General Concept
1. Airy Stress Function Checklist
2.Solutions by Polynomials
a. 2nd degree Polynomials
b.3rd degree Polynomials
c. 4th degree Polynomials
3.Determination of Displacement
Solved Problems
1.
2.
3.
Y ax2
order
2
<D
OX
OJ,
1
2
ax
2 2
a2
1
a x'
6 '
1
bx 2y
2 '
1
c xy'
2 '
"61 d ,y'
'l"xy
_.
b2
0
0
b2 xy
1 y2
c
axay
1
ax'
12 4
1
b x'y
6 4
1
c x 2y2
2 4
1
d xy'
6 '
1
,
12 e,y
1
ax'
20 '
1
bx'y
12 '
1
c x'y2
6 '
1
d x 2y'
6 '
1
exy'
12 '
1
1. '
20 ,y
C2
a3 x
b3y
b3x
CjX
C3Y
d3y
a4:;(
b4xy
1
2
bx
2 4
C4:;(
C4Y
2C4XY
d4xy
"21 d ,y
e4Y
a5x!
b5:;(y
1 ,
bx
c x'
C5xY
c,x 2y
d5:;(y
"31 d ,y'
d,xy2
e5xY
"3 e,y
151
3 '
3 '
Order
<l>
1
ax
OX
OJ,
a6X
Oxy
4
30
._
1
bxSy
b6X3y
1
4
bx
20
4
._
c6~1
"3 cx
12
._
1
d x 3i
xY
3
d x 2y2
2
d.x y
d6
edl
e6Y
"3 e6XY
20 sxy
f6x1
i
g6Y
30
g6i
6
1
12 e.x y
1 J,
J.y4
r
i
28
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
3. Show that the line elements at the point x, y which have the maximum and
minimum rotation are those in the two perpendicular directions 8 determined by
tan 28 =
(av
ay _ au)
ax /
(Ottax + au)
ay
4. The stresses in a rotating disk (of unit thickness) can be regarded as due to
centrifugal force as body force in a stationary disk. Show that this body force is
derivable from the potential V = ipw'(x'
y'), where p is the density, and w the
angular velocity of rotation (about the origin).
5. A disk with its axis horizontal has the gravity stress represented by Eqs.
(d) of Art. 16. Make a sketch showing the boundary forces which support its
weight. Show by another sketch the auxiliary problem of boundary forces which
must be solved when the weight is entirely supported by the reaction of a horizontal
surface on which the disk stands.
6. A cylinder with its axis horizontal has the gravity stress represented by Eqs.
(d) of Art. 16. Its ends are confined between smooth fixed rigid planes which
maintain the condition of plane strain. Sketch the forces acting on its surface,
including the ends.
7. Using the stressstrain relations, and Eqs. (a) of Art. 15 in the equations of
equilibrium (18), show that in the absence of body forces the displacements in
problems of plane stress must satisfy
CHAPTER 3
TWODIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
IN RECTANGULAR COORDINATES
17. Solution by Polynomials. It has been shown that the solution
of twodimensional problems, when body forces are absent or are constant, is reduced to the integration of the differential equation
a4cp
ax4
a4cp
a 4cp
=0
(a)
All three stress components are constant throughout the body, i.e., the
stress function (b) represents a combination of uniform tensions or
compressions 2 in two perpendicular directions and a uniform shear.
The forces on the boundaries must equal the stresses at these points as
discussed on page 23; in the case of a rectangular plate with sides
parallel to the coordinate axes these forces are shown in Fig. 21.
1 A. Mesnager, Compt. rend., vol. 132, p. 1475, 1901.
See also A. Timpe, Z.
Math. Physik, vol. 52, p. 348, 1905.
o This depends on the sign of coefficients a. and b.. The directions of stresses
indicated in Fig. 21 are those corresponding to positive values of a2, b., co.
29
30
TWODIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
(c)
31
and substituting it into Eq. (a), we find that the equation is satisfied
only if
The stress components in this case are
(T",
a2cf>4
= C4X 2
+ d4XY
 (2C4
= ax 24 = a4x 2 + b4xy
+ C4y2
= ay2
a cf>
2
(Til
2 cf>4
TZI/
(Til
r.r+~x
r4~~x
J'
FIG. 22.
FIG. 23.
different from zero, we obtain not only normal but also shearing
stresses acting on the sides of the plate. Figure 23 represents, for
instance, the case in which all coefficients, except ba in function (c), are
equal to zero. The directions of stresses indicated are for ba positive.
Along the sides y = c we have uniformly distributed tensile and
compressive stresses, respectively, and shearing stresses proportional
to x. On the side x = l we have only the constant shearing stress  bal,
and there are no stresses acting on the side x = O. An analogous stress
distribution is obtained if coefficient Ca is taken different from zero.
In taking the stress function in the form of polynomials of the second
and third degrees we are completely free in choosing the magnitudes of
the coefficients, since Eq. (a) is satisfied whatever values they may
have. In the case of polynomials of higher degrees Eq. (a) is satisfied
only if certain relations between the coefficients are satisfied. Taking,
d4
tll
b4
+ a4)y2
(e)
0,
~b~~=~~~~
11'
This couple balances the couple produced by the normal forces along the Y
side x = l of the plate.
FIG. 24.
Let us consider a stress function in the form of a polynomial of the
fifth degree.
, !'
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
32
TWODIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
a2~5
C6
= ay2 = 3 x 3 + d6 X2 y 
Uy =
T
xu
a2~5
ax
2
asx 3
(2cs
+ boX y + CsXY
=  a2~6 = _
ax ay
.!. b5x 3 3
c ox2y  d oxy2

~~~rX
Il~
t x
t
~T
....
 l
~\
y
(6)
(a)
FIG. 25.
Tzy
I, :
, !
"
= td sy 3
(g)
= doXy2
33
34
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
TWODIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
20. Bending of a Cantilever Loaded at the End. Consider a cantilever having a narrow rectangular cross section of unit width bent by a
force P applied at the end (Fig. 26). The upper and lower edges are
free from load, and shearing forces, having a resultant P, are distributed along the end x = O. These conditions can be satisfied by a
proper combination of pure shear,
with the stresses (e) of Art. 17 reprel
sented in Fig. 24. Superposing the
;4
pure shear T"'1/ =  b2 on the stresses
x
(e), we find
p
au
ax =
ov
oy =
E""
au av
oy + ax
Ell'
(a)
= "1"'1/
+ by,
VI
C 
(b)
bx
E1 (1"y
 V(1"",) ,
E",
= It [(1""
Ey
E [(1"11
T"'1/
(1"11 = 0
d
= b 2
d 4 c2
2
from which
 v(1"y
+ (1".)]
 v(1""
+ (1".)]
E [(1
fe
T"",
from which
dy =
e
fe (b
e
b2 =
~C y2) dy
2 
=P
~!:.
4 c
+ V) (1"11]
 V2)(1"1I  v(l
=0
To satisfy the condition on the loaded end the sum of the shearing
forces distributed over this end must be equal to P. Hence l
3P
~~
y
FIG. 26.
;0
:0
(a)
= b 2 "24 y2
'Y"'1/=(jT"'1/
(1"" = d 4xy,
35
v)(1"",]
1
'Y"'1/=(jT"'1/
It is easily verified that these equations can be obtained from the preceding set for plane stress by replacing E in the latter by E/(l  v2),
and v by v/(l  v). These substitutions leaveG, which is E/2(1 + v),
unchanged. The integration of Eqs. (a) will be shown later in discussing particular problems.
(1""'="2ca xy ,
T"", =
3P (1 _
4c
(1"11=0
y2)
c2
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
36
au
u"
= ax = E = au
'YX1I
= ay
Pxy
EI'
+ av
ax = G
TX1I
av
Ey
= ay
(c)
(d)
=  2IG (c  y2)
The procedure for obtaining the components u and v of the displacement consists in integratmg Eqs. (c) and (d). By integration of Eqs.
(c) we find
VP xy 2
Px 2 y
V = 2EI + hex)
U = 2EI + fey),
in which fey) and hex) are as yet unknown functions of y only and x
only. Substituting these values of u and v in Eq. (d) we find
_ Px 2 + df(y)
2EI
dy
+ VP y 2 + dh(x)
2EI
= _ ~ ( 2_
dx
2IG c
2)
y
In this equation some terms are functions of x only, some are functions
of y only, and one is independent of both x and' y. Denoting these
groups by F(x), G(y), K, we have
F(x)
2
Px + dh(x)
 2EI
;JX'
G( )
= df(y)
dy
Vp y 2 _ P y 2
2EI
2IG
Pc 2
K =  2IG
F(x)
+ G(y)
31
TW()"DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
=K
Such an equation means that F(x) must be some constant d and G(y)
some constant e. Otherwise F(x) and G(y) would vary with x and y,
respectively, and by varying x alone, or y alone, the equality would be
violated.
Thus
(e)
and
vPy3
P y3
f ( y) =  6EI + 6IG + ey
Px 3
hex) = 6EI + dx + h
+g
+g
(g)
The constants d, e, g, h may now be determined from Eq. (e) and from
the three conditions of constraint which are necessary to prevent the
beam from moving as a rigid body in the xyplane. Assume that the
point A, the centroid of the end cross section, is fixed. Then u and v
are zero for x = l, y = 0, and we find from Eqs. (g),
g = 0,
Pta
h=dl
6EI
0 into the
(h)
For determining the constant d in this equation we must use the third
condition of constraint, eliminating the possibility of rotation of the
beam in the xyplane about the fixed point A. This constraint can be
realized in various ways. Let us consider two cases: (1) When an element of the axis of the beam is fixed at the end A. Then the condition
of constraint is
(::)~~~ = 0
(k)
(2) When a vertical element of the cross section at the point A is fixed.
.'
TWODIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
(l)
Pl2
Pc 2
e = 2EI  2IG
Px 3
Pl2X
(v)y=o = 6EI  2EI
2
Px 2y
pC )
vPy3 P y 3
( Pl 2
U =  2EI  6EI
6IG
2EI  2IG Y
vP xy 2 Px 3
Pl2X
Pl3
v = 2EI
6EI  2EI
3EI
Pl3
+ 3EI +
Pc 2
2IG (l  x)
(r)
Comparing this with Eq. (n) it can be concluded that, due to rotation
39
(m)
+F=x
Pl3
+ 3EI
I
I
(n)
which gives for the deflection at the loaded end (x = 0) the value
PP /3EI. This coincides with the value usually derived in elementary
books on the strength of materials.
To illustrate the distortion of cross sections produced by shearing
stresses let us consider the displacement u at the fixed end (x = l).
For this end we have from Eqs. (m),
VP y 3 P y 3
Pc 2y
(U)x=l =  6EI + 6IG  2IG
VP y 2 P y2
Pc 2
(0)
 2EI
2IG  2IG
3P
 4eG
The shape of the cross section after distortion is as shown in Fig. 27 a.
Due to the shearing stress T xu =  3P / 4c at the point A, an element of
the cross section at A rotates in the xyplane about the point A through
an angle 3P / 4cG in the clockwise direction.
If a vertical element of the cross section is fixed at A (Fig. 27b).
___
...JI
i3PJ
raj
(b)
4cG
FIG. 27.
of the end of the axis at A (Fig. 27b), the deflections of the axis of the
cantilever are increased by the quantity
Pc 2
2IG (l  x)
3P
= 4eG (l
 x)
This is the socalled effect of shearing force on the deflection of the beam.
In practice, at the builtin end we have conditions different from those
shown in Fig. 27. The fixed section is usually not free to distort
and the distribution of forces at this end is different from that given
by Eqs. (b). Solution (b) is, however, satisfactory for comparatively long cantilevers at considerable distances from the terminals.
21. Bending of a Beam by Uniform Load. Let a beam of narrow
rectangular cross section of unit width, supported at the ends, be bent
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
40
 3q
4 C3 ( x2y
(a)
0"11
l are
Txy
Txy
c
dy =
=+=
ql,
J~c uzy dy = 0
fcuxdY = 0,
41
TWODIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
(b)
The last two of Eqs. (b) state that there is no longitudinal force and no
bending couple applied at the ends of the beam. All the conditions
(a) and (b) can be satisfied by combining certain solutions in the form
q(1
2ya) _  21
q ( x2y  3
2y3)
 3
3 a  y3  c2y
=  4c
3
_ 3q (c2 _ y2)X =
4ca
2)
q(la 2+2a)
+ 3 c3 =  21
3 y  c Y
3 c
(d)
It can easily be checked that these stress components satisfy not only
conditions (a) on the longitudinal sides but also the first two conditions
(b) at the ends. To make the couples at the ends of the beam vanish
we superpose on solution (d) a pure bending, U z = d 3y, O"U = Txy = 0,
shown in Fig. 22, and determine the constant d a from the condition at
from which
y
d3 =
(e)
(6)
(aJ
Uu
TZjJ
= d 5 (X2y  iya)
= td6y 3 + bay + a2
(c)
= d6Xy2  bsX
from which
q
a2 =  2'
b3
3q
= ,
4c
~)
5
Hence, finally,
FIG. 28.
Uz
~4 Cf1 (~c
d6 = 
3 q
4 C3
SUbstituting in Eqs. (c) and noting that 2c a/3 is equal to the moment of
inertia I of the rectangular crosssectional area of unit width, we find
(33)
The first term in this expression represents the stresses given by the
usual elementary theory of bending, and the second term gives the
necessary correction. This correction does not depend on x and is
small in comparison with the maximum bending stress, provided ths
span of the beam is large in comparison with its depth. For such
beams the elementary theory of bending gives a sufficiently accurate
value for the stresses U z It should be noted that expression (33) is an
exact solution only if at the ends x = l the normal forces are distributed according to the law
 34 cq (23
2)
X =   3  yS   c2 y
5
l from
Eq. (33). These forces have a resultant force and a resultant couple
equal to zero. Hence, from SaintVenant's principle we can conclude
i.e., if the normal forces at the ends are the same as uz for x =
,!
:,
From the expression for v we find the equation of the deflection curve,
q [12X2
(v)Y~O = 5  2EI
c2y2
q {y4
12  2
=  2EI
q [12X2
 2EI 2"""
X4
12 
2 y2
 x ) 2"
'5 C2X 2 +
2
3
y  cy
+ ~ c3) ]
y4
1
]}
+ 6"
 '5 c2y2
(1)]
+ "2
+
1
2 2
C X
(1)]
+ "2
V C2X2
(f)
= 1) of the center
(34)
The factor before the brackets is the deflection which is derived by the
elementary analysis, assuming that cross sections of the beam remain
plane during bending. The second term in the brackets repreilents the
correction usually called the effect of shearing force.
By differentiating Eq. (f) for the deflection curve twice with respect
to x, we find the following expression for the curvature:
+ y3/3)
'5 C2X2 +
The displacements u and v can be calculated by the method indicated in the previous article. Assuming that at the centroid of the
middle cross section (x = 0, y = 0) the horizontal displacement is zero
and the vertical displacement is equal to the deflection 5, we find, using
solutions (d) and (33),
u =
X4
12 
and therefore represents a possible state of stress due to weight and boundary
forces. On the upper edge y = c we have ay = 2pgc, and on the lower edge
y = c, au = O. Thus when the stresses (e) are added to the previous solution,
with q = 2pgc, the stress on both horizontal edges is zero, and the load on the beam
consists only of its own weight.
I,
2""" 
For the stress distribution (e) can be obtained from Eqs. (29) by taking
t/> = !pg(cx'
=  ~
(e)
au = pg(c  y),
(Ty)v=O
When the beam is loaded by its own weight instead of the distributed load q,
the solution must be modified by putting q = 2pgc in (33) and the last two of Eqs.
(d), and adding the stresses
a. = 0,
43
TWODIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
42
It can be seen from the expression for u that the neutral surface of the
d V)
( dx 2 y=o
(4
[12  x2
v)]
+ c '5 +"2
= EI  2 
(35)
45
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
TWODIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
axis of a rectangular beam of unit width as !CQ/2cG), where Q is the shearing force,
the corresponding increase in curvature is given by the derivative of the above
shearing strain with respect to x, whiah gives !(q/2cG). The corrected expression
for tbe curvature by elementary analysis then becomes
evident that the first terms in the expressions for (J'z and TZ1/ are the
values of the stresses calculated by the usual elementary formulas.
On the top end of the beam (x = 0) the normal stress is zero. The
shearing stress is
<14
q l2  Xl
EI  2 
q
+ 32 2cG
=
q [l2  Xl
EI  2 
+ c Cl + v) ]
2
TZ1/
Comparing this with expression (35), it is seen that the elementary solution gives
an exaggerated valuel for the correction.
The correction term in expression (35) for the curvature cannot be attributed
to the shearing force alone. It is produced partially by the compressive stresses u .
These stresses are not uniformly distributed over the depth of the beam. The
lateral expansion in the xdirection produced by these stresses diminishes from the
top to the bottom of the beam, and in this way a reversed curvature (convex
upwards) is produced. This curvature together with the effect of shearing force
accounts for the correction term in Eq. (35).

+ 4eq
(J' z
_ qx
4e 3y
(J'
= _ qx
11
TZ1/
2xy 3
+ qx (:t...
4e
2
3qx2 2
Se 3 (e
y2) 
+ 56 e xy
2
_34eY)
q
Se 3 (e 4
(a)

y4)
+ 4eq 35 c (e
2
8e
y4)
+ 4c
.!L ~ e2 (e 2 _
5
3
y2)
Although these stresses are different from zero, they are very small all
over the cross section and their resultant is zero, so that the condition
approaches that of an end free from external forces.
By adding to (J'z in Eqs. (a) the term qlX, in which ql is the weight
of unit volume of the material of the cantilever, the effect of the weight
of the beam on the stress distribution is taken into account. It has
been proposed 1 to use the solution obtained in this way for calculating
the stresses in masonry dams of rectangular cross section. It should
be noted that this solution does not satisfy the conditions at the bottom
of the dam. Solution (a) is exact if, at the bottom, forces are acting
which are distributed in the same manner as (J'z and TZ1/ in solution (a).
In an actual case the bottom of the dam is connected with the foundation, and the conditions are different from those represented by this
solution. From SaintVenant's principle it can be stated that the
effect of the constraint at the bottom is negligible at large distances
from the bottom, but in the case of a masonry dam the crosssectional
dimension 2e is usually not small in comparison with the height land
this effect cannot be neglected. 2
By taking for the stress function a polynomial of the seventh degree
the stresses in a beam loaded by a parabolically distributed load may
be obtained.
In the general case of a continuous distribution of load q, Fig. 30, the stresses
at any cross section at a considerable distance from the ends, say at a distance
larger than the depth of the beam, can be approximately calculated from the
following equations: 3
M. Levy, Compt. rend., vol. 126, p. 1235, 1S98.
The problem of stresses in masonry dams is of great practical interest and has
?een discussed by various authors. See K. Pearson, On Some Disregarded Points
In the Stability of Masonry Dams, Drapers.' Go. Research Mems., 1904; K. Pearsonand C. Pollard, An ~xperimental Study of the Stresses in Masonry Dams, Drapers'"
Co. Research Mems., 1907. See also papers by L. F. Richardson, Trans. Roy.
Soc. (London) series A, vol. 210, p. 307, 1910; and S. D. Carothers, Proc. Roy. Soc.
Edinburgh, vol. 33, p. 292, 1913. I. Muller, Publications du laboratoire de photo8,asticiU, ZUrich, 1930. Fillunger, Oesterr. Wochschr. offentl. Baudienst, 1913,
Heft, 45. K. Wolf, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 123, 1914.
8 "F. Seewald, Abhandl. aerodynam. Inst., Tech. Hochschule Aachen vol. 7 p. 11
1927.
'
,
,
,
1
y2)
Here q is the weight of unit volume of the fluid, so that the intensity of
the load at a depth x is qx. The shearing force and the bending
moment at the same depth are qx 2 /2 and qx 3/6, respectively. It is
A better approximation is given by elementary strainenergy considerations.
See S. Timoshenko, "Strength of Materials," 2d ed., vol. 1, p. 299.
I See papers by Timpe, loco cit.; W. R. Osgood, J. Research N ati. Bur. Standards,
vol. 28, p. 159, 1942.
1
=  ~3 (e 4
46
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
<T~
<TI/
TZII
= My
I
= _
=
+ q (r
_.!1!:)
2c
10 C
Y
IJ.. + q (3 _r)
2
4c
4c'
TWODIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
The general integral of this linear differential equation with constant coefficients is
~ (el
47
(36)
J(y) = C l cosh ay
+C
sinh ay
y 2)
</> =
+C
sinh ay
(d)
:~~
<T",
try
= a'</>
ax' =
a </>
Tzy
=  axay
(e)
+ C 2a cosh ay + C,(cosh ay
</>
in the form
sin ~f(Y)
l
(b)
in which m is an integer andf(y) a function of yonly. Substituting (b) into Eq. (a)
and using the notation m7r/l = a, we find the following equation for determining
fey):
(c)
a4f(y)  2a 2f"(y) + fIV(y) = 0
The first application of trigonometric series in the solution of beam problems
was given by M. C. Ribiere in a thesis, Sur divers cas de Ill. flexion des prismes
rectangles, Bordeaux, 1889. See also his paper in Compt. rend., vol. 126, pp. 402404 and 11901192. Further progress in the application of this solution was made
by L. N. G. Filon, Phil. Trans., series A, vol. 201, p. 63, 1903. Several particular
examples were worked out by F. Bleich, Bauingenieur, vol. 4, p 255,1923.
FIG. 31.
d~stributed vertical forces of the intensity A sin aX and B sin ax, respectively.
FIgure 31 shows the case when a = 47r/l and indicates also the positive values of
A and B. The stress distribution for this case can be obtained from solution (e).
The constants of integration Cl, . . . ,C4 may be determined from the conditions
on the upper and lower edges of the beam, y = c. These conditions are:
For y = +c,
Fory
0,
TzU
T~1I
== 0,
trll
= B sin
ax
0,
Cia sinh ae
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