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ROADMAP FOR POWER QUALITY STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT

Copyright Material IEEE


Paper No. PCIC-2005-30
David B. Vannoy, P.E.
Member
Vannoy Consulting
Wilmington, DE

Mark F. McGranaghan
Senior Member
EPRI PEAC
Knoxville, TN

S. Mark Halpin
Senior Member
Aubum University
Aubum, AL

D. Daniel Sabin
Senior Member
Electrotek Concepts
Boston, MA

system where it is applied. The following are basic needs for


power quality standards:

Abstract - Power quality standards provide the basis for


achieving compatibility between the characterstics of the electric
supply system and end use equipment. They provide the
methods for evaluating performance, define equipment
requirements, and outline relative responsibilities. This paper
describes the status of important power quality standards around
the world and presents a roadmap for ongoing standards
development.

Definitions, Indices. Standards are needed to define


the indices that are used to characterize performance
and provide definitions for important power quality
characteristics.
and
Measurement
monitoring
procedures.
Standardized methods of characterizing performance
and evaluating equipment characteristics are needed.
Benchmarking. Understanding expected power quality
characteristics for different types of systems provides
the basis for establishing guidelines and limits.
Power Quality Guidelines and Limits. These standards
provide the "Compatibility Levels" that define the
expected power quality levels. They need to be defined
in three categories:
- PQ requirements for the supply system
- PQ immunity for equipment
- PQ disturbance generation limits for
equipment and end user systems
Application guidelines. Finally, the standards need to
provide guidance in controlling power quality and
solving problems, including methods to understand the
economics of solving power quality issues at different
levels.

Index Terms - Power quality, standards, harmonics, flicker,


voltage unbalance, voltage sags, transients.

I. INTRODUCTION

The requirements of electrcity users have changed


tremendously over the years. Equipment has become much
more sensitive to power quality variations and some types of
equipment can be the cause of power quality problems.
Standards are needed to achieve coordination between the
characteristics of the power supply system and the requirements
of the end use equipment. This is the role of power quality
standards.
Durng the past 15 years much progress has been made in
defining power quality phenomena and their effects on electrical
and electronic equipment. In addition, methods have been
established for measuring these phenomena and in some cases
defining limits for satisfactory performance of both the power
In the intemational
system and connected equipment.
community, both IEEE and IEC have created a group of
standards that addresses these issues from a variety of
perspectives. However, there is a continuous need to define
coordination requirements, methods of assessing performance,
and relative responsibilities.
The IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee on Power
Quality (SCC22) tracks the development of power quality
standards and has created a master plan to direct standards
development efforts in needed areas. In addition SCC22 has a
focus on continuing efforts to coordinate intemational power
quality standards to provide consistent requirements and
evaluation methods around the world. This paper examines
existing IEEE and IEC standards and descrbes the need for
ongoing development.

II.

William A. Moncnef, P.E.


Senior Member
Hood-Patterson & Dewar
Decatur, GA

Ill. POWER QUALITY STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT


ORGANIZATIONS
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the
main organization responsible for power quality standards
development in the intemational community. JEC standards are
often adopted by individual countries as actual performance
requirements. IEEE also has a number of important standards
development activities in the power quality area and is actively
coordinating with the IEC Working Groups that are prmarily
responsible for power quality standards.
The IEC has defined a category of standards called
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Standards that deal with
power quality issues. They fall into the following six categores:

THE ROLE OF POWER QUALITY STANDARDS

1.

Power quality problems ultimately impact the end user.


However, there are many other parties involved in creating,
propagating, and solving power quality problems. Power quality
standards must provide guidelines, recommendations, and limits
to help assure compatibility between end use equipment and the

2.
3.

General. These provide definitions, terminology, etc.


(IEC 61 000-1 -x).
Environrnent. Characterstics of the environment
where equipment will be applied (61000-2-x).
Limits. Emission limits define the allowable levels of
disturbances that can be caused by equipment
connected to the power system. These standards

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267

4.

were formerly the IEC 555 series but now are


numbered 61000-3-x. For instance, IEC 555-2 has
now become IEC 61000-3-2.
Testing and Measurement Techniques. These
provide detailed guidelines for measurement
equipment and test procedures to assure
compliance with the other parts of the standards

(61000-4-x).
Installation and Mitgation Guidelines. These are
designed to provide guidance in application of
equipment, such as filters, power conditioning
equipment, surge suppressors, etc., to solve power
quality problems (61000-5-x).
6. Generic and Product Standards. These will define
immunity levels required for equipment in general
categories or for specific types of equipment (610006-x).
5.

The following working groups of IEC SC77A are actively


developing these standards:
*

*
*

Working Group 1 - Harmonics and other Low frequency


Focus on limits and methods of
Disturbances.
measurement for harmonics and interharmonics.
Working Group 2 - Voltage Fluctuations (flicker) and
other Low Frequency Disturbances. Develops limits for
voltage fluctuations caused by end user equipment and
methods of measurement as appropriate. This working
group will be working on an update to the document onr
reference impedances that can be used for evaluating the
impact of equipment on the system.
Working Group 6 - Low Frequency Immunity Tests.
Develops testing procedures for evaluating equipment
immunity from power quality variations.
Working Group 8 - Electromagnetic Interference Related
to the Network Frequency. This group is addressing the
full range of power quality phenomena on the network
and the interaction issues with consumers.
Working Group 9 - Power Quality Measurement
Methods. Currently developing IEC 61000-4-30, an
overall guide defining the requirements for power quality
monitoring equipment.

In the United States, standards are developed by the IEEE,


ANSI, and equipment manufacturer organizations, such as
NEMA. There are also safety-related standards, like the National
Electrical Code. IEEE standards generally do not specify
requirements for equipment. These standards tend to be more
application oriented, like IEEE Standard 519-1992, which
provides recommendations to limi harmonic distortion levels on
the overall power system.
The Power Quality Standards Coordinating Committee,
SCC22 was created in 1991 as a coordinating body for power
quality standards in IEEE . Historically this committee met at
both Power Engineering Society meetings and the Industry
Application Society Annual Meeting to help coordinate the
standards activities under way in each of these societies. In
addition, SCC22 sponsored standards efforts when no Society
Committee sponsor was available. Recently, a Power Quality
Subcommittee was created under the Transmission and
Distribution Commitee of the Power Engineering Society to
sponsor individual working groups and task forces that are

developing standards. Ownership for several of the SCC22


sponsored standards Working Groups was transferred to this
new Subcommfttee. This new subcommfttee coordinates closely
with SCC 22. SCC22 membership is composed of persons
actively involved in Power Quality standards development and
represents a variety of industry segments.
A listing of some of the important power quality standards
activities in IEEE is provided in Appendix A. Appendix B gives a
cross reference with important IEC PQ standards.

IV.

STEADY STATE POWER QUALITY

CHARACTERISTICS

Power quality characteristics and requirements are divided into

two broad categories - steady state, or continuous,


characteristics and disturbances. Steady state characteristics
define the requirements for the normal voltage supplied from the
power system and the relative responsibilities of the supply
system and end users and equipment in maintaining the required
quality of the voltage. Disturbances, on the other hand, occur
randomly and different methods of describing performance and
coordination requirements are needed.
For steady state power quality characteristics (voltage
regulation, unbalance, harmonics, flicker), the levels on the
supply system are coordinated with the characteristics of

Steady state
equipment to define compatibility levels.
characteristics are characterized with trends and statistical
distributions of the quantity being evaluated. Understanding that
these characteristics are not defined with a single value but
represent a range of values with a probability distribution is very
important. The concept is illustrated in Figure 1.

p1aming
bveb1

Disturbance level

Fig. 1. Compatibility between supply system and end use


equipment.
The concept of compatibility levels in Fig. 1 can be expanded
to introduce related levels for evaluation of performance. Some
important power quality levels that are described in the
standards include the following:

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1.

These define the basic


Compatibility levels.
expectation for performance of the supply system.
Therefore, they can provide the basis for
manufacturers to design equipment for immunity to
supply system power quality variations. Requirements
for the regulation of the steady state voltage have been
in place for power systems around the world for many
years. New standards, such as the EuroNorm EN

50160, "Physical characteristics of electrcity supplied


by public distrbution systems" define the requirements
in other power quality categories (harmonics, voltage
fluctuations, unbalance, interruptions, voltage dips).
The requirements for system performance in these
different categories are known as "voltage
characteristics".
2. Planning limits. Planning limits are established by
utilities for comparison with actual power quality levels.
Measured power quality levels that exceed the planning
levels are an indication of a possible problem on the
system that should be addressed. There should be
some margin between planning levels and required
voltage characteristics.
3. Equipment Immunity Characteristics. The equipment
immunity levels should be coordinated with the voltage
characterstics to make sure that the equipment can
operate under the full range of possible power quality
levels. There should be some margin between the
equipment immunity levels and the voltage
characterstics.
Fig. 2 shows these levels with a trend of measured data for an
actual power quality characteristic. Note that this could be any of
the steady state power quality quantities - voltage deviations,
unbalance, harmonics, and flicker. It is worthwhile to consider
the status of standards and needs for standards development
brefly in each of these categores.
Disturbance magnitude
A1

Equipment immunity test levels


Compatibility level
Utility planning levels

time

Fig. 2. Illustration of a measured trend for a power quality


characterstic compared to different levels defined for assessing
performance.
A.

Voltage Regulation

There is no such thing as steady state on the power system.


Loads are constantly changing and the power system is
constantly adjusting to these changes. All of these changes and
adjustments result in voltage varations that are referred to as
long duration voltage varations. These can be undervoltages or
overvoltages, depending on the specific circuit conditions.
Characteristics of the steady state voltage are best expressed
Important
with long duration profiles and statistics.
characterstics include the voltage magnitude and unbalance.
According to the latest draft of IEEE Standard P1159, IEEE
Recommended Practice for Monitoring Power Quality, long
duration variations are considered to be present when the limits
are exceeded for greater than 1 minute.
Most end use equipment is not very sensitive to these voltage

varations, as long as they are within reasonable limits. ANSI

C84.1-1995 [11] specifies steady state voltage tolerances


expected on a power system. It recommends that equipment be
designed to operate with acceptable performance under extreme
steady state conditions of +6% and -13% of nominal 120/240 volt
system voltage. Protective devices may operate to remove the
equipment from service outside of this range.
European limits are specified in EN 50160 [4]. Limits for supply
voltage magnitude variations are specified for low voltage (LV)
systems. The supply voltage rms magnitude, whether line-toneutral or line-to-line, should be within +/- 10% for 95% of a
week. Voltage magnitudes are characterized by a measurement
perod of 10 minutes. The evaluation procedure is that 95% of
the 1 0-minute values for one week should be within the specified
limits. These limits are based on the compatibility levels
specified in IEC 61000-2-2 [1]. In general, all ten minutes mean
rms values of supply voltage are expected to be within +10%/15%, excluding dips, interruptions and overvoltages.
B.

Voltage Unbalance

The most recent version of ANSI C84.1 [11] includes


recommended limits for voltage unbalance on the power system.
In the ANSI Standard, unbalance is a steady state quantity
defined as the maximum deviation from the average of the three
phase voltages or currents, divided by the average of the three
phase voltages or currents, expressed in percent. In the
intemational standards, unbalance is more commonly defined as
the ratio of the negative sequence component to the positive
sequence component.
The primary source of voltage unbalances of less than two
percent is unbalanced single phase loads on a three-phase
circuit. Voltage unbalance can also be the result of capacitor
bank anomalies, such as a blown fuse on one phase of a threephase bank. Voltage unbalance can also be introduced from the
transmission system due to transmission lines that are not
transposed. Severe voltage unbalance (greater than 5%) can
result from single-phasing conditions.
Voltage unbalance is most important for three phase motor
loads. ANSI C84.1 recommends that the maximum voltage
unbalance measured at the meter under no load conditions
should be 3%. Motors operating between 1 and 5% voltage
unbalance should be derated to prevent overheating. Motors
should not be operated with over 5% voltage unbalance.
The EN 50160 limit for unbalance is 2% for normal systems,
based on the compatibility levels specified in IEC 61000-2-2. A
limit of 3% applies on systems with single-phase loads. For
evaluation, unbalance levels are characterized in 10-minute
periods. For compliance, 95% of these 10-minute values should
be within the limits in a one-week measurement period.
C. Harnonics

Harmonic voltage distortion results from the interaction of


harmonic currents (created by nonlinear loads and other
nonlinear devices on the power system) with the system
impedance. The harmonic standard, IEEE Standard 519-1992,
IEEE Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic
Control in Electrcal Power Systems [71, has proposed two way
responsibility for controlling harmonic levels on the power
system. End users must limit the harmonic currents injected
onto the power system. The power supplier will control the
harmonic voltage distortion by making sure system resonant

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conditions do not cause excessive magnification of the harmonic


levels.
Harmonic distortion levels can be characterized by the
complete hanmonic spectrum with magnitudes and phase angles
of each individual harmonic component. It is also common to
use a single quantity, the Total Harmonic Distortion or THD, as a
measure of the magnitude of harmonic distortion. For currents,
the distortion values must be referred to a constant base (e.g.
the rated load current or demand current) rather than the
fundamental component. This provides a constant reference
while the fundamental can vary over a wide range.
Harmonic evaluations often involve a combination of
It is
measurements and analysis (possibly simulations).
important to understand that harmonics are continuous
phenomena, rather than a disturbance (like a transient).
Because harmonics are continuous, they are best characterized
by measurements over time so that the time varations and the
These
statistical characteristics can be determined.
characterstics describing the harmonic varations over time
should be determined along with snapshots of the actual
waveforms and harmonic spectrums at particular operating
points.
Harmonic evaluations on the utility system involve procedures
to make sure that the quality of the voltage supplied to all
customers is acceptable. IEEE Standard 519-1992 provides
guidelines for acceptable levels of voltage distortion on the utility
system (Table 1). Note that recommended limits are provided
for the maximum individual harmonic component and for the
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD).

Most harmonic problems occur at the end user level, rather


than on the utility supply system. Most nonlinear devices are
located within end user facilities and the highest voltage
distortion levels occur close to the sources of harnonics. The
most significant problems occur when an end user has nonlinear
loads and also has power factor correction capacitors that result
in resonance conditions.
In order to maintain acceptable levels of voltage distortion,
harmonic current limits at the PCC are described in IEEE
Standard 519 as well. These are summarzed in Table 2.

TABLE 1
HARMONIC VOLTAGE DISTORTION LIMITS FROM IEEE STANDARD

There are a number of important concepts introduced in these


current limits. For instance, the harmonic limits are dependent
on the strength of the system where the customer is connected
(ratio of IL to the short circuit current, Isc). Also, a new quantity
called the Total Demand Distortion (TDD) is introduced as

519-1992

Bus Voltage
69 kV and below
115 kV to 161 kV
Above 161 kV

Maximum Individual

Harmonic Component (%)


3.0%
1.5%
1.0%

Maximum

THD(%)

TABLE 2

HARMONIC CURRENT LIMITS FOR INDMDUAL END USERS FROM


IEEE STANDARD 519-1992 (EXPRESSED IN % OF THE RATED LOAD
CURRENT, IL)
__

/I,

<20
20-50
50-100
100-1000
>1000

h<ll_
4.0
7.0
10.0
12.0
15.0

11h<17
2.0
3.5
4.5
5.5
7.0

<20*
20-50
50-100
100-1000
>1000

2.0
3.5
5.0
6.0
7.5

1.0
1.75
2.25
2.75
3.5

< 50
2 50

2.0

1.0
1.75

3.5

vv69kV

17ch<23
1.5

35<h

TDD
5.0
8.0
12.0
15.0
20.0

_
_0.3
0.5
1.25
1.0
1.25

0.15
0.25
0.35
0.5
0.7

2.5
4.0
6.0
10.0

0.3

0.15
0.25

2.5
4.0

23<h<35
0.6
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5

2.5

4.0

5.0

6.0
69kV < v ' 161kV

0.75
1.25
2.0
2.5
3.0
v > 161kV
0.75
1.25

0.5

0.3
0.5
0.7
1.0
1.4

7.5

follows:

5.0%
2.5%
1.5%

These voltage distortion limits apply at the point of common


coupling (PCC), which will be on the medium voltage system for
most industral and commercial customers. The concept of the
PCC and many other questions related to the application of
harmonic limits are addressed in an application guide for
applying harmonic limits that is currently being finalized - IEEE
Standard 519.1 [18]. For instance, discussion of notching
concems, such as additional zeros crossings and exciting high
frequency resonance, are now addressed in the application
guide. Concems for important effects of hannonics, like
telephone interference, are also addressed in the application
guide.
Note that higher voltage distortion levels may be approprate
within the end user facility and this is being addressed in the
revision effort for IEEE Standard 519. Most end use equipment
is not affected by voltage distortion levels below 8%. In fact, the
compatibility level for voltage distortion on LV and MV systems
specified in IEC 61000-2-2 is 8% (this is the voltage distortion
level that should be exceeded less than 5% of the time). The
revision of IEEE 519 may also consider revised voltage distortion
limits at other voltage levels to be more compatible with
intemational standards.

TDD= n=2
IL

I2

XlOO%

where:

In= magnitude of individual harmonic components (rms


amps)
n = harmonic order
IL = maximum demand load current (rms amps)
Intemational compatibility levels for harmonics are specified in
IEC 61000-2-2. These are used to develop utility limits in EN
50160. EN 50160 specifies limits for individual harmonic
components up to the 25th and for the Total Harmonic Distortion
(THD). The limits are not as strct as the recommended limits in
IEEE Standard 519 and some efforts to coordinate these limits
are under way in the next revision to IEEE Standard 519. For
instance, the limit for THD is 8%. These limits are evaluated
using a measurement procedure defined in IEC 61000-4-7 [19].
This involves calculating harmonic values in 3 second perods
and then combining these 3 second values to obtain 10 minute
values. The limits should be met by 95% of the 10 minute
values dunng an assessment perod of one week. One of the

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approximately to perceptible flicker in 40 Watt


incandescent lights.

most important standards coordination efforts needed in the


harmonics area is to achieve more of a consensus on methods
and indices for measuring and characterzing harmonic levels
using statistical procedures.

2. The long tern flicker severity, PRt. Each Pftvalue is


calculated from 12 successive Pst values using the
following formula:

D. Flicker
Voltage fluctuations are systematic vanations of the voltage or
a series of random voltage changes, the magnitude of which
does not normally exceed the voltage ranges specified by ANSI
C84.1. These fluctuations are often referred to as flicker. They
are characterzed by the magnitude of the voltage changes and
the frequency with which they occur. A plot of the rms voltage
magnitude vs. time can be used to illustrate the variations.
The most important impact of these fluctuations is that they
cause varations in the light output of various lighting sources.
Sensitivity curves have been developed for incandescent lighting
that show how the voltage fluctuations can cause unacceptable
variations in the light output. These sensitivity curves were used
to specify a measurement device that can characterze the
potential for voltage variations to cause unacceptable light flicker.
This measurement device (the flickermeter) has been
standardized in IEC 61000-4-15 [19] and is now the intemational
standard for measuring voltage fluctuations and flicker.
The orginal flickermeter specification was based on the
effects of voltage fluctuations on a 60 Watt incandescent light on
230 volt systems. A 60 Watt incandescent light bulb designed
for 120 volts is not as sensitive to the same voltage fluctuations
because the filament is larger (longer time constant) to handle
the higher current levels associated with the same Watt rating.
As a result, an additional weighting curve was developed for 120
volt applications which are more common in North America. The
120 volt and 230 volt weighting curves are compared in Fig. 3.
In North America, the flicker measuring procedure should use
the method standardized in IEC 61000-4-15 with the 120 volt
weighting curve employed. This has now been formalized in an
IEEE standard - IEEE Standard 1453 [10].

12

Each of these two basic quantities can be characterzed in


terms of their statistics. The following statistical quantities are
recommended in a recent report prepared by Cigre C4.07 Task
Force [23]. They should be calculated after measunrng over a
perod of time, recommended to be at least one week.

Psjg95% is the Pt level that is exceeded 5% of the time.

This

value is compared with planning levels for the system being

evaluated.

Ps,gg% is the Pst level that is exceeded 1% of the time. This


would be compared with planning levels with some margin
(e. g. planning levels times 1. 0-1. 5)

Plo5% is the Pt level that is exceeded 5% of the time. This is

the value that is compared to voltage characteristics

(limits)..

IEC developed standard 61000-3-7, "Assessment of emission


limits for fluctuating loads in MV and HV power systems" [9] to
provide a procedure for assessing flicker levels and applying
limits at individual end users connected to the high voltage
system. This standard was developed in close cooperation with
both the United States and Canada and includes the 120 volt
weighting curve described above for the North America systems.
V. STANDARDS FOR POWER QUALITY DISTURBANCES
AND RELIABILITY
Disturbances are events that do not occur on a regular basis
but can impact the performance of equipment. They include
transients, voltage varations (sags swells), and interruptions.
Interruptions that last more than one minute (sometimes five
minutes) are usually referred to as outages and are included in
reliability statistics. Short interruptions are classified with power

quality variations.
A.

W. I'

100
1000
10000
10
changes/minute
Fig. 3. Comparison of 120 volt and 230 volt flickermeter
weighting curves (curves are Pst=1 curves for rectangular
01

variations).

Output from the flicker meter consists of two basic quantities:

1. The short term flicker severity, Pst. A Pst value is


obtained every 10 minutes. There are 144 Pst samples
each day. Pa is a per-unitized quantity where 1. per unit
represents a flicker severty that should correspond

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Voltage Sags and Interruptions

Voltage sags fall in the category of short duration voltage


variations. According to IEEE Standard 1159 and IEC
definitions, these include variations in the fundamental frequency
voltage that last less than one minute. These variations are best
characterized by plots of the rms voltage vs. time (Fig. 4) but it is
often sufficient to describe them by a voltage magnitude and a
duration that the voltage is outside of specified thresholds. It is
usually not necessary to have detailed waveform plots since the
rms voltage magnitude is of primary interest.
The voltage variations can be a momentary low voltage
(voltage sag), high voltage (voltage swell), or loss of voltage
(interruption). IEEE Standard 1159 specifies durations for
instantaneous, momentary, and temporary disturbances.

,z'IT=_ ~ -60s

Voltage sags are typically caused by a fault somewhere on the


power system. The voltage sag occurs over a significant area
while the fault is actually on the system. As soon as a fault is
cleared by a protective device, voltage retums to normal on most
parts of the system, except the specific line or section that is
actually faulted. The typical duration for a transmission system
fault is about six cycles. Distribution system faults can have
significantly longer durations, depending on the protection
philosophy. The voltage magnitude during the fault will depend
on the distance from the fault, the type of fault, and the system
characteristics.

indude all of the volage dips where the minimum voltage was
less than x. For example, SARFI7o represents the expected
number of voltage sags where the minimum voltage is less than
70%. The SARFI index and other altematives for descuibing
voltage sag performance are being formalized in the IEEE
Standard 1564 Working Group. Fig. 6 is an example of SARFI
levels calculated from a survey of performance for distribution
systems in the United States.
Avg. SAlI Sttistlics for US Distdbu>n Sysftms

Example Voltage Sag Waveform from Field


Measurement
120
Duration
i110
01.17 Sec
10
Min 74.70
9

so

Ave 94.

70I

0.1

0.2

100

,50
I0

-150

0.3

0.4 0.5
Time (Seconds)

50

25

0.7

0.8

150

175

0.6

75
100 125
Time (mSeconds)

11

Max98.58

RefCycle

48462

SARFI.70

Fig. 4. Plot of rms voltage vs. tme for a voltage sag (and an
actual waveform plot)
End users can evaluate the economics of power conditioning
equipment if they have infommation describing the expected
system voltage sag performance. A complete methodology for
this evaluation is provided in IEEE Standard 1346 [21]. The
expected voltage sag performance from the supply system is
used in combination with equipment sensitivity characteristics to
estimate the number of times per year that a process will be
disrupted. Fig. 5 illustrates the contour plot method of
characterizing system performance for these evaluations.
Interruption and Sag Rate Probabitles as a Function
of Event Voltage Magnitude and Duration

____

--9e

-nt

-z

-L

=-_S =_
A

10

20
so
40
D0.0.n I(Cy...)

==
-- ,0

so

,o

SARFI40

SARF1410

Fig. 6. Example of voltage sag performance levels (SARFI) for


distribution systems in the United States from the EPRI
Distribution Power Quality (PDQ) project [22]

B.

Transients

The term transients is normally used to refer to fast changes in


the system voltage or current. Transients are also in the
category of disturbances, rather than steady state variations.
Transients can be measured by triggering on the abnormality
involved. For transients, this could be the peak magnitude, the
rate of rise, or just the change in the waveform from one cycle to
the next. Transients can be divided into two subcategories,
impulsive transients and oscillatory transients, depending on the
characteristics.
Transients are normally characterized by the actual waveform,
although summary descriptors can also be developed (peak
magnitude, primary frequency, rate-of-rise, etc.). Fig. 7 gives a
capacitor switching transient waveform. This is one of the most
important transients that is initiated on the utility supply system
and can affect the operation of end user equipment. Other
important causes of transient voltages include lightning surges
and switching operations within a facility.

300 o.S000

Fig. 5. Contour plot method of characterizing system voltage


sag performance (IEEE Standard 1346).
There is considerable standards work under way to define
indices for characterizing voltage sag performance. In IEEE, this
work is being coordinated by IEEE P1564 [16]. The most
common index use is SARFI, or the System Average RMS
(Variation) Frequency Index. This index represents the average
number of voltage sags experienced by an end user each year
with a specified characteristic. For SARFIx, the index would

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Transient problems are solved by controlling the transient at


the source, changing the characteristics of the system affecting
the transient or by protecting equipment so that it is not
impacted. For instance, capacitor switching transients can be
controlled at the source by closing the breaker contacts close to
a voltage zero crossing. Magnification of the transient can be
avoided by not using low voltage capacitors within the end user
facilities. The actual equipment can be protected with filters or
surge arresters.
The most well-known standard in the field of transient
overvoltage protection is ANSIVIEEE C62.41-1991, IEEE Guide
for Surge Voltages in Low Voltage AC Power Circuits [12]. This
standard defines the transient environment that equipment may
see and provides specific test waveforms that can be used for
equipment withstand testing. The transient environment is a
function of the equipment or surge suppressor location within a
facility as well as the expected transients from the supply

system.

Analytical tools will also benefit from the increased level of


monioring and characterization. Models should be improved

and the tools themselves should become easier to use. There is


considerable opportunity to facilitate analysis of power quality
issues with standard models and modeling techniques.
The overall focus needs to be on economics using a systems
approach. We need to develop tools that can help find the
optimum system design including power conditioning for
sensitive equipment. The altematives should include improved
immunity at the equipment level, power conditioning at the
equipment level, power conditioning at more centralized
locations within the end user system, and measures to improve
performance on the utility system.
Fig. 8 illustrates the overall flow of standards development
activities in the area of power quality and reliability.
Understanding of system characteristics and end use equipment
characteristics leads to tools and methods to assess
performance and improve the overall performance in an
optimum manner.

VI. FUTURE DIRECTION FOR POWER QUAUTY


STANDARDS

Benchmarking efforts from around the world have provided the


initial basis for defining expected power quality perfofmance of
supply systems. These performance standards should include
at least:
*
*
*
*
*
*

Interruptions (including momentary)


Voltage sags

SyF ler
TPhere ormances
ectatnds
Exrz
the syste
Equipme

Steady state voltage regulation

dep toactivities
s
Eqvlpment
n IEuntny

and Asmentpr
P

eoUmis f
I

Voltage unbalance (negative sequence)


Harmonic distortion in the voltage

CUserrand
equlpmunt sutluons
to ltmnt impact

w
forImanca
Impropte.
h smuathe thns anti

fid mplemontdo

anI

Transient voltages

There is a need for significant additional research to establish


the relationship between power quality/reliability levels and the
various characteristics of the supply system. Also, the power
quality/reliability characteristics need to be defined in a more
statistical manner to allow more effective risk assessments by
end users using statistical techniques.
In tum, equipment manufacturers must be able to provide
information describing the sensitivity of their equipment to these
variations. Wth information on typical system performance
based on historical and calculated data along with information on
equipment sensitivity, end users will be able to perform
economic evaluations of power conditioning altematives.
Standard procedures for the economic analysis will incorporate
statistical risk assessment methods in the future.
Ongoing monftoring efforts and case studies wili provide the
information to characterize system performance and to
understand the susceptibility of different types of end user
systems. Monitoring of power quality should become a more
standard part of the overall system monitoring (both at the utility
level and the customer level). These monitoring efforts should
be coordinated between the utility and the customer with
emphasis on remote monitoring and data collection systems with
more automated data analysis capabilities. IEC 61000-4-30 [17]
provides a good start for standardizing power quality
measurements but there is a need for additional standards
development for monitoring to characterize power quality for
advanced applications.

Fig. 8. Flow of power quality standards development acties.


VIl. CONCLUSIONS
There has been significant progress in the development of
power quality standards. Recent efforts have been focused on
harmonizing standards between IEEE and IEC and this is an
to understand system power
ongoing pro2ess. Continued effmrts
quality as a function of system characteristics and to coordinate
the system characteristics with the performance of end use
equipment are under way. Both system perfommance and end
use equipment characteristics are being described pithmore
esll lead to improved
standardized methods. This infosmation
economics of power quality management in the future.
Vlil. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors acknowledge the contribution and participation of
the members of the Power Quality Standards Coordinating
Committee, SCC-22, in developing the information for this paper.
D(. REFERENCES

[1] IEC 61000 2-2, Ed 2, Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)


- Part 2-2: Environment - Compatibility levels for lOUF
frequency conducted disturbances and signaling in public
low-voftage power supply systems.

-273-

[2] IEC 61000-2-4, Ed 2, Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)


- Part 24: Environment - Compatibility levels in industrial
plants for low-frequency conducted disturbances.
[3] IEC 61000-2-12, Ed 1, Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
- Part 2-12: Environment - Compatibility levels for lowfrequency conducted disturbances and signaling in public
medium-voltage power supply systems.
[4] EN 50160:11 1999, Voltage characteristics of electicity
supplied by public distribution systems.
[5] NRS 048-2:2002, Electicity Supply - Quality of Supply, Part
2 - Voltage Characteristics, compatibility levels, limits and
assessment methods, 2nd Edition, Draft 4, 05 November,
2002.
[6] IEC 61000-3-6, Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) - Part
3: Limits, Section 6: Assessment of emission limits for
harmonics in MV and HV power systems.
[7] IEEE Standard 519-1992, IEEE Recommended Practices
and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electrcal Power
Systems.
[8] G5/4 - Harmnonics
[9] IEC 61000-3-7 - Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Part 3: Limits, Section 7: Assessment of emission limits for
fluctuating loads in MV and HV power systems.
[10] IEEE Standard P1453, IEEE Guide for Measurement and
Limits of Voltage Flicker on AC Power Systems, Draft 4,
July 2002.
[11] ANSI C84.1-1995 (R2001), Electrcal Power Systems and
Equipment - Voltage Ratings (60 Hz).
[12] IEEE/ANSI C62.41-1991, IEEE Recommended Practices
for Surge Voltages in Low-Voltage AC Power Circuits.
[13] IEC 61000-2-8 - Electromagnetic Compatibiity (EMC) Part 2-8: Environment - Voltage dips and short interruptions
on public electric power supply systems with statistical
measurement results.
[14] IEC 61000-4-11, Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Part
4: Testing and Measurng Techniques - Section 1 1: Voltage
Dips, Short Interruptions, and Voltage Varations Immunity
Tests.
[15] SEMI F47-0200, Specification for Semiconductor
Processing Equipment Voltage Sag Immunity.
[16] IEEE Standard 1564 (Draft) - Voltage Sag Indices, Draft 4,
2003.
[171 IEC 61000-4-30, Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Part
4-30: Testing and Measuring Techniques - Power quality
measurement methods, IEEE, January 1997.
[18] IEEE Standard 519.1 - Application Guide for Applying
Harmonic Limits on Power Systems, (Final Draft for
Balloting), 2004.
[19] IEC 61000-4-7, Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
Part 4-7. Testing and Measurement Techniques - General
guide on harmonics and interharmonics measurements and
instrumentation, for power supply systems and
equipment connected thereto.
[20] IEC 61000-4-15, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part
4: Testing and Measurement Techniques - Section 15:
Flickermeter - Functional and design specifications
[21] IEEE Standard 1346, IEEE Recommended Practice for
Evaluating Electric Power System Compatibility With
Electronic Process Equipment.
[22] EPRI RP3098-1 An Assessment of Distrbution Power
Quality.

David B. Vannoy received his BEE and MEE degrees form the
University of Delaware in 1966 and 1967 respectively. He is a
registered Professional Engineer in the State of Delaware. He
worked for over 31 years with Delmarva Power in the
Engineering and Operating Departments. He is currently an
independent consultant. Previously, he managed Delmarva
Powees Power Quality Group, which he developed beginning in
1987. He is Chairman of the IEEE Power Quality Standards
Coordinating Committee. He is active on numerous IEEE Power
Quality Standards committees and was the founding President of
the Delaware Valley Power Quality Group, a non-profit
educational forum on power quality.
Mark F. McGranaghan is a Vice President with EPRI Solutions,
Inc. in Knoxville, TN. He works with electric utilities worldwide in
the areas of reliability and power quality assessments, system
monitorng, transient and harmonic studies, and economic
evaluations. He is a co-author of the book Electnc Power
Systems Quality and has written numerous IEEE papers. Before
EPRI Solutions, Mr. McGranaghan worked for Electrotek
Concepts and Cooper Power. He has BSEE and MSEE
degrees from the University of Toledo and MBA from University
of Pittsburgh. He is active in many IEEE and IEC Standards
activities.
S. Mark Halpin (M 93, SM 02, F 05) received his BEE, MS,
and PhD degrees from Auburn University in 1988, 1989, and
1993, respectively. He is currently a professor in the
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at
Aubum University. His teaching interests include power
His
systems, control systems, and network analysis.
research interests are in the areas of modeling and simulation
techniques for large-scale power systems, power system
transients, and computer algorithms. He is active in the IEEE
Power Engineering Society, where he serves as Chair of the
Task Force to revise IEEE 519-1992, and Industry Application
Society, where he serves as Chairman of the IAS Working
Group on Harmonics.
W. A. Moncrief, PE performs short circuit studies and power
quality investigations at Hood-Patterson & Dewar in Decatur,
Georgia. He is the secretary of IEEE Standards Coordinating
Committee on Power Quality, Chairman of the IEEElPES
Harmonics Group, and an editor for IEEE Transactions. He is
active on CIGRE and IEEE standards committees, including
IEEE Std 519 and IEEE Std 1159. He serves on the US
National Committee of ANSI.
D. Daniel Sabin (M 1992, SM 2001) is the Manager of
PQView and Enterprise Applications with Electrotek Concepts
Dan's primary
in Beverly, Massachusetts, USA.
responsibilities involve developing power quality database
software, conducting power quality research, and providing
consultation to electric utilities on power quality monitoring
efforts. He was the principal investigator for the EPRI
Distribution System Power Quality Monitoring. He has a
BSEE from Worcester Polytechnic Institute and a Master of
Engineering degree in Electric Power Engineering from
Dan is a registered
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
Professional Engineer in the State of Tennessee. He is the
PES Vice Chair of the IEEE SCC22, the secretary of the IEEE
PES Power Quality Subcommittee, and the chair of the IEEE
P1564 Voltage Sag Indices Task Force.

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APPENDIX A
IEEE Power Quality Standards
Organization

ANSI/EEE

IEEE

P1346
1366
P1409
1453
1459

P1531

NEMA
NFPA
NIST
UL

Title/Scope

Std.
141
142
241
242
399
446
493
518
519
602
739
929
1001
1035
1050
C62
C84.1
C37
C57.1 10
P487
1100
1159
1250

1547
P1564
PE 1
MG 1
70
75
78
94
SP678
1449

Industrial Electric Power Systems


Industrial & Commercial Power System Grounding
Commercial Electric Power Systems
Industrial & Commercial Power System Protection
Industrial & Commercial Power System Analysis
Industrial & Commercial Power System Emergency Power
Industrial & Commercial Power System Reliability
Control of Noise in Electronic Controls
Harmonics in Power Systems
Indusrial & Commercial Power Systems in Health Faclities
Energy Conservation in Industrial Power Systems
Interconnection Practices for Photovoltaic Systems
Interfacing Dispersed Storage and Generation
Test Procedures for Interconnecfing Static Power Converters
Grounding of Power Stabon Instrumentaion & Control
Guides & Standards bn Surge Protection
Voltage Ratngs for Power Systems & Equipment
Guides and Standards for Relaying & Overcurrent Protection
Transformer Derating for Supplying Nonlinear Loads
Wire Line Communication Protection in Power Stations
Powering and Grounding Sensitive Equipment
Monitoring and Definition of Electric Power Quality
Guide on Equipment Sensitive to Momentary Voltage Disturbances
Guide on Compatibility for ASDs and Process Controllers
System Design Working Group - Reliability Indices
Custom Power
Flicker Measurement and Application Guide
Power Definitions for Non-Sinusoidal and Unbalanced Conditions
Harmonic Filters
Distributed Generation Interconnection Guidelines
Voltage Sag Indices
Uninterruptible Power Supply Specification and Performance Verification
Motors and Generators
National Electric Code
Protection of Electronic Computer Data Processing Equipment
Ughtning Protection Code for Buildings
Electric Power for ADP Installations
Overview of Power Quality and Sensitive Electrical Equipment
Standards for Safety of Transient Voltage Surge Suppressors

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APPENDIX B
Cross Reference of Important IEC and IEEE Power Quality Standards
Category

IEEE Standards

IEC Standards

General PQ Concepts, Definitions,


Indices

IEEE 1159

IEC 61000-2-2

Power Quality Measurements


I System PQ Performance
Steady State Regulation,
Unbalance

j IEEE 1159.1, IEEE 1159.3

IEC 61000-4-30, 61000-4-7


(Harmonics), 61000-4-15 (Flicker)

IEEE 1250

IEC 61000-2-8

ANSI C84.1

Harmonics

IEEE 519, IEEE 519.1

Flicker
Voltage SagslMomentary
Interruptions/Reliability

IEEE 1453

t Transients

61000-3-3, 61000-3-7, 61000-415 (Measurements)

I IEC

IEEE 493, IEEE 1346, IEEE 1366

IEC 61000-2-8
N

ANSI/IEEE C62 Series

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IEC 61000-2-2
IEC 61000-3-29 61000-3-12, 610003-6, 61000-4-7 (Measurements)

EIEC 61000-4-49 61000-4-5 (both

testing standards)