ontheworkpiece.
Butt
themarkagainst
theouterbladeof
t h ed a d oh e a dt,h e np o s i t i ot n
h er i p
f e n c ef l u s ha g a i n st h
t ew o r k p i e c e .
C l a m pt w of e a t h e r b o a rt do sh o l d
the workpiece
securely
against
the
fenceandsawtable;a support
board
provides
extrastability.
Feedtheworkpiecewith bothhands(above)
unlil
therabbetis completed.
Usea push
stickto finishthepassonnarrow
stock.

fillillllltlfiltlltlllrffiIItilllfilllllltllllll]lllilllfilll]ltilll
1HO?Tt?
Minimizing
tea?oul

KourerbiLecan -=&*i
Learwoodfibere
,#";ao theyexita work- W

pieceatLhe endof a
croeeqrainrabbeLor dado
cut. To Vrevenf,
eplinterinq,
clampa woodblockLhesame
Ihickneeeao yourworkpiece
alonqthe
edqetrom whichthe biI willexit.Tthe?resoure
of the blockaqainotthe otock willcompreoe
Nhetibersand reducelheoroblem
ofNearout.

I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I

t
I

t
I

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

STOPPED
RABBETIOINTS

joint issimilarto thestandard


Thestopped
rabbet
rabbet,with an importantdifference:
Therabbetcut is
stopped
shortof thefront edgeof thejoint-usually by
ttonlorethanI inch-and a ntatching
notchis cut in
joint.
thenntingpiece,resulting
in on invisible

,#
:&
'.i.*

t
I
I
I

TW()WAYS
T()ROUT
A STOPPED
RABBET

t
I
I

t
I
I
I
I

t
t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

Routing
a stopped
rabbet
Make
thecutona router
tableorwiththerouter
hand-held.
ln
either
case,
marka cuttinglineonthefaceof theworkpiece
for
theendof therabbet.Fortherouter-table
method,
installa
straight
bit,setthedepthof cut,andadjustthefenceforthe
desired
widthof cut.Drawa reference
lineonthefenceto mark
theposition
ofthecutterwhereit exitsthefence.Withthestock
clear
ofthebit,turnontherouter
andpress
theworkpiece
flush
against
thefence
whilefeeding
it forward.
When
thecutting
line
o nt h eb o a r d
l i n e su pw i t ht h er e f e r e n cl i en e ,p i v otth es t o c k

offthefence(above,
left).Iomakethecutwitha hand-held
router,
install
a piloted
rabbeting
bitandclampthestockto a
w o r ks u r f a c e
A.l i g nt h eb i tw i t ht h ec u t t i n gl i n eo nt h ew o r k p i e c ea n dc l a m pa s t o pb l o c ka g a i n st h
t er o u t ebr a s ep l a t e .
Feedthe bit intothestockat thestarting
endof therabbet,
butting
thebit'spilotbearing
against
theedge.Continue
the
cut alongtheedge(above,
right)untilthe baseplatetouches
thestopblock,Forbothmethods,
square
theendof therabbet
w i t ha c h i s e l .

MITEREDRABBETIOINTS

I
I
I
I
I
I
I

A combinationof rabbetand miterjoinery,the


miteredrabbetioint is a variationof thestandard
rabbetthat coicealstheendgrain'ofthemating
pieces.Thejoint is createdby cuttingrabbetsin
theendsof bothpieces,thenmiteringtheprotrudprecision,but the
ing tongues.
Thisjoint demands
resultis a strongand attractiveconnection.

t
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I

MAKING
A MITERED
RABBET
JOINT

t
Miter aauae
exteniion"

Cutting
therabbets
andmiters
Cutrabbets
in bothDieces.
Makethecutsto thesamedeothabouttwo-thirds
thethickness
of thestock.Thewidthof onerabbetshould
equalthestock's
thickness,
thewidthof theother
should
equalthethickness
of thetongueleftbythefirstrabbet
cut.Mark45' anglelinesacross
bothtongues
forthemitercuts,
starting
eachmarkat theoutside
corner
of thetongue(inset).
Adjust
thebladeangle
onyourtablesawto 45",andsetthecut-

76

KeTerence

tingheight
sothebladewillcutthrough
thetongue.
Next,screw
an extension
boardto themitergaugeandmakea reference
cut
intheboard.
Holding
theworkpiece
flushagainst
theextension,
alignthecuttinglinewiththereference
cut,thencutthemiter
(above).
Whenmitering
theworkpiece
withtheshorter
tongue,
adjustthecuttingheightto justsever
thewaste;
otherwise,
the
bladewill biteintotherabbet
shoulder
andweaken
the ioint.

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

I
I

TONGUE-AND-GROOVEIOTNTS

t
I

t
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

"
,

i;'.,
i
\;,;
.

a,'t-

"

t'
-'-.;itir",.''
;'
''
..:\
'

'.'t...
lt
,'
'.

'

.:
.'..
','!.

\.\

t:\.
1

The tongue-ard-groove
ioirtt has ntany uses
joiningboardsedgethe
woodworket-fronr
for
When
to-edgeto fixing shelvingto carcases.
panels,thejoint can be
rtsedto fonrt carcase
assembled
without glue to nllowfor wood
movenrcntcausedLtyJhtctutttionsin humidity.

t.

':

i.

:{'

SAW
A TONGUE.AND.GROOVE
JOINTONTHETABLE
'l

Cutting
the groove
I M a r kt h eo u t l i n eo f t h eg r o o voen t h e
e n do f t h ew o r k p i e c e
l t.s h o u l db e % t h e
s t o c kt h i c k n e s st;h e d e p t hi s o f l e nr / z
i n c h .I n s t a lal d a d oh e a da n da d j u s it t
t o t h e d e s i r e dw i d t ha n d h e i g h t .I n s t a l l
a n a u x i l i a rwy o o df e n c ea n dm a k ea r e l i e f
c u t i n i t ( p a g e7 1 ) . ( A l t h o u g h
the auxiliaryfenceis onlynecessary
for cuttingthe
t o n s r r ei n s t e n2 . i t i s b e t t e rt o m o u n t
i t n o w . )A l i g nt h e c u t t i n gm a r k sw i t ht h e
d a d oh e a d ,b u t t t h e r i p f e n c ea g a i n s t
the stock,andclampa featherboard
to the
t a b l ef o r s u p p o r tR
. est hefeatherboard
o n a w o o ds h i m t o k e e pt h e w o r k p i e c e
f r o mt i p p i n ga n dc l a m pa s u p p o rbt o a r d
for extrapressure.
against
the featherboard
P r e s st h e w o r k p i e caeg a i n stth e f e n c ea s
y o u f e e dt h e s t o c ki n t ot h e d a d oh e a d
(/eft).Complete
the passwith a pushstick.

t ,
:

r///t
/t#

t
t
I

t
I

'-

n..":.

77

LAP,RABBET,GROOVE,AND DADO IOINTS

I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
r) Gutting
thetongue
I
ltlart,the tongueon the leadingend
of the workpiece,
usingthe groovefrom
step1 as a guide.Adjustthe dadohead
for a slightlywidercut andlowerthe cutt i n gh e i g hat l i t t l es ot h et o n g u ew i l l n o t
r e a c ht h e b o t t o mo f t h e g r o o v eA. l i g n
t h e d a d oh e a dw i t h o n eo f t h e c u t t i n g
m a r k sa n d m o v et h e f e n c ea g a i n stth e
s t o c k ;a l s op o s i t i o nt h e f e a t h e r b o a r d
a n ds u p p o rb
t o a r d .F e e dt h e b o a r da s
youdid cuttingthe groove,
usinga push
p
a
s
sT
. u r nt h e
s t i c kt o c o m p l e t et h e
w o r k p i e c e n d - f o r - e nadn d r e p e a to n
t h e o t h e rs i d e o f t h e t o n g u e( a b o v e ) .
T e s t - f i t h e t o n g u ei n t h e g r o o v ea n d
a d j u s t h e r i p f e n c e ,i f n e c e s s a r y .

lXll|i Jl lll lliiJj lllll]iil$ill lll1l$il ]jlillli'* 'lllillJ


5HO7Tt?
Rabbetingon the jointer
lf yourjoinberhaea rabbeLingledge,iNcan cuL
rabbetealonqeiLherNhe
faceor ed1eof a board.ln
facl, manywoodworkere
considerlhe join|erNhe
besLLoolfor rabbetinq
with lhe qrainof a workAdjue| Lhecutt inq
Viece.
deVLhto no morelhan 1/a
i n c h , L h eanl i q ny o u rc u L '
Ltnqmarkfor the rabbet,
wilh lhe endof NhejoinLer
knivesand buNN
Lhefence
t he et ock.KeeV
againet,
the workpiece
flaLon lhe Lableand buLted aqainoLlhe
f e n c ea s y o u m a k e L h e
p a e e . F oar r a b b e a
l l o n qa b o a r d
face,usea Vuohblock.Makeao many?a6eeea6 necesoary,increaoing
the cutLinqdeVth1/oinchat,a trime.

78

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

GLUEIOINTS

I
I
I
I
I

'" t'.
r'')l;

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

',.,

,1.r.

....

",0,. -. "'
Thegluejoint is a variation of the
standard tongue-and-grooveand is easily !::- :
. n.
producedwith the routeror the shaper.

MAKING
A GLUE
JOINTONTHEROUTER
TABLE
Making
thecuts
I n s t a l l ga l u el o i n tb i t i n a r o u t ear n d
mount
thetoolin a table.
Adjust
thecutt i n gd e p t hs ot h a tt h et h i c k n e sosf t h e
wasteremoved
bytheupperpartof the
cufter
willeoualthethickness
of thestock
left belowthebottompartof thecutter
Posrtion
thefencesothatthe bit
r'insef).
m a k eas f u l lc u ti n t h eb o a r dr,e m o v i n g
the entireedge.Secure
theworkpiece
with
twofeatherboards
clamped
to thefence
onbothsides
of thebit;in theillustratron,
thefeatherboard
ontheoutfeed
sidehas
beenremoved
forclarity.
Tomakea pass,
feedthestockintothebit withyourright
h a n dw h i l ep r e s s i ni tgf i r m l ya g a r n tsht e
f e n c ew i t hy o u rl e f th a n dT. o k e e pt h e
entire
edgeflushagainst
thefencethroughpart
outtheoperation,
adjusttheoutfeed
of thefencewhenthe boardreaches
it.
Stopthecutandturnoffthemachine,
but
do notremove
theworkpiece.
Holding
the
workpiece
in place,
advance
theoutfeed
fenceuntilit buttsagainst
thecutedge.
Thencomplete
the pass(/eff).

THROUGHDADO IOINTS
()NTHERADIAL
A THROUGH
DADO
ARMSAW

I
I

t
t
I
I

t
I
I
I
I

Thethroughdadoisa popularchoice
to carcase
sidesorjoining
forJixingshelves
drawerbacksto thesides.

rll,lltlllllltljlliil[lllJllti,lilllllllllill]illlllttllllljlltilll
1HO?Tt?
A jigfor equally
opaceddadoee
Youcan cut Vrec,ioelyeVaced
.....
aadoeson your
table sawquickly
and accuralely '/""
by uoinga miter
qauqeexLension
and a woodenkey.
AfLeryour dado head
i o i n s L a l l e da n d a d l u o t e d
Lo Lhe ?ro?er widLh,cuLlwo

::\-

apVropriately
opaceddadoesin a miler qauqeexlensionboard.
to the qauqe,carefully
7crewLheexlension
aliqninq
onedadowilh
Lhedado headand offoetLinqlhe secondcul lo lhe riqhtr;inserL
a woodenkeyinto lhis dado.Cul trhefirsl dado ir yourworkViece.
Toachieve?ro?eroVacingfor Nhesecondcut, slideyourworkViece
to lhe ri7hLand placeLhefirst dado overtrhekey,Vtakelhe second
dadocut,and reVeat,
the Vroceoeunlil the job io compleled.

Cutting
repeatdadoes
I n s t a lal d a d oh e a da n da d j u s lt t t o t h e
d e s i r ew
d i d t ho f t h e d a d o .S e tt h e s a w
in the90" crosscrrttio
no
gsition
and
a d l u s t h e c u t t i n gd e p t ht o c u t a d a d o
h a l f w a tyh r o u g ht h e w o r k p i e c eC.u ta
k e r ft h r o u g ht h e f e n c e t, h e nm a r kc u t t i n g l i n e sf o r t h e w i d t ho f t h e d a d o e s
o n t h e w o r k p i e c eP. u s ht h e s a wy o k e
a n dd a d oh e a db e h i n dt h e f e n c ea n d
a l i g no n es e to f c u t t i n gm a r k so n t h e
w o r k p i e cw
e i t h t h e k e r fi n t h e f e n c e .
T h e n ,h o l d i n gt h e w o r k p i e csen u g l y
a g a i n stth e f e n c e m
, a k et h e c u t . S l i d e
the workpiece
to the nextsetof cutting
l i n e sa n dc u t t h e n e x td a d ot h e s a m e
w a y .T o h e l pl i n eu p r e p e act u t s ,c l a m p
a stopblockto the fence(above).

I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I

t
I
I
I

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

BLINDDADOIOINTS

Theblind dadojoint, in which


thedadostopsshortofboth edges
of the board,isjust asstrong
asthe throughdado,but invisibleonceit is assembled.
The
joint is commonlyusedfor
attachingshelvingto cabinets.

ROUTII{G
A BLII{DDADO
router
Usinga plunge
Setthestockon a worksurfaceandmark
outthedado;it shouldbeaswideasthe
thickness
of the matingboard.Installa
straightbit thesamewidthasthe dado.
Alignthebit overthewidthmarksforthe
cut andclampanedgeguideto theworkpieceflushagainst
therouterbaseplate.
Thenlineuothebitwitheachof thedado
endmarksandclampstopblocksto the
workpiece.
Gripping
therouterfirmlywith
bothhands,buttits baseplateagainst
the
edgeguideandonestopblockandplunge
thebit intothestock.Cutalongtheguide
(left)untilthebaseplatetouchesthe other stopblock.Youwill needto square
theendsof thedadowitha chiseland
cut notchesat bothedgesof the mating
boardto fit it intothedado.

t
t
I

t
I

t
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I

81

I
I

LAP,RABBET,GROOVE,AND DADO IOINTS

I
I
I
ADJUSTABLE
DADO
JIG
T h ej i g a t r i g h tw i l le n a b l yeo ut o
quickly
routdadoes
andaccurately.
Withitsadjustable
fence,it canalso
helpsolvethe problem
of making
dadoes
thatarewiderthanthediameterof yourlargest
straightbit.Cut
the partsof thejig fromeitherplywoodor solidwood;
thedimensions
shownin theillustration
willsuit
mostrouters.
Attachthe basepiecesto the
cleats
sotheirouteredges
areflush.
Fasten
thefixedfencein olaceflush
withtheoutside
edgeof thenarrower basepiece,
countersinking
allthe
screws.
To attachthe adjustable
fence,boreholesthrough
thecleats
at eachendof thewiderbaseoiece
fora hanger
bolt.Screwthe boltsto
thejig,leaving
about1 inchof each
oneprotruding
abovethebasepiece.
Toprepare
theadjustable
fence,cut
a 1-inch-long
slotat eachend.Make
widerthanthebolts,
theslotsslightly
ensuring
thattheywilllineupwith
theboltswhenthefenceis installed.
(Youcanmaketheslotsbyboringa
rowof connected
holesonthedrill
pressandcleaning
upthecutswith
a chisel.)
Usewashers
andwingnuts
to attachtheadjustable
fenceto the
widerbasepiece.
To usethejig, setyourstockon
a worksurface
andoutlinethedado
on it. Aligntheedgeof thenarrower
basepiecewithoneedgeof theoutl i n ea n dc l a m pt h ej i g t o t h ew o r k
surface.
Placetherouter
onthebase
pieces,
buttingits baseplateagainst
thefixedfence.Loosen
thewingnuts
andslidetheadjustable
fenceagainst
p
l
a
t
e
.
T
i
g
h
t
e tnh e n u t s ,
t h eb a s e
c h e c kt h a tt h ef e n c e as r eo a r a l l e l .

I
I

Adjuotablefence
1/2"x31/+"x20"

Daee pieceo (2)


1/2"x43/+"x20"
1,/2"x53/+"x20"

Ftxed fence
1/2"x2"x20"

Cteat (2)

t/2"x2"x12"

androutthedado,ridingthe base
platealongthefencesthroughout
Fora dadothat is
thecut (below).
widerthanyourbit'sdiameter,
slide
theadjustable
fenceawayfromthe
baseplatebytheappropriate
amount,

measuring
to makesurethedistance
fencesis uniform
between
along
their
length.
Ridethe baseplateagainst
thefencesto routthe edgesof the
dado,thenremove
thewastebetween
thecuts.

I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I

t
I
I
I

t
t
I
I

r
t

82

I
I
I
I

I
I
T
I
I
I
I

SLIDINGDOVETAILIOINTS

t
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
t
I

t
I
I
I
I
I

Theslidingdovetailis commonly

'
lS_]*\X
usedto assembledrawers,attach crown
t
molding to cabinets,and install shelvesin
*_If
\
carcasesBecauseglue is not required to lock
the mating piecestogether,thejoint is a good
choicefor furniture that must be disassembled.

A SLIDING
DOVETAIT
TABLE
IOINT()NTHEROUTER

groove
thedovetail
1 Routing
I Cutthegroove
in twopasses,
firstwitha straightbit to
remove
mostof thewaste,
andthenwitha dovetail
bitto completethegroove.
Forthefirstpass,installa r/q-inch
straight
bit in therouter
andmountthetoolin a table.Setthecutting
depth,thencenteranedgeof theworkpiece
overthebit and
itsface.To keeptheworkpiece
buttthefenceagainst
flush
against
thefence,clampa featherboard
to thetable.Complete
thepasswitha pushstick.Install
a dovetail
bit in therouter
passthesamewavGbove).
andmakethesecond

Making
thedovetail
slide
Withthedovetail
bitstillin therouter,
reduce
thecutting
Thiswillmaketheslideshorter
depthslightly.
thanthedepth
improving
of thegroove,
thefit of thejoint.Movethefence
toward
thebit untilabouthalfthediameter
of thecutterorojectsbeyond
thefence;reposition
thefeatherboard
accordingly.Cuttheslidein twopasses:
Makethefirstpassthesame
pressing
wayyourouted
thegroove,
thefaceof thestockflush
against
thefence.Tocomplete
theslide,turntheworkpiece
passwiththeopposite
end-for-end
andmakethesecond
faceof
thestockrunning
alongthefence(above).
Test-fit
theslidein
thegroove,
thenmovethefenceawayfromthe bit for subseouent
cuts.untiltheslidefits.

83

DOUBLEDADO IOINTS

The doubledadojoint ffiatestwo through


dadoes-one on a faceand the other,with one
tongueshortened,on en end. Thejoint is stronger
than an ordinary throughdado because
it provides
ntoregluing surface.It workswell whenpiecesof difmust bejoined together,making it
ferent thicknesses
idealfor joining a drawerfront to the sides.

I
.:.;
-: i?R
. ,

n*: ii'"".

/-

,r-:.,,..

,4-*,-"-..:

'

.:."

..-:'

-'ff

_,.,.i
.'.'.-

'"'';1':'::
*rFW':
t:;'f: =:"
'ffi
:#rp2:.:-

-{Z-r4-_{r-}F-./
,.-i":.,_ -

()NTHETABTE
A DOUBLE
DAD()
J()INT
SAW

Making
thecuts
1
I I n s t aal l d a d oh e a do ny o u rs a wa, d j u s t i ni tgsw i d t ht o
jig;the
one-third
thestockthickness.
Alsoinstall
a tenoning
commercial
model
shown
slidesin themiterslot.Clamp
the
workpiece
to thejig,protecting
thestockwitha woodpad.
A d j u stth ej i g t o c e n t etrh ee d g eo f t h ew o r k p i e coen t h e
b l a d essot h a tt h ed a d ow i l lb ec u t i n t h em i d d l e
t h i r do f
theboard.
Slidethejigforward
to feedthestock,
thenturn
theworkpiece
end-for-end
andrepeat
to cutthedadoin the
otherend(/eff).
Next,install
anauxiliary
fenceandnotchit
(page
71).Marka cuttinglineononeof thetongues
onthe
inside
faceof theboard
to divideit in half.Holdingthe
workpiece
f lushagainst
themitergauge,
inside-face
down,align
t h e m a r kw i t ht h ed a d oh e a d B
. u t tt h ef e n c ea g a i n st h
te
stockandadjust
thecutting
height
to cutthetongue
in half.
Feed
theworkpiece
withthemitergauge
to makethecut;
repeaton theotherend(above).
Complete
thejointbycutt i n gm a t c h i ndga d o eisn t h ef a c eo f t h em a t i n g
p i e c etso
a c c e ptth eh a l f - t o n g u e s

84

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

I
I
I
I

LAP,RABBET,GROOVE,AND DADO IOINTS

t
I

TABLE.SAW
END-DADOING
JIG
Easyto assemble,
thefence-straddlingjig shownat leftworkswellfor
in theendsof boards.
cuttingdadoes
(Thejig canalsobeusedto cut halflapjointsor two-shouldered
open
joints.)Refer
mortise-and-tenon
to the
suggested
in the illusdimensions
tration,makingsurethethickness
of thesoacer
andwidthof the brace
along
allowthejig to slidesmoothly
yourripfencewithoutwobbling.
Cutthe bodyandbracefrom3/qi n c hp l y w o oadn dt h eg u i d ea n d
spacer
fromsolidwood.Sawanoval
holefora handlein onecorner
of
thejig body.Attach
theguideto the
bodydirectlyin frontof the handle
hole,making
surethat it is perfectly
vertical.(Thescrewsshouldbe in
the top halfof the guide,because
the bladewill cut intoit for some
cuts.)Screwa smallwoodblockto
thebodybelowtheholeandattacha
toggle
clampto theblock.Finally,
fastenthespacer
andbracein place.
jig,
place
it astride
Tousethe
the
fence.Butttheworkpiece
against
thejigguideandclampit in place.
Position
thefenceto alignthecutting markson the boardwiththe
b l a d ea n ds l i d et h ej i g a l o n gt h e
fenceto makethe cut (\eft,bottom).

I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I

9pacer
2" x 12"

I
I
I
I
I

t
T
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I

85

6ffiffi

I
T
I
I
T
I
I
I
I
I

r
T
I
I
I

t
I
I
I

t
T
I
I
I
I
T

t
I
I
I

MORTISE,-ATD-TENON
IOINTS
joint is
hemortise-and-tenon
one of the oldestmethodsof
fasteningwood.It wasreliedupon
of
by buildersof the sarcophagi
ancientEgyptand, centurieslater,
the sailingships of Columbus.
Today,the joint is usedmost often
in furnituremaking-most typically for building framesin frame-andpanelconstructionandjoiningrails
to legson desks,tables,and chairs.
Thejoint consists
of two keyelements:thetenon,a projectionfrom
the endof oneboardthat fits into a
slot-the mortise-in the mating
feapiece.Themortise-and-tenon
turesa relativelylargegluing area,
involving good contactbetween
long-grainsurfaces-thecheeksof
thetenonandthe sidesof the mortise.Providedthe tenonfits snugly
in the mortise,thejoint offersvirtually unparalleledresistanceto
thatwoodjoints
mostof thestresses
endure.Only the dovetailjoint is

Thehollowchiselmortisercandrill mortises
up to 3 inchesdeepquicklyand accurately.
toolisfixed with the
Thebench-mounted
samechiselbitsand mortisingattachment
usedby thedrill press.

moredifficultto pull apart.


joint,and
ofthestandard
Therearedozens
ofvariations
ofjointsonpages
88and89.
manyareshownin theinventory
thetusktenonis a commonwayof reinforcing
Forexample,
bothan
a trestletable;a variationofthe roundtenonserves

A tenonat theendof a rail fi* snuglyin a mortisecut out of a tableleg.Thisblind mortiseand-tenonjoint is bothsturdyand longJasting.

87

estheticand a structuralrole in
Wndsor chairs.
Whethera tenon is haunched,
wedged,pegged,
rounded,or angled,
a fewrulesof thumb dictatetheoroportionswhencuttingthisjoint.
Thethicknessof a tenonshouldbe
one-thirdthethickness
of theworkpiece;its width may be from twothirdsof thewidth to the full width
of theworkpiece.
A tenontslength dependson
through
whetherit passes
completely
workpiece
or
remains
the mortise
hidden,or blind. The lengthof a
blind tenon(page9a)is often%inch
or longer,dependingon the use
of thematingworkpiece;a through
tenon (page97) will be as long
as the width or thicknessof the
mortiseworkoiece.
Thepagesthat follow showseveralhand- and oower-toolmethodsfor cuttingmortise-and-tenon
joints.Tenonscanbe cut on the
abacksaw
tablesaw(page92),with

(page
Mortises
canbepro95),or onthedrillpress(page110).
chiseled
out by hand
ducedon thetablesawor drill press,
(page94),or routed(page
themethodthatsuits
97).Choose
yourneeds
andthetoolsin yourshop.

MORTISE-AND-TENON
IOINTSAND JIGS
ACottEcTt0N
0F
MORTISE.AND-TEI{ON

ANATOMY
OFA MORTISE-AND-TENOI{
JOINT

JOINTS

l i
il

Haunched
(oeepage 1O1)

ff

it : i,
r.i

i . . ' ' , , .
Through
MorLieepaeees completely
th rough workpiece, revealin4
end qrain oftenon

Clamped in a benchvise,
a commercial mortiseand-tenonjig guidesa
router as it cuts a tenon.
Thejigtemplate is turned
end-for-end to rout the
matching mortise.

88

ff

: r

Blind
(aeepa1e94)

Mottiae :
workpleae

I
I
I
I

, , ' ' , . ]

thoulder

t
I

li - r i i l

ffi

Angled haunahed
Alao knownaa a elopinqor aecret
haunch;identical to
the haunchedmortiae-and-tenon,
exaept that the
haunchio anqled,
concealinqit
whenthe joint
io asaembled

I
I
. :
I
:
I
I
I
T
I
I
I
T
I
I
I

t
I
T
I
I

I
I

MORTISE-AND_TENON
TOINTS

t
I

Wedgedthrough
(eeepaqe97)
Barefaced blind
A haunched blind
morbise-and-Lenon
wtth no ahouldere
or cheeka; offere
leee qlutnq eurface
Lhan a blind mor'
t;toe-and-tenon,
but. easrer Lo cut

';"
.. ) :

ii

I
I
I

?egged through
A Lhrou7h Lenon reinforced by one or more
round pe7e paeoinq
Lhrouqh mortiee sidee
and I;enon cheeke; hole
in ltenon ia offaet; eltghLly
Lo pull pieceo t oqether
when peg is ineerLed

I
I
I
I

Tuak
(oeepaqe 106)
tt,';.

:;,

,,:ii:-i'
' ;4..;.,'

t
.;:.,:;
.,

I
I

Round
(eeepa7e 11O)

Angled
(eeepaqe 1OZ)

I
I

t
t

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

open
(eeepa1e 91)

[ ,"1]

I Wtn

(eeepaqe 1OB)
Loose
Featuree morl;see cuL in boLh
halveeof the joinL and a epline'
Itke1,enon;for maxtmum etrenqLh,
Lhe l;enonahould be cut.ao that
Lhe qratn rune alon7 tLo length

B9

I
I
I
I

MORTISE-AND-TENONIOINTS

t
Mofiieinq jig
Attachea to router baae plate for
routinq morLiaea;Tuidepinaare poeitioned a7ainat oppoeite board fAcea,
centerinq mortiae in edqe

ji6, it allowa router to cut mor\iaea


and tenons without reaet-

T
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

----l6

I
I
I

-..--< $7->
S7>."a

S1s\
\

Tenon
template

Kouter aub-baee

-o

'-A

m
m
V).

.VC

%'@*Moftiae-and-tenon Jig
Uaed with a router to
cuL mortigesand tenona:
workpieceia secured in
vieeand ji4 ia clamped
to workpiece

A
\
\ ' \

Multi-joint jig
Uoed with router to cut
morbise-a nd -tenon jointe.
L-ehapedbracket ia faatened to backup board
and secured in viae;appropriate template ia attached
to bracket. Comeawith
guidebuehin4,router aubbaae.and bits

t
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I

t
I
90

I
I

I
I
I

OPENMORTISE-AND-TENON
IOINTS

AIsoknown as a bridlejoint or slipjoint, the


openmortise-and-tenonis commonlyusedin
frame construction.Both the openmortiseand
two-shouldered
tenoncan be cut on a
tablesaw or radinl erm saw.

I
T
I
I
I
I

I
I

ANoPEN
MORTIsE.AND.TENON
tlNTHE
TABLE
SAw

l
/

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

thetenon
1t 0utlinins
-

I Secure
t h e s t o c ke d g e - u pi n a v i s ea n d m a r ka l i n ea c r o s s
g a u g es o
t h e e d g ef o r t h e t e n o nl e n g t hT. h e na d j u s ta m o r t i s e
t h a tt h e g a pb e t w e e n
i t s p i n se q u a l st h e t e n o nt h i c k n e s s - t y p i c a l l yo n e - t h i rtdh e t h i c k n e sosf t h e w o r k p i e c e
A.d j u s t h e m o r tise gaugesothatthetenonoutlineis centered
between
opposing
f a c e so f t h e w o r k p i e c eH. o l dt h e s t o c kf l u s ha g a i n stth e f a c e
o f t h e w o r k p i e caes y o ug u i d et h e g a u g ea l o n gt h e s u r f a c e ,
s c r i b i n gt h e s i d e so f t h e t e n o no u t l i n ei n t h e w o o d( a b o v e ) .

r) Cutting
thetenoncheeks
L lttal.,e
a tenonwiththetablesawbycutting
thecheeks
f i r s ta, n dt h e nt h es h o u l d e rI n
s .s t aal lt e n o n i nj iggo nt h e
table;themodelshown
slidesin themiterslot.Protecting
thestockwitha woodpad,clamptheworkpiece
to thejig
andraise
thebladeto thetenonlength
mark.Position
thejig
sothatoneof thecuttinglinesforthesidesof thetenonis
aligned
withtheblade.Feedthejig forward
to makethecut
(above).
Turnoffthesaw,turntheworkpiece
in the
around
j i g ,a n dc u tt h eo t h ecr h e e k .

I
I

MORTISE-AND-TENONIOINTS

l. )

Sawing
thetenonshoulders
Attachanextension
to yourmiter
gauge.
Holding
theedgeof theworkpieceagainst
theextension,
adjust
the
bladeto theheightof oneof thecuttinglinesforthetenoncheeks.
Align
thetenonlength
markwiththeblade,
butta stopblockagainst
thestock,and
clampit to theextensi0n;
cuta small
notchfromonecorner
of theblockto
prevent
sawdust
fromaccumulating
between
it andtheboard.
Holding
the
workpiece
flushagainst
theextension
andthestopblock,usethemitergauge
to feedthestockintotheblade.
Turn
offthesawandremove
thewaste,
then
fliptheworkpiece
overandrepeat
to cut
(left).(Caution:
thesecond
shoulder
Bladeguardremoved
for clarity.)

I
I
I
I
I
t
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

Cutting
themoftise
jigonthetable.
Reinstallthe
tenoning
O u t l i nteh em o r t i steh es a m ew a yy o u
marked
thetenon(step1)andclamp
the
workpiece
to thejig.Raise
thebladeto
themortise
depthmarkandcutthesides
ofthemortise,
using
thesame
technique
youusedforthetenoncheeks(right).
Oncethesideshavebeencut,makeas
manypasses
asnecessary
to remove
the
wastebetween
them.

I
I

t
I
T
I
92

I
I

I
I

MORTISE_AND_TENON
IOINTS

t
I
T
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
t
T
I

TENONING
JIG
A TABLE.SAW
Youcanusethejig shownat rightto
cut bothoartsof anoDenmortise-andsugtenonjoint.Adaptthedimensions
gested
intheillustration
to customize
thejig foryoursaw,if necessary.
Cutthejigfenceandbackfrom3hinchplywood
andsawa 45" bevelat
o n ee n do f e a c hb o a r dt ;h ep i e c e s
shouldbewiderthantheheightof
y o u rs a w ' sr i p f e n c e F
. a s t e tnw o
preces
face-to-face
to fashtogether
iontheback,thenusecountersunk
screws
to attachthefenceandback
in an L shape;
makesurethe
together
willnotbe in theblade's
fasteners
pathwhenyouusethejig.Next,cut
thebracefromsolidstock,bevelits
ends,andattachit along
thetopedges
a triof thefenceandback,forming
angle.Maketheclampbyfacegluplywood
ingthreepiecesof 3/q-inch
together
andcuttingthe assembly
Usea hanger
intotheshape
shown.
bolt,washer,
andwingnutto attach

Fence
3/.'x 5t/2" x 24"

a
theclamptothejig back,leaving
gapbetween
theedgeof theclamp
andthefenceequal
to thethickness
the
of thestockyouwilluse.Offset
boltsotheclampcanpivoteccentriholes
cally.(Youcandrilladditional
youto shift
in thejig backto enable

I
I
I
I
I
I

l r b r

I
I

t
I
I
t
I

theclamoto accommodate
different
Next,cuttherunstockthicknesses.)
nerfromsolidwoodandattachit
to thejig fencesothatthejig runs
s m o o t h layc r o stsh et a b l ew r t h o u t
youwill
wobbling.
Forsomemodels,
haveto milla groove
downthelength
of therunner,
asshown,
to fit therip
fence.
Finally,
cuta piece
of clearplastic asa bladeguardandscrewit to
thejig backflushwithitsfrontface.
T o r r s et h e i i g s e ti t o n t h es a w
tablein frontof thebladewiththe
runnerandfencestraddling
therip
fence.Clamptheworkpiece
in the
jig andposition
theripfenceto align
thecuttingmarkon theworkpiece
withtheblade.
Feedthejig intothe
(Your
firstuseof thejig
cuttingedge.
willproduce
a kerfin theback.)
Flip
workpiece
and
repeat
to
the
around
(/eff).
(Refer
cut theothercheek
to
page85 forinstructions
onmaking
and
usinganother
styleof jig thatcancut
joints,)
openmortise-and-tenon

93

v v !

r !

'

-TENONIOINTS
BLIND MORTISE-AND

t
I
I
I

Completely
hiddenonce
assembled,
theblind mortiseand-tenonisfrequentlyused

to join table legsto rails.

I
I
I
I

t
I
HAND.CUTTING
A BLIND
M()RTISE.AND.TEN(lN
themoftise
1 Chopping
I Clamp
theworkpiece
to a worksurface.
Usinga mortise
chisel
thatisthesame
widthasthemortise,
makeyourfirstcut
about%inchinside
themoriise
endmark.
Holdthechiselvertically,
withthebevel
facingthewaste,
andstrikeit sharply
with
a wooden
malletsoit oenetrates
about%
inch.Makethesecond
cutabout%inch
backfromthefirst(inset),
thentilt the
chiselhandledownandbackto pryout
thewaste(right).Continue
makingcuts
%inchaparI,levering
outthewasteafter
eachone.One-eighth
inchfromtheother
endof themortise,
turnthechiselaround
sotheflatsidefacesthecuttinglineand
begina newseries
of cutsin theother
direction.
Continue
to passbackandforth,
cutting
andclearing
outwasteuntilyou
pareaway
reach
thedesired
depth.Finally,
thewaste
remaining
at eachendof themortise.Usea lockmortise
chiselto smooth
the
bottomof thecavity.

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

94

I
I
I
I
I
t
I

t
f
I
I
I
I
I

MORTISE-AND-TENONTOINTS

r) Cutting
thetenoncheeks
C- Makea four-shouldered
tenonbycutting
thecheeks
first,andthentheshoulders.
Mark
a shoulder
lineallaround
theendof theworko i e c ea n do u t l i n teh ec h e e kws i t hf o u rl i n e s
thatintersect
ontheboardend.Secure
the
workpiece
upright
in a viseandcutdownthe
cheeklineswitha backsaw
untilvoureachthe
shoulder
line(lefD.

I
t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
t

Sawing
thetenonshoulders
To remove
thewastefromthetenon
c h e e k sc ,l a m pt h ew o r k p i e ci nea m i t e r
boxwiththeshoulder
markaligned
with
t h e9 0 ' s l o tC
. u ta l o n g
t h es h o u l d e
l i rn e
on thefaceof the board(left);Iurnthe
w o r k p i e coev e ra n dr e p e atth ec u t o n
theotherside.Tocutawaythewasteon
theedges
of thetenon,secure
theworkpiece
end-uo
in theviseandcutthesides
of thetenon,
stopping
at theshoulder
line.
Then,
withthepieceedge-up
in thevise,
s a wa l o n g
t h es h o u l d el i rn et o t h et e n o n .
Finally,
turntheboard
overin theviseand
repeat
to sawawaythewasteonthetenon's

I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

oihpr pdop

95

(ahnvp)

I
-TENON IOINTS
IVIORTISE-AND

()NTHEDRILLPRESS
A M()RTISE
CUTTING
'l

upthemortising
attachment
Setting
consists
of
I A mortisins
attachment
hola drillbitsurroinded
bya four-sided
lowchisel
thatsquares
theholecutbythe
bit.Afterinstalling
theattachment
onyour
d r i l lo r e s sc.h e c kw h e t h et hr em o r t i s e
ontheworkoiece
chiselwillbecentered
a scrapboardthesamewidth
bysecuring
a n dt h i c k n e sasst h ew o r k p i e ct oet h e
mortising
attachment
fence.Borea shallowcutrntotheboard,
thenturntheboard
andmakea second
around
end-for-end
be
cutnextto thefirst.Thecutsshould
a l i g n e dl f. n o t ,s h i f t h ef e n c eb yo n e h a l ft h ea m o u nt th a tt h ec u t sa r em i s alignedandrepeatthetest(right).(ln
an
r mi s
t h i si l l u s t r a t i ot hne, h o l d - d o w
raised
forclarity.)

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
t
t
I
I
I
I
I
I

()FCUTS
SEOUENCE
NarrowmorLtae
Wtde morttee

I
I
I
I
I
t

r) Drilling
themortise
L S"t thedrilling
depthto themortise
d e p t ha n ds e c u r teh ew o r k p i e ct oe t h e
fence,
centering
themortise
outline
under
Adjustthehold-down
thechisel.
armand
rodssothestockcanslidefreelyalongthe
fence,Makea cutat eachendof theoutline,thena series
of staggered
cuts,following
thesequence
shown
above
to comp l e t et h em o r t i s eM. a r ka s i n g l er o wo f
c u t si f y o ua r eu s i n ga c h i s eel q u ailn
widthto themortise,
rows
or twoparallel
i f t h em o r t i s ies t o ow i d et o b ec u t i n
pass.
a srngle

I
I
I
I
I
I
96

r
I

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
t
I
I

WEDGEDTHROUGHMORTISE-AND-TENON
IOINTS

Wedgescan tighten and strengthena through mortiseqnd-tenon. The wedgedmortise-and-tenonjoint is made


by cuning slots in the end of the tenon, and drivingwedges
into the cuts after the tenon isfixed into the mortise.The
wedgespush the tenon more tightly againstthe mortise walls.
By using wedgescut from contrastinghardwood, thejoint
can lend a decorativetouch to a pieceoffurniture.

I
I

t
I
I
I

MAKII{G
A WEDGED
THR(IUGH
M(IRTISE.AND.TENON

outthemortise
1 Routing
I Secure
theworkoiece
between
twobenchdogs,usingwoodpadsto
protect
thestock.Sinceyouwillbe
placea
cuttinga throughmortise,
backupboardunderthe workpiece
yourbenchtop.
to protect
Fita plunge
routerwitha straight
brtthe same
d i a m e t earst h ew i d t ho f t h e m o r tise,thensetthe depthof cut.As
thisis typically
a deepcut,several
passes
will be necessary.
Attacha
wooden
extension
to thefenceof a
commercial
edgeguideto increase
its bearing
surface,
thenfastenthe
guideto therouterbaseplate.Center
thebit overthemortise
outlineand
adjusttheextension
soit restsflush
against
theworkpiece.
Holding
the
router
f irmly,plunge
thebit intothe
stockat oneendof the mortise
outline,thenfeedthebitto theotherend.
Whenthemortise
is cutto thefull
depth,square
itscorners
witha chisel.

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
T

t
t

97

I
_TENONIOINTS
MORTISE_AND

I
I
I

ROUTING
DEEP
THROUGH
MORTISES

I
I
I
I
I
I
I

yourrouter's
lf the desired
depthof a mortise
exceeds
m a x i m udme p t ho f c u t ,u s ea ne l e c t r idcr i l l t oh e l pc o m pletethecavity.Theillustration
aboveshows
thethree
stepsnecessary
to cut a deepthroughmortise.
Startby
installing
a mortising
bit in therouter
andmaking
asmany
(A).Then
passes
asyoucanuntilyoucango nodeeper
usethedrillwitha bit thatis larger
thanyourrouterbit

t o b o r ea h o l et h r o u gthh er e m a i n i nwga s t e( B ) .I n s t a l l
a p i l o t e fdl u s h - t r i m m ibnigt i n t h er o u t ear n dt u r nt h e
workpiece
over.Inserting
the bit through
the holemade
bythedrill,routoutthewaste(C);throughout
thispartof
pressed
theoperation,
keepthepilotbearing
against
the
wallsof themortise
to comolete
thecut.Usea chiselto
souare
the mortise
corners.

t
I
I
t
I
I
I
I

r) Sawing
theslotsin thetenon
1 Cutafour-shouldered
tenon(page95),
making
surethetenonis longenough
to
passcompletely
through
thematingpiece.
Clamp
thestockupright
in a viseanduse
a backsaw
to cuttwokerfsintotheendof
thetenon(right),slopping
% inchshort
of the shoulder:
sDace
thekerfsin from
eachedgeofthetenona distance
roughly
eoual
to thethickness
of thetenon.

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
t
I
9B

I
I
I

I
I

MORTISE-AND-TENON IOINTS

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

Inserting
thewedges

l l l i l l i l l l l l i l l l l l l l l l l i l l i l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l r r r r r r rtrh ersSaw
rl orttwo
rsc ur thardwood
ri nrs rt ero2rwedses
rmra kr eto
rhrfite rminto
lllrl
:
t
as
{ll ill lll tii lti in ur ru rr ru ul lll IIJ lll Ui ill Ul i$

5HO7Tt?
lightening up a loooelenon
joinL.
Uoea otrip of veneerlo enuguVa loooemorlise-and-Nenon
SeforeqluinquVNhejoint, cul the veneerto Lheoamelenqt'h
Lhejoinl wilh the veneerwedged
and widthas Ihe lenon.Aeeemble
in belweenlhe Lenonand Ihe morLiee,or kerl the lenon alonqite
lenqlhand inserDa wedqeae deecribedabove.lf a lenon ie eo
looeelhat a oin4lewed4eor pieceof veneerwill

99

w i d ea st h et e n o nb, u ta f e wi n c h e s
longer,
andnothickerIhanr/qinchat
t h eb r o a ed n d G
. l u eu pt h ej o i n tt,h e n
theoieces
in a visewiththeend
secure
of thetenonfacingup.Applysomeglue
to thewedges
andusea malletto drive
themintothekerfsasfarastheywillgo;
tapthewedges
alternately
to keepthem
e q u a l0. n c et h eg l u eh a sd r i e du, s ea
f l u s h - c u t t i sn ag wt o t r i mt h ew e d g e s
evenwiththeendof thetenon(above),
thensandthesurface
smooth.

I
MORTISE-AND-TENONIOINTS

I
I
I
I

A MORTISING
JIGF(lRTHEROUTER
Usethejig shownat rightto secure
theworkpiece
andguideyourrouter
you
as
cuta mortise.
Thedimensions
suggested
in theillustration
willsuit
mostrouters.
Cutthejig baseand
plywood.
sidesfrom3/a-inch
Fasten
pieces
three
together
for the base.
Attachthe sidesto the basewith
9ide
countersunk
screws,
makingsure
3/+"x6"x16"
the piecesareperfectly
square
to
o
eachother.Fashion
eachstooblock
fromsolidwood,routa groove
in
oneface% inchdeepand3/o
inch
wide,thencut a 4-inch-long
slotto
accepta %-inchhanger
bolt.Mount
the bolts3 inchesfromeachend
of oneside,slipthestopblocksin
olaceandfix themwithwashers
jig, pressthe baseplateagainst
andwingnuts.
one
thejig asyoudrawtherouterthrough
To usethejig, settheworkpiece stopblockandplunge
the bit into
thecut untilit contacts
theother
on the basewiththe mortise
outline thework.Holdtheedgeguideagainst stopblock(below).
between
the stooblocksandone
f lushagainst
surface
thesidewith
theblocks.
Placea shimunderthe
stockso its too surfaceis butted
against
theblocks,
thenclampthe
workpiece
to thejig andsecure
the
jig in a vise.Tosetup therouter
for
thecut,installa straight
bitthesame
diameter
asthewidthof the mortise,setthedepthof cut andattach
a commercial
edgeguideto thebase
plate,centerthe bit overthe mortiseoutlineandadjusttheguideso
it restsflushagainst
theopposite
side
of thejig. Adjusteachstopblock
by aligning
the bit withthe endof
themortise
outline,
butting
theblock
against
the router's
baseplateand
tightening
thewingnut.Afterconf irmingtheposition
of theblocks
andedgeguide,griptherouierfirmly,butttheedgeguideagainst
the

t
I
I
I
t
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

100

t
I

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

-TENONJOINTS
HAUNCHEDMORTISE-AND

The haunchedmortise-and-tenon
t'eaturesmating notches
cut in the tenoncheekand mortise.The resultis a joint that provides
to twist than the blind mortise-and-tenon.The
ntoreresistance
haunchedjoint is often usedin frnme-and-panelconstruction,
wherethe haunchfills theend of thegroovethat is cutfor the
panel, eliminating the needfor stoppedgrooves.
,id.!t

I
t
I

'

".;

l..l'

, rt':-::..'r,:'"

l/'.t''"

t
I
I
I
I
I

MORTISE-AND.TEN()N
A HAUNCHED
MAKING

I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
t
I
I

thetenoncheeks
1 Cutting
I O n a t a b l es a w ,i n s t a lal d a d oh e a ds l i g h t l yw i d e rt h a nt h e
l e n g t ho f t h e t e n o n ,t h e na t t a c ha n d n o t c ha n a u x i l i a rfye n c e
( p a g e7 1 ) . S e t t h e w i d t h o f c u t e q u a lt o t h e t e n o nl e n g t h ;
a d j u s t h e c u t t i n gh e i g h t o l e a v ea t e n o nt h e s a m et h i c k n e s s

r i t y o uw i l l b e u s i n g .
c h i s e ol r r o u t e b
a st h e w i d t ho f t h e m o r t i s e
, olding
t h ew o r k F e e dt h e s t o c kf a c e - d o winn t ot h e d a d oh e a d h
p i e c ef i r m l ya g a i n stth e f e n c ea n dt h e m i t e rg a u g eT. u r nt h e
overand repeatthe cut on the otherside (above).
workoiece

101

MORTISE-AND-TENON IOINTS

r) Cutting
thehaunch
L Setthebladeheieht
to cuta shoulder
ontheinside
eOge
of theworkpiece.
Once
thecut is made,
advance
theripfenceto
cutthehaunch
in thetenon.
Thehaunch
shouldbeapproximately
aswideasthe
tenonisthick.(lf youaremaking
therails
a n ds t i l e so f a f r a m e - a n d - p aansesl e m b l y ,i h ew i d t ho f t h eh a u n cshh o u ledq u a l
the depthof thegroove
forthepanel.)
With
theworkpiece
onedge,usethefenceand
themitergauge
to guideit overthedado
head(right).lf thereis no panelgroove
in thematingworkpiece,
youmustnext
(step3).
notchthemortise

I
I
I
I
I
I
I

r
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

Notching
themortise
forthehaunch
Secure
theworkpiece
in a viseandchopouta mortise
asyou
wouldfora blindtenon(page
94).Usethehaunched
tenonasa
guideto outline
thewidthanddepthof thenotchontheworkpiece,
thenkerftheedges
of theoutline
witha backsaw.
Usea

chiselto splitoffthewastein 7e-inch


layers
between
thecuts
untilyoureach
therequired
depth.Holding
thebladebevel-up
andparallel
to thesurface,
strikethehandle
witha malletbbovd.
Parethesidesof thenotchwiththechisel,
if necessary.

r02

I
I
I
I
I

t
I

I
I
t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

-TE,NON
MORTISE.AND
ANGLE,D
JOINTS
Angled tenonsare often usedin building chairs to
get around thejoinery problemcausedby seatsthat
are wider at thefront than at the back-a tradition'
aI designfeature. To accommodatethe angledside
rails, tenonsmust be cut at oppositeendsat opposing
angles,while the tenon shouldersmust beparallel
to eachother.Although the tenon is tricky to mark
out and produce,it fits into a standardmortise.

TENONS
ANGTED
CUTTING

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I

t
I
I
I
I

theiob
1 Planning
full-size
ona
theproject
tenons,
sketch
I Tomarkoutangled
pieceof plywood
ln thisexample,
theunderside
or hardboard.
thelegsandrails.
including
of a chairframehasbeendrawn,
onthefrontandbackrails;
blindtenons
areneeded
Standard
mormustbecutonthesiderails;andstandard
angled
tenons
outin thelegs.Tosetthebladeangle
tisesmustbechopped
aligntwo
tenoncheeks,
theangled
onyourtablesawforcutting
andadjusta slidingbevel
oftheoutline
alongonecorner
boards
(above).
Installa dadohead
to theangleformedbytheboards

anauxilInstall
andnotch
to theblades.
andtransfer
theangle
71)andseta cuttingwidthof % inchanda
iaryfence(page
height
of X inch.Feeda scrappiecethesamesizeasyourstock
both
face-down
intothedadoheadto maketestcutsacross
(inset).The
thetestpieceonyouroutline
ends.
Thenposrtion
a n dt h ed r a w i nsgh o u l ldi n eu p ;
s h o u l d lei n
r e so nt h ep i e c e
setof cuts,
thecuttingwidthandmakeanother
if not,increase
height
thecutting
align.Adjust
untiltheshoulders
continuing
onthepiecelineupwiththedrawtng.
untilthetenoncheeks

103

I
MORTISE-AND-TENON
IOINTS

I
I
I

t
I
I
t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

Cutting
thetenoncheeks
Oncethecuttingwidthandheight
of
thedadobladehavebeenproperly
set,put
thetestpieceasideandmakethecutson
yourworkpiece.
Usethemitergauge
and
fenceto guidetheboardforonepass,then
turntheboardoverandrepeat
thecutat
theotherend(above).
To lineup thesaw
cutsfortheothersideof thecheeks,
set
theworkpiece
onedgeandusethesliding
bevelto extend
theshoulder
lineacross
the
edgeof the board(insef).Thenmovethe
ripfence
totheothersideofthedadohead,
andreposition
andnotch
theauxiliary
fence
accordingly.
Aligntheshoulder
markwith
theoutside
bladeof thedadoheadand
buttthefenceagainst
theendof thestock.
Cutthe remaining
cheeks(right)thesame
wayyouproduced
the f irsttwo.(Make
t h e s ec u t so n t h e t e s tp i e c ef i r s t ,a n d
then adjustthecuttingwidthandheight,
if necessary.)

I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
104

I
I

I
I

MORTISE-AND-TENONIOINTS

t
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

upthesawforthetenonshoulders
Q Setting
parallel
to themiterslot,
a board
theangle
of thedadoheadto 90".Holding
J Adjust
gauge
in
to thesameangleusedto adjusttheblades
usetheslidingbevelto setthemiter
(aborze).
gauge.
Theshoulder
should
onedgeagainst
themiter
Butttheworkpiece
step1
overto itsotheredge.Setthewidth
beparallel
to theripfence;if not,fliptheworkpiece
cutting
height.
andadjust
thedadoheadto thedesired
of cutto thewidthofthecheek

I
I

Cutting
thetenonshoulders
Likethetenoncheeks,
theshoulders
arecut in twosteos.Forthefirstsetof
onedgeusing
cuts,guidetheworkpiece
themitergauge
andfence(left),thenturn
thecut.
theboardend-for-end
andrepeat
Tomakethesecond
setof cuts,usethe
asin step3 to angle
themiter
sliding
bevel
gauge
in theopposite
direction.
Cutthe
ontheotheredsethe
lasttwoshoulders
samewayyoumadethef irsttwo.

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

105

TUSKTENONIOINTS

t
t
I
I
I
I

The tusk tenon is contmonly usedto


joirt the legsnnd stretcherof a trestle
table.The tenon extendsbeyondthe
throughntortiseso that a tusk-like
wedgecnn be insertedto lock thejoint
while enablirtgit to Ite disassentbled.
Dependingon the length and width
of the tenon, the wedgecqn be inserted
througheither its thicknessor itswidth.

I
I
.{i

I
I

MAKING
A TUSKTENON
JOINT

I
I
t
Mortiae
workpiece

t
I
I
I
I
I

'l

Marking
thelocation
ofthetenonwedge
I Cuta four-shouldered
tenon(page
94),butmakeit long
enough
to extend
fromthemortise
workpiece
byat least
1 rnch.
Thiswillprovide
sufficient
stockto resist
being
split
bythewedge.
Cuta through
mortise
to accommodate
the
t e n o na n da s s e m btl he el o i n t T
. h e n h, o l d i ntgh ep i e c e s
together
ona worksurface,
marka linealong
thetopof the
(above).
cheekwhere
thetenonemerges
fromthemortise

r) Drillingthe holefor thewedge


Z . D i s a s s e m bt hl eej o i n ta n dm a k ea d r i l l i n gm a r k% oi n c h
o n t h es h o u l d esri d eo f t h es c r i b e d
l i n e t; h i sw i l le n s u r e
a
. e ta m o r t i s e
t i g h tf i t w h e nt h e w e d g ei s d r i v e ni n t op l a c e S
g a u g et o o n e - t h i rtdh e t h i c k n e sosf t h e t e n o na n d u s et h e
g a u g et o o u t l i n et h e h o l ei n t h e m i d d l et h i r do f t h e t o p
c h e e kb
, o r d e r i nogn y o u rm a r k .U s i n ga b i t s l i g h t l ys m a l l e r
i n d i a m e t etrh a nt h e o u t l i n eb, o r et h e h o l et h r o u g ht h e
tenonon the drill press(above).

106

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I

I
I
I
I
I

MORTISE-AND-TENON
TOINTS

A n g l i ntgh ew e d g eh o l e
Q
r . J E n l a r g ae n ds q u a r et h e h o l ey o ud r i l l e dt o
accommodate
the wedge.Holdrng
a mortisechise l a t a 1 0 " a n g l ea w a yf r o mt h et e n o ns h o u l d e r s ,
c u t a t a p e r e ds l o t ,a s i n d i c a t e db y t h e d o t t e d
l i n e si n t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n
C.h o po u t t h e w a s t ea s
y o uw o u l dc u t a b l i n dm o r t i s e( p a g e9 4 ) .

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I

t
I
I
I

Inserting
thetenonwedge

hardwood
wedge
Cuta triangular
thatistapered
to fit theslotyouchopped
outin step3; itslength
c : n h c r r nt o t w i c pt h e t e n o nw i d t h .T o a s s e m b l e
t h e i o i n t s l i d et h e t e n o ni n t ot h e m o r t i s ea n ds t r i k e
t h ew e d g ef i r m l yw i t ha m a l l e ut n t i lt h ej o i n ti s t i g h t
( r i p h f )D o n o t r r s ep l r r ea s t h i s i o i n ti s d e s i s n etdo
b ed i s a s s e m b l e d ,

-TENONIOINTS
TWIN MORTISE-AND

'!!

':'f:

' '::''
:,i;r.

i.;:,
r!

Cut acrossthe grain into the


face of a workpiece,lwin mortises
makefor a strongerjoint than a
single,wide cavity.

MAKING
A TWINMORTISE.AND.TENON
J()INT

I
I
t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
t
I
I
I
I
I
!

I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
outthetenons
1 Laying
I Beginbycuttinganordinary
four-shouldered
through
tenonasyouwouldfora wedged
joinl(page97).fhenusea combination
squareto markoutthe twintenons(above).
T h en o r m apl r a c t i ci es t o d i v i d e
t h et e n o ni n t ot h i r d sm
, a k i n g t h e w iodftthh e t e n o n s a n d
thegapbetween
themthesame.Markthemiddlewasteportion
withXsto avoidconfusion.

108

I
I
I
I
I
I
I

I
I

MORTISE-AND_TENONIOINTS

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I

12) Cutting
outthewaste
I Cta^pthetenonworkpiece
end-up
in a viseandcutalong
theedges
of the
wastesection
witha backsaw,
stopping
at theshoulder.
Thenusea coping
saw
to remove
thewaste(above),
takingcare
to avoidcuttingintotheshoulder.
Use
a chisel
to pareto theline.

t
I
I
I

Laying
outthemortises
Drawtwolinesrepresenting
thewidth
of thetwinmortises
on thefaceof the
mortise
workpiece,
thensetbothworkpieces
on a worksurface
withthetenon
workpiece
ontop.Alignthetenonshoulderwithoneofthemarked
linesandoutl i n et h et w om o r t i s euss i n gt h et e n o n
cheeks
asguides(left),Ihen
remove
the
wasteasyouwouldforanydeepthrough

I
I

r
t
I
t

mnriisp (neop
QRI'
' vt
\rede

109

-AND-TENONIOINTS
ROUNDMORTISE
Roundtenonsareoftenproduced
on turned
workpieces
suchaschairlegsand rungs
with thehelpof a latheor bandsaw,but they
canalsobecut in squarestockwith a drill
and tenoncutter.Themortiseis
Dress
alsoboredon a drill press.
\*

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

MAKING
A R()UND
MORTISE.AND.TENON

I
I
I
I
tl
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
workpiece
Gutting
a round
tenonona square
Make
a round
tenonin twosteps,
starting
onthedrillpress
and
thenremoving
thewasteonthetablesaw.Installa tenoncutter
onthedrillpress
andtilt thetableto 90".Clamp
theworkpiece
board
to thetable,usingpadsto protect
thewood,
anda support
(above,
left).On
thenboretheholeto thedepthof theshoulder
thecuttingheight
to cutawaythewaste
thetablesaw,adjust

I
I
e n c i r c l i ntgh e t e n o na n ds c r e wa b o a r da s a n e x t e n s i otno t h e
m i t e r g a u g eA.l i g nt h e s h o u l d el ri n ew i t ht h e b l a d e b, u t t a s t o p
b l o c ka g a i n st th e e n do f t h ew o r k p i e caen dc l a m pi t t o t h e e x t e n s i o n .H o l d i n g
t h e s t o c kf l u s ha g a i n stth e e x t e n s i oann dt h e s t o p
(above,rrght)
block,makea cut on eachedgeof the workpiece
to severthe waste.Makethe matingmortiseon the drill press.

r10

t
I
I
I
I

I
I
t
t
I
I
t
t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
t

t
t
I

t
I
I
I
I

t
t
t
I
I
I
I

MORTISE-AND-TENONIOINTS

llllultllllllfll]lliltllflllllllillll l]ltllllllltllflitiiilltl]llilil
1HO? TI?
A round-tenonji6 for the router table
jiq ehownhereenablee
youLo
Theoimpleplywood
rout roundNenone
in lurned oiecee,
MakeNhe
jiq hiqherLhanyour roulerNable's
L-ehaped
fence,wiLha bracetha| holdeNheworkpiece
enuqly,lneLalla ef,raiqhi
bit in XherouLerand an
inserLin lhe Lablelhat eurroundsLhe
cutNeras
cloeelyae poeoible.
Adjuet,Nhe
cutler
heiqhtf,o lhe
lenqthof the
Lenon.Then
clamp
L h ej i q r o t h e
cenler of the fence
and oetlhemfor a
parlialcut, Holdinq
lheworkpiece
oecurely
inlhe jiq
\
with onehand,turn on lhe rouler and lowerNhesbockonboNhe
biLwhileLurninqit clockwise,
a4ainoLbit rotation.Advance
Nhefence1/oinchaL a time unlil NheLenonie compleNed.

lIl

Cutting
a round
tenonin turned
stock
A bandsawcanbe usedto fashion
a
r o u n dt e n o ni n a t u r n e dw o r k p i e c e .
Clamp
themitergauge
to thetableso
thatthegapbetween
itsfaceandthe
cuttingedgeof thebladeisthesame
asthedesired
depthof tenonshoulder.
Aligntheshoulder
lineontheworkpiece
w i t ht h e b l a d ea, n dc l a m pa b o a r d
against
theendof thestockasa stop
block;makesuretheboardis parallel
to
themitergauge
slot.Cutthetenonin
twosteps.First,rotatetheworkpiece
clockwise
onthetableandmitergauge
whilecuttinga series
of concentric
kerfs
7sinchapartfromtheendof thestock
t o t h es h o u l d el irn e .T h e nc l e a trh e
wastebypushing
theworkpiece
across
thebladewhilerotating
iI (abovelCut
deepshoulders
in twoorthreepasses,
moving
themitergauge
awayfromthe
bladebetween
eachoass.

,w

I
I
I
I
I
;'l

I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I

DO\MTAIL
A]\TDBOXIONTS

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I

t
t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

u
l

L
v

u
I

l
u

l
c

U
l

L
L

U
J

L
l

l
u

U
g

l
t

t
I
I

l
I

l
|

l
U

'

l
'

thecostly,hand-wrougl
thenavailable,
theinterk
c

2 l - o n \ I r | l l - r I o n n r o n | e m { | T n n | l g n r r n l ; n n n n g p r t n t n r i ' l . 2 l Y l F r n t ^
I

lvl

v
rr rr r-r r r rL

-L'luuuLr

arrLr

r rr r!!L

t tsL

joint togetherwithout
l

l
.

l
l

l
v

t
u

v
L

I
l

L
r
r

l
u

c
l

r
l

l
r

!
r

L
c

u
l

U
l

L
!

J
u

u
L
L

|
l

d
|

|
r

|
'

u
^

.
|

d
|

is stillcalleduponto holdthecor-

.
r

|
,

l
|

,
|

'

8
L
!

|
.

<

r
-

'
t

|
|

|
|

|
d

|
!

E
r

t
'

!
!

G
r

|
L

l
d

!
L

t
u

for gluing.

nersof carcases
anddrawerstogethFitted with a straightbit, a table-mounted
Both dovetailandbox joints can
joint.
er. Today,the rationalefor using it
routercutsthenotches
a
box
A
hardbe
cut
by handor machine.Boxand
for
is esthetic;the dovetailis visual
woodkeygluedintothemitergaugeextensionfingerjointscanbecutequallywell
shortlrandfor durability andwoodguaranteesuniform spacingbenveenthecuts.
with the router,the table saw(page
workingskill.
132),or the radial arm saw(page
Thejoint consistsof taperedpins that fit aroundflaredtails
134).Hand-cuttinga dovetailjoint is oftenconsidereda rite of

resembling
thetail feathers
of a dove,whichgivesthejoint its
name.Thejoint provides
goodlong-grain
gluingsurface,
which
addsto its strength.
Several
varieties
of thedovetailjoint areshownin thischap(pase118)isthestrongest,
ter., Thethrough
throushdovetail
dovetail(page
stronsest,
sincethe
tailsandpinsarecutthroughthefull thickness
of theboards.
Thecurvedandoutlinedthroughdovetailjoints,shownon

passage
for apprentice
woodworkers.
It takesmoretime and
effortthanmachinecutting,but thetechniqueallowscompletecontroloverthelayoutof thejoint.Dovetails
canbeproducedquicklyandaccurately
ontherouterusinga commercial
jig.
manvcases,
however.
however,
thespacing
spacine
andangle
aneleof thepins
iis.In many
oins
andtailscannotbevaried,andsomewoodworkers
findthatthe
joint lackstheesthetic
resulting
appealof a handcutjoint.

r
I
I

A copingsawis usedto cut auraythewastebetvveen


the
pins of a dovetailjoint. Thenarrowbladeallowsthesaw
to curvesharplyfrom thesideof thepins to theshoulder
line. Theremainingwastewill beparedau,aywith a chisel.

113

A SELECTIONOF DOVETAILANDBOXIOINTS

I
I
I

t
I

Outlined through
dovetail
(aee paqe 12O)

Eoxjolnt
(aee pa6e 134)

-r+

qri
h;

:
..-,-'

Half-blind
dovetail
(eee pa4e 15O)

ir;i'u
i:lL,.r
'l.'
i,'

W#-v'-'

'.-l'';Y

Fingerjoint
(aee pa1e 135)

Elind dovetall
)imilar to the half-blind doveLailjoint, except the enda of
the boarda are rabbeted
and t,he edqea are
mitered before the
pina and tails are cut,
concealinqthe end
7rain of both pieceo

''r.1.-:;

Half-blind boxjoint'
jimilar to the standard box
joint with the ahoulderof
one boardand the pina
of the mating piece
mitered at 45"; \
. ,

theendqrain 1\

ut utto uuaru
Fr.
-' uli ,,
*r+1

[iit,.1._..-

ie hidden

E-

''l'i-,

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I

t
I

t
I
t
I
I
I
I
I

t
t

DESIGNINGAND MARKING DOVETAILS

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

andangling
thepins
Spacing
T h es p a c eb e t w e et nh ep i n sa n dt a i l so f a d o v e t aai ln dt h e
slopeangleof the pinsaffectboththestrength
of thejoint
a n di t s e s t h e t iacp p e a S
l . e v e r ac lo m m osnp a c i nrga t i o s expressed
astail-to-pin
size-areshownat right.The1-tojoint,butresults
1 ratiocreates
thestrongest
in the least
a t t r a c t i vl a
e y o u tT. h eo t h e sr p a c i nrga t i o si l l u s t r a t eadr e
moreattractive
andvirtually
assturdy.
The3-to-iratiois
a g o o dc h o i c feo ra j o i n t h a tw i l lf e a t u rper o m i n e not lnya
piece.Pin-spacing
ratiosgreater
than3-to-1areweakand
should
b ea v o i d e d .
Thereis lesslatitude
in marking
theangle
ofthepins.Too
smallanangle
willprevent
thepieces
fromlocking
together,
allowing
thejointto pullapart;toogreatananglestresses
the
corners
of thetails,causing
themto breakoff.Forsoftwoods,
for hardwoods,
a ratioof 1:6or 80" is required;
therationormallyusedis 1:8or83 (inset).
Using
a dovetail
square
to mark
giveyouthecorrect
thepinswillautomatically
angle.

t
I

t
I

t
I
t

0utlining
thepins
jointbegins
Theconstruction
of a dovetail
withlaying
out,marking
andcutting
thepins,thenusingthemto
outline
thetailsonthemating
Beginlaying
board.
out
thejointbymarking
theoutside
faceof theworkpiece
w r t ha b i gX , t h e nu s ea c u t t i n g a u g teo s c r i b e
the
shoulder
lineof the joinl(pagell8). Next,usea
dovetail
square
to layoutthepinsontheendsof the
board
asshownin thesequence
at left.(Seepage119
f o r i n s t r u c t i o on ns m a k i n a
g d o v e t asi lq u a r ien t h e
s h o p .B
) e g i nw i t hh a l f - p i nast e a c he d g e m
, aking
surethenarrow
endsof thepinsareontheoutside
face
of theboard.
Nextoutline
thewaste
sections
adjacent
to thehalf-pins.
Ona wideworkpiece,
suchastheone
younextmarkthecenter
in theillustration,
of theboard
end.Outline
a pinat thecenter
mark,thenoutline
the
pins,marking
remaining
allthewaste
sections
withXs.

I
I
t
I
I
I
I
I

Half-oin
- r'

-.---"-*.

Waste

t
t
I
I

115

JIGSAND ACCESSORIES

dovetailjigsareidealfor producing
Commercial
a seriesof identicaljoints. Thismodelconsists
of two
templates
fastenedto backupboards.Theworkpiece
is securedto thejig and a stopblockhelpswith
positioningfor repeatcuts.Here,a routerfitted
with a dovetailbit movesin and out of the slots
of thetail boardtemplate.

I
T
I
I
I

Eoxjoint jig
Flaaticjiq aLLachedto a rout er Lablefor
cuLtrnqftnqer or boxjornto; rtdge in
center ofjt7 functtoneae a key Lo
na,p

mrp.i.-o

-a^o-f

ft9

t
I
I
I
I
T
I

Dovetail templatee
A eet of t wo fixed Lemplatee
faetened t;o backup boarda Lo
rout throu7h dovet ail jotnLa;
one LemplaLe ie for pine and
the of,her for Latla. Three models are avatlable for rouLtrtq
dtfferenL-etzed ptne: u6e5 topptloLed btl;e

I
I
I
I
I

Inte rch a n g ea bl e-te m pl ate ji g


Wtth the uae of tnterchangeable templal,eo, jtg allowe
router to cut. dovetail and boxjotnLe wtt.ha otnqle
eeLup: comee with quide buohin4 and router btt a

T
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

DOVETAILAND BOXIOINTS

i l i l il n

A
#
n r u ffiffi
Top-prlotedbita

Non-piloted bite

Multi-joint jig
Uaedwith routerto cut.dovetail
and box iointa. L-ahapedbracket
ia faatened to backu'pboard and
eecuredin viae;appropdate tem'
plate ta attached to bracket.
'Comes
with quide buahin4,
,/
router aub-baaeand bita

I
I
I
I
T
I
I

r
t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

Dovetail bite, etraight bits


and t'emplate 7uideo
A aelectionof etrai4ht and dovetail bita
(left) uoed with routera and commercialtem'
'platea to cut dovetail iointa. Non-piloted
bita require a tempiate quide (iiqht)
affixed to the eub-baoeto keepthe bit a
uniformdiatance from the ed7eof the
template; top-prloted bita are equippedwith
ball-bearin7pilota to 7uidecuta

Dovetail equare
Usedto mark the pine of dovetail jointa; availablein ratioa of
1:6 (BO") for aoftwood and 1:B
(83") for hardwood

9ub-baee

Adjuatable dovetail jig


Adjuatable template uaed to
rout half-blindand throu4h
dovetailjointa; width of pine
and taila ia aet with a eingle
adjuatment. lncludeaguide
buahin7and router bits

5n-

w6,

%*@(
?ae

Dovetail
template

r-@-\

vg

a@) 6

V #

Template7uidea
and lockin7rinq

THROUGHDOVETAILIOINTS

I
I

Combiningmechanicolstrengthwith a
distinctiveappearance,the through dovetail
joint isfrequently usedin fine furniture to
join drawersand carcasecorners.

I
I
T
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

CUTTING
A THROUGH
DOVETAIL
BYHAND

I
I
I
I
T
I
I
I
I
T
I
I
I

'l

Laying
outthepins
I Marktheoutside
faceof the boardwithan X. Thenseta
c u t t i n g a u g teo t h et h i c k n e sosf t h es t o c ka n ds c r i b e
a line
along
theendof theboard
to marktheshoulder
of thepinsand
Iails(above,
/eff).Next,secure
thestockend-upin a viseand
u s ea d o v e t asi lq u a rteo o u t l i n e
t h ep i n so n t h ee n do f t h e
b o a r dY. o uc a nf o l l o wt h es e q u e n ci lel u s t r a t e
od
n p a g eI 1 5 ,

butforstockof thewidthshown
above-typical
fora drawer-a
half-pin
pinsin between
at eachedgeandtwoevenly
spaced
joinl(above,
will makea strongandattractive
right).Marklhe
waste
sections
withanX asyougo.Finally,
usea combination
square
to extend
allthedovetail
marks
downbothfacesof the
board
to theshoulder
lines.

I
I
I
I

118

I
I

I
I
I
I
I
T
I
I
I
I
I

DOVETAIL AND BOX IOINTS

DOVETAIL
SSUARE
Instead
of buyinga dovetail
square,
youcanmakeyourownbyface-gluingfourpieces
of scrapwoodtogethdovetail
angle.
er at the required

Cutthepieces
of thejig about6 or
wide.
8 inches
longand1%inches
adjustthe
To prepare
thepieces,
mitergauge
of yourtablesawto the
(or80")for
angle-l:6
appropriate

t
I
I

softwood
or 1:8 (or83') for hardwood.Thenmakea cut across
the
c e n t eor f t h e p i e c es, l i c i n gi t i n
half. Makethe samecut at both
guide.Spread
endsof themarking
s o m eg l u eo n a l l t h ec o n t a c t i n g
facesandassemble
thejig, butting
t h ec u te n d so f t h em i d d l ep i e c e s
a g a i n st h
t e m a r k i nggu i d ew, h i l e
their
withtheother
aligning edges
of
crosspiece
above
twoboards the
andbelow.
Trimtheendsof themidpieces
flush
dle
withthecrosspiece.
To usethejig, laythe marking
guideacross
theendof thepinboard
whilebuttingtheedgeof thecrosspieceagainst
thefaceof theboard.

t
I
I
I
I
I

Cutting
thepins
L e a v et h e o i n b o a r di n t h e v i s ew i t h

you.Usea dovetail
itsoutside
facetoward
sawto cut alongtheedges
of the pins,
j
u
s
t
a l i g n i ntgh es a wb l a d e t o t h ew a s t e
sideof thecuttingline.Cutalltherighthandedgesfirsl (left),thencomplete
the left-hand
edges.
Usesmooth,
even
strokes,
takingcareto keepthebladeperpendicular
asyoucuttotheshoulder
lines.

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

119

I
I

DOVETAIL AND BOX IOINTS

I
I
Chiseling
outthewaste
Mostof thewastewoodbetween
the
pinscanbe removed
witha copingsaw
(page112),anda chiselusedonlyto
cleanupthegaps.However,
it is notmuch
moredifficult
to chiseloutallthewaste.
Thekeyisto workpatiently,
removing
thin
slivers
of woodwitheachcut.Settheoin
boardoutside-face
up on a worksurface
a n dc l a m pa g u i d eb l o c ko nt o ps ot h e
edgeisaligned
wlththeshoulder
line.Use
a woodchiselnowiderthanthe narrow
sideof thewaste
section.
Holding
the
chiselbevel-out
against
theguideblock
andperpendicular
to thefaceof theworkpiece,
scorea %-inch-deep
cut (/eft).Then
buttthechiselbladeagainst
theendof
the boardto shaveoff a 7a-inch
layerof
wasle(below).
Continue
removing
the
wasteuntilyouareabouthalfway
through
thestock.Onceyouhaveremoved
allthe
wastefromonesideof theboard,
turn
it over,reposition
theedgeof theguide
blockdirectly
overtheshoulder
lineand
remove
thewastefromtheotherside.

t
I
I
I

t
T
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
T
I

t
I
I
I
t20

I
I

I
I

DOVETAIL AND BOX IOINTS

I
I
I
I
T
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

Laying
outthetails

lllllllJljl.llllllitlllllllll
lllrllllillJl1ll
illllll|UlllrilllllllilriJ
1HO?TI?
Markingtails on wide boards
Tanelsand wideboardemav be
N o o c u m b e r 1 o m et o h o l d
oteady whileyou are

o u t l i n i nN
q h et a i l s
o na t a i l b o a r d . T h e

";:i!":ifly\izt:
\
eaoy.SeNIhetail board

o u L s i d e - f a c ed o w n o n a

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

workeurfaceand clampa quide


I
blockonNopof ilwiththe edqeof
the blockfluehwiLhthe shoulderline.
ThenholdNheend of the pin board
the quideblockwith i|e ou|againeN
sideface awavfrom LheLail board.
Faetena handscrew
to Ihe Vinboardand ueeanot'herclamp
whileyou outlineNhet aile.
NoholdiNfirmly in poeiLion

t2r

down
Setthe tail boardoutside-face

Holdtheoinboard
ontheworksurface.
withits insidefacealigned
end-down
withtheshoulder
lineof thetailboard,
making
theedges
of theboards
certain
thetailswitha pencil
aref lush.Outline
(above),
to extend
thenusea try square
Mark
thelinesontheendof theboard.
withXs.
all thewastesections

I
I

DOVETAILAND BOX IOINTS

t
thetailsand
f, Cutting
r.,f removing
thewaste
Usea dovetail
sawto cutthetailsthesame
wayyoucut the pins(step2). Angling
theboard(left),rather
thanthesaw,makes
foreasier
cutting.
Secure
theboard
sothat
theright-hand
edges
of thetailsareveriical.Sawsmoothly
andevenly
along
the
edges
of thetails,stopping
at theshoulder
line.Reposition
theboard
intheviseto cut
theleft-hand
edges.
Onceall the sawcuts
havebeenmade,remove
thewaste
witha
chiselasin steo3.

I
I

t
I
T
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

Dry-fitting
thedrawer
fi
gluinguptheloint,assemble
\,f Before
it to checkthefit. Stand
thepinboard
on
endona worksurface,
thenalignthetail
boardwithit. Press
thejointtogether
by
handasfarasit willgo,thenusethemalletto tapthe boards
therestof theway
(righil.f o avoidmarrrng
intoposition
the
pinsandtails,close
thejointevenly
along
itsentirelength.
Thepinsandtailsshould
f i t s n u g l yr ,e q u i r i nogn l ya l i g h t a p p i n g .
l f t h ej o i n ti s t o ot i g h t ,m a r kt h ep o i n t
whereit binds,disassemble
theboards,
andusea woodchiselto pareawaya little
morewoodat the mark.Dry-fit
thejoint
again
andadjustit further,
if necessary.

t
I
I
T
I
I
I
I
I
r22

I
I

DOVETAILAND BOXTOINTS

t
I
I
I
T
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

llltlllillllfillilltllililllilltllllflrlilltllllilllllllllllfillfi[l]ll
5HO?Tt?
Cutling aeveraltailboardeal onae
lf you are makinqseveralAovelailjointo,
you can slreamlinelhe proceeoof
cuttinqthe Iails by oawingIhem all
al once.MarkLheLailson Ihe
''
stackLhe pieceo
boarde,trhen
together,makinqsuretheir
<
edqeoand end6are ali7ned.
Clampthe stack in a vise,
a n q l i n qt h e p i e c e ee o l h e

;:,;t;'-;^;:;,5'i""
"r"i""iu . \-.
areverlical.CuNtheriah|\

h a n d e d g e oo f a l l N h e N a i l e ,

\\^'

Ehenleavethe eaw blade in Nhe


last, kerf a6 you repooiLion
Nhe
eNackNocut,NhelefY-hand
edqee,Theeaw bladewillkeep
lheboardeinaliqnmenl
ao you (\
e h i f At h e s t a c k i n | h e v i s e .

r23

updovetails
I Gluing
/ W h e ng l u i n g
u p a d o v e t aj iol i n t ,
c l a m p i npgr e s s u irsea p p l i etdo t h e
tail boards.
Todistribute
clamping
pressure
properly,
makea specially
notched
clamping
blockforeachjoint.
Theblocks
should
beaslongasthe
widthof thestockandnotched
sothat
theyonlytouchthetailsanddo not
exertpressure
onthepins.Spread
glueevenly
onallthecontacting
surfacesof the boards,
thenassemble
t h ej o i n t sI.n s t a al l b a rc l a m pa l o n g
eachpinboard,
thentighten
theclamps
a littleat alime hbovd.Checkthe
carcase
for square
andadjustthe
pressure,
clamping
if necessary.

DOVETAILAND BOXIOINTS

I
I
I

()NTHETABLE
CUTTING
A THROUGH
DOVETAIL
SAW
Cutting
thepins
Layoutthepins(page118),butmarkonly
oneendof theboard.
Then,screwanextensionboardto themitergauge
thatis high
enough
to support
theworkpiece
during
thecuts.Settheangleof themitergauge
to cuttheright-hand
edges
of thepins;
guide.
usea dovetail
square
asa
Tomake
thecuts,holdthepinboardwithitsinside
faceagainst
theextension
andthemarked
endonthetable,thenraise
theblade
to the
shoulder
lineof thepins.Aligntheblade
withthewastesideof theright-hand
edge
pin,thenclampa stopblock
of thecenter
flushagainst
ontheextension
therighf
handedgeof theboard.
Makea cutat the
edgeof thepin,thenclearoutabouthalf
thewastebycuttinga series
of kerfs,slidingthepieceslightly
to theleftwitheach
pass.Turnthe boardend-for-end,
buttit
against
thestopblockandtheextension
andrepeat
theprocedure
to makea mirror
imageof thefirstcut at the olherend(right,
fop).(Repeat
the process
for all otheridenticalworkpieces.)
Then,afterturning
the
boardbackto themarked
end,alignthe
bladewiththeright-hand
edgeof thenext
marked
half-pin,
reposition
thestopblock
against
theedgeof theworkpiece,
and
repeat
thecuttingprocess
on bothends
of the board.
Whentheright-hand
edges
of alltheoinsarecutandhalfthewaste
hasbeencleared
away,reverse
theangle
of the mitergaugeandrepeatthe procedureto cuttheleft-hand
edges
ofthepins.
Thistime,continue
cuttingkerfsintothe
waste
untilit iscleared,
sliding
theboard
to therightwitheachpass(right,bottom).
Tocomplete
thejoint,tracethe pinson
thetail board(page121)andcutthetails
by hand(page122)or usinga bandsaw
(page125I

I
I

I
I
Centerpin

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
t24

t
I

I
I

DOVETAIL AND BOX IOINTS

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

A THROUGH
DOVETAIL
JOINT
ONTHEBAND
SAW
'l

Cutting
thepins
I Markthepinsononeendof theworkpiece(pagell8), thencutthemin two
stages,
firstangling
thetableto theright
foroneseries
of cuts,andthento theleft
forthefinalones.Startbytiltingthetable
to matchtheangleof thedovetail
square
(inseil.Install
theripfenceandfastena
wooden
L-shaped
auxiliary
fenceto it.
Then,settheworkpiece
outside-face
up
onthesawtableandaligntheright-hand
edgeof thefirst
half-pin
withtheblade.
Butttheauxiliary
fenceagainst
the
pieceandmakethecut,keeping
theboard
flushagainst
tne
fence.
Whenthebladereaches
theshoulder
line,stopthe
cutandturnoffthesaw.Withthebladebuttedontheshoulderline,holda stopblockagainst
theworkpiece
andscrew
it to theauxiliary
fence.
Turnthepieceend-for-end
andcut
theright-hand
edgeof thefirsthalf-pin
at theotherendof
theboard.
Turntheworkpiece
again,
alignthebladewiththe
marked
linefortheright-hand
edgeofthefirstfullpin,butt
theauxiliary
fenceagainst
theworkpiece
andcutto thestop
block(right).
Continue
turningtheworkandshifting
therip
fenceasnecessary
to cuttheright-hand
edgeof thepinson
bothendsof theboard.
Cuttheleft-hand
edgeof eachpin
following
thesameprocedure
withthetabletilteddownward
to the left.Finishby usinga chiselto remove
thewaste
between
the pins(page120).

t
I
I
I

r) Gutting
thetails
L tlsethecompleted
oin boardasa
guide
to outline
thetailsonthetailboard
(page121).Tomakethecutsandremove
thewaste,
return
thetableto thehorizontal position.
Startbysawing
outthewaste
at bothedges
of thepiecewithtwointersecting
cuts.Toclearthewastebetween
pivthetails,nibble
at it withtheblade,
piece
otingthe
asnecessary
to avoidcuttingintothetails(/eff).Test-fit
thejoint
andmakeanynecessary
adjustments
w i t ha c h i s e l .

I
I

t
t
t
I
I
I

125

CURVEDTHROUGHDOVETAILIOINTS

I
I
I

A decorativeand challenging variation of the through


dovetailjoint, the curved
through dovetail adds a distinctive touch to any project. The exampleshown
hereis a one-sidedcurved
through dovetail, in which
only the end of the tailboard
is curved;the two-sidedversion requirescontourson
both the pin and tail boards.

Trl

I
I
I
I
I
I
I

MAKING
A CURVED
THROUGH
D()VETAIT

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

'l Laying
outthetails
perpendicular
I lt takesthreestepsto cuta one-sided
curved
through
dovetail. square
to keepthetemplate
to theboardedges,
pinsin thepinboard(page118);thencutthe markthecurved
First,cutstandard
shou
lderIineonthef aceof theboard(above,
pinboardasa guideto outlinethetails
line,asshown
here;
andf inally,
saw left).Usethecompleted
tailsalong
a curved
shoulder
rabbet
intothebottom
the marksto thecurved
a matching
curved
of thepins(step3).fo onthetail board(page121),extending
prepare
Cutthetailsides(page122),thenclamptheboard
thetailboard,
seta cuttinggauge
to thethickness
of the shoulder.
pinboard
linesonbothedges
ona worksurface.
Alsoclamponthetemplate
in line
andscribe
shoulder
ofthetailboard. face-up
Makea semicircular
template,
usingasa guidethecontour
of the withtheshoulder
to keepthechiselfromstraying
beyond
the
(above,
you
wasle
right).
head
will
use
in
step
3.
With
the
tail
board
face-down,
Chisel
out
the
waste
between
the
tails
as
dado
(page
you
curve
with
the
shoulder
marks.
Using
a
try
would
for
standard
through
dovetails
120).
alignthetemplate's

1.26

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

DOVETAIL AND BOX IOINTS

I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I

r") Preparing
to rabbet
thepinboard
L lnsLall
the dadoheadon yourtable
sawandadjustitswidthto slightly
more
thanthelength
of thepins.Alsoinstall
an
auxiliary
fenceandnotchit upto thethicknessof the pin board(pageZl). Next,set
thepinboardoutside-face
uponthesaw
t a b l ea n dc e n t etrh ee n do f t h ep i e c e
against
theoutside
bladeof thedadohead,
usingthe mitergaugeto keepthe board
p e r p e n d i c ut loatrh eb l a d eA. d j u stth e
cuttingheight
sothepoints
where
thedado
heademerges
fromthetablearealigned
withtheedgesof theworkpiece.
Thenmark
reference
linesonthetableinsert,
using
the boardedgesasa guide(right).Adjus|
thefencesothattheactualcuttingwidth
equals
thelenghofthepins,thenlower
the
dadoheadbeneath
thetable.

t
I
I

Cutting
therabbets
Butttheendof thepinboardagainst
the fenceandcenterits edgesbetween
thereference
lineson thetableinsert.
Slidethemitergauge
upagainst
theworkp i e c et h, e nc l a m pt h eg a u g ei n p l a c e .
Holding
thestockfirmlyin position,
turn
o n t h es a wa n dr a i s et h ed a d oh e a dt o
makea shallow
cut in thepins(/eft).Turn
thesawoff andtest{itthejoint.Makea
slightly
deeper
cutandtestagain,
continuingto cutandtestuntilthejointfits.The
process
is painstaking,
buttheresults
can
bewellworthyoureffort.

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

r27

OUTLINEDTHROUGHDOVETAILJOINTS
Thepins and tails of the outlined through
dovetail arefranted by thin strips of
wood of a contrastingcolor.

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
t
I
I
I

THROUGH
DOVETAIL
MAKING
ANOUTLINED
thepinandtailboards
1 Rabbeting
dovetail
is likethe
I Anoutlrned
throush
joint,except
conventional
thatspacemust
wood-usubecreated
forthecontrasting
andbelow
all pins
allya veneer-around
isfairly
simple.
Start
andtails.Theprocess
in the inside
facesof
bycuttingrabbets
pieces
bothmating
of thejoint.Seta cutandscribe
tinggauge
tothestockthickness
a s h o u l d el irn ea r o u ntdh ee n d so f t h e
boards.
Thenrnstall
a dadoheadonyour
tablesawandadjustitswidthsothatit
widerthanthestockthickness.
is slightly
Alsoinstall
andnotchanauxiliary
fence
(page71),andadjustit sothatthewidth
Raise
of cutequals
thestockthickness.
to thethickness
of the
thecuttingheight
veneer.
Makea testcutona scrapboard
a n da d j u stth ec u t t i n gh e r g hut n t rtl h e
in therabbet.
Thencut
veneer
fitsperfectly
rabbets
at bothendsof yourstock,feeding
eachboardwiththe milergauge(right).

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
\28

t
I

I
I
I
I
I
I
I

r
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

DOVETAIL AND BOX IOINTS

r) Gluing
in theveneer
L m e j o i n ti s o u t l i n eidn t w os t a g e s .
T h ev e n e esrt r i p st h a tf i l l t h er a b b e t s
under
thepinsandtailsaregluedin before
thejointiscutandassembled,
asshown
at right.Theveneer
between
thepinsand
tailsis inserted
afterglue-up,
Foreach
workpiece,
cuttwostripsof veneer
slightly longer
andwiderthantherabbet
cheek,
andtwoclamping
blocks
withedges
the
samesizeasthecheek.
Settheworkpiece
i n s i d e - f a cuep o n a w o r ks u r f a c a
en d
spread
a thincoating
of glueonthecheek.
Thenclamptheveneer
in place,
using
the
clamping
blockto distribute
thepressure
evenly(right).Repeatat the otherend
o f t h eb o a r dO. n c et h eg l u eo n a l l t h e
preces
hascured,
cutthepinsandtails
andglueupthejoints.

lnserting
theveneer
between
thepinsandtails
Secure
theassembled
workpiece
in a vise
asshown,
andusea dovetail
sawto cut
grooves
alongtheseams
between
thepins
andtails(left).Sawsmoothly
andevenly,
continuin
t ogt h es h o u l d el i rn e .N e x t ,
cuttriangular
veneer
splines
to fit in the
grooves.
Spread
a littlegluein thegrooves
a n di n s e rtth es p l i n elso n g - e d g
de
own
(insetO
) . n c et h eg l u eh a ss e t ,c u t a n d
s a n dt h es o l i n efsl u s hw i t ht h e b o a r d s .

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
t
I
I

t29

HALF-BLINDDOVETAILJOINTS
Half-blinddovetailsareoftenusedfor drawerfronts.
Virtuallyasstrongasa throughdovetail,thehalf-blind
joint featurestaik that arevisiblefrom theside,but
hiddenby thedrawerfront.

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

HAND-CUTTING
A HALF-BtIND
D()VETAIL

thepinboard
1 Marking
I Marktheoutside
faceof theboard
withanX.Thenadjusta cuttinggauge
to
thethickness
of thetail boardandscribe
a l i n ea c r o stsh e i n s i d ef a c eo f t h ep i n
board
to marktheshoulder
lineof thepins.
Secure
thepinboard
end-up
in a viseand
setthecuttinggauge
to aboutone-third
thethickness
of thepinboard
andmarka
lineacross
theend,closer
to theoutside
thanthe insideface(below).
Next,usea
dovetail
square
to markthe pinson the
endof the board(right).Forthe narrow
pattern
boardshown,
followthespacing
described
on page118.Tof inishmarking,
usea trysquare
anda pencilto extend
the
lineson theboardenddownthe inside
faceto theshoulder
line.

I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
,l

130

I
I
I

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

DOVETAILAND BOX IOINTS

r) Cutting
thepins
L S u r u , " o n ep i n b o a r di n a v i s ew i t ht h e o u t s i d ef a c e
of the stocktowardyou,thencut downalongthe edgesof
the pinswith a dovetailsaw,workingfromoneedgeof the
b o a r dt o t h e o t h e r .H o l dt h e b o a r ds t e a d ya n d a l i g nt h e
sawbladejust to the wastesideof the cuttinglines(/eft).
the cutsto the shoulUsesmooth,evenstrokes,
continuing
d e rl i n ea n dt h e l i n eo n t h e b o a r de n d .

Removing
thewaste
Q
r . J L a yt h e p i n b o a r di n s i d e - f a cuep o n a w o r ks u r f a c ea n d
c l a m pa g u i d eb l o c ka l o n gt h e w a s t es i d eo f t h e s h o u l d elri n e .
U s ea c h i s e tl h a t i s n o w i d e rt h a nt h e n a r r o w e spta r to f t h e
wastearea,Startingat oneedgeof the stock,holdthe flat side
. t t ht h e c h i s e p
l erpeno f t h e c h i s eal g a i n stth e g u i d eb l o c k W
mald i c u l atro t h e b o a r df a c e ,s t r i k et h e h a n d l ew i t ha w o o d e n
. h e nh o l dt h e
l e t ,m a k i n ga % - i n c h - d e ec p
u t i n t ot h e w a s t eT
chiselbevel-uo
andsouareto the boardendaboutX inchbelow
. ontinue
t h et o p s u r f a c ae n dp e e la w a ya t h i n l a y e or f w a s t eC
u n t i ly o ur e a c ht h e s c r i b e dl i n eo n t h e b o a r de n d ,t h e np a r e
waste.Repeat
the process
withthe remainawayanyremaining
i n gw a s t es e c t i o n s( b e l o w )F. i n i s ht h e j o i n t b y m a r k i n ga n d
cuttingthe tailsas youwouldfor a throughdovetailjoint (page
1 2 1 ) .V ' ' l h em
n a r k i n gr ,e m e m b et hr a tt h et a i l so f t h i sj o i n tw i l l
theyextend
be shallower
thanthoseof a throughjoint because
o n l yt o t h e b o t t o mo f t h e b l i n dp i n s .

I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

r3r

BOXIOTNTS
Originally developedfor mass-produced
carcaseslike packing cratesand jewelry
boxes,the boxjoint now lendsstrengthand
a traditional look to modern furniture.

,
I

".-

,,. , .:'l.
'
:i,;.-.

I
I
I
I
I

--/-.

?,,,.j:

'

."tq,i:{

,ir...i

I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

CUTTING
A BOXJOINT
ONTHETABTE
SAW
thejig
1 Making
I Thenotches
fora boxjointarecutone
afteranother
onthetablesawusinga dado
headanda simplejig madefromanextensionboardclamped
to the mitergauge.
Firstadjustthewidthof thedadohead
sothatthepinsandnotches
ontheedges
o f t h e o i e c ew
s i l la l l b et h es a m es i z e .
Makethecuttingheight
equalto thestock
thickness,
clamotheextension
ontothe
mitergauge,
andfeedit intothedadohead
to cuta notch.Slidetheextension
along
the mitergaugesothegapbetween
the
notchandthedadoheadis equalto the
notchwidth,thenscrewtheextension
to
thegauge.Feedthe extension
intothe
blades
to cut a second
notch(rght).Then,
inserta tight-f
ittingwooden
keyin the
firstnotchso it projects
at least1 inch
fromtheextension.

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
r32

I
I
I

t
t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

DOVETAILAND BOX IOINTS

in thefirstboard
thenotches
Cutting
Butt the edgeof the boardagainstthe
keyand holdits faceflat againstthe extensionT
. u r no n t h e s a wa n df e e dt h e p i e c e
i n t ot h e d a d oh e a d ,h o o k i n ygo u rt h u m b s
a r o u n dt h e e x t e n s i otno s t e a d yt h e p i e c e
duringthe cut (ilghil.Then lift the workp i e c ec l e a ro f t h e d a d oh e a da n d r e t u r n
t h e m i t e rg a u g et o t h e f r o n to f t h e t a b l e .
F i t t h e n o t c hy o uj u s tc u t o v e rt h e k e ya n d
m a k et h e s e c o n dc u t . C o n t i n u ceu t t i n g
n o t c h e si n t h i s m a n n e ur n t i ly o ur e a c ht h e
o p p o s i t sei d eo f t h e w o r k P i e c e .

I
I
I
I
I
I

in the matingboard
the notches
Q Cutting
. J f i t t h e f i n a ln o t c hv o uc u t i n t h e f i r s t
pieceoverthe key,ttrennutt oneedgeof
t h e m a t i n gb o a r da g a i n stth e f i r s t b o a r d .
H o l d i n gb o t hb o a r d sf i r m l ya g a i n stth e
f e, e dt h e m a t i n gp i e c ei n t ot h e
extension
dadohead(/eff).Continuecuttingnotches
i n t h e m a t i n gb o a r df o l l o w i n tgh e s a m e
Drocedure
vou usedon the first board.

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

133

FINGERJOINTS

I
I
I
I
I

An attractiveandsolidvariationof theboxjoint,
thefingerjoint derivesitsstrengthfrom the
Iargegluingareaprovidedby itsnumerousinterwovenfingersand notches.
It is mostoftenused
to assemble
drawersand smallcarcases.

A FINGER
JOINT
ONTHERADIAT
ARMSAW

Fence

andsetting
upthejig
1 Making
jig
I The shownabovemakescuttingaccurate
f ingerjoints
on theradialarmsawan easytask.Cutthetableandfence
from%-inchplywood,
andthe legsfromsolidwood.Referto
theillustration
forsuggested
dimensions.
Cuta 3-inch-by-25inchcornersection
fromoneendof thefenceusinga bandor
sabersaw;thecutoutwill provide
clearance
forthe motorand

bladeguardwhenthejig is installed
on the radialarmsaw.
Fasten
the legsto the underside
of thetablewithcountersunk
screws.
Toassemble
thejig,slipthefenceintoits slotin the
sawtable,thenposition
the leftedgeof thejig tableagainst
therightedgeof thefence'scutout,andscrewthetwopieces
of plywood
together.

134

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

DOVETAILAND BOX TOINTS

r) Cutting
thefirstnotch
L t , l t t h e s a wb l a d et o t h e h o r i z o n t a l
position,
on edge
thenset bothworkpieces
. h ed e p t ho f t h ef i n a g a i n st th e j i g f e n c eT
g e r sa n d n o t c h ew
s i l l b e t h e t h i c k n e sosf
the stock;setthe depthof cut by extendi n gt h e b o a r d so v e rt h e e d g eo f t h e b l a d e
b y t h e p r o p ear m o u n tT. h e ns l i pa s h i m
asthe sawblade
that isthe samethickness
that restsagainstthe
underthe workpiece
f e n c e .C l a m pt h e b o a r d st o t h e f e n c e ,
e o o dp a d sa n d m a k i n g
u s i n gp r o t e c t i vw
s u r et h e b o a r de n d sa r ea l i g n e dI.n s t a lal
h a n d s c r eown t h e s a wa r mt o s t o pb l a d e
t r a v e la s s o o na s e a c hc u t i s c o m p l e t e d .
F n rt h e f i r s ic r r t a d i r r stth e b l a d et o t h e
l s t h e s h i m .T h e n ,w i t ht h e
s a m el e v e a
b l a d eg u a r dc o v e r i nags m u c ho f t h e b l a d e
t h ec u t
a s p o s s i b l ep,u l lt h e b l a d et h r o u g h
(right).Returnthe bladebehindthe fence
a n dt u r no f f t h e s a w .

t
I

Cutting
theremaining
notches
andfingers

I
I
I
I
I

F o re a c ho f t h e r e m a i n i ncgu t s ,r a i s et h e
b l a d eb y a n a m o u n te q u a lt o t w i c et h e
t h i c k n e sosf t h e s h i m .R e f e tro y o u rs a w ' s
m a n u atlo c a l c u l a tteh e n u m b eor f t u r n s
n f t h e n e d e s t acl r a n kt h a t w i l l a c c o m n l i s ht hi s I l s ev n r r l e f th a n dt o f e e dt h e
y o u rr i g h th a n df r e et o
b l a d e ,l e a v i n g
a d j u s t h e b l a d eh e i g h tb; e s u r et o s l i d e
t h e b l a d eb e h i n dt h e f e n c eb e f o r er a i s i n g
t h ec u t t i n gh e i g h tC. o n t i n uien t h i sm a n n e r u n t i la l l t h e n o t c h e sa n d f i n g e r sh a v e
beencut (/eff).

t
t
I
I
I
I

r
I
I

135

f ,r y - - --r'+-- l-;"' ' : " * - ;:*


0evel.e/gqd ahisel

r.

IEEF

Japanese marking knife

Japaneaebteethammei : V*

Mortiae .ma rklng g4 q6e.

n t i l t h c g r e ast a i l i n sg h i p se s t a b lishecl
traderoutesbetrvcen
Europre
a n dt h eC ) r i e ni tn t h e 1 5 0 0 st h
, ct r r c r
arcas
werelarselvisolatecl
fl'onreachothcr,andtheirlvooclu,urking
traclitions
developed
separatelu
ln the\\rest,the
evolution
of l,oocljoinert,catr
betracecl
throLrgh
thehistor,v
of firrniturestvles.
joint,tbr examThehalf:blindclovetail
ple,u,asbornliul a needto stlengthen
a clrlrver
rvhilehidinstheconncction.
joincrv,on the otherhancl,
)apanese

t
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
3i"+i
' Ftish Ahise!.
:

";*r

--

()FJAPANESE
A SELECTI()N
W()()DW()RKING
T()()LS
l a n a r e cleo n' d i f f e '{ r o l I t e r W e s t e r n
c o , r n t e r n a irri sh o t hs r h L l a
e n do b vo u s
w a y sA
. J a p a n e sm
e o r t i s eg a u g ew o r k s
m u c h k e t s W e s t e renq u i v a l e net x, c e p t
t h a t t i s f t t e dw t h s m a l b l a d e si n s t e a d
o f p i n s .A n d ,t h ew r d t ho f a m o r t r s ress e t
b y a d l u s tn g t h e g a p b e t w e etnh e t w o
b e a n s .r a L l - et hr a r b y n o v r n gt r e s t o c k
i n r e i a t i otno t h e b l a d e s .
L i k eW e s t e r n - s t yc lhei s e l st ,h e
. J a p a r e :vee r s , o nasr ed e : i g r e df o r s p e
c f i c p u r p o s e sT:h e p u s hc h r s ehl a sa
t r i a n g u l abri a d ef o r c e a n i n gu p d o v e t a t l
l o i n tp i n sa n dt a i l s t; h e m o r ts e c h i s e
f e a t u r eas t h i c k ,s q u a r eb l a d ew t h s r g h t
l y c o n c a vsei d e st o r e d u c e
f r r c to n ;a n d
t h e c o r n e cr h s e l i s u s e dt o s q u a r el a r g e
m o r t i s e sB. u t a J a p a n e scehi s e m a d e
w r t ha s t e e l - h o o p ehda n dl e s s t r o n g
e n o u g ht o w i t h s t a n b
d e i n gs t r u c kb y a
s t e eh
l ammer.
Jaoanese
a w sa rd o a r e sd e p a . t ' . o n
W e s t e r dn e s i g na l t o g e t h ebre c a u steh e y
c u t o n t h ep u l ls t r o k er ,a t h etrh a nt h ep u s h
s t r o k eT. h er y o b ai s a c o m b i n a t i osna w ,
w i t h r p t e e t ho n o n ee d g ea n dc r o s s c L r t
t e e t ho n t h e o t h e r T
. h ed o z u k iw
. ith

s r g h t l sy e tt e e t h i. s u s e dr r j o i l e r yd 1 d
' r r e b e n c hw o r k .I n e ' l L , s h - c u t i iknugg i
h i k ri s u s e df o rd e l i c a tcel e a n u w
p o r k .1 t
h a sa f l e x i b l b
e l a d ef o rt r i m m i n tge n o n s
o r d o w e lw
s i t h o um
t a r k i ntgh es u r r o u n d

i T ps r r r ' a , ^hep c a r . q res i e e t l 'h a v en o


s e t ,T h ec h a m f e p
r l a n ei n t h e p h o t of e a
t u r e ss c r e wa d j u s t e fde n c e st;h e t o o l i s
d e s i g n etdo s h a p et h e b e v e l em
d olding
c o m m o n luys e di n J a p a n e sdeo o r s .

I
I
I

.:--.''

. . , .

t . .. .

.::

._.,:

t
"-'{$

' , s ,
\ +\5

n'.r:J*i...

136

I
I
I
I
I
t

?!

;.i:

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

I
I

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

JAPANESE
IOINERY

evolved
notfromfurnituremakingbut
fromthedesign
andconstruction
of religiousshrines
In addition,
andtemples.
woodworker
a |apanese
traditionally
in additionto
worethehatof architect
In fact.the
thatofartisanandcaroenter.
closest
Englishequivalent
of daiku,the
"carwordoftentranslated
as
Japanese
"master
penter,"
is
builder."
In japan,carpentry
withdeveloped
in a familyguildsystemcharacterized
by fiercecompetition
andsecrecy.
In

jointsthatfrrlfilled rialsasto thephilosophybehind


additionto designing
thecraft.
the basicrequirements
of structural In |apan,thestoneandclaynecessary
for
strengthand estheticharmonywith brickmaking
arescarce,
andtherefore
the
philosophical
Eastern
concepts,
rival mason's
art did not developto thelevel
guildssoughtto develop
increasingly it didin EuropeandChina.Ontheothjointswhoseinterlocking
complex
com- erhand,fapan's
richvolcanic
soilgrows
ponents
wereinvisible
whenassembled. a widevarietyof trees.Theabundance
Of the400jointsstill in usein Japan of species,
aswellastheirwoods'structoday,manyaredescended
fromthese turalresistance
fostered
to earthquakes,
joints.
secret
theancienttraditionof buildingfrom
joinery wood-everythingfrom slidingrice
Thecomplexity
of Japanese
owesasmuchto nativebuildingmate- paperdoorsto Shintotemples.

A GAIIERYOFJAPAI{ESE
IOINTS
Divided mortiseand-tenon joint
Uaed in larqe frameand-panelpieceo;
tendna cui into the
raila meshto4ether
in a throuqh mortise
in the atile
Mitered-shoulder
tenon joint
)imilar to the divided mortise-andtenon joint, except
the aurfaceoborderinq the morLioe
and tenonaon one
eide are beveled

t
t
I
I
I
I

1liding dovetail joint


Commonlyueedto
attach le7e to raile
in chair conatruction;
featurea a atabiIizinqtenon

Mitered corner joint,


Typicallyuaed on larqe
framea: the concealed
dovetail tenon and
matchinqmortiae lock
the ioint

t
I
I
I
I

r37

I
I

JAPANESE
IOINERY

Unlike inorganicbuilding materials


like brick and stone,wood retainsa
warmththat servesasa reminderthat it
wasoncea living thing.In lapan,craftsmenhold theviewthatwoodhasa soul,
inspiringa senseofreverence
that still
surroundstraditionalmethodsof joineryin |apan.
Forfapanese
woodworkers,
theirart
beginswith respectfor thetools.Despite
advances
in technologythat havegiven
themodernwoodworkerportablepow-

er toolsandstationary
machines,
many
woodworkers
rely
still
mainly
fapanese
on handtoolsthat haveremainedvirtually unchangedfor centuries(page
136).Forexample,
a traditionalfapanese
plane,or kanna,is a simpleaffair,having a hardwoodbody,a thick blade,and
planescut on the
a capiron. fapanese
pull stroke,and their bladesarelaminatedwith a thin layerof high-carbon
steelformingthecuttingedge,backedby
a thick stripof soft,low-carbon
steelto

absorbshockwhen planing knotty


grain,ThebladesofJapanese
chisels,
or
nlmi, arelaminatedlike planeblades,
with a hard,hollow-groundbacksupportedby a thick,shock-absorbing
top
of soft steel.A fapanesesaw,or nokogiri, alsocutson the pull stroke,so its
bladecan be much thinner than the
WesterncounterDart
and its teethcan
be finelyset.
Only care,diligentmaintenance,
and
respectfor thesetools can produce

I
I
I
I
I
I
I

I
I
I
<}

{i.'5
'"
.r-f\
'\j/

*&t

qt'
-

Pinned carcaaejoint
A cornerjoint uaedin carcaeeeconetructed with
heavypanela:the etopped
tonque provideealiqnment
whilethe throuqh tenone
reaiat ahearstresa

I
I
I

I
I

Interloakingtenon joint
Featured in chair
and staircaae conetruction, thia lockingjoint attachea
T.woor more Ptece?

Shelf aupport joint


Used for ehelveathat must bear heauy
Ioada:end of ahelf aita in stopped
dado whileblrndtenon holda the ahelf
etrai4ht and ti4htena joint

I
I
I
I
I

I
I
I
I
I
I

I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I

JAPANESE
IOINERY

jointsseenon
theelaborate
andprecise
mesepages.
joints aregroupedinto two
fapanese
A splicingjoint,or fsumaincategories.
g, joinstwo piecesend-to-endto create
a longerone.A shiguchi,
connectstwo
or more piecesat an angle.Because
manyJapanese
houseshavefewpieces
of furniture, the traditional fapanese
jointsoriginatedascaryentryjointsused
in the constructionof houses.The
shiguchijoints shownon the following

pagesarethosethat canbe appliedto


cabinetmaking.
In fapan,beautyis an essential
elementof theart of woodjoinery,andthe
ultimatevalueof a joint is measured
by
thesubtlecombinationof its appearance
and the builder'sskill and speed.A
woodworkeraimsfoi perfecfapanese
tion with the first sawor chiselcut.
Sandinga workpieceto fit is not part
Traditionalso
ofthe joineryprocess.
requiresthat any mistakemadeby a

craftsmanremainon thepiece
Japanese
to remindhim of hishumblenature,so
everystrokeofthe sawor planeiscrucial,
requiringgreatconcentration.
This concentration
is demandedby
thetoolsthemselves.
Althoughtheylook
deceptively
simpleto use,fapanese
tools
patienceandpracrequireconsiderable
ticeto master.As the ancientcraftsmen
who forgedthem understood,
the key
to success
is to learnto usethetool with
skill and resDect.

I
I
I
I
I
I

Inte rl oc king - mite r j oint


Used in heavyframe conetruction: a half-lap-like
joint. with mitered dhoulderaand matchin7qroovee
in the cheekaaized to
accept a apline.Thejoint
io not qlued,allowingit
to be dieaeaembled

t
t
I
I
I
I
t
I
I'
I
I
I
I

Three-way
corner miter joint
A cornerjoint uaed
in deskeand dining
room tablea: all
three pieceohave
mitera, whilethe leq
featurea a tenon
whichfits into
notchegin
the rails

Three-waypinned corner miter joint


)imilar to the three-waycorner miter, thie joint ia
uaed to reinforce thick raila connected at a face
miter; two tenona in the leq pin the joint toqether

r39

I
I

GLOSSARY
A-B.C
Bench dog: A round or squarepeg
made of metal or wood that fits
into a hole in a workbench to hold
a workpiece in place.
Bevel cut: A cut made at an angle
from faceto facealong the length
or width of a workpiece.
Biscuit A thin oval wafer of compressedwood, usually beech,that
fits into a semicircularslot cut by
a platejoiner.

Countersink: Drilling a hole that


allowsa screwhead to lie flush with
or slightly below the surfaceof a
workpiece.
Crosscut A sawcut made acrossthe
grain of a workpiece.
D-E.F
Dado: A rectangularchannelcut
into a workpiece.
Dado head: A blade-or combination of bladesand cutters-used to
shapedadoes.

Blind joint A joint in which the


interlocking membersare hidden,
asin a blind mortise-and-tenon
joint. Also known asa stoppedcut.

Dovetail joint: A corner joined by


interlocking pins and tails;the name
derivesfrom the shapeof the parts.

Box joint: A corner joint featuring


interlocking fingers.

DoweL A wood pin usedto reinforcecertaintypesofjoints.

Butt joinery: A method of joining


wood in which the end or edgeof
one board is set squarelyagainstthe
faceor edgeofanother; often reinforced when end grain is involved.

Edges:The narrower surfacesof


a workpiece.

Butterflykey joint An edge-to-edge


butt joint reinforced by a wingshapedkey that is often made of a
contrastinghardwood for decorative effect.
Carcase:The box-like basicstructure of a piece of furniture, formed
of solid panels.
Cheek In a mortise-and-tenon
joint, that part of the tenon perpendicular to the shoulder.
Compression: Forcethat presses
the elementsof a joint together.

Facejointing: Using a jointer to


shavethe faceof a workpieceuntil
it is flat and square.
Faces:The wider surfacesof a
pieceof wood.
Featherboard:A board with thin
"feathers"
fingersor
along one end;
clampedto the fenceor table of a
power tool, it holds the workpiece
in position.

G-H-r-t
Grain: The arrangementand
direction of the fibers that make
up wood.
Half-lap joint A lap joint in which
the dadoesare halfthe thicknessof
the stock; seelapjoint.
Hanger bolt A bolt usedto hold
movableparts of a fixture; one end
hasscrewthreadsto anchor it in the
wood, while the other end features
machine threads.
Haunch: An extensionof one edge
ofa tenon intendedto increasea
mortise-and-tenonioint's resistance
to twisting; the hauirch can alsobe
usedto fill a panel groove,eliminating the need for stoppedgrooves.
K-L-M-N
Kerf: The cut made by a sawblade.
Lap joint A joint in which one or
both of the mating boards are
dadoed to increasegluing area
and allow the surfacesof the pieces
to lie flush with one another when
the joint is assembled.
Miter cut A cut made obliquely
acrossthe faceof a workpiece;see
bevelcut.
Miter joint A joint in which the
mating surfacesmeet at an angle
other than 90".

Fencs An adjustableguide designed


to maintain the distancebetween
one edgeor faceof a workpieceand
the cutting edgeof a tool.

Mortise A rectangular,round or
oval hole.

Finger joint Similar to a box joint


but with narrower meshingfingers,
typically lessthan/' inch wide.

Mortise-and-tenon joint: A joinery techniquein which the projecting tenon of one board fits snugly
into the mortise of another.

t
t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
t

t
I
I
t
I
I
I

r40

I
I
I
I

I
I

GLOSSARY

t
I
I

t
t
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

O-P-Q
Pins: The taperedprotrusions cut
into the end of one board so that
they lock betweenthe tails of the
mating piece.
Plain-sawn lumber: Lumber that
hasbeen sawn so that the wide surfacesare tangentialto the growth
rings. Also known as flat-sawn lumber when referring to softwood; see
quartersawnlumber.
Pocket hols An angledclearance
hole that allows a screwhead to be
recessed
below the surface;often
usedwhen joining rails to a tabletop.
Push block or sticlc A deviceused
to feed a workpiece into the blade,
cutterhead,or bit ofa tool to protect the operator'sfingers.

Rail: The board joining legsof a


table to which the tabletop is attached;also,the horizontal member
of a frame-and-panelassembly.
Rip cut A cut that follows the grain
of a workpiece.

Tension: Stressthat pulls a joint


apart at the glue line.

Shear:Stressthat causestwo halves


of a joint to slide againsteachother.

Through bolt: A threadedrod used


to reinforce face-gluedboards;usually usedin making a workbench
top or butcher block.

Shoulder: In a mortise-and-tenon
joint, the part of the tenon perpendicular to the cheek.In a dovetail
joint, the gapsbetweenpins and tails.

Through joint A joint in which the


end of one piecepassesall the way
through its mate, asin a through
mortise-and-tenonjoint.

Spline: A thin pieceof wood that fits


in groovescut in mating workpieces,
reinforcing the joint.

Tongue-and-groovejoint A joint
in which a tongue cut in the edgeor
end ofone piecefits into a groove
in the mating piece.

Starvedjoint A joint lacking sufficient adhesive;often causedwhen


glue is squeezedout by overtightenedclamps.

Quartersawn lumber: Lumber that


hasbeen sawn so the wide surfaces
intersectthe growth rings at angles
between45oand 90o.Also known
asvertical-grained lumber when
referring to softwood; seeplainsawnlumber.

Thils: In a dovetailjoint, the flaring


protrusions cut into the end of one
board that meshwith pins in the
mating piece.

R-S
Rabbefi A step-likecut made in the
edgeor end of a board; usually
forms part of a joint.

TimgentiaLA viewing plane in


wood cut along the grain tangent
to the growth rings; plain-sawn
lumber is sawntangentially.

Racking: The twisting of members


of a joint in relation to eachother;
common rn trame romts.

Tearout The raggededgesproduced when a blade or cutter tears


the wood fibers,rather than cutting them cleanly.

Radial section:A viewing plane


acrossthe grain perpendicularto
the growth rings.

Tenon: The blade-likeprotrusion


cut to fit into a mortise.

T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z

Template A pattern usedwith a power tool to produce multiple copies.

t4r

INDEX
Pagereferencesin lrallcsindicate
an illustration of subiectmatter.
Pagereferencesin bdld indicate
a Build It Yourself project.

A-B-C
Adhesives.18-19
SeealsoGluing up
Angle cuts,/ro nt endpaper
Band saws:
Dovetailjoints, 125
Mortise-and-tenonjoints, I I I
Bevelcuts:
Edgemiter joints, 4Q 41,42, 51-55
Biscuitjoints. SeePlatejoints
Box joints, 1 13,1 14,132-133
Half-blind box joints, 114
SeealsoFingerjoints
Build It Yourself:
Butt ioints
center-drillingjigs, 30
Dado joints
adjustabledado jigs, 82
table-sawend-dadoingjigs,85
Dovetail ioints
dovetailsquares,l19
Lap joints
corner half-lap joint jigs, 65
Miter joints
miter boxes,44
miter-clampingblocks,50
miter jigs for the table saw,46
Mortise-and-tenonioints
mortisingjigs forihe router, 100
tenoningjigs,93
Pockethole jigs, 37
Butcher blocks,27
Butterfly key j oints,2l, 23, 39
Butt ioints, 21,22, 24-26
Britterfly key joints,2l, 23
Clamping,24-26
Reinforced,21, 26
pocketholes,2I, 23, i6-37
splinejoints, 23, 38
through bolts,27
seealsoDowel joints; Platejoints
Scarfjoints,23
Wood types,17
SeealsoMiter joints
Chairs:
loinery,7
Clamping,18
Butt joints, 24-26
Miter joints,43,55
Clamps, backendpaper,43
Miter-clamping blocks, 50
SeealsoClamping
Copedjoints,42,47

D-E
Dado joints, 13,57, 58,62-63
Blind dadojoints, 62, 81,82
joints, 62
Dado-and-rabbet
Double dado joints, 6j, 84
Drawers,52
Endsofboards,85
Lock miter joints, 63
Repeat,80
jigs for equally spaceddadoes
(ShopTip), 80
Shelves.52
Sliding dovetailjoints, 63, 83
stopped,13
Sliding half-dovetailjoints, 63
stopped,63
Stoppeddado joints, 62
Through dado joints, 62, 80
joints, 62
Tongue-and-dado
Wood types,17
Doors, glazed:
Glazingbar halfJap joints, 59,70-72
Dovetailjoint s, 112, ll3, 114
Blind dovetail joints, Ll4
Cutting severaitail boards at once
(ShopTip), 123
Half-blind dovetailjoints
hand-cut,114,130-131
lapanese,137
Jigs,116-117, ll9
Marking tails on wide boards
(ShopTip), I2I
Pin design,l-15
Through dovetailjoints, I 14,
124-125
curved, 114,12G127
hand-cut,1 18-123
outlined,114,128-129
Wood types,17, 115
SeealsoBox joints; Fingerjoints
Dowel joints, 23, 28-31
Center-drilling jigs, 30
Dowelingjigs (ShopTip),29
Using a dowel to strengthen
a doweljoint (ShopTip), 3I
Drawers:
Dado joints, 52
Drill presses:
Center-drilling jigs, 30
Dowelingjigs (ShopTip),29
Mortise-and-tenonjoints, I I 0
mortising attachments,96
Pocketholejigs, 37
Dunbar, Mike, 6-7
Edge gluing,24-25
SeealsoButt joints; Gluing up
End grain:
joinery,21,26,41,57

r42

F-G-H-r-J-K
Facegluing, 25
Reinforcement,27
SeealsoButt joints; Gluing up
Fingerjoints, ll3, 114,134-135
SeealsoBox ioints
Gluing up,18-i9
Face gluing,2j
Wood qpes, backendpaper
Hollow chiselmortisers,87
tools, 136,138
Japanese
Jigs,8, 9
Drill presses
center-drilling jigs, 30
dowelingjigs (ShopTip), 29
pockethole jigs, 36-37
Pocketholejigs, 2l
Routers,1l
adjustabledado jigs, 82
box joint jigs, 1-16
cornerhalf-lapjoint jigs, 65
dovetailjigs, 116-117
dovetailsquares,119
lapjoints,65
mortise-and-tenonjigs, 88,90, 100
round-tenon jigs for the router
table (ShopTip), Iil
Table saws
end-dadoingjigs, 85
fence-straddlingjigs, 49
jigs for equally spaceddadoes
(ShopTip), 80
miter jigs for the table saw,46
tenoningjigs,64,93
Iornery, 12, 16
fapanese,136-139
Jointers:
Butt joints, 24
Rabbetingon the jointer (Shop
Tip),78
Joints:
|apanese,137-139
Mechanicalstress.15
Types, 12
selection,l6-17
SeealsoButt joints; Dado joints;
Dovetail joints; Lap joints; Miter
joints; Mortise-and-tenonjoints;
Rabbetjoints; Tongue-andgroovejoints
Kruger,Lyle,8-9

I
I
t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I

t
I

t
I
T
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
t
t
I
I
I
I

t
t
I

t
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

L-M-N
Lapjoints, 17,57, 58-59
Full lap joints, 58
Half-lap joints
angled, 59,68
corner,58,64,65
cross,59, 66
dovetailed,59,69
glazingbar, 59,70-72
half-blind, 59,67
keyeddovetail, 59
mitered, 58
T,58
table-sawend-dadoingjigs, 85
Wood types, 17
Miter boxes,41,43,44
Miter joints,40,41,42,46,137,138,139
Clamping,43,55
Edgemiter joints, 40,41, 42, 51-55
Facemiter joints, 41, 42,45,48-50
137,139
fapanese,
Reinforced,4l
edgemiters with glue blocks, 53
edgemiters with splines,52-53
feather-splinejoints, 42, 49-50
miter-and-spline joints, 42, 48
mitered plate joints, 42, 54-55
Wood types,17
SeealsoCopedjoints
Moldings:
Coped joints,42,47
Mortise-and-tenonjoints, 87, 88-90
Angled mortise-and-tenonjoints,
89,103-105
Blind mortise-and-tenon ioints, 86,
88.94-96
barefaced.89
Haunchedmortise-and-tenonioints,
88,101-102
angled,88
Hollow chisel mortisers. 82
137,138
Japanese,
Locking taper joints, 7
Loosemortise-and-tenonioints, 89
Open mortise-and-tenonjoints, 89,
91-92,93
Round mortise-and-tenonjoints, 89,
110-111
round-tenon jigs for the router
table(ShopTip), lll
Through mortise-and-tenonjoints, 88
pegged,89
routing deepmortises,98
wedged,89,97-99
Tighteningup loosetenons(Shop
Tip),99
Tusk tenon joints, 89, 106-107

Twin mortise-and-tenonjoints, 89,


108-109
Two-shoulderedopen joints
table-sawend-dadoingjigs, 85
Wood types,17

o-P
Particleboard:
Joints,17
Picture frames,45
Plain-sawnlumber, J4-15
Platejoints, 20, 21, 22, 32-35
Carcaseassembly,
' 34-35
Mitered. 54-55
Plywood:
Edgings,6.l
Joints,17,4l
Pocketholes,21,23,36-37
Power tools:
Hollow chiselmortisers,87
lointers, 24
SeealsoBand saws;Drill presses;
Radialarm saws;Routers;
Table saws

Q-R

Quartersawnlumber, 14-15
Rabbetjoints , 57, 58, 60, 73-74
Double rabbetjoints, 60
Dovetail rabbetjoints, 60
Minimizing tearout (ShopTip), 74
Mitered,60,76
Rabbetingon the jointer (Shop
Tip),78
Shiplapjoints, 60
Stopped,60,75
Wood types,l7
Radial arm saws:
Dado joints, 80
Fingerjoints,134-135
Miter joints, 44
Routers.11
Dado joints, 81,82
Glue joints, 79
Lapjoints,66,67,70
Minimizing tearout (Shop Tip), 74
Miter joints, 48, 53
Mortise-and-tenonjoints, 97, 100
deepthrough mortises,98
Rabbetioints,73,74
Round-tenon jigs for the router table
(ShopTip), lll
Tongue-and-groovejoints
sliding dovetailjoints, 83

t
t
t
I

r43

ST-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Safetyprecautions,front endpaper
Shelves:
Dado joints, 57
ShopTips:
Butt joints, 29, 3I
Dad.ojoints,74, 80
Dovetailand box joints, 121,123
Mortise-and-tenonjoints, 99, 111
Rabbetjoints, 74, 78
Splinejoints, 23, 38
Tables:
support rails,21, 36-37
Table saws:
Boxioints,l32-133
Dad6 joints, 84
end-dadoingjigs, 85
Dovetailjoints, 124,127
Lapjoints,64
Miter joints, 46,49-50,51,52
miter jigs,46
Mortise-and-tenonjoints, 91-92,93,
103-104
Rabbetjoints, 74, 76
Tenoningjigs,64,93
joints, 77-7I
Tongue-and-groove
joints, 57, 58, 6-1,
Tongue-and-groove
77-78
glue joints, 61, 79
wood t1pes,l7
Tools:
]apanese,136-139
Miter boxes,41,43,M
SeealsoClamps;Jigs;Power tools
Warner,Pat, 10-11
Windows:
Glazingbar half-lap joints, 59,70-72
Wood:
Anatomy ofa board, /ront endpaper
Appropriatejoints, l7
Basiccuts,/ront endpaper
Gluing properties,backendpaper
Grain, 13-14
end grain,21,26,4I,57
the importance of grain alignment
(ShopTip), 15
Particleboard,l7
Shrinkingand swelling,14-15
SeealsoPlywood
Workbenches.22

t
ACKNOWTEDGMENTS
Theeditorswish to thank thefollowing
JOINERYBASICS
AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; Steiner-LamelloA.G. Switzerland/ColonialSawCo. Kingston,MA
BUTTIOINTS
AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; AmericanTool Cos.,Inc., Lincoln, NE; Delta InternationalMachineryiPorter
Cable,Guelph,Ont.; Hitachi PowerTools U.S.A.Ltd., Norcross,GA; RobertLarsonCompany,Inc., San
Francisco,CA; LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont.; Shopsmith,Inc., Montreal, Que.;Steiner-LamelloA.G.
Switzerland/ColonialSawCo. Kingston,MA; VeritasTools Inc., Ottawa,Ont./Ogdensburg,NY; Vermont
AmericanCorp., Lincolnton, NC and Louisville,KY; M.E. Wyant Distributing Inc., Nottawa,Ont.
MITERIOINTS
AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; Black& Decker/EluPowerTools,Towson,MD; Delta International
Machinery/PorterCable,Guelph,Ont.; HempeManufacturingCo., Inc., New Berlin,WI; SandvikSawsand Tools
Co., Scranton,PA; Sears,Roebuckand Co., Chicago,IL; Steiner-LamelloA.G. Switzerland/ColonialSawCo.
Kingston,MA; Vermont AmericanCorp., Lincolnton, NC and Louisville,KY
LAP, RABBET,GROOVE,AND DADO JOINTS
AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; AmericanTool Cos.,Inc., Lincoln, NE; Black& Decker/EluPowerTools,
Towson,MD; Delta InternationalMachinery/PorterCable,Guelph,Ont.; FreudWestmoreTools,Ltd.,
Mississauga,
Ont.; GreatNeck SawMfrs. Inc. (Buck Bros.Division), Millbury, MA; GrisetIndustries,Inc., Santa
Ana, CA; Hempe ManufacturingCo., Inc., New Berlin, WI; SandvikSawsand Tools Co., Scranton,PA; Sears,
Roebuckand Co., Chicago,IL; Shopsmith,Inc., Montreal, Que.
MORTISE-AND-TENONJOINTS
AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; AmericanTool Cos.,Inc., Lincoln, NE; Black& Decker/EluPowerTools,
Towson,MD; Delta InternationalMachinery/PorterCable,Guelph,Ont.; FreudWestmoreTools,Ltd.,
Mississauga,
Ont.; GeneralTools ManufacturingCo., Inc., New York, NY; GreatNeck SawMfrs. Inc. (Buck Bros.
Division), Millbury, MA; Frank Klausz,Frank'sCabinetShop,Inc., Pluckemin,NJ; RobertLarsonCompany,Inc.,
SanFrancisco,CA; LeichtungWorkshops,Cleveland,OH; LeighIndustriesLtd., Port Coquitlam,B.C.;Sandvik
Sawsand Tools Co., Scranton,PA
DOVETAILAND BOXJOINTS
AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; AmericanTool Cos.,Inc., Lincoln, NE; Black& Decker/EluPowerTools,
Towson,MD; Delta InternationalMachinery/PorterCable,Guelph,Ont.; FreudWestmoreTools, Ltd.,
Mississauga,
Ont.; GreatNeck SawMfrs. Inc. (Buck Bros.Division), Millbury MA; RobertLarsonCompany,Inc.,
SanFrancisco,CA; LeichtungWorlahops, Cleveland,OH; LeighIndustriesLtd., Port Coquitlam,B.C.;Sandvik
Sawsand Tools Co., Scranton,PA; Sears,Roebuckand Co., Chicago,IL

I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

JAPANESEJOINERY
GarrettWade Company,Inc., New York, NY; Henry Lanz,New York, NY; Toshio Odate,Woodbury, CT

I
I

Thefollowingpersonsalsoassisted
in thepreparationof this book:

LorraineDor6, GraphorConsultation,GeneviiveMonette

PICTURECREDITS
Cover RobertChartier
5,7 Bill Truslow
8,9 Doug McKay
10,1l ChrisWimpey
43 CourtesyStanleyTools,Division of the StanleyWorks
87 CourtesyDelta InternationalMachinery/PorterCable

r44

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I

WORKSHO
GP
UIDE

t
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I

GLUING
PROPERTIES
OFVARI()US
W()(]DS
G o o db o n d
o A f r o r m o s io
a A l d e ro A v o d i 1. 6B a s s w o o .d B u t t e r n u t
o C e d a rw
, e s t e r nr e d . C h e s t n u A
t,merican
. D o u g l a s -.f iEr l m ,w h i t er H a c k b e r r.yl r o k o . l V l a h o g a n y
r P r n e ,p o n d e r o saan d w h i t e. P o p l a ry, e l l o w
. P u r p l e h e aor tR e d w o ordS a p e l e. S p a n i s hc e d a r
o S p r u c es,i t k a. S y c a m o r.eW a l n u t b
, l a c k. W i l l o w

(]FCLAMPS
INVENTORY

I
I
I
I
I
I

Quick-action bar clamp


Alao knownas ahort bar clamp or
cabineLmaker'e clamp; feal;uree one
fixed jaw and one eltdin4jaw with an
adjueLable ecrew. )izee ran4e from
4- to 36'tnch clamptnq capaciLy
wtth a maxrmum5-inch reach

Toggle clamp
Q u t c k - a c L t n 4c l a m p
LhaL ie ecrewed Lo a
work eurface or ji7 Lo
hold etock in place

t
I
I
I

. Persimmon
. Rosewood
rTeak

"(ae
'',/,A

Pipe

clamp
Jawa aLl;ach Lo /,-, /-,
or ,1,-inch'diamel;er
eteel ptpe: pipe len4Lh
can be cusLomized for
a parLicular epan

l-ep t hroot
[6r -t 1en1
ea ctemptn4 reacn

Three-way clamp
A C clamp wtLha
thtrd acrew 'eL at
a 90" anqle to Lhe
oLher two: for eecurinq bandin4
or eolid wood ed4tnq to narrow
edqee. Availablewith a clamprn4
capacity and reach of 2 / inchee

Picture
frame clamp
Four'corner
clampueedto
aeeembleprcture
framee and ot.herrec-

Pinch doq
Aleo known ae jornL clamp or
jotner'e doq: the Lwo fapered
pointe are driven tnto the end
Erain of two adjotnin7 boarde.
pullin4 fhei r conLacti nq
euffacea to4el;her.
Avatlablein
etzee of 1 to
3 / tnchee

t
t

r Oq:op nranop

r anlttlar ,,.orl: 2- t o 48inch 6l2spi1n eapacil t

I
I
I

Poorbond
o L i g n u mv i t a e

Trigger alamp
Available tn varytn4
epane ranqin1 from 6 fo
36 tnchea wtth a 3 /,inch reach: deeiqned Lo
be operated wi,h one
hand. Featurea padded
jawa La protect eLock

Handscrew
Aleo knownae ocrew
clamp: comee rn
varioue eizee with
jawe l,hat can open
up to 17 inchee wrde
wiLha 12-inch
reach. ldeal for
clampinq anqlerl work

Satisfactory
bond
. A s h ,w h i t e. B e e c h A
, merican
o B l r c h y, e l l o wr B u b i n g a
o C e d a rA, l a s k a
. C h e r r y. H i c k o r y
r Madrone
. M a p l eh, a r d
e O a k ,r e da n dw h i t e. P e c a n
. P i n e s, o u t h e r n

Fack-to- 'N
back clamp
Aleo known
ao double-eided
clamp: one etde te
clamped Lo Lhe work eurface while the oLher eecurea
Lhe sLock. Clampin7 capaciLy up Lo 50 rnchee

Eand clamp
A 2-inch-wtde.
pre'eLreLched
canvae band

applteoeven
Pre9aure
aroundlar1e
rounclantl trreqularly
ehaped work; avatlablewiLh
banclefrom 10 to 30 feet lon4

Cornerclamp
Clampemiter and butt
jotnLeup t.o3 incheewtde
eo Lhat ad.lointnq Ptece' are aT
90" to each oLher

Ear clamp
?teel or alumtnum
clampe up Lo I feeL
in len4t,h:mo6L common
eizee are 24, 36, and 4B
inchea. Typically feaLuree
a reach of 1/ inchea

Webclamp
Aleo knownae eLrap
clamp:ueed to apply
preeeurein more l,han
one tlirecLion,euch ae when
clampin4 runqe rn four chair
leqe at once. Typtcally featuree
a 1-inch'wtde,15-fool;-lonqnylon band