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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION
Electronic devices need highly effective cooling technology for ensuring their
excellent performance and reliability at all operating conditions. This is very
significant in recent electronic innovations. Because nowadays size of electronic
appliances is becoming far small, and consequently volume decreases to a large
extent. But their heat generation remains the same for that particular application.
This results in the fact that effective heat generation per unit volume of the
electronic device increases drastically. Hence to transfer the heat generated in
small volume is the most challenging task in front of designers.
If heat transfer mechanism is not effective, it can result in excessive
heating of electronic devices. This may lead to serious problems which will make
the device non-functional. Excessive heat generation will result in abnormal
operating temperature which can damage the entire electronic circuits. Such high
temperatures will cause the burn out of components. Also high temperature will
decrease the reliability of the device. Especially in case of measuring devices,
controlling devices etc. accuracy of operation is getting reduced which will cause
serious faulty outcomes. A 10 degree rise in the temperature can reduce the
reliability of an electronic device to half of its original value.
Fins or extended surfaces are one of the technologies used in transferring
heat generated in electronic devices. As the heat generation per effective volume
increases ordinary fins may be inappropriate to transfer the excess heat.
Increasing the length of the fin beyond a critical value will decrease the heat
transfer rate. Besides this, large fins are difficult to be accommodated in small
electronic device. We cannot allocate more volume or size only for the purpose of
cooling. An effective electronic cooling systems must be capable of transferring
more heat using limited available size and must be light weight, low cost and
compatible with the design of the device in which it is to be used. So the task is to
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increase heat transfer rate for a specified fin volume or to decrease fin volume for
a given heat transfer rate.
1.1

POROUS PIN FINS


Porous pin fins can be a best substitute for ordinary fins used in electronics. They
are found to be more effective in transferring heat than the ordinary fins of same
dimensions. This can avoid design problems along with increasing net heat
transfer rate.
Porous pin fins are extended surfaces of finite length and have circular cross
section. Their entire volume is consisting of numerous pores or void channels.
Generally pores are observed along the length. This allows surrounding fluid to
enter in to the fin body and passes through it. Such penetration of fluid through fin
volume can bring about net increase in heat transfer rate between fin and
surrounding fluid. This can be the result of two facts, porosity increases the net
surface area available for convective heat transfer. Another fact is, fluid flow gets
intensified by the presence of pores. This results in higher value of convective
heat transfer coefficient.

1.2

PROBLEM DEFINITION
In this study, an analytical methodology followed by Adomian
decomposition method is applied to solve the nonlinear class of governing energy
equations of a porous pin fin attached to a vertical isothermal wall. Darcy model
is used to analyse the porous pin fin. Governing energy equations are formulated
using the Darcy model and
The present approximate analytical technique is a very useful and practical
method for solving any class of nonlinear governing equations without adopting
linearization or perturbation technique. It provides an analytical solution in the
form of power series where the temperature on the fin surface can be expressed
explicitly as a function of position along the length of the fin. Thus, the
temperature distribution and its performances are easily being determined for a
wide range of design variables of porous fins.

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
Kundu and Bhanja [1] developed an analytical model for determination of the
performance and optimum dimensions of porous fin of rectangular shape. Recently,
Kundu et al. [2] worked on the performance and optimum design analysis of porous fin of
various profiles operating in convection environment.
Yu and Chen [3] performed a study on optimization of circular fin with variable
thermal parameter. Saedodin and Olank [4] investigated the temperature distribution over
fin surface and compared the results with conventional fins. For the analysis they have
selected a pin fin subject to heat transfer in natural convection condition.
ADM (Adomian polynomial method) [5] is employed to solve differential
equations which gives accurate results than ordinary Taylor series expansion.

CHAPTER 3
MODELLING OF THE PROBLEM

3.1 MODEL
Figure given below shows a straight porous pin fin having uniform cross-section,
length L and diameter D. Fin is attached to a vertical isothermal wall. Heat flow is
directed from the wall to the fin by means of conduction and from fin to atmosphere
through natural convection. Surrounding fluid (air) can penetrate into fin interior since
the fin is provided with numerous pores. The porous fin increases the effective surface
area of the fin through which the fin convects heat to the working fluid (air).

Fig 3.1

3.2 ASSUMPTIONS
For making the analysis convenient, following assumptions were made:

The porous pin fin is made of a material which is homogeneous in


composition throughout its volume.

Void spaces inside the porous fin are saturated with working fluid (air) which
exists in single phase.

All physical properties of both solid and fluid medium are taken as constants
except for density of fluid which may vary with temperature.

To enable the model analysing the interaction of a fluid with porous medium,
Darcy formulation is adopted for modelling.

The temperature inside the fin is only function of distance from the wall along
its length.

The fin length is finite and known.

There are no heat sources in the fin itself and no contact resistance at the fin
base (heat generation is zero).

The fin tip is adiabatic type (insulated).

3.3 DARCY MODEL


Darcy model is employed in order to describe the flow of fluid through a
porous medium. It was first used by Henry Darcy to analyse the flow of water
(fluid) through beds of sand. This method finds its application in earth science.
One particular example is hydrogeology where motion of underground water
through rock beds is studied.
Darcy model states that rate of any flow through the porous medium is
directly proportional to the gradient of the cause of the flow, cross sectional area
and inversely proportional to viscosity of the fluid. Proportionality constant is
known as Permeability of fluid (SI unit is m2). Permeability is the property of
porous materials which indicates the easiness with which a fluid can pass through
it.
fluid.

Using Darcy

model, we can get flow velocity, flow rate etc. of penetrating

3.4 FORMATION OF GOVERNING EQUATION


A small element of length is considered and energy balance equations are applied
to it.
Total convective heat transfer from the porous fin is taking place in two ways. First
way is natural convection between solid surface and ambience. This is common to all
fins irrespective of their type. Second way is peculiar to porous fins which is the main
factor that increases heat transfer rate in porous fins. This is due the interaction of
fluid particles penetrating through porous medium with solid fin material. Darcys
law should be applied to calculate heat transfer due to this method. Total heat transfer
from fin surface is the sum of heat transfer due to both methods. By applying an
energy balance to the differential segment of the porous fin with considering only
convection, mathematically it yields

()
( ( ( + ) = ( ) + (1
( ( )( )

(1)

Here in RHS, first term comes from the Darcy model and second term is applicable
for any fin with insulated tip and finite length, but multiplied by a factor 1 . This
factor is used because some area is not available for heat transfer because of porosity.
From Darcys formulation we get,
Mass flow rate of fluid passing through pores,

(2)
The fluid velocity can be estimated from Darcy model. It yields,

((
= {( ( ))} (3)
Now substituting these values to eq. (1), we can rewrite the LHS of it, by applying

Fouriers law of conduction. This is purely based on the assumption that heat transfer
rate through the solid due to conduction is balanced by the total convective heat
transfer rate. That is, all heat conducted is dissipated to atmosphere by convection.
Now,
() ( + ) =

(4)

Here A is the cross sectional area of pin fin


=

(5)
Now dividing by throughout, and differentiating with respect to , we get,
4 ( 1 ) (
2
4 (

=0
2
)2
)

(6)

Eq. (6) is the one dimensional energy equation of porous pin fin.

CHAPTER 4
NON-DIMENSIONALISATION (SCALING)
4.1 INTRODUCTION
Some quantities are better measured relative to some other appropriate unit called
quantities intrinsic to the system. This can recover the characteristics properties if the
system. Also it is very useful where systems are described by differential equations.
Using non-dimensionalisation, measurement in one system can be compared with
common property measurement in other system which has same intrinsic property as the
first system. This technique, can suggest the parameters which should be used to analyse
the system. But anyway a starting equation is needed.
4.2 STEPS IN NON DIMENSIONALISATION

Identify the independent and dependent variables in the starting equation.

Replace them with scaled (non- dimensionalised) quantity.

Divide throughout by coefficient of highest order polynomial or derivative


term.

Choose judiciously to minimize the number of coefficients.

Rewrite in terms of the scaled quantities.

4.3 SCALING THE ENERGY EQUATION OF POROUS PIN FIN


By defining following scaled quantities,

(; ; ; ) = [
]
; ;
;


(7)
(; ;
) = [

( )3
; 2]
;

(8)

;(1
2 ) = [
2
Eq. (6) can be written as

(1 )

1
0

] ; =


= + (1

2
2 = 1

+ 2

(10)

1
1

(9)

With boundary conditions

= 0, = 0
(11)

And

= 1, = 1

(12)
Now it is well understood that non dimensionalisation can yield governing
differential equations which are simple and easy to solve. This also reduces the number
of terms involved in differential equation.
As we want study the performance of porous pin fin, we need to calculate the
following quantities

= Actual heat transfer rate per unit area of pin fin

= Ideal heat transfer rate per unit area of pin fin

=Un-finned heat transfer rate per unit area of pin fin


Fin Efficiency

Fin Effectiveness

It is very effective to calculate aforesaid quantities in terms of dimensionless


quantities defined earlier. This will reduce the efforts and can give solution rapidly.
=

= ( )
=1
( )/

(13)

{ + (1 )}

(14)

= 0.5

(15)
1
2

Fin Efficiency,

Fin Effectiveness,

(16)

(17)

1
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CHAPTER 5
ADOMIAN DECOMPOSITION METHOD (ADM)

5.1 ADM
ADM is a modern methodology employed to solve governing equations of many
current systems. They are preferred over Taylors series expansion nowadays. ADM was
developed by mathematician George Adomian during 1970-1990.
The ADM which can accurately compute the series solution, is of great interest to
applied sciences. The method can provide the resulting solution as a quickly converging
series with components that are elegantly computed.
Advantages of this method over other methods are I can be applied to any
differential or integral equations without considering whether they are

linear or nonlinear

homogeneous or inhomogeneous

with constant coefficients or with variable coefficients

Besides this, this method is highly capable of minimizing the size of computation
work while still maintaining high accuracy of the numerical solution.
5.2 GENERAL FORM OF ADM
Let there be a differential equation say,
2
2

+
=1

(18)

Let there be a linear second order differential operator , such that =


Now Eq. (13) can be written as
( ) + = 1
2
(19)
1

Assume that inverse operator

14

exists and
= ( )
2
1 (
)

So =

(1 ) (20)

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5.3 SOLUTION USING ADM


Eq. (10) can be written using operator as
= 1 + 2
2
(21)
Now apply inverse operator (two fold integral operator) on both sides of Eq. (16) which

yields,
= ( 0) +

+ 1 1 (2 ) +

0)

( )

2 1

(22)

Where (0) is the dimensionless tip temperature of the fin, noted as0 .
Now,

= = 0 +
1

[ ] +
2

=0

[ ]
(23)
=0

=0

1 And is the Adomian polynomial corresponding to non-linear term 2 .


Also
= 1 1(1 ) +
2 1

(1 )

(24)

So after collecting Adomian polynomials , they can be written as,


2

2 ; 2 + ; 2 ;
; ; ; ; = ; 2
( 0 1 2 3
) ( 0
1 0
2 0
1
2 1
)
(25)

Using Eqs. (9)- (11), non-dimensional temperature expression () can be found out as,
2

(() = 0 + (1 0 + 20) 2! + (21 0 + 3120 + 2 0 ) 4! + (

4
(26)

Now from Eq. (26) we can get the non-dimensional temperature distribution of porous
pin fin in terms of non-dimensional wall temperature 0 . The above relation is very
useful in order to calculate various performance parameters of porous pin fin.
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CHAPTER 6
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In this section, our prime interest is to plot different characteristic curves of


porous pin fin used in electronic cooling. These are plots with performance parameters on
Y axis and thermo physical and thermo geometric properties of porous pin fin on X axis.
Objective behind these plots are to analyse the improvements made by using
porous medium and to investigate actual causes behind those phenomena. Also this plots
can be effective in predicting the optimum values of design parameters for best
performance of fins.

Fig 6.1
Fig 6.1 shows variation of dimensionless temperature with dimensionless length
X with various other parameters like Da, Nu, , and .
From graph it is observed that an increase in Ra improves the effective convective
heat transfer coefficient between the fin and the working fluid which enhances the heat
transfer rate by convection. And thus dimensionless temperature declines as predicted in
Fig. 6.1 (a).
Same trend was observed with porosity parameter . Actually, a high porosity
decreases the effective thermal conductivity of the porous fin due to the removal of solid
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material and thus maintains lower temperature at the fin tip. Fig. 6.1 (b) shows that
dimensionless temperature increases with the increase of thermal conductivity ratio . It
is an obvious result as high value of

always indicates a good thermal

conductive
material which can maintain tip temperature very high and augments the rates of heat
transfer. But variation with Nu predicts a reverse trend.

Fig 6.2
The effect of porosity parameter and Nusselt number on fin performance as a
function of geometric parameter is envisioned in Fig. 6.2. Both the fin performances
are dropped with the increase of these parameters. High value of porosity parameter not
only decreases the effective thermal conductivity but also reduces ideal heat transfer as
defined in Eq. (16) and (17). But the impact of this parameter is not so influential with
low Nu. Thats why both fin efficiency and effectiveness decline with increasing.
Moreover, ideal heat transfer rate also decreased with the increase of Nu as defined in Eq.
(16) and (17) and thus performance is decremented.
On the other hand both fin efficiency and effectiveness enhance with the
geometric parameter. The value of parameter can be increased either by increasing the
radius or by decreasing length of the fin. As the entire fin length cannot be effectively
utilized due to conductive resistance of the fin material thus the fin having smaller length
always transfers better heat and thus fin performance become high.

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Fig 6.3
Fin performances as a function of porosity parameter and Darcy number is shown
in Fig. 6.3. The main viewpoint behind using porous fins is to increase the effective
surface area through which heat is convected to the surrounding fluid. When the value of
approaches to a unit value fin performance parameters become zero as effective thermal
conductivity is reduced to a very less in magnitude.
As the permeability of the porous fin increases, i.e., increasing Da number, the
working fluid ability to penetrate through the fin pores and to convect heat increases but
side by side it increases the ideal heat transfer rate also as defined in Eq. (16) and (17).
Thus a reduction in fin efficiency is noticed. On the other hand there is no impact of this
parameter in calculating heat transfer rate in un-finned condition and thus fin
effectiveness is remarkably increased.

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Fig 6.4
Fig. 6.4 (a) shows the effect of Da and Nu on temperature gradient at fin base as a
function of. As mentioned earlier that a high Da number indicates mainly high
permeability of the porous fin which means more working fluid can pass through it and
thus creates a higher temperature gradient at the fin base. Porous fins having small Da
number behave as solid fins due to their small permeability. The effect of Nu number also
shows the same trend because it increases the heat transfer coefficient over the fin
surface. On the other hand, the dimensionless actual heat transfer rate through the porous
pin fin surface as a function of, Ra and is depicted in Fig. 6.4 (b). It is clear from this

figure that actual heat transfer rate enhances with the increase of these parameters. For a
particular fluid, with increasing the parameter , thermal conductivity of the fin material
is also increased that reduces the conductive resistance in the fin surface and thus heat
transfer rate is enhanced.

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CHAPTER 7
CONCLUSIONS
An effort has been made to determine the temperature distribution, fin performance and
heat transfer rate over a straight porous pin fin that may help in optimum design analysis.
The fin dissipates heat to the environment through natural convection. For the
aforementioned conditions, an approximate analytical technique, namely, Adomian
decomposition method (ADM) has been proposed for the solution of governing fin
equation. This method provides solution in the form of infinite power series and it has
high accuracy and fast convergence. Thus, fin performance parameters and heat transfer
rate can easily be obtained from the explicit form of the temperature distribution. The
following concluding remarks can be drawn from the present study:

Temperature distribution in the porous pin fin is highly dependent upon the
related parameters. A higher tip temperature is maintained with the low value of

the parameters Da, Ra and Nu whereas the parameter shows a reverse trend.

Fin performance is increased with the decrease of and Nu whereas performance is


better with increasing geometric parameter. Moreover, fin efficiency is decreased
with the increase of Darcy number whereas fin effectiveness shows an opposite
nature.

Temperature gradient at fin base is increased with the increase of Da and Nu


whereas it decreases with the increase of geometric parameter.

Actual heat transfer rate is enhanced with the increase of the parameters, Ra and
.

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REFERENCES
1) Dipankar Bhanja, Balaram Kundu, Kwan-Soo Lee- A model on the basis of
analytics for computing maximum heat transfer in porous fins- International
Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 55 (2012) 76117622
2) Dipankar Bhanja, Balaram Kundu- An analytical prediction for performance and
optimum design analysis of porous fins- international journal of refrigeration 34
(2011) 337-352
3) Yu, L.T., Chen, C.K., 1999. Optimization of Circular Fins with Variable Thermal
Parameters, Journal of Franklin Institute 336, p. 77
4) Saedodin, S., Olank, M., 2011. Temperature Distribution in Porous Fins in
Natural Convection Condition, Journal of American Science 7(6), p. 476
5) Adomian, G., 1988. Non-Linear Stochastic System Theory and Application to
Physics, Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht

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