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CE 110

Hydrologic Losses:
Evaporation
Transpiration
Infiltration

Cornelio Q. Dizon
Department of Civil Engineering
University of the Philippines

Schematic Diagram of Hydrologic Cycle

RAINFALL ABSTRACTIONS
Abstractions or Hydrologic Losses

Collectively, that part of the rainfall that does not show up as


runoff.
Abstractions:
Interception, Surface / Depression Storage, Evaporation,
Transpiration, and Infiltration.

Interception
Interception is that portion of
the rainfall that is intercepted
by trees, plants, obstacles,
and vegetation before it can
reach the ground.
Rainfall that drops through the
vegetation is known as
throughfall.

Interception is subsequently lost to


the atmosphere through evaporation and transpiration.

DEPRESSION STORAGE
Depression storage is that part of the rainfall prevented
from becoming runoff by being trapped in small puddles
and depressions on the ground surface.
The water stored in the depressions will evaporate or
infiltrate eventually.
Depression storage is difficult to model in hydrologic
studies or for any purpose
It is relatively much smaller compared to other
abstractions. Empirical estimates are used in practice.

EVAPORATION
Evaporation is the process whereby water molecules move from a
liquid phase to a gas phase in response to energy absorbed by the
water molecules.
Net rate of vapor transport to the atmosphere.
The rates of evaporation depend on meteorological factors (solar
radiation, air temperature, vapor pressure, wind speed and
atmospheric pressure) and the nature of evaporating surface.
The rate of evaporation from soil surface is limited by the
availability of water.

TRANSPIRATION
The process by which water vapor is emitted into the atmosphere
from plant surfaces.
Evapotranspiration is the combination of water released to the
atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration. ET is maximum if the
water supply to both plant and soil surface is unlimited.

Methods for Determining Evaporation


1.

Water Budget Method.


Based on the hydrologic continuity
equation.
E = S + I + P O G
where,
E = evaporation
S = change in storage
I = surface inflow
P = precipitation
O = surface outflow
G = seepage to ground water flow
Seepage- the most difficult factor to evaluate since it must be estimated
indirectly from measurements of groundwater levels, permeability,
and other G.W. soil parameters.

2.

Mass Transfer/Aerodynamic Method.


Based primarily on the
concept of turbulent transfer of water vapor from a water surface to
the atmosphere. Express evaporation rate as a function of vapor
pressure differences and wind speed above a lake or reservoir.

E = (es ea )* (a + bu )
where,
es = saturation vapor pressure at temperature T of
the water surface
ea = vapor pressure at some fixed level above
the water surface
u = wind speed
a, b = empirical constants
Some formulas use a zero value for the constant a in the formula
due to the small local air movements with velocities insufficient to
remove excess vapor from a above a pan surface.

Harbeck and Meyers (1970) present the following


empirical equation.
E = Nu2 * (es e2 )

where,
E = evaporation in (cm/day)
N = 0.012 for Lake Hefner, 0.0118 for Lake Mead
es = vapor pressure at the water surface (mb)
e2 = vapor pressure 2m above the water surface (mb)
u2 = wind speed 2m above the water surface (m/s)

3.

Energy Budget Method. The most accurate and complex method


for determining evaporation. However, it requires the collection of
large amounts of detailed atmospheric data. Employs a continuity
equation and solves for evaporation as the residual required to
maintain a balance.
The overall energy budget for a lake can be written in langleys/day,
where 1 langleys (ly) = 1 cal/cm2

QN Qh Qe = Q -Qv
where,
QN = net radiation absorbed by the
water body
Qh = sensible heat transfer (conduction
and convection)
Qe = energy used for evaporation
Qv = advected energy of inflow and
outflow
Q = increase in energy stored in
the water body

Sensible heat transfer Qh is difficult to measure, but can be expressed as,

where R is the ratio of heat loss by conduction to heat loss by evaporation


Letting Le represent the latent heat of vaporization in cal/g, the daily
evaporation depth is,

The energy budget becomes,

Combining the equations, the evaporation can be determined by,

QN + Qv Q
E=
Le (1 + R )
where,
E = evaporation (cm)
QN = net radiation absorbed by the water body
Qv = advected energy of inflow and outflow
Q = increase in energy stored in the water body
= density of water (g/cm3)
Le = latent heat of vaporization (cal/g)
R = ratio of heat loss by conduction to heat loss by
evaporation (Bowen Ratio)

T T P
Ts Ta
=
R = 0.66 s a

es ea
es ea 1000
Le represent the latent heat of vaporization (cal/g)

Le = 597.3 0.57T
where,
P = atmospheric pressure (mb)
Ta = air temperature (oC)
Ts = water surface temperature (oC)
es = saturation vapor pressure at surface water
temperature (mb)
ea = vapor pressure of the air (mb)
= psychometric constant, 0.66 (P/1000) (mb/oC)
Note: Qn, Qv, and Q are in energy units/surface area (cal/cm2).

4.

Combined Method (Penman Equation). Simultaneous solution of


mass transfer and energy budget method to eliminate the need for
water or soil surface temperature observations.

Eh =
QN +
Ea
+
+
E=

Eh
Le

where,
Eh = flux of latent heat due to evaporation (cal/cm2)
= slope of es vs. T curve
QN = net radiation absorbed by the water body
= psychometric constant, 0.66 (P/1000) (mb/oC)
Ea = drying power of air (cal/cm2)
= density of water (g/cm3)
Le = latent heat of vaporization (cal/g)

des 2.7489 *108 * 4278.6


4278.6

=
=
exp

2
dT
T
+
242
.
79
(T + 242.79)

Ea = Le (a + bu )(esa ea )
where,
T = air temperature (oC)
a+bu = empirical transfer constants from mass transfer
esa = saturation vapor pressure at temperature of the
air (mb) = 2.7489 x 108 exp[-4278.6/(Td+242.79)]
ea = actual vapor pressure in air (mb) ~ RH esa
RH = relative humidity (fraction)

Example 1-7 (text, page 61)


Assume Meyer's formula applies to a lake:

with E in in./day, u in mph, and vapor pressures in mb.


For an air temperature of 32.2oC, wind speed of 20 mph, RH of
30%, and net radiation flux of 400 ly/day, estimate the
evaporation rate using the Penman equation. Assume
atmospheric pressure is 1000 mb, so that the psychometric
constant = 0.66 mb/oC.

Solution :

Computing Ea using = 1 g/cm3 and


converting in./day to cm/day,

Ea = Le(a + bu)(esa ea)


Ea = Le 0.0106(1 + 0.1u)(esa ea)

Ea = Le 0.0106(1 + 0.1u)(esa ea)


Ea = (1 g/cm3)(579 cal/g)( 0.0106)(1 + 0.1x20) x
(48.1 14.4) in./day(2.54cm/in.)
= 1590 cal/cm2-day = 1590 ly/day
Using the Penman Equation,

Eh

Eh = E
Le

5.

Pan Evaporation. Most widely used since it is easy to measure and


the ratio of annual lake-to-pan evaporation or called pan coefficient is
quite consistent yearly and does not vary excessively from region to
region.

Pan evaporation rates are higher than actual lake evaporation due to
radiation and heat exchange effects. Pan coefficient ranges from
0.64 to 0.81 and averages 0.70. However, it varies with exposure
and climatic conditions and should be used only for rough estimates
of lake evaporation.

Standard Weather Bureau Class A Pan- Galvanized iron tank 4 ft


(122 cm) in diameter and 10 inches (25.4 cm) deep mounted 12
inches (30.5 cm) above the ground.
To estimate evaporation, the pan is filled to a depth of 8 inches (20
cm) and must be refilled when the depth has fallen to 7 inches(18
cm) .
Water surface level is measured daily, and the evaporation is
computed as the difference between observed levels, adjusted for
any precipitation measured in a standard rain gage.
There are three types of exposures employed for pan installationssunken, floating and surface.

Shallow Lake Evap (Kohler, 1955)

Example 1-6: Ta=70oF, solar radiation=650ly/day, dew


point temp Ts=50oF, wind movement = 40mi/day

Pan Evaporation Measurement

Example: A pan is maintained near a small lake to determine


the daily evaporation. The pan is filled to a depth of 200 mm
and the level is observed everyday. The table below shows
the water level at the pan as well as the observed daily rainfall
very near the pan. Determine the total evaporation in cubic
meters at the lake for the period of 5 days if the lake area is
534.8 km2 and the pan coefficient is 0.70.

Day

Rainfall
(mm)

Water Level
(mm)

0
1
2
3
4
5

0.0
0.3
1.4
0.7
0.1
0.0

200.0
198.9
199.4
199.0
197.4
195.5

Solution:

Day

Rainfall
(mm)

0
1
2
3
4
5

0.0
0.3
1.4
0.7
0.1
0.0

Water Level Pan Evaporation


(mm)
(mm)
200.0
198.9
199.4
199.0
197.4
195.5
total --->

1.4
0.9
1.1
1.7
1.9
7.0

7
E = 0 .7
* (534 .8 *1,000 *1,000 ) = 2,620 ,520 m 3
1,000

Assignment: Solve Problems 1.22 and 1.23

TRANSPIRATION
Constitutes an important phase of the hydrological cycle since it is
the principal mechanism by which the precipitation falling on land
areas is returned to the atmosphere.
Water is transferred from the roots to the leaves, and then air
enters the leaf through the stomata and the chloroplasts within the
leaf use CO2 to manufacture carbohydrates (photosynthesis).
Loss of vapor through small openings in plant tissue occurs as air
enters the leaf.
Plant types which controls and influences transpiration:
Xerophytes- desert species, which have fewer stomata per unit area
and transpire little water.
Phreatophytes- have root systems reaching the water table and
transpire at large rates independent of moisture content in the zone
of aeration.
Mesophytes- plants at temperate zones
Hydrophytes- aquatic plants.

Phytometer is a large vessel filled with soil in which one or more


plants are rooted. Transpiration is measured by weighing the plant
and container at desired interval of time (soil surface may be
sealed to prevent evaporation).

EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
Evapotranspiration is the combined loss of water vapor from the
surface of plants and the evaporation of moisture from soil. It is
maximum if the water supply to both the plant and soil surface is
unlimited.
Potential Evapotranspiration is defined as the water loss which will
occur if there is no deficiency in water any time in the soil for the
use of vegetation. It is the maximum possible loss which is limited
only by meteorologic conditions.
Field Capacity is the moisture content of the soil above which water
will be drained by gravity.
Wilting Point is the soil moisture content below which plants cannot
extract further water.

INFILTRATION
Movement of water into the soil under gravity and capillary forces.
The rate of infiltration depends on rainfall intensity, soil type, surface
condition, and vegetal cover.
For excess rate of rainfall, the actual infiltration rate will follow a
limiting curve called infiltration capacity curve of the soil.

Infiltration Rate Measurement


1.

Horton Equation.

The hydrologic concept of infiltration capacity is empirically based


on observations at the ground surface.
When the rainfall rate i exceeds the infiltration rate f, water
infiltrates the surface soils at a rate that generally decreases with
time.
Infiltration capacity decreases with time and ultimately reaches a
constant rate.

f = f c + ( f o f c ) e kt
where,
f = infiltration rate
fo = initial infiltration capacity
fc = final infiltration capacity
k = empirical constant

Hortons equation suffers from the fact that infiltration capacity


decreases as a function of time regardless of the actual amount of
water available for infiltration
It assumes ponding on the surface and a reduction of infiltration
capacity regardless of whether or not the rainfall intensity exceeds
the computed value of infiltration capacity. When the rainfall rate i
exceeds the infiltration rate f, water infiltrates the surface soils at a
rate that generally decreases with time.

Infiltration Concept of Hortons Equation

Total Infiltration: Trapezoid Rule


F (t n ) =

t
0n

n 1
t
t
f()d
(f 0+2 f1+L + 2 f n-1 + f n ) = (f 0+2 f i + f n )
2
2
i =1

infiltration rate (f) & accumulation (F)

3.50
3.00

f
2.50

3.00

0.00

0.1

2.16

0.26

0.2

1.60

0.45

0.3

1.23

0.59

0.4

0.99

0.70

0.5

0.84

0.79

1.8

0.53

1.55

1.9

0.53

1.61

0.53

1.66

2.00
1.50
1.00
0.50
0.00
0

0.5

1
Time (hr)

1.5

Example 1: The initial infiltration capacity fo of a given watershed


is estimated as 3.8 mm/hr. The time constant k is taken to be 0.35
hr-1 and the equilibrium capacity fc is 0.5 mm/hr. Find the total
volume of infiltration in the watershed over a 6-hr period.

f = f c + ( f o f c ) e kt

f = 0.5 + (3.8 0.5) e

0.35t

f = 0.5 + 3.3 e 0.35t


Integrate over the integral at t = 0 to t = 6 hrs,

total volume = f (t ) dt

total volume = 0.5 dt + 3.3 e 0.35t dt

let
or

u = 0.35t

then

du = 0.35 dt

du
dt =
0.35

total volume = 0.5 dt + 3.3 e 0.35t dt


substituting

3 .3
u
total volume = 0.5t
e
du

0.35
3.3 0.35 t 6
]0
total volume = 0.5t
e
0.35
3 . 3 2 .1
3 .3 0

total volume = 3
e 0
e
0.35
0.35

total volume = 1.8454 + 9.4286 = 11.274 mm

- Index Method.

2.

The simplest method of estimating infiltration rate and is calculated


by finding the loss difference between gross precipitation and
observed surface runoff measured as hydrograph.

Assumes that the loss is uniformly distributed across the rainfall


pattern.

Determine the -index


associated with a
hyetograph and a known
depth of runoff

Infiltration Concept of Index


Method

Example 2: Given the rainfall data below, compute the infiltration


rate using F index method, if the area of the watershed is 36.5 km2
and the total runoff volume for the period is 452,600 m3.
(Hint: -index coincides with one of the given rainfall intensities
below).
Time
(hr)

Rainfall
(mm/hr)

0-2

1.2

2-4

2.6

4-6

5.8

6-8

3.2

8-10

1.8

10-12

0.8

Solution:

volume
452,600
runoff depth =
=
area
36.5 x 1000 x 1000
runoff depth = 12.4 mm

Trial and error solution:


Time
(hr)

Rainfall
(mm/hr)

0-2

1.2

2-4
4-6

2.6
5.8

1.4
4.6

2.8
9.2

0.8
4.0

1.6
8.0

6-8
8-10

3.2
1.8

2.0
0.6

4.0
1.2

1.4

2.8

10-12

0.8
total =

17.2

total =

12.4

try f = 1.2

Runoff Depth
@ f =1.2

try f = 1.8

Runoff Depth
@ f =1.8

Rainfal Intensity (mm/hr)

6
5
4
3
2
1
0
2

Time (hr)

10

12

Example 3 (text Example 1-9, p.69)


Use the rainfall data below to determine the -index for a watershed
that is 0.875 mi2, where the runoff volume is 228.7 ac-ft.
Solution:

Only positive terms are considered.

Trial and error solution:

DRO
DRO

VOL Infiltration F(t)