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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/compgeo

Youngho Kim, Sangseom Jeong

Department of Civil Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749, Republic of Korea

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 8 July 2010

Received in revised form 8 October 2010

Accepted 10 December 2010

Available online 7 January 2011

Keywords:

Lateral load transfer method

py curve

Three-dimensional nite element analysis

Soil continuity

Soil resistance

Soilpile interaction

a b s t r a c t

The load distribution and deection of large diameter piles are investigated by lateral load transfer

method (py curve). Special attention is given to the soil continuity and soil resistance using threedimensional nite element analysis. A framework for determining a py curve is calculated based on

the surrounding soil stress. The appropriate parametric studies needed for verifying the py characteristic

are presented in this paper. Through comparisons with results of eld load tests, the three-dimensional

numerical methodology in the present study is in good agreement with the general trend observed by

in situ measurements and thus, represents a realistic soilpile interaction for laterally loaded piles in clay

than that of existing py method. It can be said that a rigorous numerical analysis can overcome the limitations of existing py methods to some extent by considering the effect of realistic three-dimensional

combination of pilesoil forces.

2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

In South Korea, a number of large projects involving land reclamation for an international airport, high-speed railway and harbor

construction are being undertaken in both urban and coastal settings. Drilled shafts are used in these projects as a viable replacement for driven piles for two applications: deepwater offshore

foundations and foundations in urban areas where there are noise

and vibration issues associated with pile driving. Recently, the

large diameter pile and drilled shaft (1.0 m greater in diameter)

have been used as foundations for a long span bridge and a highrise building subjected to high winds and the need to resist large

lateral loads. Though axial loading is a major consideration in

designing such structures, large lateral loads necessitate the use

of large diameter piles.

Lateral force-resistance in a large diameter pile is complex and

derived from three-dimensional processes [6]. These processes include: (1) passive lateral soil resistance along the leading face of

the pile, and (2) shearing along the toe of the shaft and around

the shaft perimeter. In addition, axial forces can affect the lateral

behavior. A thorough analysis of such a force system requires

sophisticated three-dimensional numerical methods.

Much work has been done on a laterally loaded pile by many

researchers. Several empirical and numerical methods have been

proposed for analyzing the load-deformation behavior of piles subjected to a lateral load. However, the lateral load-transfer curve

method, often referred to as the py curve method, has been the

Corresponding author. Tel.: +82 2 2123 2807; fax: +82 2 364 5300.

E-mail address: soj9081@yonsei.ac.kr (S. Jeong).

0266-352X/$ - see front matter 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.compgeo.2010.12.001

piles subjected to lateral loads [2,1416,1921]. It consists of analyzing the pile as a structural beam on soil supports (springs). The

soil spring modulus is generally not a constant but is a nonlinear

function of the depth, soil stiffness, and pile deection. This method is based on a numerical solution of a physical model based on a

beam-on-elastic foundation. However, a rigorous analytical approach of the lateral pile response is difcult to achieve because

the soil resistance around laterally loaded piles is a very complex

nonlinear three-dimensional problem as mentioned above. It can

be explained that the prediction results for laterally loaded piles

appear to differ from their real behaviors, even though precise

analyses are performed to obtain the experimental py curve. For

optimum design of laterally loaded piles, three-dimensional soil

continuity as well as the nonlinearity of the soilpile system

should be considered. The advancement of computer technology

has made it possible to investigate this three-dimensional mechanism using more rigorous nite element (FE) analysis.

In the early stage of FE applications, Randolph [18] presented a

2D FE solution modeling soil as an elastic continuum and the pile

as an elastic beam. With the advance of FE computing techniques,

it is now possible to use 3D FE modeling techniques. For example,

Jeremic and Yang [11], and Fan and Long [8] presented a 3D FE

analysis of laterally loaded piles in soils by modeling soil as an

elasto-plastic material and the pile as a linear-elastic material. Recently, Chik et al. [7] and Taha et al. [22] presented a 3D FE analysis

to simulate a lateral load test using PLAXIS where soil is modeled

with a MohrCoulomb elasto plastic model. The numerical modeling techniques based on the FE provide versatile tools that are

capable of modeling soil continuity, soil nonlinearity, soilpile

249

analysis is a continuum approach, so it can consider coupled

soilpile interaction automatically, which the traditional load

transfer method cannot.

This study presents a lateral load-transfer curve to take into account realistic soilpile interaction through a series of 3D FE analyses. In this study, the soil resistance for a pile subjected to lateral

loads was computed directly by integrating the stresses in the soil

elements around the circumference of the pile. The modeling techniques and analysis results were validated using eld measurements of lateral load tests performed at Incheon in South Korea.

In addition, the major parameters that inuence the lateral loadtransfer curve are discussed for different soilpile conditions.

2. 3D Finite element modeling procedure

2.1. FE mesh and boundary conditions

A 3D FE model to simulate the response of a single pile under

lateral loads in clay using PLAXIS 3D Foundation [17] is presented

here. To verify the FE model, the lateral load test results at Incheon

site employed to test the 3D FE model predictions.

The typical 3D FE mesh used to analyse a pile subjected to lateral loads is shown in Fig. 1. The overall dimensions of the model

boundaries comprise a width of 11 times the pile diameter (D)

from the pile center and a height equal to the pile length (L) plus

a further 0.7 L below the pile-toe level. These dimensions were

considered adequate to eliminate the inuence of boundary effects

on the pile performance [26]. The mesh consists of 15-node wedge

elements, with a total of 17,500 nodes. The outer boundary of the

mesh is xed against displacements. The pile and soil are modeled

with nite elements, which allow for rigorous treatment of soil

structure interaction. Here, the analysis of a laterally loaded pile

in clay is conducted under undrained conditions.

2.2. Material parameters and interface modeling

The pile is considered as linear-elastic material at all times,

while for the surrounding soil layer the MohrCoulomb non-associated ow rule is adopted. The interface element modeled by the

bilinear MohrCoulomb model is employed to simulate the pile

soil interface. The interface element is treated as a zone of virtual

thickness. It behaves as an element with the same material properties as the adjacent soil elements before slip occur. A decreased value of shear modulus is assigned to the interface element when a

slip mode occurs in the interface element. The decrease of strength

for the interface element is represented by a strength reduction

factor Rinter in PLAXIS. The interface properties are calculated from

following equation:

where cinter and /inter are the cohesion and friction angle of the

interface, and csoil and /soil are the cohesion and friction angle of

the soil mass.

In numerical analysis, the initial equilibrium state is of great

importance. The specied initial stress distributions should match

with a calculation based on the self-weight of the material. After

the initial step, the applied loading was simulated by the application of a lateral load at the top of the pile. The modeling of the pile

installation process is rather complicated, so that pile is assumed

Applied Load

Pile

Siltyclay

Residual soil

Weathered rock

0.7L

Soft rock

11D

Fig. 1. Typical 3D model for FE analysis: (a) 3D view; (b) plan view.

250

lateral deections y of the pile at that depth.

effect of the pile installation is ignored.

2.3. Determination of soil response in FE analysis

The soil resistance for a pile subjected to lateral loads is computed directly by integrating the stresses in the soil elements

around the circumference of the pile. Fan and Long [8] have reported that using soil element around the pile is an effective way

to predict the lateral soil resistance (p). Based on this concept,

the stresses in the soil elements at the Gauss points closest to

the pile are taken as the soil stresses between the pile and soil. A

cross-section of a pilesoil system with a lateral load applied in

the x-direction is shown in Fig. 2. The closest Gauss points to the

pile in the soil elements are on the dashed circumference. The soil

resistance per unit length along the pile is the x-component of the

total stress acting on the dashed circumference. The x-component

stresses at a point in a soil element can be represented by a traction vector, Tx, as follows:

In this section, the comparison results with in situ measurements are discussed. Kim et al. [12] and Jeong et al. [10] carried

out a series of eld load tests in order to investigate the behavior

of large diameter piles in clay subject to lateral load.

The test site was located at the Incheon Bridge, Korea. The

mapped local geology is that of a marine deposit. The shallow

surface layers are of great interest for this study because laterally

loaded piles typically receive most of their support from the soil

in the upper 710 pile diameters [3]. Therefore, extensive in situ

and laboratory testing was performed to characterize the soil conditions of the upper layer. The soil prole near the surface consists of layers of silty clay and silty sand underlain by a marine

clay deposit. The water table was located near the natural ground

surface during the load tests. The cohesive surface soils consist of

low-plasticity silts and clays classied as ML or CL according to

the Unied Soil Classication System (USCS). The undrained shear

strength was typically 1842 kPa, although some layers had

strengths of 125 kPa. The strength increases with depth in a relatively linear manner from 0 to 15 m. Consolidation tests show

that the soils are normally to very slightly overconsolidated.

The summary of eld and laboratory test results is summarized

in Fig. 3.

To investigate the lateral load-transfer curves of piles placed in

clay, full-scale eld load tests were performed on 6 instrumented

piles under a free pile head condition. A schematic representation

of an instrumented pile subjected to a lateral loading test is shown

where nx, ny, and nz are the components of the unit normal along the

x-, y-, and z-direction at the gauss point, respectively. The component ny is zero because the unit normal is along horizontal plane.

To calculate the total soil resistance px per unit length along the pile,

the soil resistance is integrated over the dashed circumference, and

px is expressed as:

px

T x dL

elements adjacent to the pile. The py relationship at a given depth

G(xg, yg)

z

z

x

y

Pile

Interface

Stress Point

Fig. 2. Cross-section of a pilesoil system in the horizontal-direction.

251

cu (kPa)

N value

0

10

20

30

40

50

40

Wn (%)

20

30

Liquidity Index, LI

40

50

-2

-1

20

30

W 107

W 108

W 117

E 36

E 39

Wn

LL

PL

40

Fig. 3. Results from eld and laboratory test.

INCLNOMETER

PROBE

INCLNOMETER

TUBE

STRAIN

GAUGE

Upper

Marine Clay

Lower

Marine Clay

10 spaces at 2.0m=20.0m

Depth (m)

10

6.3 m

16.5 m

Silty Clay

STRAIN GAUGE

Upper

Marine Clay

13.7 m

Lower

Marine Clay

18.2 m

Silty Clay

20.5 m

22.0 m

Residual Soil

24.0 m

26.6 m

Residual Soil

Weathered Rock

30.0 m

Steel pile

1.0m

Weathered Rock

37.5 m

Soft Rock

44.3 m

Drilled Shaft

2.4m

Fig. 4. Test pile and soil stratigraphy: (a) steel pile; (b) drilled shaft.

252

Table 1

Material parameters used for this study (Incheon Bridge site).

Type

Model

Pile

Steel pile

Drilled shaft

Upper clay

Lower clay

Silty clay

Residual soil

Weathered rock

Soft rock

Soil

Rock

a

Elastic

M.C.

py curve

ONeill, Matlock

Reese py curve

Elastic

csat (kN/m3)

cua (kPa)

ls

E (MPa)

e50

Rinter

78.0

25.0

17.5

17.5

17.8

18.0

20.2

20.5

34

1530

3050

70

0.20

0.20

0.49

0.49

0.49

0.49

0.25

0.25

200,000

36,400

315

1525

27

35

110

200

0.02

0.01

0.005

0.50

0.50

0.65

0.70

Note: M.C. is MohrCoulomb model. cu is linear increment as shown in Fig. 4. Dilatancy angle (w) used 0.01 value in clay soil.

-4

-50

50

100

150

12

16

5

200

5

-5

0

Depth (m)

-10

Depth (m)

-5

-10

-15

-20

-25

-30

-15

Lateral Load

425kN, 765kN

-35

-20

Lateral Load

200kN, 600kN

Measured

3D FEM

Existing (O'Neill)

Existing (Matlock)

-25

-45

-30

-2000

-1000

1000

2000

3000

Measured

3D FEM

Existing (Reese)

Existing (Matlock)

-40

2000

4000

6000

4000

0

-5

-10

Depth (m)

Depth (m)

-5

-10

-15

-20

-25

-15

-30

-20

-35

Lateral Load

200kN, 600kN

-25

-30

Measured

3D FEM

Existing (O'Neill)

Existing (Matlock)

Fig. 5. Computed and measured response of steel pile: (a) depth-lateral

displacement; (b) depth-bending moment.

-40

Lateral Load

425kN, 765kN

Measured

3D FEM

Existing (Reese)

Existing (Matlock)

-45

Fig. 6. Computed and measured response of drilled shaft: (a) depth-lateral

displacement; (b) depth-bending moment.

253

in Fig. 4. The lateral load was applied at a point 0.5 m above the

ground surface. The steel piles (LTP-1, LTP-2 and LTP-3) had an outer diameter of 1.016 m and a wall thickness of 16 mm. Each pile

was driven (using an oil pressure hammer) such that 1.0 m of the

pile remained above the ground surface. The nal depth of the driven piles was recorded as 25.6 m. The drilled shafts (LTP-4, LTP-5,

LTP-6) had a 2.4 m diameter, 45.0 m embedment length, and was

9.1 m above the ground surface. Excavation was performed by

the reverse circulation drilling (RCD) method. The reinforcing cage

consisted of 34 D41 longitudinal bars (41 mm) with a D19 (19 mm)

transverse spiral at an 11 cm pitch for the pile length. Normalweight ready-mix concrete was used to construct the shaft-column, with a target compressive strength of 30 MPa. For the lateral

load test, the load was increased substantially up and down for

60 min at each load level. This procedure was repeated until the

anticipated design load was reached and a total of seven load

increments were applied.

Experimental py curves (measured py curves) derived from

lateral load tests are important to the research for investigating

the lateral load transfer characteristics. Derivations of the experimental py curves using load test data from fully instrumented lateral load tests usually involve mathematical techniques. First of all,

the bending moment prole along the depth was plotted on the

graph using the cubic spline method. Next, soil resistance per unit

length (p) of a pile was derived using double differentiating technique on the moment-depth prole. Consequently, it can be expressed as

2

d M

where p is net soil resistance per unit length of a pile; M is the bending moment at depth z. The lateral pile displacement (y) along the

200

120

80

40

60

40

20

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.002

0.004

0.006

0.008

(a) 2D depth

(a) 2D depth

0.01

100

200

Measured

Pred. 3D FEM

Pred. O'Neill

Pred. Matlock

120

80

60

40

40

20

0.02

Measured

Pred. 3D FEM

Pred. Reese

Pred. O'Neill

80

160

Measured

Pred. 3D FEM

Pred. Reese

Pred. O'Neill

80

100

Measured

Pred. 3D FEM

Pred. O'Neill

Pred. Matlock

160

dz

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.002

0.004

(b) 4D depth

(b) 4D depth

0.006

254

the bending moments prole.

All data of the eld load tests were adopted to construct a 3D

nite-element model. At the vertical boundaries, lateral displacements were restrained, whereas xed supports were applied to

the bottom boundaries. Based on the Coulombs frictional law,

interface elements were used to simulate soilpile interaction in

terms of slippage and gapping at soilpile interface. The soil

parameters used in the nite element analysis were obtained from

the eld soil investigation. In eld condition, the stiffness depends

signicantly on the stress level, which means that the stiffness

generally increases with depth. In order to account for the increase

of the stiffness with the depth the Eincrement value could be used,

based on the undrained shear strength prole. This concept is

based on the results of previous researches by USACE [24] and

Liang et al. [14]. Moreover, FE results are tested by comparing them

with existing py curves, i.e. the ONeill py curve [16] and the

Matlock py curve [15] for clay. For this, the generated py curves

and other soil properties are implemented in a nite difference

program (i.e. LPILE or FB-pier etc.) to compute the response of

the test pile under the applied lateral loads. Nonlinear pile stiffness

(EpIp) was used to take into account of the evolution of stiffness

degradation due to material cracking. Table 1 shows the material

properties used in FE and py analyses of eld load tests. In this

FE model, an isotropic linear elastic model was used for the pile

structures, a non-associated MohrCoulomb model for soil layers.

eld load tests.

Based on the constitutive model parameters described previously, the validation of the response of the laterally loaded pile is

presented in terms of the lateral deection, the bending moment

distribution, and the py curves at various depths. As shown in

Figs. 5 and 6, FE analysis closely predict the general trend of the

measured displacement and bending moment compared with the

existing py analyses. Although, a reasonably good agreement between the proposed and the existing py curves is obtained for the

initial loading step, the existing py curve analyses have a larger

displacement and bending moment than those of the proposed

py curves beyond the initial loading step. This demonstrates that

for the py curves there exist different shapes, which result from

different values of the magnitude of ultimate soil resistance (pu)

and the modulus of subgrade reaction (K), so that these curve

shapes have an inuence on the set of prediction results. This concept is in general agreement with the observations of Yang and

Liang [27] and Lam [13].

Figs. 7 and 8 show the computed py curves at various depths. It

is shown that the FE analysis at most points closely approach the

measured soil response, while the results from the ONeill and

Matlock models show signicantly lower magnitudes of the ultimate soil resistance per unit length (pu). It can be explained that

the existing method does not reect the appropriate combination

of soilpile forces which is required for three-dimensional soil continuity. This combination forces are considered automatic in FE

analysis. Therefore, set of prediction results provides reasonable

accordance of the inuence of force equilibrium due to the load

transfer during lateral loading.

Table 2

Summary of material properties (parametric studies).

Type

Model

L (m)

D (m)

Ip (m4)

E (MPa)

Pile

Elastic

M.C.

Elastic

25

1.0

2.0

3.0

0.049

0.785

3.976

2600

26,000

260,000

315

8000

Clay

Rock

ls

csat (kN/m3)

cu (kPa)

W ()

0.2

23

0.49

0.25

17.5

20.2

1525

0.01

Lateral Load

1.0m

1.0m

Clay

6.0m

7.0m

Clay or Rock

Clay

1.0m

2.0m

23.0m

24.0m

Clay or Rock

1.0m

2.0m

3.0m

Fig. 9. Subsurface prole and pile embedments (parametric studies).

3.0m

255

4. Parametric study

the Broms criterion is applied to the piles in clay. The value of pile

characteristic (b) can be assessed from the following equation:

could not be specically identied in the eld load tests, a series of

FE analyses on drilled shafts in clay soil were performed based on

the major inuencing parameters, such as the pile diameters (D),

the pile length (L), the pile elastic modulus (Ep), the interface property (Rinter), and the bearing layer. Table 2 summarizes the conguration and material properties used in the analysis.

s

4 K av e

b

4Ep Ip

Based on the soilpile rigidity criterion [4,18], the soilpile

rigidity is a direct function of the pile characteristic (b) and pile

length (L). In order to verify the effect of lateral soilpile rigidity,

(K) and EpIp is the exural rigidity of the pile. To obtain detailed

information on the pile behaviors based on soilpile rigidity, piles

with the same elastic modulus, (Ep) but different pile diameters

(D) and embedment lengths (L) were employed as shown in Fig. 9.

The effects of pile diameter and embedment length at a 2 m and

4 m depth are shown in Fig. 10, respectively. There are so many researches about the effect of the pile diameter and the pile length on

the modulus of subgrade reaction (K, Initial slope of py curve).

Terzaghi [23] and Vesic [25] concluded that the diameter and

length of piles have no effect on the modulus of subgrade reaction.

F.E.M.: Depth=2.0m

F.E.M.: Depth=4.0m

500

Rigid Pile,

20000

15000

10000

5000

0

0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

Rigid Pile,

400

300

200

100

4

0

Fig. 11. Ultimate soil resistance of py curves for various pile diameter.

25000

F.E.M.: Depth=2.0m

F.E.M.: Depth=4.0m

160

20000

25000

15000

10000

5000

120

80

Depth : 2.0m

6

Ep : 2.65E kPa

7

Ep : 2.65E kPa

8

Ep : 2.65E kPa

40

Depth: 4.0m

6

Ep : 2.65E kPa

7

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

Ep : 2.65E kPa

Fig. 10. Initial slope of py curves for various pile diameter: (a) rigid pile; (b)

exible pile.

Ep : 2.65E kPa

0

0

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

Fig. 12. Initial slope of py curves for various elastic moduli of pile.

the modulus of subgrade reaction is independent of pile diameter

when examining full-scale vibration tests results on drilled shaft

in a sand deposit. However, Carter [5] found from his own eld test

data that the diameter and the length of piles exerted signicant

effect on modulus of subgrade reaction. From the present studies,

it is found that the lateral load transfer was highly inuenced by

the pile diameter as the characteristic length increased (belong

to exible pile category). Similar results concerning the effect of

soilpile rigidity on K were found previously by Guo [9] in his

numerical study. Therefore, the initial slope of py curve increases

linearly with the increase of the pile diameter when the pile is designed to be exible pile.

The relationship between the ultimate soil resistance (pu) and

the characteristic length (bL) is also investigated using the same

set of py curves, as shown in Fig. 11. It can be seen that the ultimate soil resistance has a linear relationship with pile diameter,

regardless of the characteristic length. Because the ultimate soil

resistance is generally characterized by undrained shear strength

(cu), supposedly the characteristic length (bL) has no effect on the

pu values.

4.2. Effect of pile elastic modulus

The effect of the elastic modulus of the pile (Ep) is studied. The

modulus ranged from 2.65e6 to 2.65e8 kPa in clay soil. The soil condition studied is a single layer, the upper clay in eld load test. Except for the elastic modulus of the pile and subsurface prole, all

other conditions such as load, pile diameter and pile length are

the same as that of the eld load test (D = 2.0 m, L = 25 m,

v = 0.49). The py curve is generated at a depth of 2 m and 4 m.

Based on the results, it is found that the elastic modulus of the pile

has a small inuence on the resulting initial modulus of subgrade

reaction (K), as shown in Fig. 12.

set of soil properties as discussed in previous case. The range of the

strength reduction factor was ranged from 0 to 1.0 in this case. The

computational results shown in Fig. 13 clearly indicate that the

interface properties exert no signicant inuence on the initial

modulus of subgrade reaction.

4.4. Effect of bearing layer

In order to investigate the effect of bearing layer, additional FE

analyses are conducted in single clay soil. Both the rigid and exible piles have the toe embedded in the same clay layer as used in

the previous parametric cases. Again, the py curve is generated for

a depth of 1 m. The comparison results according to existence of

bearing layer are shown in Fig. 14. Based on the results, it is fount

that the ultimate soil resistance of rigid pile only has increased by

approximately 5%, while the py characteristics of the exible pile

400

256

300

200

100

Embedded in clay

Embedded in rock

D=1.0m

D=2.0m

D=3.0m

D=1.0m

D=3.0m

D=3.0m

0

As mentioned above, the interface between pile and soil was

modeled by a surface based interface technique in the PLAXIS 3D

Foundation software. The strength reduction factor (Rinter) of the

interface is the main controlling parameter of the soilpile

interface. The relationship between initial modulus of subgrade

0.04

0.08

0.12

0.16

0.2

400

12000

8000

4000

300

200

100

Embedded in clay

Embedded in rock

D=1.0m

D=2.0m

D=3.0m

D=1.0m

D=3.0m

D=3.0m

0.04

0.08

0.12

0.16

0.2

0

0.5

Fig. 13. Initial slope of py curves for various interface properties.

Fig. 14. Comparison of py curves for various bearing conditions: (a) rigid pile; (b)

exible pile.

in rigid pile does not seem to be having much effect on the nonlinear pile analysis. Ashour and Norris [2] and Kim et al. [11] have reported comprehensive studies of pilesoil interaction. They

conclude that the magnitude and distribution of the py curves

are hardly inuenced by the shear resistance at the base of the

shaft when the pile is rigid.

5. Concluding remarks

The main objective of this study is to investigate numerically

lateral load-transfer curve with respect to steel pile and drilled

shaft, which are constructed on soil proles encountered in Korean

offshore deposits. For this work, the nonlinear 3D nite element

modeling has been presented and discussed by taking into account

the soilpile continuity. The simulation techniques and analysis results were favorably validated in the full scaled eld load test in

marine clay in terms of pile deection, bending moment, and py

curves along the length of the pile. Additionally, to examine the

inuencing factor of a lateral load transfer, a series of parametric

studies were performed. Based on the ndings of this study, the

following conclusions can be drawn:

1. By taking into account the three-dimensional soilpile interaction, the py function derived directly by integrating the stresses in the soil elements around the pile is an appropriate and

realistic representation of the lateral load transfer characteristics of large diameter piles in clay soil. It provides results that

are in good agreement with the eld test results.

2. The analysis by the existing methods produces a considerably

larger pile deection than the results obtained by the 3D FE

results. Compared to the results of the eld load tests, it is

shown that the py curve from the 3D FE analysis is capable

of predicting the behavior of a large diameter pile under lateral

loading. As a result, it can be said that a rigorous 3D FE analysis

can overcome the limitations of existing py methods to some

extent by considering the effect of realistic three-dimensional

combination forces.

3. Additionally, parametric studies have shown that the modulus

of subgrade reaction (K) and the ultimate soil resistance (pu)

increase with diameter linearly, while pile elastic modulus

(Ep), interface property (Rinter) and pile-toe condition exert no

signicant inuence on the py characteristics. Specially, it

can be explained by noting that for exible piles (bL > 2.3) the

effect of pile diameter on K is more signicant than for rigid

piles (bL < 2.3).

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the grant (10CCTI-A052531-03000000) from the Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime of Korean government through the Core Research Institute.

257

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