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I
1.
1
1. That turned out to be true. 2. He seemed to have gained all he wanted.
3. He appeared to have no close relations with anyone in the office. 4. The
gossip seemed not to have been taken seriously by my brothers. 5. My
father listened gravely, or at least he appeared to be listening. 6. He did not
appear to have heard what she had said. 7. I never knew the fellow, but
everyone seems to have liked him. 8. I happened to be the first to hear
about it. 9. Ann met her young man at a dance and later on she went out
with him a lot because he proved to be a good boy. 10. Before long I ceased
to be useful to them. 11. They forgot to invite me. 12. I shall never forget
staying in your house in Kent. 13. Do you remember delivering the grape
juice to this house that morning? 14. Did you remember to send the money
to Leeds? 15. He tried growing potatoes there. 16. I knew that he was trying
to save money. 17. I was tired of pretending to write or to read. 18. He
couldnt afford to be late these days. 19. When I got back into the house I
remembered to wipe the rain off my face. 20. I remember mentioning it to
you, Lewis.
1. After a three-day meeting to discuss the projected commission,
UNESCOs communications program will also be reviewed.
2. The report, to be submitted to the General Assembly this month,
emphatically rejects as complacent the view that economic aid for
emergent Africa is no longer necessary.
3. Information comes in floods now, but we havent installed a way to use
the brains with the capacity to filter and distil it.
4. Britain had the most extensive network of double taxation agreements
in the world to protect companies trading in Britain and other
countries from paying tax twice over.
5. Washington. A draft report produced by the Central Intelligence
Agency has concluded that there is not enough evidence to support that
charge.
6. Chicago. A new report on the impact of plant closings shows they
affect Black, Hispanic and women workers the hardest and that some
plants close to avoid equal employment opportunity laws.
7. To meet the need for increasingly precise forecasts, meteorologists
hope to extend their observational system until it covers every corner of
the earth.
8. Education standards are bound to be hit by the governments latest
round of spending cuts, Education Secretary admitted yesterday.
9. It was supposed that uncertainty was bound to continue unless major
efforts were made to solve Western Europes currency crisis.
10. The commercial broadcasting industry convinced Americans that it
was good citizenship to consume news at regular intervals.
5

2
1. Her lower lip trembled as if she were ready to burst into tears. 2. Her
smile faded quickly: You were crazy to come. 3. Their argument was
hard to follow. 4. Im not very likely to do that. 5. The offer was not so easy
for Doris to accept. 6. He took off his glasses and looked vainly for
something with which to clean them. 7. He had little time left in which to
sleep. 8. There were more knives, forks and spoons than he knew what to
do with. 9. I dont think it amused him to quarrel. 10. His fingers trembled
so violently that it took four matches to light a cigarette. 11. It irritated
Mary to hear Willy use a German word or phrase. 12. It tortured him to see
her body shaken by sobs. 13. It might be of interest for you to see what sort
of person this Allen is. 14. It was rather sweet of him to hurry home in
order to tell her all about it without delay. 15. It is not natural for a young
man to spend all his evenings at home. 16. It was not unusual for dinner
parties to end in that way. 17. The noise made it impossible for me to hear
what they were talking about. 18. They all felt it unreasonable of Ann to
have left them without a word. 19. Would you find it convenient for me to
call on you on Monday? 20. Grant thought it best to deny everything.
1. The cosmonauts had been expected to land in the Kazakhstan area
(from which the spaceship was launched) as in the case of all other
spaceships.
2. The discussion is expected to focus on four broad subjects: raw
materials and world trade, food supplies and agriculture, prospection,
production and consumption of energy, and international financial and
monetary problems.
3. An attempt to cover up the differences which came to the surface last
weekend will be made by both Foreign Ministers in talks expected to
take place at the end of next month.
4. Another demonstration was expected to protest the shipment of U.S.
arms to El Salvador.
5. Neither he nor any other politician could be expected to solve West
Berlins pressing problems at the wave of a hand.
6. The US proposal is likely to arouse new US West Germany friction
over the two countries military budgets.
7. No one will refuse to pay less tax, but if they think that by this means
they will bribe the electors to vote for them in large numbers, they are
likely to be disappointed.
8. The present fine spell is likely to be brief, predicted the meteorological
office last night in its long-range weather forecast.
9. The three parties likely to take part in a coalition are the Republican
Peoples Party, the Justice Party, and the New Turkey Party.
10. The Minister of Economic Affairs referred today to the statement
reported to have been made by the Foreign Secretary at Dundee on
Friday.
3
6

1. In his talk with my father the visitor was heard to mention some
accident. 2. The girl was told to fill the cups with tea. 3. He was reported to
have changed his mind. 4. She was made to understand that she must move
out of the flat. 5. Bill was led into the drawing-room and left there to look
at the pictures. 6. He was found to be a very engaging man. 7. She was
believed to have left her husband. 8. John could not bring himself to return
to London. 9. He got me to tell him stories of my family. 10. I watched the
second car depart and then went slowly back into the cool house. 11. He
saw John pouring himself a cup of coffee. 12. He saw John pour himself a
cup of coffee. 13. I dont like people to come and see me off at airports. 14.
I rely upon you to be discreet. 15. After half an hour I began to long for the
children to come back. 16. He got up as if to join his guests. 17. He moved
about very slowly as if swimming. 18. He was so tired as to be unable to
undress. 19. Im sure you are too young to remember. 20. He was not an
easy person to help.
1. Disenchantment with the President appears to be growing. The
political scene has been transformed in the past two months to the
point where people are openly talking of the possibility: (1) that the
President will not seek re-election; and (2) that he might be beaten if
he runs.
2. Recently these plans seemed to have assumed a new reality and to
have become more aggressive.
3. Spanish authorities have confiscated copies of last months edition of
Working Youth. No reason for the action was given, but it was
believed to have resulted from an article discussing sackings in a
Madrid motor factory.
4. France had what was believed to be its coldest Christmas for 83 years,
and in the Jura Mountains the temperature dropped to minus 28
degrees Centigrade.
5. The meeting, which lasted just over half an hour, is understood to
have taken place at the Prime Ministers request.
6. U.S. officials were said to consider that uncertainty was bound to
continue unless some drastic measures were taken.
7. Turkeys rulers were said to fear that expulsion from the Council of
Europe might make it more difficult to obtain necessary economic
credit and aid.
8. The warnings are now shown to have been fully justified: thousands of
workers will get the sack.
9. The rapidity with which people are arming themselves with tear gas
worries a number of law enforcement officials. Some officials say that
they expect the disabling spray to be used increasingly by criminals
bent on robbery, rape or assault.
10. At that moment Western governments were anxiously waiting for
Saudi Arabia to provide new finances for the International Monetary
Fund.
7

4
1. He liked being in the company of his relations. 2. He kept glancing at his
watch, and when he finished his tea he said he must be going back. 3. Dan
could never resist showing his work. 4. Even in the darkened room, I could
not help seeing that Mrs. Jones face was swollen with tears. 5. She never
minded being alone at the cottage. 6. The news was worth writing about to
his father. 7. His wife was in London. She was busy finding themselves a
new home. 8. When it came down to cooking dinner she burst into tears. 9.
It was wonderful having Bart. 10. In this rain its tough getting a taxi. 11.
They were heard arguing on the terrace a few minutes ago. 12. I thought
that matches were not left lying about in the garden for nothing. 13. Fox
was found waiting for us on the terrace. 14. He lit himself a cigar and tried
to relax as he heard the front door being opened. 15. John did not want to
find himself playing the role of a teacher. 16. I heard him crying for us to
stop. 17. Of course, I have the advantage of knowing the man very well. 18.
He gave up the pretence of packing. 19. I was in despair at the thought of
losing the job. 20. Do you think theres any chance of our being believed?
1. The Belgium Prime Minister offered his resignation to the King in
Brussels yesterday after failing to reconcile a cabinet split over tough
new economic measures.
2. Instead of cutting overseas military costs by bringing our troops home,
the ruinous drain on Britains finances is being continued by the
Government.
3. The Secretary of State was not enthusiastic, and made the mistake of
letting his lack of enthusiasm be widely known.
4. It is nonsense for its supporters to claim that the present policy is a
success. It has succeeded in increasing the number out of work, and in
reducing production.
5. Far from helping the low-paid the Prime Minister has hit them hardest
of all.
6. All the evidence of past words and deeds is against such agreement
being possible.
7. Jobs and living standards depend on the industrial capacity of the
nation being used to the full.
8. More troops going there will only make things worse.
9. What police described as appalling weather conditions prevented the
two helicopters borrowed from the Army taking part in the search.
10. The whole system was nothing but an alarm system designed to go off
in case of raw materials being illegally removed or utilised.
5
1. She sat gazing straight before her. 2. She lay crying a long while. 3. We
stood waiting for the doors to open. 4. With the first gust of wind her
husbands hat went sailing through the air. 5. They both paused, listening
to the voices on the stairs. 6. Oh, Bert, I never thought I would end my life
wrapping brown paper round strange objects. 7. She wont have any trouble
8

getting you a job in Hollywood. 8. They had a hard time living in Dublin. 9.
The old man had difficulty chewing the meat. 10. She had a dull time
looking after her aunt. 11. He did not object to others being there. 12. I had
nothing to do with his making the decision. 13. Then I suspected him of
teasing me. 14. We had no difficulty in being nice to each other. 15. There
was nothing to prevent him from returning to London. 16. He apologised
for keeping me. 17. My father often accused me of treating the house as a
hotel. 18. I was not really sure what I felt about Jack coming home. 19. I
told him about Phil wanting to come with us. 20. The doctor began by
feeling his pulse.
1. Paris. A grim new year of record-high unemployment, slow growth
and unnervingly high inflation stretching into the next year is in store
for the major industrialised countries, the Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development reports.
2. Tenants have presented to the mayor a petition signed by 1,600 urging
the council to press for lower interest rates.
3. Mexico City. Having long considered a strong military unnecessary,
Mexico suddenly decided to spend a portion of its oil earnings on
armaments and for the first time intended to buy supersonic jet
fighters in the United States.
4. Considering the complexity of the problem, the decision was reached
at a rather early date.
5. While seeing the dangers it is also essential to confront the pessimism
created by a section of the mass media.
6. Even counting Britains North Sea oil bonanza total industrial
production dropped 9 per cent pulling the British economy back to
levels of 1967. Unemployment had burgeoned to 10 per cent of the
British labour force another post-Depression record and is rising
rapidly.
7. Decisions have been taken at Brussels, which, if carried out, would
lead straight to further controversies.
8. Fears of radiation contamination from forgotten waste dumps, nuclear
testing and transportation accidents grew this week as investigations
expanded beyond the initial discovery of an old radioactive waste dump
in Denver. The dump was found emitting contaminates last week.
9. They wanted a Government freely chosen by the will of the people.
10. The peoples of all countries are vitally interested in seeing further steps
taken at the Foreign Ministers Conference in October.
6
1. Jack lit a cigarette while waiting for the waiter to come back with the ice.
2. Phil stuck the money in his pocket without counting it. 3. He lit a
cigarette before answering. 4. Did Grant show any emotion on opening the
parcel? 5. He hesitated a moment before crossing the bridge. 6. The terrace
was crowded with women drinking tea. 7. I strapped the watch on my wrist
with trembling fingers. 8. I had to wait two hours in the hospital to have a
9

tooth filled. 9. She slammed the drawer shut. 10. I left my wife well
provided for. 11. He was determined to make himself respected. 12. It was
hard to see him defeated. 13. One cant get anything done in our house. 14.
In the drawing-room the music of Mozart was being played by an orchestra
seen on the TV screen. 15. Taken by surprise they had nothing to say. 16. In
the box there were some negatives rolled up in a tight coil. 17. How did you
account for buying that car? 18. He reproached himself for not having tried
to talk with her. 19. I felt proud of having been of use to him. 20. The
doctor was used to listening to all sorts of people.
1. With Britain gripped by recession and 2.5 million unemployed, intense
competition for job tends to leave black youths behind.
2. With domestic demand slack, the Japanese economy has had to depend
on exports for much of its growth particularly of such high-priced
items as automobiles, which now provide 17% of the countrys total
exports.
3. With 70 per cent of Japans land area mountainous and a small
percentage devoted to farmland, two-thirds of Japans urban population
resides and works in less than 5 per cent of the total land area.
4. Strasbourg. The European Parliament is coming under sharp
criticism with allegations made by members of inflated expenses too
much money spent on overseas trips, expensive quarters, and office
cleaners.
5. England emerged from the war only a formal victor, its economy
shaken and entering a period of permanent stagnation and decline.
6. Foreign-owned companies that set up British subsidiaries to channel
their profits pay no tax provided their management and control remain
outside.
7. Objections to this plan, supposing there is any, should be reported to
the committee at once.
8. If Saudi Arabia decides to maintain its production at the current level,
the highest prices are almost equally certain to continue to decline,
given the state of the market.
9. This was what the Tories want. They are against the Bill, but failing its
complete defeat they are aiming to get it amended into uselessness.
10. The Cabinet decided to consider the agreement pending ratification by
the Majlis.
7
1. My will was weakened. I wanted someone to lean on. 2. We stood for a
while watching a man training an Alsatian puppy. 3. There was a lot of
noise all around now, and amongst it you could hear a plane flying
unusually low. 4. I heard Arthur make a slight noise which may have been
a sigh or a chuckle. 5. I dont like girls to smoke. It takes away the
fragrance of youth. 6. After supper Willy switched on the wireless and John
left him dancing round the drawing-room to the sound of Mozarts piano
concerto in C minor. 7. I caught her looking at me. 8. He explained his
10

behaviour as trying to make up their quarrel. 9. If you go on talking like


this youll have me crying. 10. I found myself living almost entirely on the
grapes which the cook found it hard to spoil. 11. They watched me walk
away, wiping my nose on my arm. 12. I remember the telegram coming
about Marys arrival. 13. Just as habit kills love I should have thought habit
would prevent its arising. 14. I cant see my nephew making much of a
soldier. 15. If he finds it necessary, the district attorney may require an
inquest to be held. 16. He felt the money being taken from his grasp. 17. In
London she bought a lipstick. I remember her trying the various shades on
the back of her hand. 18. He shouted to them to come inshore when they
ventured out too far into the sea. 19. I sat up till one oclock waiting for Ted
to ring up again, but he never did. 20. He motioned to the waiter to put the
tray down.
1. The candidate said this morning that he was fully aware of the
obstacles to be faced and the charges that would be made.
2. The cutback in housing programmes has been so sharp that the
national campaign for the homeless reports that in the next two years
no families are likely to be rehoused from the waiting list at all.
3. Neither the federal government nor the nation as a whole needs to be
reminded of the necessity of saving and conserving energy, especially
by finding substitutes for oil. The message has been forcefully driven
home by declining deliveries from Iran and Iraq.
4. Television, meanwhile, has become a major means of solidifying power
and creating or controlling national utility in that country.
5. Though President has the sense to reject an outrageously optimistic
forecast produced by some of his advisers, the governments crystal
ball still has a rosy hue.
6. Yet never were problems confronting the country so acute, with the
electorate in fact divided on policy issues to a greater degree than for
years past.
7. His proposals differ sharply from those offered by both the President
and his Republican opponent. Both candidates favour reducing
corporate taxes and increasing corporate profits above the current $250
billion annual profit level arguing that subsidising big business will
result in a stimulation of the economy, with monies trickling down to
workers. However, experience has shown that these subsidies have only
resulted in unemployment and double-digit inflation.
8. Even if he belatedly shifts his policy, the president has little time left to
influence the economy before the elections. Considering how long it
takes for a policy change to be pushed through Congress and then to
have an impact, a new game plan would have to be adopted now in
order to score points before the election.
9. All major currencies sunk against the dollar, and fears were expressed
in business circles that the dollars strength was adding to inflation in
Europe by making imports more expensive in the huge trade with the
United States.
11

8
1. He took the advantage of this confusion to escape and ran up the stairs to
the studio. 2. To hear him, one would think he was as poor as a church
mouse. 3. He rarely went out except to take part in the social life of the
town. 4. I must be getting old, she said, to be talking like that. 5. He
built a fire and put a tin pot of water on to boil. 6. You ought to know better
than to ask questions like that. 7. How can she be content with you there to
nag all the time? 8. But I did not come here in order to gain anything. 9. He
ran his hand through his hair as though to tidy it. 10. I bumped into a man.
Without looking I apologised and proceeded on my way. 11. That morning
my father said to me: In sending you to this school, Henry, Im making a
sacrifice. I cant really afford it. 12. It must be swell to get anything you
want just by asking, I thought. 13. The musicians had vanished without his
having seen them to go. 14. The cigarette burned down to my fingers and I
threw it over the banister without putting it out. 15. We strolled back to the
camp, it being then about twenty minutes to six. 16. I took my temperature
and, upon finding it was a hundred point four, went back to bed again. 17. I
showed my boredom by refusing to find any interest in the view. 18. That
being understood, the conference was over. 19. He hardly looked at her
while talking. 20. He had scarcely ever drunk tea at all until knowing
Gwen.
1. The said tax increases to reduce government borrowing would do little
to help recession hit industry or reduce unemployment.
2. The factory is producing light passenger cars, which are expected to
form the largest part of the countrys drive to boost automobile
production from 200,000 to 800,000 by 1990.
3. Far from doing anything to reduce the number of jobless, the
Government is planning to throw more out of work with its rail and pit
closures.
4. But if this experiment fails then it is obvious that, far from there being
an improvement in the standards of life of the British people, there will
be a steady diminution.
5. All his criticisms were reserved for Labour backbenchers who want the
British Army withdrawn.
6. The decision this month, according to the sources, was to postpone any
such changes pending a large policy review regarding relations with
China and Taiwan.
7. The capital siphoned off through taxes to the Pentagon has meant that
it is unavailable for civilian enterprises. Less capital investment means
fewer jobs. Important areas of the economy are severely
undernourished. Railroads, mass transit, and the solar energy industry
are all areas which need massive infusions of capital both because of
declining oil supplies, and to enhance the quality of life while
depolluting the environment.
8. It seems unduly cynical, however, to accuse media folk of deliberately
12

9.

building Presidents up in order to knock them down. The fact is quite


the opposite. Media people thrive on telling Americans what they want
to hear.
Any other activities of the world organisation will be financed by the
whole membership only by their unanimous and active support. And
even in those rare cases it will be by having the Secretary-General
solicit voluntary contributions.

9
1. Freddy felt very relieved. 2. You bet Im burning myself out. Ive been
doing it for so many years now and who cares? At this moment I feel
quite played out. 3. The doll lay deserted on the porch. 4. Friendship
restored, we walked along together. 5. The plant has withered because it
was left exposed to the sun. 6. He sat straight in his bed with his feet tucked
under him. 7. He felt a curious relief at the delay and at the fact that
whether sent or not the letter was written. 8. But this friend of yours looks
odd to me and he gets himself talked about. 9. If done prematurely, your
move might provoke opposition. 10. They stared at each other, Dan still
standing with his tea cup and Willy stretched out in the chair. 11. While
waiting for a flight, and without ever leaving the terminal, a visitor could
have his hair cut, suit pressed and shoes shined. 12. The snow never
stopped falling that afternoon. It was dreadful to be outdoors. 13. Then we
strolled round the place watching preparations being made to set the tent.
14. The door did not open. She left off ringing, and, sitting down at the top
of the stairs, buried her face in her hands. 15. The thought came flashing
into his mind. 16. To find them in so short a time would have been next to
impossible. 17. I spent some time with Tom studying maps of the country.
18. He was accustomed to sleeping through the morning noises of the
neighbourhood. 19. To describe the confusion that followed would be
impossible. 20. He was beyond caring about what was going to happen to
him.
1. Washington. A draft report produced by the Central Intelligence
Agency has concluded that there is not enough evidence to support
that charge.
2. So, said an official, much of the discussion is likely to be about a
suitable form of words, and the fact that Mr M. will negotiate on the
basis of the latest proposals of the Nine means that he has already
gone more than halfway to surrender.
3. By not losing sight of the long-term objectives they made themselves
masters and not servants or victims of economic forces operating in
the world.
4. Another important American statement shows that the military chiefs
object to any idea of each country having its own independent forces
and are opposed to the idea of disarmament being discussed at an
international forum.
5. We will not seek to frustrate that consensus, since it is not in the world
13

interest to have the work of the General Assembly immobilised in


those troubled days.
6. Athens. The political opposition has called on the government to
resign, following U.S. press reports that nuclear warheads are being
stored in Greece under the exclusive control of the U.S. military.
7. We should have no illusions a nuclear war anywhere is a nuclear war
everywhere. There are no hiding places. There are no safe conduct
passes. If the explosion doesnt get you the radiation will!
8. Now that big business has produced a real crisis theyre hell-bent on
solving the economic crisis without losing a penny of their $250
billion per year profits. So their message: the crisis cant be solved
without cutting peoples living standards.
9. One person in ten can expect to be seriously injured or killed in a road
accident during their lifetime, according to Prof. W.G., Director of the
Road Injuries Research Group at the Birmingham Accident Hospital,
in a report issued today.
10. The only alternative to letting the British Motor Corporation
company close and a thousand people become redundant, was for the
Government to take over responsibility, said the Minister of Aviation.
10
1. She could not help bringing into her conversation the names of people
she knew. 2. The state Im in Im liable to burst out crying. 3. It is true that
to understand is to pity and to forgive. 4. I cannot see what my having
been divorced three times has to do with my books, she said. 5. He walked
down the street, not knowing where to turn or what to do. 6. At the top of
the third flight she paused for breath, and holding on to the banisters, stood
listening. 7. Bob glanced away from his mother so as not to see the tears in
her eyes. 8. The girl was only four but it delighted us to talk with her. 9. I
had seen to many examples of the process not to recognize it now. 10. Ive
seen many a man ruined through having extravagant habits. 11. Not having
read your letters, I havent the faintest idea what youre talking about. 12.
He took the first opportunity to apologise for his rudeness. 13. Im too old
to change my ways. 14. Taking the business over meant spending money.
15. I couldnt resist showing my money or spending it treating my friends.
16. He sat for hours by the river as the trains ran shrieking across the
bridge. 17. It might be worth trying. 18. I was hurrying to the booking
office to see about our tickets. 19. He was sitting with his hands clasped
round his knee, staring at the water. 20. She opened the door just in time to
see Tom disappear round the corner.
1. The Home Secretary is expected to make a statement next week on the
validity of the practice of allowing outside observers, photographers,
and television cameramen to be present at the counting of the votes at a
parliamentary election.
2. The meeting which was said to have lasted several hours on Thursday
night, was confirmed Saturday. However, little more than the fact that
14

3.
4.

5.
6.
7.

8.

9.

it had taken place was revealed in the apparently co-ordinated


statements provided by foreign policy spokesmen in the three countries
involved.
Mexico City. After years of taking Latin America for granted, the
United States is now finding that much of the region no longer shares
its view of the world.
A shadow minister is to challenge the government over reports that
prescription charges may be increased next April. An opposition front
bench spokesman in health said: It is evidence of people being denied
medicines on their doctors advice by the price being charged, and is a
tragic breach of the idea of the National Health Service.
With the problems facing the voters becoming more and more acute
and the reform candidates offering the only solutions, there is no doubt
that hard campaigning can bring about real changes in city hall.
Absorbed by Africa, tried by immigration, with the imperial feeling
ebbing, India and Pakistan no longer hold the place in the British
imagination that they once had.
Far from steering a middle course, or a modern course, or making
changes, or bringing Socialist aims up to date, as in turn he claimed,
he is operating a Tory Right Wing Labour mixture of policies as oldfashioned as top hats on Palace coachmen, but not nearly as harmless
or funny. The Prime Minister said that the July measures, so far from
threatening the nation with continuing unemployment, by creating the
opportunity for a new break-through in exports and production, hold
out the surest guarantee we have of full employment for a generation.
Having refused to recognize this in time, Washington was forced to
retreat, under the pressure of rather embarrassing circumstances, from
the juridically sound but politically unrealistic position it had enjoined
on the United States delegation to the UN.
Speaking to a Conservative audience in Putney, London, the Leader of
the House warned that changed circumstances make adjustments
necessary in both tactics and timing to meet altered conditions,
although he added that the changes will all be made in pursuit of the
same strategy.

11
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16

2.
1
1. He then suggested that we should drop the discussion and talk about
something else. 2. My mothers name was Lydia, and she always insisted
that we should call her by this name. 3. He is angry that I should have
fallen in love with his sister. 4. My father wanted to walk, but my mother
insisted that we should go in the car. 5. He suggested on a postcard that
they should meet in the National Gallery. 6. As soon as we sat down he
demanded that the candles should be removed. 7. He requested that we
should keep the evening free. 8. He arranged that Edward go to Italy for a
year or two. 9. In this case it is essential that he shouldnt make a mistake.
10. Suddenly it seemed terribly important to him that they should not leave
him alone. 11. It was arranged that we should meet at his flat for a glass of
sherry. 12. It was desirable that he should go to a law school following the
family tradition. 13. She knew it was urgent that she should buy herself a
new coat. 14. Its time we were off. 15. Its high time he explained what he
is up to. 16. Its about time he were taught a lesson. 17. When I woke I felt
that it was time I called a doctor. 18. Its really about time we had dinner.
19. He was told in public that it was time he learned to do as he was told.
20. His aunt made a peremptory demand that he should send her ten
pounds a month. 21. When one reads Goethes The Sorrows of Werther
today one can hardly fail to ask oneself what there was in it to cause so
great a sensation. I suppose the answer is that it exactly suited what we now
call the climate of opinion. 22. My only wish was that he should be
altogether honest. 23. His intention was that his two sons should continue
his trade.
1. The United Nations Human Rights Commission yesterday urged that
economic sanctions and an oil embargo should be introduced against
South Africa.
2. Western and Arab diplomats and other specialists on Gulf affairs have
suggested that the American administration should clearly outline its
policy towards the Gulf countries.
3. The analysts recommended that the United States, in formulating its
policies for the region, should demonstrate a sensitivity to the internal
pressures felt by the Gulf rulers.
4. Bonn. It has been learnt here that the United States proposed that an
European rapid reaction corps should be urgently set up.
5. It is important that the real situation should be examined because
anything which promotes irrational differences between earnings in an
industry is bound to cause trouble.
6. In addition the UN Charter provided that the United Nations should
not intervene in the internal affairs of a State.
7. They insisted that the exact demands of the three main groups should
17

be outlined so that the Common Market could be in no doubt about


them.
2
1. He was afraid that he might be taken for a burglar. 2. He seemed nervous
lest he should set his son a bad example. 3. I passed the door quickly,
fearful lest the nurse who sat up all night should hear me. 4. I said: You
know, doctor, Im afraid I might tend to be a little inquisitive sometimes.
5. He told us to get into the back of the car so that we could talk. 6. He
pretended to speak to someone, so that the servant should not think that he
was alone in the room. 7. The girl kept her window open day and night so
that the cat could come into her room whenever it felt inclined. 8. She
lowered her voice so that her mother should not hear us. 9. Grace took the
necessary steps so that they could get married at once. 10. He sat at his desk
as though he were writing, but he neither wrote nor read. 11. The dog
greeted Frank as if they had not met for a year. 12. He was flushed and
looked as if he might burst into tears. 13. She kept on glancing round the
room as if she were looking for somebody. 14. She used to look as though
she had been crying. 15. If you were to ask me I couldnt tell you. 16. If you
were travelling alone you would have got to the city by now. 17. If he were
to be invited to the party he wouldnt know what to wear. 18. If anything
should happen to him I shall stay in my office the whole day. 19. I wonder
what effect it will have on my sisters nerves if John should turn his back to
her. 20. However, if it should be proved on him, he will have to leave my
house. 21. If I were a playwright Id write a nice, old-fashioned play in
which the heroine is pure and beautiful and makes a man out of her
husband. 22. If he knew he would have told me. Im sure he knows
nothing. 23. Her lips were parted as if she were out of breath.
1. It appears doubtful whether the formula will meet the Governments
insistence that the UN sanctions should not lead to economic
confrontation with South Africa.
2. New York. As the House of Representatives is getting ready to debate
the Presidents proposed budget, young people across the country will
gather in the halls of Congress to demand that the government provide
a job for every single youth willing and able to work.
3. The paper also recommended that the eligibility age for retirement
benefits be raised gradually from 65 to 68 by the year 2012.
4. The pragmatists argue that the president cannot afford to take the
political risk of seeing hundreds of thousands of automobile workers
thrown out of jobs because of foreign competition. They urge that the
administration ask the Japanese government to restrain the level of
Japanese automobile exports for three years.
5. One of the first suggestions he made shortly after he took office, was
that a lottery be run to rescue UN finances.
6. Time and again he attempted to make the apparently reasonable
request that the General Assembly reach decisions through voting.
18

7.

The majority of people, be they politicians, trade unionists or


employers, are now all in favour of East-West trade. The problem today
is how to break down the remaining barriers.

3
1. These are things which would be hard for a child to understand. 2. Lock
the door so that nobody should disturb us. 3. Look at this scene, she said,
Where else in the world would you ever see anything like that? 4. It
wouldnt have made any difference. 5. I dont want to go there. Why
not? I wouldnt miss the match for anything. We could watch it from quite
far away. Mother wouldnt like it. 6. I think it would be wise to wait till
the evening. 7. If any difficulty should arise, call me up at once. 8. He
smiled as if he did not believe what I was saying. 9. The girl sat quiet, with
her hands in her lap, as though she were watching TV. 10. He spoke of the
book as if he had read it. 11. I left a note for him on the desk so that he
would see it the moment he came back. 12. He didnt utter a word as
though he hadnt heard us talk about him. 13. The floor in the room was so
dusty as if it hadnt been swept for days. 14. He smiled and patted her
shoulder as if she were a child. 15. He felt that if he were to refuse the offer
his father would be angry with him. 16. I put on my hat so that I should not
have to come up again. 17. I wouldnt do it if I were you. 18. In case you
should have to leave unexpectedly, send me a note. 19. You must always
watch out for the traffic here, said the nanny. What would your mother
say if you were to get run over? 20. Stay with him, please, and if he should
ask for anything, let me know. 21. If I were to say a thing like that to your
aunt she would think me a lunatic. 22. Ill be at the flat all evening in case
you should change your mind. 23. Possibly he would feel and act differently
in his reaction to his daughters marriage if the circumstances were
different.
1. If Bonn should decide to buy less gas, it would certainly soften U.S.
opposition. But if the West Germans conclude they need all the gas
they are slated to get, there could be trouble.
2. He said that he had been told by his CIA contact that the US was in a
position to arrange a coup in Mozambique through South Africa and
that should he be in danger of discovery, he was to take a flight to
South Africa where he would be very warmly received.
3. Should the Tories succeed in finding a candidate we may yet see the
spectacle of the three brands of Tories fighting each other for the votes.
4. Todays talks, therefore, will certainly lay down guide-lines for a Tory
Manifesto should an early election materialise.
5. Even should it be decided to extend the session, only ten days can be
gained; so the argument runs it is better to wait for the new
session, especially as the Lords may impose its veto and delay the Bill
12 months.
6. Objections to this plan, supposing their should be any, should be
reported to the committee at once.
19

7.

If the two weaker companies were to collapse, hundreds of thousands


of jobs would be lost in the auto industry, alone, and perhaps a million
jobs taking into account the industries that produce materials for cars
such as steel and glass.

4
1. I wouldnt have thought it possible if I hadnt seen it with my own eyes.
2. I would have liked the play better if it were not so long. 3. If it had not
been for his illness the family would have moved to town. 4. If he had come
in time it might not have happened. 5. If it had rained I would have got wet
through, I had a very light dress on. 6. If you were not so busy we might go
somewhere for dinner. 7. If I had stayed a moment longer I dont know
what I might have said. 8. If we had no luggage we could walk to the
station. 9. I did not blame him. I would have done the same. 10. I was
curious, you see. Id have been curious, too. 11. I should never have
thought that you would learn to drive so soon. 12. He would have said a lot
more, but he was tired. 13. It would be much more convenient if he were to
move to a hotel. 14. If I were to tell you of the things the girl does, you
would open your eyes. 15. I should certainly try to deserve your confidence
if you would give me another chance. 16. I dont care if the whole school
knows. If that should happen, we shall have to send you home. 17. The
situation was embarrassing. If I went in at once it would be obvious that I
had overheard the words that had just been spoken. 18. Hes been so quick.
I wouldnt have done half of it in this time. 19. But for that accident the
thought of you would never have crossed his mind. 20. She was glad that
her statement was truthful. This curious man, she felt, would have
recognized a polite evasion. 21. We often ran when walking would have
done as well. 22. Charles would not have thought of coming that night, but
for me. 23. Her husband agreed to hiring a grand piano though, he said, an
upright piano would have done.
1. One of their fears is that the auto industry, if given relief, would
increase prices rather than production.
2. Any proposal to go ahead with this disgusting weapon should be
vigorously combated. It may be immensely profitable to the chemical
industry, but if ever it were used, it would bring an agonising death to
thousands.
3. Arguing that ignoring Third World grievances would be politically
short-sighted, the French and West German foreign ministers urged the
US administration to attend the summit session.
4. Mr M. believes that granting citizenship to more foreigners would
consolidate loyalty to the state, simplify manpower problems, lessen
dependence on more immigration and motivate Kuwaitis to work
harder.
5. If it were just another scandal bringing down Italys 40 th post-war
government, editors and readers alike would have to fight to stifle
yawns and keep their eyes from glazing over. But this time, a
20

6.
7.

tantalising series of scandals wrapped inside a medieval secret society


has provoked the crisis.
It would be foolish to think that all this will be easy.
Even if this proposal were acted upon, and it is now evident that the
President has disavowed it, the fundamental guns-instead-of-butter
nature of the economy would in no way be altered.

5
1. I wish I had a lab of my own. 2. She almost wished she hadnt asked
them to dinner. 3. I wish I could drop the whole matter. 4. I wish it had
happened to anyone but you. 5. I wish you had brought your sister with you.
6. I wish Paul could have stayed a few minutes, I said. 7. He wished they
would let him enjoy his dinner in peace. 8. Oh, how I wish it would rain! 9.
I wish you wouldnt be so horrid, Willy, just when Im so miserable. 10. I
wish that your daughter were just a little like you. 11. I wish youd make up
your mind one way or another. 12. He wished the evening were already
over. 13. I sometimes wish you hadnt decided to write that book, Hugh. 14.
I do wish we had a proper garden. 15. Oh, God, how I wish Id never done
it. 16. I do wish Willy would change his mind about taking up German. 17.
He wished he knew how to console his wife. 18. I wish you would start
writing poems again. 19. I wish more people in the office had your sense of
humour, Jack. 20. She wished she could hear what they were saying
downstairs. 21. I wish he would stop writing to me. 22. I wish I had found
him at home. 23. I wished I had not told them about my life.
1. This veto provision reflects the conviction of those who drafted the
Charter that the United Nations would be unable to take an important
initiative for the maintenance of peace and security unless there was
unanimity among the big powers and that to attempt so would be a
futile gesture, endangering the organisation.
2. Some black leaders made charges that help would have come more
quickly if the dead and missing children had been white.
3. The blacks believe that if white children had been involved the tragedy
would have received huge public and press attention.
4. Had he not been forced to manoeuvre the craft to avoid a boulder-filled
crater, he would have touched down with almost two minutes of fuel
remaining.
5. U.S. Embassy sources stressed that the visas would never have been
issued to the five officers, who were represented as diplomats going for
routine consultations with their own embassy, if their military function
had been known.
6. Unemployment of those proportions, were it general, would be a
national catastrophe.
7. Had the election campaign been still in progress the wage squeeze
might have become an issue.
6
21

1. Oh, if only youd be as you used to be. 2. Its desirable that the issue
should be settled as soon as possible. 3. He asked me to stay with him in the
country so that he could read his novel to me when it was finished. 4. She
arranged that next morning the boy should come to the house where she
had taken a room so that they could spend the day together. 5. He feared
that after twenty years he would find his sister a rather disillusioned
woman. 6. His mother knew very well who the man was, but wanted to act
as though she had no idea of it. 7. He got his sister to make herself scarce
for a few hours so that his new friend shouldnt know that he did not live
alone. 8. When the boys learned of Peters diary it was inevitable that they
should also set writing diaries of their own. 9. He insisted that people in
plays should talk as they talked in real life. 10. I wish I had seen more of
them before the war. 11. Now if I were to get Helen sacked, this of course
would mean telling everybody what she did. 12. Im afraid I cant stay, I
said. If I stayed Id have to tell things that they wouldnt like and that
would spoil their fun. 13. I wouldnt tell you anything even if I could
remember the facts. 14. I know Ive broken your life. And we might have
been happy. 15. He was afraid that he might forget the name and asked me
to put it down for him. 16. There was a wonderful concert at the Victoria
Hall we could have gone to. But now we are late for anything. 17. He was
not well off and he went about in dread lest he should be dismissed. 18. In
the old days she would have argued, but now she only nodded sadly. 19. I
wish I had a lot of money. I wouldnt live another day in London. 20. Of
course, I told myself, he might have been detained, but in this case he
would have telephoned me. 21. When he rang up home, his wife was not
in. Normally it wouldnt have upset him, but today he needed her advice
badly. 22. Edward proposed that he should fetch Bateman at five so that
they could drive out together to Jacksons house. 23. It would have made
small difference to the universe if I had never existed.
1. Februarys trade figures showed a 62 million deficit. There would
have been an even worse result had it not been for the 559 million
that foreign businessmen invested in Britain.
2. But for import restrictions, quotas and American-imposed embargoes,
Anglo-Soviet trade would be larger than it is today.
3. The Prime Minister refused to be drawn yesterday into saying what he
would do if his attempt to renegotiate the agreement were to fail.
4. Opposing the introduction of Cruise and Trident missiles in Britain,
Mr K. said it was ludicrous to talk as if the West was defenceless. The
military budget of the US alone was more than a third of total world
arms spending.
5. It was time that those supporting heavy defence spending and nuclear
missiles emerged from 1914 and 1939 thinking to the real world of
60,000 nuclear weapons with the risks of accidents, proliferation and
first strike.
6. It is high time that Canada abandoned this course and changed course
while there is still time to do so.
22

7.

The British Foreign Secretary will now be entering what are officially
termed the pre-negotiations with an ardent will to succeed. But the
Prime Minister would hardly have taken the unprecedented step of
deciding to go along, too, had he been sure they would fail.

7
1. It was decided that the children should go to the Zoo right after
breakfast. 2. I wish you wouldnt smoke so much. 3. He demanded that he
should be paid at once. 4. I wish I had told the truth. 5. Its necessary that
you should take a months holiday. 6. There are not many people who
would have taken the whole thing so calmly. 7. I went to my room so that
no one should disturb me for an hour or two. 8. Now he wouldnt have
made such a mistake. 9. I do wish this term were over. 10. For a moment he
was afraid that Fred would sit down beside him and go on talking. 11. If
only someone would believe me! 12. I should think he might be capable of
it. 13. Will you do it? Oh, Id rather you did it. 14. Someone suggested
that a doctor should be sent for. 15. Its time we got down to work. 16. We
were afraid that he might fall ill. 17. One always spoke of her like that, in
the third person, as though she were not there. 18. He knew if his mother
were to sit beside him and touch his hand, all would immediately be well.
19. You would not understand my difficulty even if I were to tell you. 20.
He looked at Roberta as if he had never before seen anything like her. 21.
He left instructions that we should be taken on a sightseeing tour of the
town. 22. Oh, if she had only known where to write to him!
1. It is not for this administration to be more selective about the
international responsibilities that the United States should be ready to
bear. Rather, its choice is to show with greater certainty that it can
bear them all.
2. In addition Congress may be reluctant to approve the sale of eight
Lockheed antisubmarine planes to Brazil because they must be used to
apprehend U.S. fishing vessels inside the 200-mile territorial limit
proclaimed by the Brazilian government. But Administration staffers
have made clear that were it not for fear of an explosive reaction in
Congress, the arms lid would be off altogether.
3. The president was to be wined, dined and entertained, but he was also
expected to be confronted with demonstrations and protests. A
demonstration was planned by environmental groups to protest the
alleged reneging by the United States on promises to limit fallout of
acid rain on Canada.
4. Washington. The House of Representatives will begin deliberations
Tuesday on a bill to increase transportation aid to cities.
The nations handicapped are demanding the bill include regulations
requiring cities with mass transit systems to improve facilities for
handicapped and disabled people.
A bill on mass transit passed the Senate in June, and supporters are
pushing for passage in the lame duck House session. They anticipate a
23

5.

tougher battle should the bill have to face next years more
conservative congress.
An unemployed black man was discriminated against because of his
race when he applied to become a census enumerator, an industrial
tribunal has decided.
Mr J. 31, who was the only black person in Liverpool to apply to take
part on Britains population survey last year as an enumerator, was
refused a post.

8
1. If it hadnt been for his work in the British Museum Library he would
never have found the book. 2. He locked the paper in his desk so that
nobody should see it. 3. If Meg hadnt been with them he would have asked
them about his father. 4. I should have told you a long time ago how much
you have always meant to me. 5. If I were ever to meet him again I would
know what to do. 6. If my parents hadnt taken me along with them I
would have never forgiven them, the boy said to me. 7. I wish I could tell
you about it. 8. He feared that he would make a poor impression. 9. I
should have thought youd be glad to see your old friend. 10. And then he
suddenly felt powerless, as though his bones had suddenly become soft. 11.
My suggestion was that he should come and spend a few days with me so
that he could look about till he found some house to suit him. 12. I wish
you had seen the letter. It would have explained everything to you. 13. I
insist that we should stay here. 14. His father decided that he should study
law. 15. Its time you woke him up. 16. They fell in love with each other
and they would have married at once if she had been free. 17. It is
recommended that people with a weak heart should take these pills twice a
day. 18. I wish I had known you needed the book. I could have bought it for
you in London. 19. Be careful about the key. If you should lose it well
never open the safe. 20. It was suggested to me that I should write a review
of the book. 21. My husbands intention was that we should settle down in
Brighton. 22. I hid the paper under the cushion so that Max should not see
it.
1. For the teachers the inspectors have only praise. Their attitude is of
professional commitment and resourcefulness.
But, the report adds: There is evidence that teachers morale has been
adversely affected in many schools.
Its weakening, if it became widespread, would pose a major problem
in the effort to maintain present standards, let alone improve them.
2. While Trades Union Congress leaders were being pressed yesterday at
Downing Street to agree to wage freezing, Stock Exchange speculators
were pushing share prices to a new record level.
3. Behind this action lies an admission of, and a determination to solve,
the real problem of every weatherman that meteorologists actually
know frighteningly little about the weather. If a scientist in any other
field made predictions based on so little basic information, the head
24

4.
5.
6.

of the United States Weather Bureaus international unit remarked


recently, hed be flatly out of his mind. And if chemistry were now at
the same stage as meteorology, a colleague added, the world would just
be beginning to worry about the horrifying effect of gunpowder in
warfare.
Both countries have an interest in avoiding such an extension of the
area of conflict because of the threatening consequences, were the
localisation to fail.
The decision that there should be no broadcast on matters which were
about to be debated in Parliament was originally neither negotiated nor
bargained for.
Many past air crashes, as subsequent investigation has shown, could
have been avoided. There are many points which need an answer.
Perhaps the answers to these questions will be satisfactory. In this case
every possible step may have been taken that could have been taken,
and it may be shown that only a human error that could not have been
foreseen caused the crash.

9
1. , . 2.
, . 3. ,
. ,
, . 4. !
, . 5.
. 6. ,
. 7. ,
. 8. , .
, . 9.
, . 10.
, . 11. ,
. 12. ,
. 13. ,
. 14. . 15. ,
, . ,
. 16. . 17. ,
. 18. , .
. 19. , .
20. . , ,
. 21. ,
. 22.
- . 23. . 24.
,
. 25. ,
. 26. , ! 27.
, ! 28. , . 29.
, . 30. ,
25

26

3.
1
1. What on earth induced her to behave as she did, I never could
understand. She could have married anybody she chose. 2. I ate the next
course grimly to an end; she couldnt have been enjoying her meal much
either. 3. Life, the old man said, can only be understood backward. Now
I see clearly all the mistakes I made and could have avoided. 4. Really he
had no idea that she could use water-colour as well as that. 5. She would
often say that no one but she could control the little girl. 6. Milly asked
what time it was, and her mother said it couldnt be more that one. 7. He
couldnt possibly afford a car on his present salary. 8. I couldnt help seeing
that she was ill. 9. I could not but put him up for the night. 10. He could
have done it last week. He wasnt particularly busy. 11. She couldnt have
made a mistake. 12. Can they have been waiting for us? 13. Evans was so
illiterate that he could not have written a word of the report. 14. She
didnt understand you, cried Philip. She understood me well enough.
She could not have understood you, he repeated doggedly. 15. She had a
square face that could never have looked young. 16. What are you looking
at, Willy? Nothing, dear. You cant be looking at nothing. 17. She
raised her voice and called, Can you hear me? 18. At that moment I
could have killed him. 19. He couldnt have been more than thirty at the
time we first met him. 20. Theyre very nice to me. They couldnt be more
polite and obliging.
1. Concerning US-Japanese trade relations during the next four years, the
banking leader sees some problems ahead, which he hopes can be
resolved through compromise or mutual agreement.
2. Orthodox economics agrees that a tax cut can increase investment, but
says that the cut has to take effect before investment responds. The plan
of the present Administration holds that the effect can precede the
cause.
3. London Britains ideologically torn opposition Labour Party moved
last week to the brink of a formal split that could bring about the first
significant realignment of British political parties in 60 years.
4. A partial solution would be to store enough oil so that the economies of
Europe, Japan and the United States could withstand a new jolt and
their foreign policies would no longer be at the mercy of oil potentates.
5. Washington A single nuclear bomb exploding in the atmosphere over
the United States could lead to a nation-wide power blackout because
US power stations are too vulnerable, according to an official study.
6. Months of wrangling over fishing rights have led to tension between
EEC governments, and there are fears that this could spill over to
embitter discussion of a series of other problems at the two-day
meeting starting on Monday.
7. The foreign banks are launching a counterattack into markets for
27

domestic loans and services that until now have been dominated by the
Japanese banks. They are also exploring some new fields that the
Japanese banks could not, or would not, touch.
8. The report noted that companies could claim back the entire cost of
investments in plant and machinery in tax relief one of the most
favourable tax benefits of any industrialized nation.
9. People say that the former president could have been a better president
if he had been able to be elevated one degree above the political combat
he faced.
10. If Japans population had been half its present level, or more
reasonably one-third, the country could have enjoyed a relatively
high level of industrialisation while continuing to produce enough
foodstuffs to prevent disaster in the event of cut-offs in international
trade.
2
1. Of course Im too young to be a really good writer yet, but I try hard, and
one day I may achieve something. 2. I asked him if I might come over to
remove something that I had left in a book I had loaned him. 3. Im so
glad you didnt wait, Agnes, Mr. Logan said in a tone which clearly meant
I think you might have waited. 4. Harry might often be sitting on the
porch with a pipe in his mouth. 5. Archer looked touchingly white and
weak. He had been through a hard time. He might have died. 6. Oh,
Philip, she exclaimed, your boots are muddy! You might have gone by
the side door. 7. What shall you do to amuse yourself? she asked.
Well, I said playing for time, I might do several things. 8. There was
so much they had shared together and so much more they might have
shared that they had not. 9. Did she say where she was going? No.
Humph! She might have left a message. 10. He may not have heard from
his family yet. 11. I might as well give you a lift. 12. If your mother has
made up her mind, my dear, you may just as well give in without any fuss.
13. From afar the house might have been taken for a small inn. 14. Charles
came out of the examination room. How did you get on? I asked. It
might have been worse, I suppose, he said. 15. He might have broken the
window. 16. I may not have mentioned it in my letters, but I did quite a lot
of work up there. 17. It occurred to me that he was secretly proud of his
son, though he may not have known it. 18. She wasnt a Swede, but she
might have been taken for one. 19. I might have missed the last bus. 20.
They may have thought that we wont come in this rain.
1. It is possible that in accordance with this plan, investments may have
to be made which do not lead rapidly to a rise in the standard of living.
2. Situations in which America may have to choose between rival policies
advocated by her European partners are bound to arise.
3. Washington The relationship between Japan and the United States
has been evolving rapidly since Pearl Harbor. First, the two countries
were bitter enemies, then occupier and occupied, then big brother and
28

eager emulator and now it may have reached the point of role reversal.
The Prime Minister mentioned that a more radical stand on some
issues might have enabled the party to have avoided defeat.
5. There were signs that this tour might have marked a turning point.
6. Such problems, as a rule, may begin well before the trial and continue
after the appeal.
7. As a result, the government might try to close the gap by increasing
taxes. But in its turn that would also cut purchasing power.
8. He might have fallen into the trap but he understood the danger in
time.
9. He said he expected that a committee would be set up concerned with
energy issues. Although this Committee would not be empowered to
discuss the question of oil prices which remains the prerogative of
OPEC, it seems that security of supplies, as well as energy sharing, and
the search for alternative energy sources, might be valid subjects for
discussion.
10. In the opinion of some political connoisseurs, that measure may well
improve the prospects of the Conservative party with the nation as a
whole.
3
1. His mind turned to the incident. It was the kind of thing which must not
occur again. 2. Dear Paula, there is no point in delaying the happy news. I
know how much you must have been waiting and expecting. 3. When is
your mother to return? Next month. You must miss her terribly. 4.
My God, I never thought theyd let me in there again, he said. They
must have regretted doing so in view of your behaviour. 5. You must
change your shoes. I wont have you in here with muddy feet. 6. The way
she spoke made me think that she must be very much in love. 7. He asked
where I had picked up such a word. I realized that it must have been a
wrong word, but I had read it in some book and liked its sound. 8. He must
never have been poor. 9. He must have misunderstood you. 10. He must
have failed to get the book. 10. Close the door. The children mustnt hear
what you are saying. 11. I must be off. 12. She lit the fire and said: Do sit
down, you must be frozen. 13. John, turning from the door, noticed that he
was standing upon a letter which lay on the mat. It must have been
delivered sometime after his return. 14. We are having tea early, said
Kate. You must be starving. 15. I did not see Jim but I knew that he must
be waiting somewhere. 16. She looks so pale. She must have been ill. 17. I
must do something for him, Jack thought. 18. Martin was on the other side
of the fireplace. I thought that he could not have heard their words. 19.
They must have missed him at the station. 20. You must get him here with
all his stuff.
1. After a review of the state of national economies in the EEC, the
ministers agreed that the fight against inflation must remain the first
priority of member states.
4.

29

2.

At the present level of population, in order to fuel its industrialisation,


Japan has become doubly dependent: she must import both vital raw
materials for industrial production, and the food she eats.
3. The strain must have been particularly telling on a man like Mr. D.,
one of the most conscientious of the Governments back-bench MPs.
He was involved in a car accident last session, but continued to attend
to Commons duties on crutches.
4. It must have been hard for them to agree to this resolution, but at that
time there was no alternative course open to them.
5. The visit will have been a pleasant and useful excursion for the State
Secretary.
6. Regardless of what is to blame the reality is that the West German
economy is weakened, with its competitiveness diminished, and the
currency has declined.
7. The unions are to meet on May 8 to formulate their reply to the
company on the following day.
8. Share prices soared on the London Stock Exchange yesterday in the
hope that Bank rate is to be cut from the present 6 1/2 per cent to 6 per
cent.
9. The External Affairs Minister who was to have addressed the General
Assembly on the Canadian position yesterday, suddenly postponed his
statement.
10. The notion that friends are to be won by arms reflects a shameful
poverty of ideas in international relations.
4
1. I had to have someone to show me the way from the station. 2. Guess
what! I cant guess. Youll have to tell me. 3. Now Ive had to listen to a
lot of lying. And I never watch faces. I look at hands and listen very
carefully to the tone and tempo of speech. 4. But Ive been having to give a
lot of thought recently to my feelings towards you. 5. I didnt have to turn
around to know they were coming down the street. 6. I was having to feel
my way. 7. They had to light a fire to cook their supper. 8. She knew there
would be no more vacations for her sons. But she didnt have to say it. They
knew that as well as she. 9. That day, however, I had a pupil waiting for an
English lesson and I had to cut my visitor short. 10. What had he better do
with this letter? 11. Ive told my husband he must not smoke in the
drawing-room. And I havent to tell my husband such things; hes a born
gentleman. 12. What a pity you have to go. I know its time for you to
catch your train. 13. You must do you chores now, and she will have to do
hers when she comes in. 14. My mother says that I mustnt be out after
eleven oclock, but I dont have to hurry home because she herself is out
playing bridge. 15. I dont have to be there till three. 16. One of the guests
sat down beside me. I didnt have to be told who it was. 17. Your hair is
short and curly. I had scarlet fever and it had to be cut short. 18. I
never told you I was at a public school, did I? said Alec. You didnt have
30

to. 19. He had to move closer to hear her. 20. We had to bend the flower to
get it into the box.
1. Another poor sign: once a rice exporting country, last year Madagascar
had to import 170,000 tons.
2. After a generation of welfare that was often restricted to Kuwaitis, the
non-Kuwaitis are more keenly competitive in school, university and
work than Kuwaitis, it is argued, largely because they have to be to
make a decent living.
3. To meet the export requirements the domestic consumption has had to
be curtailed.
4. He is not half as worried as the old age pensioners, the housewives and
the workers who are having to pay the increased prices.
5. Unless the Bill passes through all its stages in the Commons and the
Lords before the session ends it will have to be started all over again in
the new session in November.
6. United Nations economists warn that something drastic has to be done,
or developing countries will be forced to reduce their rate of social and
economic expansion.
7. Diplomats said Canada and other nations eager to have the deadlock
broken had been outmanoeuvred by the United States.
8. Brazil had taken the lead in the movement to denuclearize Latin
America and had the question put on the agenda of the General
Assembly.
9. Any other activities of the world organisation will be financed by the
whole membership only by their unanimous and active support. And
even in those rare cases it will be by having the Secretary General
solicit voluntary contributions.
10. In 1979, the Spanish had the United States withdraw its nuclear
weapons from the Rota Submarine base.
5
1. We were to act as guides to the party. 2. Now will you please show me
the room where I am to work. 3. There was a special order that no one was
to come to the station to see the battalion off. 4. It was the first and the last
ceremony I was to see. 5. He was to have had a music lesson in the
morning but the teacher called up to cancel it. 6. He looked about him for
his daughter but she was not to be seen. 7. At nightfall the ship put in at a
small port where they were to load three hundred bags of coffee. 8. He set
off for the school where he was to write examinations for entry to the
University. 9. Eden went to the wood where he was to meet his brother for a
ride. 10. They went to inspect Finchs new house. Finch said that only the
last touches had to be added there and he was to move into it quite soon.
11. Bart was to see his brother-in-law for lunch the next day, but he saw no
reason to tell his wife that. 12. I was somewhat surprised to find so many
people in the hall in which I was to speak. 13. Rudy was invited for dinner
at Marys house. After dinner they were to go to a movie. 14. It was
31

announced on the radio that the President was to speak that night. 15. This
was the first time I made a journey that I was to make hundreds of times
afterwards. 16. What is to become of me? 17. At this boarding school the
children are to go to bed at eight oclock. 18. He is to stay the night with us
and tomorrow he sets off on his tour to Europe. 19. My bike was under
repair and I was to collect it that afternoon. 20. My bike is under repair and
I was to have collected it yesterday.
1. The draft treaty was to have been tabled at the Geneva conference soon
after its resumption today.
2. The argument over distribution of power within the Labour Party must
be settled if the party is to win the next general election.
3. But this success must be made the starting point of a new effort if the
impetus is to be maintained and still bigger successes won.
4. Changes seem inevitable, but no one can say what. But changes there
must be if confidence in the board is to be restored and it is to function
properly.
5. The bitterness of the conflict required that he should be removed from
the scene if the Democrats were to have a chance at the election.
6. But now that the campaign is over, there is a clear imperative before us
all: to stand together against the common danger if our nation and the
world are to avoid even greater catastrophe.
7. Now, after three months of closer scrutiny, at the point at which the
bills were to have been presented to Parliament, they have suddenly
been withdrawn for redrafting.
8. The main objective of the conference is to try to bridge the everwidening gap between the developing countries and the industrial
states.
9. But the official went on to emphasise that the new administrations aim
is to reduce and manage disagreements through the consultation
process that has now begun.
10. Their initial goal is to end three years of budget deficits and inflation
by the end of this year.
6
1. Oh, that it should come to this. 2. His illness causes me a lot of worry.
So I should think. 3. I think I ought to let your parents know we are here.
4. Oughtnt you to be more careful? 5. How can you know what his
feelings are? I ought to know, for hes always telling me about them. 6.
It was surprising that they should have met at all. 7. He remembered that
he should not smoke unless invited to do so. 8. Shall I get you some fresh
coffee, Ed? 9. The responsibility is entirely mine. I acted very wrongly
indeed. I ought not to have let this relationship start. 10. When is he going
back? How should I know? 11. You shall have no cause to complain of
me, dear. There shall be no difficulty about money. 12. George did not see
why he should not discuss the matter with his chief. 13. When he says do
it, I say it shall be done. 14. Now Ive upset her. I shouldnt have said
32

that. 15. Have I said something I shouldnt have? he asked his mother.
16. Ive been more frank with you than I should have been. 17. Well, I
thought it was too absurd that we should live next door and not speak. 18.
There was no reason why they should not be there. 19. I dont know why he
should want to see George. 20. He was pleased that Kate should have called
the child after him.
1. Most other countries get better service from their elder and not-so-old
but former statesmen. There really should be a way of avoiding this
brain disposal process.
2. Any new administration has a right to new people in policy-making
jobs, and there is no established code of manners for firing a political
appointee. But there should always be time for the simple decencies
due notice and acknowledgement of loyal service and respect for
professional experience that can be employed in other jobs.
3. If the Japanese in a resourceless land area no bigger than California
can achieve such a high level of productivity and growth, emulating
Japanese methods should enable others to achieve similar results, at
least in some areas. So the argument goes.
4. He said that this was not a temporary problem. Lasting arrangements
should be made.
5. Speaking at one of his rare press conferences, he declared that
Washington should observe the principle by which people must settle
their own affairs themselves.
6. Peking Irrational great leaps forward in economic development
should become relics of the past as China strives to disencumber itself
from the age-old malady of trying to get quick results, Pekings chief
economic planner said in a major policy speech.
7. It was not without significance, he said, that people who were
connected at that level with the situation should be expressing grave
disquiet.
8. The Premier admitted yesterday that it was natural that people should
be disturbed at food being thrown away when millions of people were
undernourished.
9. That such a question should be put to a British Minister shows that
those aspirations are by no means dead.
10. The leader of the Australian Labour Party denounced it as appalling
that such a speech should have been made even before the Security
Council met.
7
1. You should have read your composition once again. There must be some
mistakes there. 2. Can it be only six oclock? 3. You should not have
spoken to him like that. He might have felt hurt. 4. He must have a sense of
humour. Otherwise he couldnt have said it like that. 5. It must be raining
heavily. The street is deserted. 6. You should have sent them a telegram.
They might have arrived by now. 7. I didnt go out that evening as George
was to come and see me after his work. 8. He knew that he was to attend
33

two meetings next week. 9. She must know nothing about your affairs. 10.
She cant know anything about his affairs. 11. Will you have to call them up
again? 12. You dont have to go shopping today as we are dining out. 13.
What are they talking about? They may be arguing about the script. 14.
Their house was to be brought down and he had to move to a new
residential area. 15. Im sorry but I must be off. I am to meet Betty at the
cinema. Oh, its a quarter to seven. She must be waiting for me. Ill have to
take a bus. 16. Why should I walk all the way there. 17. Its late. Where
can Dick be? I couldnt care less. 18. He might have been taken for an
old man. 19. You might tell us what is happening. 20. They may have made
their choice.
1. If the British government do wish to make further public expenditure
cuts it would be up against the same difficulties, only worse, than when
it was trying to make these public expenditure cuts last November.
2. The Young Communist League in Canada drew to the attention of
delegates the fact that young people are last hired and first fired, in
event of layoffs. Moreover many young workers are not even able to
secure a first job. If they do get a job it often terminates before they can
build up enough credit for unemployment insurance.
3. Answering Tory jeers, he said the way workers previously full of skill
and pride in success, had been laid off without consultation did indeed
represent a kind of serfdom.
4. The trip did demonstrate that the secretary of state, whatever his
political standing in Washington, seems to be highly respected by
foreign leaders.
5. The defenders of the present United Nations system point out that the
agencies do in fact work together successfully on a number of projects.
6. What does represent a growing danger for the effectiveness of this
organization is the reluctance of some of its members to render
assistance in case of financial difficulties.
7. Nowhere in America or Europe not even among the great liberated
thinkers of the Enlightenment did democratic ideas appear respectable
to the cultivated classes.
8. Not only does Alfa defend its decision to team up with a non-European
partner, but last week the company disclosed that from the beginning it
had relied on outside help to develop its strategy.
9. Perhaps they may even engender a little shame among Cabinet
Ministers at the hold-up in road building. If they do, the conference
will be voted a great success.
10. Mafia crime syndicates are gaining control of many legitimate
businesses and now pose a greater threat to the United States than did
the gangsters of the Al Capone era in the 1930s, an American
sociologist warns today.
8
1. Shall I go and find out if he has done the work? He was to finish it
34

yesterday. 2. You neednt have come. The meeting is cancelled. 3. He was to


have finished it all yesterday, but he was called away to London
unexpectedly. 4. You ought to have told us about it, now we dont know
what we are to do. 5. What she did is so silly that we neednt discuss it. 6. It
was so near that even Alan who hated walking, agreed that they neednt
take his car. 7. Need we change for dinner? 8. I told your uncle I would
speak to you. You neednt have troubled. Ive promised my parents to
stay here a little longer. 9. He put the envelope down on the table. The
money is all there, he said. You neednt bother to count it. 10. You
shouldnt have given way to her whims. 11. You oughtnt to have married
so early. 12. You neednt have come to London. He is not here. 13. Old
Lady Bland argued with him, but he would not listen to reason. 14. Each
time we went out together he would show me something new, something
interesting. 15. I will say it again and again. 16. The toilet in this room
wont stop running. 17. He would smoke a pipe before going to bed. 18.
He talked of his new car the whole evening. He would. 19. He felt he
dare not reply. 20. I dare say youre a little tired after your walk, dear. 21.
She did not dare to leave the house in case he telephoned. 22. He was to
have come by the five oclock train. Could he have missed it? How
should I know?
1. Toronto According to scientists, Saturns moon Titan may serve as a
deep freeze for remnants of early stages of life development, and Mars
appears to have had intermittent breaks in its prolonged ice age.
2. Having refused to recognize this in time, Washington was forced to
retreat, under the pressure of rather embarrassing circumstances, from
the juridically sound but politically unrealistic position it had enjoined
on the United States delegation to the UN.
3. The Prime Ministers famous victory last week against the rebels
within his own party was surely cheaply won. His own performance
may have been indeed, must have been more effective to listen to
than to read later, for despite the fact that it was a speech for all
seasons, it left unanswered or inadequately answered, so many
questions about Britains future role in the world and how it is to be
fulfilled, that the great debate is very far from conclusion. For all his
political skill, the Prime Minister has only written another chapter, he
has not closed the book.
4. Some excuse for the behaviour of Tory chieftains might be provided if
it could be shown that the leadership battle revolved round central
issues of public importance. But throughout the dispute it has been
concerned with personalities and patronage-gang warfare in all its
sterility.
5. Many past air crashes, as subsequent investigation has shown, could
have been avoided. There are many points which need an answer.
Perhaps the answers to these questions will be satisfactory. In this case
every possible step may have been taken that could have been taken,
and it may be shown that only a human error that could not have been
35

6.

foreseen caused the crash.


Mr. D said two million pints of milk meant a great deal to many
starving people. If this was going on year after year, was it right that
this milk should be poured down the mines?

9
1. , . 2.
? 3. , . 4.
: . 5.
: . 6.
? 7. ! 8.
? . 9. ? ,
. 10. . . 11.
, . 12.
! . 13. , ,
, . 14. . ,
. 15. , , ,
. 16. ! 17.
! 18. . 19. ,
. 20. . .
21. , ? ,
, . 22. ! ! 23. ,
! 24. :
, . 25. ?
! 26. ? 27.
. 28. ?
, . 29. .
5 , 7, . 30.
.

36

4.
1
1. Only the poet or the saint can water an asphalt pavement in the confident
anticipation that lilies will reward his labour. 2. All available chairs were
occupied, and at least a hundred people were standing. 3. He closed his
eyes. A peculiar weariness came over him. 4. I liked pleasure and good
things. 5. He wanted to hide the embarrassment he felt at making this
speech. 6. She looked in her handbag for an envelope. 7. Peter was alone at
home, enjoying the solitude and the freedom of the empty house. My
mother liked to wait until it was quite dark before we lit the gas and drew
the blinds. 8. The big table was covered with texts and notebooks. 9. She
answered a soft tap at the door and a maid came in with a tray which she
set on the table. 10. The injured man does not understand our language,
he said and walked off to find an English doctor. 11. Number 39 was the
house with plain green grass bordered by a rockery. 12. The three thin
crackled notes of the gong floated into the garden inviting us to dinner. 13.
I think that that is the wrong point of view. 14. My mother was capable but
preoccupied, my father took it for granted that she was the stronger
character and never made more than a comic pretence of interfering at
home. 15. He shook his head and said: Well, I suppose young men must
have their fling. 16. His church does not allow him a second wife. 17. She
stood at the very top of the long outer staircase looking down into the dark
courtyard. 18. We are curious people, he said to them. 19. The old people
had a chance of welcoming their nephew. 20. Whats her name and where
does she live? Miss Ann Kenyon. She has the brown cottage across the
bridge. 21. A small bush to the left was engaging her attention. 22. He is a
most amusing companion. 23. In his digs Peter had no cooking facilities
and he ate off newspapers.
1. Most high-ranking officials of both government and industry have taken
the view that some form of taxation will be necessary if Japan is to
ensure stable economic growth and reduce the huge budgetary deficit
without cutting deeply into welfare programs.
2. He noted that the company remained under the uncertain cloud of
recession, high interest rates, and cuts in defence spending that meant
fewer contracts for electronics manufacturers.
3. Riyadh The oil ministers of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the United Arab
Emirates and Qatar met Tuesday amid speculation they were about to
decide on a big cutback in their crude oil production to offset the glut on
world markets.
4. One reason for the disparities in wealth is the lack of a tax system. In
Saudi Arabia, there is no property tax to prevent the accumulation of
vast estates, and no income tax to slice sections off enormous incomes.
5. Paris What may be the most important NATO meeting in a decade
37

opens May 4 in Rome, when the foreign ministers of the allied countries
gather. It will be the first serious confrontation of the allies with the
new administration, and trouble is to be expected.
6. A new internal directive has been issued that, in effect, tells the people
to shun social contacts with foreigners, informed sources said
Wednesday.
7. That in turn has left him with little immediate choice but to become
more repressive still: to re-establish his authority by force of loyal
soldiery.
2
1. Thats a poem I learned in the nursery, but I simply cant remember how
it goes on. 2. I dislike people who talk about their private lives. 3. He told
me of his duties in a manner that was friendly and a little fussy. 4. Henry
hesitated a minute, then said: I have the impression that you are not being
frank with me. 5. The local Indians are a people to whom the writer is
sympathetic. 6. On the pavement, walking towards me, was Sheila. She
was wearing a fur coat which made her look a matron. 7. Yet her daughter
was marrying a man she liked. 8. Harry brought in the consultant of whom
Charles thought most highly. 9. He began to climb the stairs, which were
dark and smelt of cats. 10. What he said reminded me of a film I had seen.
11. He was wearing a tweed jacket with leather inserts at the elbows, which
was a thing that I had never seen before. 12. Her eyes were really like
searchlights, picking out things that no one else saw. 13. It was not a job
that he liked. 14. Her husband made her presents of books she did not read.
15. He returned the old womans smile. 16. That dog is a proper brute with
strangers. Ive known him bite clean through a ladys stockings. 17. Thirty
years before she taught at a smart girls school. 18. Very early in my life I
was taught not to believe a girls tears. 19. I was told by my friends not to
believe the girls tears. 20. She spoke guardedly, and her green eyes veiled
themselves like a parrots eyes. 21. Then she leaped to one side as a cars
brakes screamed behind her. 22. They made a two hours journey in a train
which stopped at every station. 23. She was not the little girl he had
known, but she was not yet a woman either.
1. Under the law that established public financing of presidential
campaigns, a presidential candidate who accepts the public funding
may not directly raise any outside campaign money.
2. How much can a president really be in charge if he is a 9-to-5 kind of
fellow? I think such a president can do the job, said a presidential
historian at the University of Colorado. A tremendous capacity to
recruit first-rate people and delegate authority is the one thing a
president needs to do in order to enlarge his influence.
3. As Britains deepest post-war recession continues, with industrial
production plummeting and unemployment soaring at rates last seen
during the Depression, fears are growing that Prime Ministers
medicine may be permanently disabling rather than curing.
38

4.
5.
6.
7.

Which candidate are you against? ... All the candidates have given
me a reason to vote against them.
Democratic economists believe that at a time when business is
operating with considerable slack, the nation could stand even larger
deficits without much risk of accelerating inflation.
There was a time when the government leaders were well aware of
this.
Few corporations are willing or able to risk the huge sums necessary to
complete on a world-wide scale. So, corporations have been seeking
partners in the production of vehicles and their components, some in
order to survive, others in order to expand even further.

3
1. My friend is a man of culture and wide reading. 2. His voice was
determined, the lines of his face had grown harsh. 3. Tom sat down on the
edge of a log and looked at the glassy surface of the lake. 4. The college
ordinary course was planned to run for a full academic year of forty seven
weeks. 5. The lamplight made his skin the colour of red brick. 6. He always
took the line of least resistance. 7. My grandfather was a man of force and
intellect. 8. From the kitchen came the singing of a kettle on the stove. 9.
Heat up the water to a temperature of 60 C. 10. From the sitting-room
came a chink of light beneath the door, and the sound of whispers from my
mother and her friends. 11. The wallpaper was dark blue with a design of
conventional flowers. 12. Nature provides animals with weapons of
defence; the snake, the scorpion, the bee have their sting. 13. The French,
he thought, are always finding occasions to block traffic. 14. Do you know
why Americans like fried stuff? John asked. Theyve lost their taste.
From morning to night they are chewing gum and drinking Coke. 15. At
birth man is not yet a man. To become one he must provide himself with
the things that make man a man. In other words, with that which
distinguishes man from animals. 16. A man is fundamentally honest, he
observed. 17. I spoke of the economic position of woman. 18. Aunt Laura
was a widow of an auctioneer. 19. When Murry was appointed editor of
The Literary Gazette his salary became eight hundred a year. 20. As it
was, she was the best-looking woman there. 21. Hart was an uneasy
nervous man who broke into flashes of speech. 22. John could not make up
his mind about the blackmail. He had been led to think that McGrath
himself was the blackmailer, or at least a blackmailer because he had the
personality to be a blackmailer. 23. After some most astonishing adventures
in New Guinea he made himself king of some wild tribe. 24. Henry Greene
was the son of a general.
1. He is ready to support a measure of political unity in the Common
Market but made it as clear as ever that such a Union will be firmly
grounded in national rather than supranational structure.
2. West Germany has now built up its trade to a position among the main
39

3.

4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

suppliers to many countries in Southeast Asia.


The Boston schools are in terrible shape, and the school budget faces a
massive cutback that will lower the quality of education still further.
Racial tensions continue. Crime is serious, the police and court and
prison facilities inadequate.
Washington The new administration has decided to propose a
relaxation of air pollution regulations to make it easier for oil refiners,
steel producers and other basic industries to expand and modernise
their plants, Vice President announced.
In a foreign policy address, the choice of theme is in itself a policy
decision; the choice of topics sets priorities; the choice of words is
studied closely in foreign capitals.
United Nations, N.Y. UN officials report that seven Arab oilproducing countries in the Gulf are about to announce a $250-million
annual fund for UN aid agencies.
To the average housewife, who can see for herself that the prices in the
supermarket are edging up, the Labor Departments bulletin last week
was hardly a surprise.
But few housewives or their husbands either, were aware of another,
invisible form of inflation namely, reductions in the size of
packages that are not accompanied by reduction in price.

4
1. He was the son of a distinguished soldier. He was given first-class
education. 2. My brother takes the affair with the utmost seriousness. 3. It
was a blazing hot August morning and I tried to beg myself off. 4. I was
surprised at the readiness with which she agreed to my suggestion. 5. The
only persons present were Mrs Perger and an old friend of the family,
Colonel Legrand, an army doctor who had been a brother officer of Roberts
father. 6. She looked at me with her keen eyes: Youre not the sort of boy
to be satisfied, are you? 7. Evening was falling, and as I turned back
towards the house its upper windows shone like blazing shields in the last
of sunlight. 8. His wife, a pretty little thing, was an actress for the moment
out of a job. 9. It was a wet, warm summer day and the windows of the
drawing-room stood open. 10. I suppose, he said, you are the young
man who wants to come here as a pupil, arent you? 11. My fathers hours
became more irregular; sometimes he stayed in the house in he morning
and sometimes both he and my mother were out all day. 12. As students
would do, we had interminable conversations about art and literature. 13.
Grant took up the receiver with an eagerness of which he was not
conscious. 14. In the morning, grey and dark, we sat over our breakfast. 15.
Robie examined his father with the dispassionate attention he gave
everything. 16. He then went to Hamburg where a friend of his was
manager of the theatre. 17. They ran from room to room examining them
with the curiosity of children. 18. It was a little after seven on a summer
morning. 19. I have great admiration for him. 20. Ill tell you all about it
40

tomorrow night. 21. He got up and soaked a tea towel with cold water and
put it on the mans face. The man brushed it off, but it had had a reviving
effect. 22. We spent the next three hours talking and drinking coffee; then I
had to hurry off to catch the last bus. I missed it by a few minutes, and had
a five-mile walk back home. I didnt mind this; it was a cold, starry night,
and the air sometimes had a sweet smell as if, I thought, it blew from an
ice-cream factory.
1. Labour Party leader called the figures tragic and terrible and called
for a debate in Parliament.
2. Brussels EEC finance ministers agreed Monday to seek a common
policy on the stabilising of interest rates before the economic summit
conference scheduled for July in Ottawa.
3. Some Planning Ministry officials favour an income tax not because the
government needs the money, but because they believe Kuwaitis should
understand the relationship between effort and reward.
4. Bonn Under mounting political pressure to do something to stimulate
West Germanys slumping economy, the Bonn government Wednesday
announced a series of incentives to boost business investment,
particularly in energy and new technology fields.
5. Government cutbacks in state spending have badly hit local authorities,
and most have started big cutbacks, including layoffs that have
worsened unemployment currently at 2.06 million, or 8.5 per cent of
the work force.
6. Yesterdays proceedings were an antiquated farce, enjoyed by no one,
and serving little purpose. The sensible way to wrap up a parliamentary
session would surely be to vote a closure on the last day of the summer
term.
7. Few other international problems have such a complex structure or
such wide repercussions.
5
1. There was an empty bottle by the side of the bed, which had contained
milk, and in a piece of newspaper a few crumbs. 2. The driver was a broadfaced man who looked like the captain of a liner. 3. When he was in
hospital she could not get permission to visit him. 4. The boy Roger
sprawled on the mat near the door. 5. He rattled on telling anecdote after
anecdote. 6. All through the afternoon he had been torn by a sorrow his
brother did not know. 7. Her face had the hardness of a face on a coin. 8.
Dont be liar enough to say that you like it. 9. She spoke of cars with the
lyrical intensity that other people gave to spring, or the first snow drop. 10.
Finally I came down with pneumonia. My mother took me home to nurse
me. While I was getting over the pneumonia I decided what I was going to
do. 11. He was playing with the dogs ears who had established himself by
the bed. 12. I have to go up to town on Tuesday to see a man. 13. He
became secretary of the society he founded. 14. Iron is the bread of industry,
nickel is the meat. 15. It was a cheerful place in which to pass a wet March
41

afternoon. 16. They went out and saw that dawn was breaking. 17. He took
him for a ride in twilight. 18. If she could feel hunger and thirst, heat and
cold, then she could feel love and love for a man. Well, he was a man. And
why could he not be the man? 19. For a long time I had longed for a
machine that could move at a speed of seventy miles an hour. 20. It was a
sunny day full of the sound of bees. 21. He stepped out into the twilight and
breathed the pure air. 22. Gerda doesnt know art from a coloured
photograph. 23. In the street in front of the houses there was nothing but
dust and hard brick and cars and dirty children.
1. Frankfurt the Bundesbank said Thursday that it does not see any
room for a retreat from its tight credit policies despite an economic
downturn, which has spurred repeated calls for lower interest rates to
stimulate the economy and fight unemployment.
2. The 750 delegates from 400 branches of the Soviet of Civil and Public
Servants, representing 100,000 Civil Service executives, will almost
certainly endorse a well-planned campaign of sharp industrial action to
win a claim over three times the limit set by the Tory government.
3. All this boiled down to a demand, not yet explicitly stated, for a
program of aid and reconstruction the scale being planned for Europe
at that time by the incipient Organisation for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC).
4. The coalition began campaigning for a tax to get at excessive oil
profits early last fall.
5. It is time for a decision: without it, in the end, there will be no possible
solution.
6. Washington Twenty-four American political figures, most of them of
Irish ancestry, Tuesday urged an end to the fear and the terrorism and
the bigotry in Northern Ireland and proposed that the administration
find a way to promote a peaceful settlement of the conflict.
7. Certainly there was little evidence that he would be able to shift the
State Secretary from his fundamental lack of enthusiasm for the
project.
6
1. Do you know where hes staying? At the Bristol. 2. Mr. Robinson
arrived at London airport from New York yesterday on his way to the Soviet
Union. 3. Usually he used to read a few articles out of the Time or the
Newsweek. 4. When last heard from he was at the University of Berlin.
5. They drove up to the main terminal a brightly lighted, air-conditioned
Taj-Mahal. 6. The Friedrich Weber was a freighter sailing from Hamburg
to Colombo. 7. The lady talked bad French at the top of her voice. 8.
Theres a good film at the Regal Cinema this week. 9. Andy grinned from
ear to ear. 10. In the dining-room the child Terry was howling at the top of
his voice. 11. The boy Roger had arrived home with measles; his mother
blessed the measles that brought him home. 12. The Adamses were pleasant
people with a large family. 13. Is your father a businessman? Not really.
42

He is a professor. A teacher? she asked with a note of disappointment.


Well, he is a kind of authority, you know. People consult him. About
health? Is he a doctor? Not that sort of doctor. He is a doctor of
engineering, though. 14. It is necessary indeed to go back to the middle of
the nineteenth century, when an industrious and intelligent man called
Sibert Mason, who had been head gardener at a grand place in Sussex and
had married the cook, bought with his savings and hers a few acres north of
London and set up as a market gardener. 15. Aunt Milly was an
enthusiastic liberal; my mother was a patriotic, true-blue conservative. 16.
Hour after hour struck, and still he wandered on and on from room to
room, from house to house, from corridor to corridor. 17. Margie soon
came down with the grippe and was very hard to deal with. 18. As we were
returning up the street, a cat darted out from one of the houses in front of
us. Montmorency gave a cry of joy and flew after his prey. His victim was a
large black Tom. I never saw a larger cat, nor a more disreputable-looking
cat. It was a long, sinewy-looking animal. It had a calm contented air about
it.
1. Tokyo Japan Tuesday announced a broad plan to boost its sagging but
still powerful economy, including more public works spending, aid for
industries and a drive to export more industrial plant. The measures
are designed in part to reduce reliance on exports for economic growth.
2. The disclosure that a Pulitzer Prize-winning account had been
fabricated has focused attention on the steps a newspaper or a
broadcast station takes to verify a story when a reporter says the main
participants cannot be identified.
3. Washington Justice Department officials are developing a package of
legislative proposals to increase the federal governments ability to
fight violent crime.
4. A just and durable Mideast peace cannot be achieved piecemeal, or by
exclusion of any of the parties. The U.S. Administration is playing this
game by playing one against the other with dangerous results for a
just and lasting peace in the Mideast.
5. Bonn An era has ended in West Germany. It lasted for 30 years and it
was called industrial peace.
6. An array of cheap government loans and services were made available
to encourage investment in industry.
7. Washington Well over a year ago, the West German paper Die Welt
suggested that the U.S. President propose a tax on consumption, such
as a value-added tax (VAT) or national sales tax.
7.
1. , - ? 2.
. . 3.
. 4. , , , ... 5.
75. 6. . 7.
43

. 8.
! . 9.
. 10. . 11.
. 12. 7
. 13. . 14.
: . 15.
. 16. ,
. 17.
, . 18.
. 19. ,
. 20. 1967 .
. 21.
. 22.
. 23. . 24.
. 25.
. 26. . 27.
, . 28. ,
. 29.
. 30. .

44

II
1.
1. 17
30%.
,
. ,
, ,
,
.
2. , -
.
. ,
,
. ,
.
3. . ,
4 . , ,
, ,
.
. ,
:
18 ,
, .
4. ,
, .
, ,
.
,
, .
5. ,
,
, ,

, .
,
.
6.
.
.
45

,
,
()
.
7. 17 ,
1994-1997 . ,
:
, 6-10 .
1998 .
: - 1997 1998 .
.
8. -96
. .
-
. , ,
.
9. ,
39
1,3 .
,
3,67 . . 25
, -
, .
10. ,

.
,
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. ,

.
11.
,

.
.

.

.
46

12. - 40-
.

,
,


.
13.

.
.

.
,
.
.
14.

. ,
,
, .

,


.
15. ,
1 . .
, .


.
,
. ,

.
16. Japan and the European Union have agreed to accept each others
certification standards for some products mainly building materials and
medical equipment as early as 1996.
47

17. First-quarter net profit at Philips more than doubled to Fl 544


million, but Europes biggest consumer electronic company warned that
rapid sales growth might not continue at the same pace for the whole year.
18. Malaysian deputy prime minister Anwar Ibrahim was fired and
placed under investigation by police after months of economic policy
differences with premier Mahathir Mohamad.
19. Germany finance minister Theo Waigel promised business and
personal tax payers significant net tax cuts if Chancellor Helmut Cohls
coalition government won this months election.
20. The Palestinian Authority accused Israel of preventing hundreds of
Gaza students from travelling to universities in the West Bank. Israel said
permits were limited for security reasons.
21. The Australian economy grew nearly 4 per cent in the year to
June, giving a boost to prime minister John Howard in the run-up to next
months general election.
22. The United Nations Population Fund warned yesterday the global
population explosion is not over and that world population could grow as
rapidly in the next 50 years as in the past 50. Though the average fertility
rate has dropped by half, from six children per woman to three, world
population is still growing by 80m a year.
23. Mr. F. warned that Germany might bring a deflationary situation
into the European single currency, the euro, when it was launched in
January. He called for the European Central Bank to set low interest rates
and for more co-ordination among member states.
24. All 29 member-states of the Organization for Economic
Cooperation and Development consented to Russias admittance as a
member.
The OECD is known as a rich nations club. Its member-countries
account for some two-thirds of the world output of goods and services. The
chief prerequisite for membership in the organization is adherence to the
principles of a market-economy and a pluralist democracy.
25. Russia can move beyond todays crisis and create growth and good
jobs, but only if it carries forward with its transformation, with a strong and
fair tax system, greater rule of law, and developing an appropriate safety
net for people who are hurt during times of change.
26. Despite all the progress made toward the market, Russia is hardly
moving ahead compared with its European neighbours. The reason is
48

Russias unintelligible legal system, a low level of tax collection, and


enterprises outstanding debts. All these problems are hampering the
process of democratisation.
27. US President Bill Klinton yesterday ended two days of talks in
Moscow with Boris Yeltsin, the Russian leader, by promising to back extra
international financial support for Russia if it completed an economic
reform programme.
However, US administration officials said no plan for additional aid
was under immediate consideration because of Russias political and
economic uncertainty.
28. European government officials and moderate Moslem leaders in
the UK say many of the more outspoken radicals in London are simply
small-fry propagandists without any substantial influence. They are not
cautious with words but they are cautious with their actions, said one
London-based diplomat.
29. A couple of years ago, Third World complaints about the
damaging effects of economic liberalisation and globalisation might have
been dismissed as the whining of incompetent governments.
But the economic crisis in the previously successful nations of east
Asia, the turmoil in Russia and a loss of confidence in the International
Monetary Fund as an effective overseer of the global economy have given
new weight to the concerns of the developing countries.
30. Spanish Internet surfers have been summoned to stay away today
in an unprecedented strike movement, organised through the internet, to
protest against the cost of going online.
A phones down campaign calls on Spains 1.7m internet users to
boycott the system for a day and leave their home telephones off the hook.

49

2.
1
Abel, Abraham, Ada, Adalbert, Adam, Adrian, Agatha, Agnes,
Alan, Albert, Aleck, Alexander, Alfred, Algernon, Alice, Aloys, Amabel,
Ambrose, Amelia, Andrew, Angelica, Angelina, Ann, Annabel, Anthony,
Arabella, Archibald, Arnold, Arthur, Aubrey, August, Augustus, Aurora,
Austin.
Abbeyfield, Abbot, Abbotsford, Abbotsholme School, Aberdonian,
Abingdon, Adelphi, Aerated Bread Company, Aertex, Albacore, Albany,
Albion.
2
Baldwin, Barbara, Bartholomew, Basil, Beatrice, Bella, Benedict,
Benjamen, Bernard, Bertram, Blanch, Brian, Bridget.
Baker Street, Bakewell, Balfour Act, Ballantines, Balmoral,
Bamfords, Bantam, Barkers, Barlow, Bateman, Beaufighter, Beaulieu,
Beaverbrook, Belling, Bluebirds.
3
Candida, Carol, Caroline, Carrie, Capspar, Catherine, Cathie,
Cecil, Cecilia, Cecily, Charles, Charlotte, Christian, Christina, Christine,
Christopher, Clara, Clare.
Caerphilly, Calder Hall, Caledonia, Calman Links, Camberwell,
Cambridgeshire, Camelot, Cannon Street, Canterbury, Captain Morgan,
Cardiff, Carisbrooke Castle, Carlton, Carmania, Caterpillar.
4
Daniel, Dave, Dannie, David, Deborah, Dennis, Desmond, Diana,
Dickon, Daisy, Delia, Dinah, Dobbin, Dolores, Donald, Dora, Dorian,
Doris, Dorothy, Douglas, Dudley, Dylan.
Daily Dispatch, Daily Herald, Daily Mirror, Daimler, daikiri,
Dairy Milk, Dampier Land, Danville, Dartmoor, Dartmouth, Davenport,
Davis Strait, Dawson, Debenham & Freebody, Dodgems, Dormobil.
5
Edgar, Edith, Edmund, Edna, Edward, Edwin, Eleanor, Elijah,
Elisabeth, Elliot, Elmer, Elvira, Emery, Emilia, Emma, Emmanuel, Enoch,
Erasmus, Ernest, Esther, Ethel, Eugene, Eustace, Eva, Eve, Evelina,
Eveline, Evelyn.
Earls Court, Eastleigh, East Malling, Eau Claire, Ebor Handicap,
Edgbaston, Edinburgh, Educational Supply Association, Elan, Ellesmere,
Empire, Erie Canal, Everglades National Park, Exmoor, Lake Eyre.
50

6
Fabian, Fairfax, Felix, Ferdinand, Fergus, Flavian, Foster, Francis,
Frances, Frederic(k), Faustina, Felicia, Fidelia, Fiona, Florence, Fr(i)eda.
Fairbanks, Falkirk, Falkland Islands, Fall River, Fargo, Firth of
Forth, Fitzroy, Flinders, Florida Keys, Folkestone, Forfar, Fort Lauderdale,
Fort Worth, Fox Islands, Friendly Islands, Frisian Islands, Front Range,
Bay of Fundy.
7
Gabriel, Geoffrey, George, Gerald, Gertrude, Gideon, Gilbert,
Giles, Gladys, Godfrey, Godwin, Gordon, Grace, Graham, Gregory, Greta,
Griffith, Guy, Gwendolen.
Gairdner, Galesberg, Galway, Garden Grove, Gary, Gateshead,
Geelong, George V Coast, George Town, Strait of Georgia, Germiston,
Gilbert Islands, Gillingham, Glace Bay, Gold Coast, Grand Banks, Grand
Turk, Greenland Sea, Gwent.
8
Hadrian, Hannah, Hamlet, Harriet, Harriot, Harry, Helen, Helena,
Henry, Henrietta, Herbert, Herman(n), Hester, Hilary, Hilda, Hope, Horace,
Howard, Hubert, Hugh, Hugo, Humphr(e0y.
Haddington, Hagerstown, the Hague, Harbinger, Harley Street,
Harrier, Harrods, Hayward Gallery, Heals, Heart of Midlothian, Heathrow,
Heinz, Helena Rubinstein, Hogs Back, Holloway, Hoover, Hotspur, Hughes
Hall.
9
Ida, Imogen, Ike, Ira, Inez, Irene, Iris, Isaac, Isabel, Isabella,
Isaiah, Isadora, Isidore, Isold(e), Israel, Ivor.
Ibrox Park, Iffley Road, Illustrated London News, Imperial
Typewriter Co, Ind Coope, Iona Island, Isis, Izal, Idaho Falls, Ipswich,
Illinois, Inner Hebrides, Iowa.
10
Jacob, James, Jane, Janet, Jasper, Jean, Jeffrey, Jemima, Jennifer,
Jeremiah, Jerome, Jerry, Jessica, Jo, Joachim, Joan, Joanna, Job, Joey, John,
Jonathan, Joseph, Josephine, Joshua, Joy, Joyce, Jozy, Judith, Julia, Julian,
Juliet, Julius, June, Justus.
Jacey, Jack Barclay, Jackdaw, Jacobs, Jarrold, John Collier,
Justice, Jedburgh, Jefferson City, Jersey, Juneau, Jura Island.
11
Katharine, Kathleen, Katrine, Keith, Kenneth, Keren, Kitty.
Kardomah, Kattomeat, Kearly & Tonge, Keble College, Keith
Prowse, Kenco, Kensington Gardens, Kenwood, Kew Gardens, Kidbrooke,
Kleenex, Kneller Hall, Knightsbridge, Kansas City, Kentucky, Kilmarnock,
Kimberley, King George Island, Kingston upon Thames, Kirkcaldy,
51

Kirkwall.
12
Lambert, Lancelot, Laura, Laurence, Lawrence, Lauretta, Lazarus,
Leila, Lemuel, Leo, Leonard, Leonora, Leopold, Leslie, Lew, Lewis,
Lillian, Lionel, Llewellyn, Louie, Louis, Louisa, Louise, Lovejoy, Lucas,
Lucy, Luke.
Labour Weekly, Lake District, Lambeth Bridge, Lancashire,
Lancaster House, Leicester Square, Leighton Park, Lerwick, Lloyds Bank,
Lyons, Lands End, Lawton, Lebanon, Leeds, Lisbon, Loch Lomond, Long
Island.
13
Mabel, Madeleine, Magnus, Malcolm, Mamie, Marcus, Margaret,
Margery, Marian, Marianne, Marina, Marion, Marjory, Martha, Mat(h)ilda,
Matthew, Matthias, Maud(e), Maurice, Maximilian, Mercy, Meredith,
Michael, Mildred, Mima, Minna, Mirabel, Miranda, Miriam, Montague,
Morgan, Morris, Mortimer, Moses, Murdoch, Muriel.
MacGibbon & Kee, Magdalen College, Maithland Park Road,
Malvern College, Methuen, Mullard, Macon, Isle of Man, Massachusetts,
McKeesport, Meath.
14
Nancy, Nat(h)alie, Nathan, Nathaniel, Neville, Nicholas, Ninette,
Noah, Noel, Nolly, Nona, Nora, Norman.
Battle of Newbury, Newnham College, News Chronicle, North
Downs, Norwich, Nairn, Nashwille, Near Islands, New Albany, Newmark,
New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Orleans, New Plymouth, Niagara
Falls, Northampton, North Island, North Little Rock, Northumberland,
Nottingham.
15
Odette, Olive, Olivia, Oliver, Ophelia, Oscar, Osmond, Osmund,
Oswald, Ottilia, Owen.
Oakham School, Old Trafford, Oliver and Boyd, Oates Coast,
Oklahoma City, Oldham, Omaha, Lake Ontario, Orange, Ottumwa, Ouse,
Outer Hebrides, Owen Falls, Owensboro.
16
Pamela, Patricia, Patrick, Paul, Paula, Paulina, Penelope, Percy,
Peter, Philip, Pius, Portia.
Pall Mall, Panther Books, Parkhurst, Parliament Square, Pearce,
Duff & Co. Ltd., Penguin Books, Picadilly Circus, Putney, Palmerston
North, Pamlico Sound, Isthmus of Panama, Parkersburg, Pawtacket,
Portsmouth.
17
52

Queena, Quentin, Quintella, Quintina.


Quality Inn, Quarterly Economic Review, Queen of the South,
Quelrayn, Quorn, Quosh, Quatar, Quebec, Queen Charlotte Sound, Queen
Maud Land, Queensland, Quincy, Quito.
18
Rachel, Ralph, Ranald, Randolph, Raphael, Rasmus, Ray,
Raymond, Rebecca, Reginald, Reynold, Richard, Robert, Roberta,
Roderick, Rodney, Roger, Roland, Rolf, Romeo, Ronald, Rosa, Rose,
Rosabel, Rosalia, Rosalind, Rosaline, Rosamond, Rosamund, Rose,
Rosemary, Rowland, Roy, Rudolph, Rupert, Ruth.
Rank Hovis McDougall, Readers Digest, Regents Park, Reuters,
Rothamsted, Rapid City, Pat Islands, Reading, Red River, Reindeer Lake,
Road Town, Rocky Mount.
19
Sadie, Salome, Sal(o)mon, Sam(p)son, Samuel, Sanders, Sara(h),
Saul, Sebastian, Sibil (Sibyl, Sybil), Sibylla, Sidney, Siegfried, Silas,
Silvester (Sylvester), Silvia (Sylvia), Simeon, Simon, Solomon, Sophia,
Stanislas (Stanislaus), Stanley, Stella, Stephania, Stephanie, Stephen, Sue,
Susan, Susanna(h), Susy.
Saginaw, Saint Albans, Saint Croix, Salisbury, Saint Pauls
Cathedral, Salt Lake City, Salton Sea, San Jose, Sa Paulo, Sargasso Sea,
Seaham, Seven Islands, the Sound, Suffolk.
20
Theobald, Theodora, Theodore, T(h)eresa, Thomas, Timothy,
Tobias, Tristan, Trudy, Tybalt.
Tahiti, Tallahassee, Tasman Sea, Tatar Strait (Gulf of Tatary),
Taunton, Tees, Thames, Three Rivers, Thunder Bay, Tipperary, Topeka,
Torquay, Torres Strait, Tortoise Islands, Tottenham, Tristan da Cunha
Islands, Tucson, Tullamore, Tweed.
21
Ulysses, Ulrica, Una, Upton, Urania, Uriah, Uriel, Ursula.
Uinta Mountains, Ulster, Ultonian, Union City, Union Jack, United
Dairies, Universe, Unst, Upper Volta, Upton Park, Utah, Utica, Uxbridge,
22
Valentine, Valeria, Veronica, Victor, Victoria, Vincent, Viola,
Violet, Virginia, Vivian, Vivien.
Valentine and Sons, Vallejo, Vanity Fair,Vancouver, Vauxhall
Bridge, Venus Easterbrook, Vermont, Victoria Falls, Victoria Land, Vienna,
Vigilant, Virginia, Viscount, Viscount Melville Sound, Vistula, Vulcan.
23
Wallace, Walt, Walter, Washington, Wat, Watty, Wilfred, Wilfrid,
53

William, Winifred, Winnie, Wynne.


Wabash, Waco, Mount Waddington, Wakefield, Wales, Wallasey,
Walsall, Walthamstow, Warsaw, Warwick, Washita, Waterloo, Weddell Sea,
Wembley, Wessex, West Bromwich, Western Samoa, West Indies, Weston
super Mare, West Sussex, White Mountains, Isle of Wight, Winnipeg,
Woolwich, Worthing.
24
Xantippe, Xantus, Xavier, Xenia, Xenophon, Xina.
Xerox.
25
Yardley, Yetta, Yiddie, Yvette, Yvonne.
Yakima, Yarmouth, Yell, Yellowknife, Yellow Sea, Yemen, Yeovil,
Yonkers, Youngs Seafoods, Youngstown, Yukatan Channel, Yukon.
26
Zachariah, Zachary, Zack, Zadoc (Zadok), Zaz, Zelda, Zelotes,
Zina, Zenobia, Zoe.
Zanesville, Zephyr, Zurich.
27
Goldencalf, Charlotte Poole, Robert Seamans, Nathaniel Jones,
Charles Fishman, Ronald Wing, Lynn Castner, Ike Amter, Weaver,
Lerwick, Wright, Castle, Brownhills, South-End, Whittington, Armstrong,
Flynn, Windermere, Saint Abbs Head, Charney, James Chaney, Michael
Schwerner, Andrew Goodman, Atherton, Maurice Blanche, Peter Carter,
Robert Carrow, Vic Feather, Lovett.

54

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