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WHEATSTONE BRIDGE

INTRODUCTION: For measuring accurately any electrical


resistance Wheatstone bridge is widely used. There are two
known resistors, one variable resistor and one unknown
resistor connected in bridge form as shown below. By adjusting the
variable resistor the current through the Galvanometer is made zero.
When the current through the galvanometer becomes zero, the ratio of
two known resistors is exactly equal to the ratio of adjusted value of
variable resistance and the value of unknown resistance. In this way the
value of unknown electrical resistance can easily be measured by using
a Wheatstone Bridge.
PRINCIPLE BEHIND THE WORKING: When balanced, the Wheatstone
bridge can be analysed simply as two series strings in parallel. In our
tutorial about Resistors in Series, we saw that each resistor within the
series chain produces an IR drop, or voltage drop across itself as a
consequence of the current flowing through it as defined by Ohms Law.
Consider the series circuit below.
MATERIALS REQUIRED: battery, galvanometer/ammeter, resistors,
rheostat, copper wires, switch.

Dynamo
INTRODUCTION: The Dynamo is todays most popular way of
generating electricity, using the Amperes Law, named after Andre Marie
Ampere, who first gave it.
PRINCIPAL BEHIND WORKING: The generation of electricity by a
dynamo is based on a principle of magnetism called induction. When the
lines of force that pass from the north to the south pole of a magnet are
cut by a wire there is produced or induced in the wire a current of
electricity.
That is, if we take a loop or coil of wire which has no current in it and a
magnet which also has no current, and move the loop or coil between
the poles, a momentary current is produced. If a series of loops or coils
are used instead of one loop, a current may be generated continuously.
This method of generating electric current is called induction.
MATERIALS REQUIRED: magnet, iron core/cylinder, metal brushes, split
rings, galvanometer.

2-Way Switch
INTRODUCTION: Used extensively in the household wirings of multifloor houses, 2-way switch is used to provide a hassle-free experience of
turning the appliances (mostly light bulb) on or off.
PRINCIPAL BEHIND WORKING: The 2-way switch as such does not
have any exclusive principal behind its working, rather it is only because
of its elaborate and clever setup that the 2-way switch is so popular.
MATERIALS REQUIRED: switches, power supply/battery, wires.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAMN:

Experiment to show Force on Electrical


Conductor due to Magnetic Field
PRINCIPAL BEHIND WORKING: It is already established and proved
that a conductor carrying current will experience a force on it if placed in
a magnetic field, created by any other body. This force is given by the
formula: F=iL x B; where i is the amount of current, L is the length of the
conductor and B is the strength of the magnetic field.
MATERIALS REQUIRED: a strong magnet, an aluminium bar or strip, a
non-magnetic stand, battery, switch, wires.
CONSTRUCTION: Take the aluminium bar and set it up with wires and
hang it from the stand.
Connect the wires to the battery and switch.
Now bring the magnet close to the bar and observe how it moves
because of the force it feels due to the magnetic field.