Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 28

Computer Networks

Shyam Krishna Khadka


Engineer
Network & Hardware Section
IT Directorate, Jawalakhel
2/23/2014

skkhadka

Objective
To be acquainted with:
The definitions of networking
Network topology
Network peripherals, hardware and software
Network utility commands

2/23/2014

skkhadka

Definition
Interconnection of computers and peripheral
equipments (hosts)
Used for sharing resources (such as printers
and CD-ROMs), exchange files, or allow
electronic communications
Typical applications: World wide web(WWW),
FTP, Remote login

2/23/2014

skkhadka

A computer network can be two


computers connected

Switch

A computer network can also consist of, and is


usually made for, more than two computers:
2/23/2014

skkhadka

Why Networking ?
- Sharing information
Do you prefer these?

Or this?

2/23/2014

skkhadka

Why Networking ? Contd


- Sharing hardware or software
Do you prefer these?

Or this?

2/23/2014

skkhadka

Network Kinds
Based on transmission media: Wired
(UTP, coaxial cables, fiber-optic cables)
and Wireless
Based on network size: LAN and WAN

(and MAN)
Based on topology (connectivity): Bus,
Star, Ring

2/23/2014

skkhadka

LAN and WAN


Local Area Networks
Small network, short
distance
A room, a floor, a
building
Limited by no. of
computers and distance
covered
Serve a department
within an organization
2/23/2014

skkhadka

LAN contd
Examples:
Network inside the Student Computer
LAB
Network inside your home
Network inside a building

2/23/2014

skkhadka

Wide Area Network


A network that uses long-range
telecommunication links to connect 2
or more LANs/computers housed in
different places far apart.
Towns, states, countries
Examples:
Intranet System of Nepal Telecom
Internet

2/23/2014

skkhadka

Metropolitan Area Network


A network that spans a metropolitan area such
as a city or suburban area.
Eg. Community Schools connected by a
network in Biratnagar

2/23/2014

skkhadka

Topology 3 basic types


How so many computers are connected together?
Bus Topology

Ring Topology

Star Topology
Switch

2/23/2014

skkhadka

Networking Devices

2/23/2014

skkhadka

Network Interface Card


A network interface card (NIC) is a printed
circuit board that provides network
communication capabilities to and from a
personal computer. Also called a LAN
adapter.

2/23/2014

skkhadka

Switch

1. Connects a group of
Hosts
2. Switches add more
intelligence to data transfer
management.
2/23/2014

skkhadka

Router
Routers are used to connect networks together
Route packets of data from one network to another
Biratnagar Network

2/23/2014

Kathmandu Network

skkhadka

Networking Media

2/23/2014

skkhadka

Ethernet
Most widely used LAN technology in the
world
Unshielded twisted-pair
Unshielded Twisted Pair
(UTP) Cables are used
mostly
Others : Co-axial cable,
optical fiber
RJ-45 Plug and Socket
2/23/2014

skkhadka

IP address
32-bit of number used to identify the host in a network
e.g. 10101100.00010101.00001000.01010001
172
.21
.8
.81
IP range : 0.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255
i.e we can have 2^32 ip addresses
Subnet mask
Used to separate network ID and host ID, required for
inter network connection
2/23/2014

skkhadka

Private IP range :
10.0.0.0 10.255.255.255
172.16.0.0 172.31.255.255
CBS_SD network IP is within this throughout
Nepal
192.168.0.0 192.168.255.255
2/23/2014

skkhadka

Subnet mask
Determines the IP range within a network
Determines no. of hosts within a network
Used to separate network ID and host ID,
required for inter network connection

2/23/2014

skkhadka

Default Gateway
Interface of the router to the outside network

2/23/2014

skkhadka

DNS server
Domain Name System Server
Resolves hostnames to IP addresses
Eg. http://google.com gets translated into its
corresponding ip address(70.232.22.22..)

2/23/2014

skkhadka

Basic networking utilities


Start > Search programs and files> cmd
ipconfig
Find my computers IP address

2/23/2014

skkhadka

ping
Checks if the communication between my
computer and remote host is working or not
Eg. ping 172.16.10.203
(Ping to SD server in ktm)

2/23/2014

skkhadka

Troubleshooting steps

1) Check network cable plugged/unplugged


2) Check IP address
3) Check hardware driver software
- My computer => Right Click => Properties
Device manager
Network Adapters
Intel (853434) Gigabit Network Connection =>
Right Click => Disable => Enable

2/23/2014

skkhadka

4) Check to nearest switch of network


ping switch ip
172.21.11.2
5) Check to router(gateway ip)
ping gateway ip
Ping 172.21.11.1
6) Check to SD server IP
Ping 172.16.10.203

2/23/2014

skkhadka

2/23/2014

skkhadka