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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTIO
N

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME


Training and development is one of the fundamental operative
functions of human resource management. According to Chinese Scholars
if you plan for a year then you should sow seeds, if you wish to plan for ten
years then you should plant trees, if you wish to plan for lifetime then you
get a developed man.
Every organization needs to have well-trained and experienced people
to perform the activities that have to be done. As jobs have become more
complex, the importance of employee training has increased. When jobs
were simple, easy to learn, there was little need for employees to upgrade or
alter their skills. But the rapid changes taking place in highly sophisticated
and complex society have created increased pressure for organizations to
readopt the products and services produced the manner in which they are
produced and offered, the types of jobs required and the types of skills
necessary to complete these jobs.
In rapidly changing society, employee training is not only an activity
that is desirable but also an activity that an organization must commit
recourses to if it is to maintain a viable and knowledgeable workforce.
A formal definition of training and development is it is any attempt
to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an
employees ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the
employees attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge. The need
for training and development is determined by the employees performance
deficiency computed as follows:
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Training and development need= Standard performance Actual


performance
Successful candidates placed on the jobs need training to perform their
duties effectively workers must be trained to operate machines, reduce scrap
and avoid accidents. It is not only the workers need training supervisors,
managers and executives also need to be developed in order to enable them
to grow and acquire maturity of thought and action. Training and
development constitute and ongoing process in any organization. Training
and development activities are designed, considerable costs notwithstanding
to impart specific skills, abilities and knowledge to employees.
TRAINING, EDUCATION, DEVELOPMENT
Training, education, and development are three terms frequently used.
Often they are used synonymously. But there are some specific but some
fine differences between them. In all training there is some education and in
all education there is some training and two processes can not be separated
from development.
TRAINING
It is a process of learning a sequence of programmed behavior. It is the
application of knowledge. It gives people an awareness of the rules and
procedures to guide their behavior. It attempts to improve their performance
on the current job and prepares them for an intended job.
DEVELOPMENT
It is a related process. It covers not only those activities which improve
job performance but also those which bring about growth of the
personality; help individual in the progress towards maturity an
actualization of potential capacities so that people become not only good

employees but better men and women. In organizations, it is intended to


equip persons to earn promotions and hold greater responsibility. Training
a person for a bigger and higher job is development; this process includes
not only imparting skills but also certain mental and personality attitudes.
EDUCATION
It is the understanding and interpretation of knowledge. It does not
provide definite answers, but rather it develops a
mind that can determine

logical and rational

relationships among pertained variables and

there by understand phenomena. . Education must impart qualities of mind


and character and understanding of basic principles and develop the
capacities of analysis, synthesis and objectively. Usually education is
outside the scope of an organization's functions. An organization can and
does make use of outside institutions in order to support and supplement
its internal training and development efforts.
In todays employment setting development or education is more
appropriate term than training. . Human Resources can utilize their full
potential only when the learning process goes beyond the simple routine.
Though both training and education or development are concerned with
human change and learning they differ considerably in purpose.
While training attempts to help those who will have to perform a
certain specific job and achieve successful role behavior, education or
development s tied to the goals of the individual more than those of the
organization, though there is some overlapping between the goals of the
two?
Training seems an inappropriate title for learning about the complex,
difficult and intangible duties and responsibilities assigned to managers.
Thus while 'training' is viewed as a process by means of which the aptitudes,
skills and capabilities of industrial employees to perform specific jobs are

increased, the term 'development' broadly implies the nature and degree of
change induced among employees through the process of education and
training. The concept of development is thus closely related to education and
training.
Training refers more to instruction in technical and mechanical
development. They often give opportunities to learn skills, but they also
provide inputs for discovering and cultivating basic broadly implies the
nature and degree of change induced among employees through the process
of education and training. The concept of development is thus closely related
to education and training.
Training makes employee more effective and productive. It is
actively and intimately connected with all the personnel and managerial
activities. It is an integral part of the whole management programme.
Training moulds the employees attitudes and helps them achieve a better
co-operation with the company and greater loyalty to it.
There is a distinctive difference between Training and development.
While in training employees learn technical knowledge and skills for
definite purpose, Development is a long-term educational process utilizing a
systematic and organized procedure by which employees learn conceptual
and theoretical knowledge for general purpose.

OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING AT ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL


a) To increase productivity: Instructor can help employees increase their
level of performance on their present assignment. Increased human
performance often leads to increased operational productivity and
increased company profit.
b) To improve quality: Better informed workers are less likely to make

operational mistakes. Quality increases may be in relationship to a


company product or service or in reference to the intangible
organizational employment atmosphere.
c) To improve organizational climate: An endless chain of positive
reactions result from a well planned training programme.

d) To improve health and safety: Proper training can help prevent


industrial accidents. A safer atmosphere leads to more stable mental
attitudes on parts of employees. Managerial mental status would also
improve, if supervisors know they can better them selves through
company designed development programmes.
e) Personal growth: Employees on a personal basis gain individually from
their exposure to educational expressions. Management development
programme seems to give participants a wider awareness, enlarged skills
and enlightens realistic philosophy and make personnel growth possible.

INPUTS IN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT


Any training and development programme must contain inputs which enable
the participants to gain skills, learn theoretical concepts and help acquire
vision to look into the distant future. In addition to these, there is a need' to
impart ethical orientation, emphasize on attitudinal changes and stress upon
decision-making and problem-solving

SKILLS
Training, as was stated earlier, is imparting skills to employees. A worker
needs skills to operate machines, and use other equipment with least damage
and scrap. This is a basic skill without which the operator will not be able to
function. There is also the need for motor skills. Motor skills (or
psychomotor skills, as they are sometimes called) refer to performance of
specific physical activities. These skills involve learning to move various
parts of one's body in response to certain external and internal stimuli.

Common motor skills include walking; riding a bicycle, tying a shoelace,


throwing a ball, and driving a cars Motor skills are needed for all
employees-from the janitor to the general manager. Employees, particularly
supervisors and executives, need interpersonal skills popularly known as the
people skills. Interpersonal skills are needed to understand oneself and
others better, and act accordingly. Examples of interpersonal skills include
listening, persuading, and showing an understanding of others' feelings.

ATTITUDINAL CHANGES

Attitudes represent feelings and beliefs of individuals towards others.


Attitudes affect motivation, satisfaction and job commitment. Negative
attitudes need to be converted into positive attitudes. Changing negative
attitudes is difficult because-(i) employees refuse to change, (ii) they have
prior commitments, and (iii) information needed to change attitudes may not
be sufficient. Nevertheless, attitudes must be changed so that employees feel
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committed t6 the organization, are motivated for better performance, and


derive satisfaction from their jobs and the work environment.

DECISION MAKING AND PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS


Decision making and problem solving skills focus on methods and
techniques for making organizational decisions and solving work- related
problems. Learning related to decision-making and problem solving seeks to
improve trainees abilities to define structure problems, collect and analyze
information, generate alternative solutions and make an optimal decision
among alternatives. Training of this type is typically provided to potential
managers, supervisors and professionals.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
LITERATUERE SURVEY OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
PROGRAMME IN GROWTH OREINTED ENTERPRISES
This literature survey is part of the background work for an investigation
into the needs of growth oriented enterprises, GOEs (Trulsson, 2000). The
main study aims to understand what enterprises need to grow and how the
ILO can assist in furthering the aspirations of those that do want to grow.
The literature survey was undertaken to get a better appreciation of the
issues at hand. Since the sample in the main study is numerically rather
small, the study was also undertaken for purposes of triangulation, i.e. to

have another point of reference in assessing the pervasiveness and accuracy


of the findings.
The literature survey first shortly summarizes what we learned from our
previous study of GOEs. That study focused more on how to define GOEs,
but does also provide some evidence of enterprise needs. We then turn to
what other research has found about enterprise constraints in the subSaharan region. First we look at a couple of surveys conducted in several
countries in the region, and then we look more specifically at research that
has been conducted in the three countries selected for the main study, i.e.
Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The literature survey ends with a summary
of findings. The findings are presented under two general headings, needs
pertaining to internal and external factors. In the former case we address
issues related to: finance, market orientation, human resources and more
generally inputs.
In the latter case we address issues related to the "enabling environment",
i.e. infrastructure, policies and regulations, and networks/collaboration.
Developing your product: Many MSEs do not see the importance of
constantly keeping abreast with developments within their field. Once they
have found a formula that works they tend to stick with it. Only when it is
too late they will find that competitors are beating them at their own game,
and do not realize what went wrong. For MSEs to be prosperous and remain
that way, they need to stay on top of their field. They need to know what
competitors are doing and be open for various kinds of changes. The more
successful ones do. It was thus perceived to be a need to instill a mentality of
change, and develop methods whereby frontier awareness can be developed.

Managing your staff: Many MSEs, and even medium-scaled enterprises, are
run by a single owner/manager. These people tend to want to control
everything and delegate very little authority. As an enterprise grows, or when
the entrepreneurs add on several business ventures to their business
empire, their ability to keep control over everything dissipates. And in fact,
many enterprises fail to survive because the entrepreneurs are not focused
enough or willing to delegate authority so that they can spend enough time
with each venture.
There is thus a need to sensitize owner/managers to the importance of
delegating authority and in the process try to provide ideas of how
competence and trustworthiness among higher ranking staff can be
ascertained. There was also a need to develop good practices toward lower
ranking personnel in order to have commitment and reliability.

Skills development

To develop human resources takes a long time, but it must be done. A


good start is to create a new school curriculum where emphasis is
placed not only on reproducing knowledge, but also on developing it.

For education to have an impact on productivity it has to be relevant


to the needs of business and the relevant industrial technology.

Technology support

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Extension services to industry need to be developed.

Knowledge of standards for production should become better and the


state should take larger measures to enforce them.

The availability of consulting services needs to be improved.

More emphasis needs to be placed on identifying industrial clusters


and supporting their development.

Financial support

The availability of risk-capital needs to be improved, especially so for


those prospective clients who have no or little collateral.

RESEARCH METHOLODGY
Before this study was conducted, it was made clear to all concerned people
that this study is only for academic interests & not for any other purpose.
They were asked to give their true opinion & response. The questionnaire
prepared for the purpose was distributed among100 persons & all of them
responded to the questionnaire. Some of the employees appreciated the
efforts made & suggested that such studies dealing with different aspects or
activities of the organization should be carried out by the management for
the benefit of the employees & the organization.

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Research problem
The research problem of this study is to identify training needs of employees
of the company for providing them best training programmes
according to their requirement. The main problem is to analysis the
training needs of employees means what they want for increase their
skills and knowledge.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


The organization where the study was conducted has more than 50 years of
tradition. The organizational group is quite large & deals in manufacturing
of textiles. The management has made rapid progress but the training needs
of the employees are not fully recognized by the management.
The study was on training and development programme The main
objectives of the study centered around:1. To identify the training needs who need training and what do
they need to learn?
2. To check which training method used in organization for the
development of an individual and organization.
3. To check that the programme of training and development
helping employees to perform their work to required
standards.
4. To check the effectiveness of these training and development
programme.

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Summary and analysis

In the presentation ab
ove there are a number of issues that keep coming back from the overview
of studies undertaken in the sub-Sahara region, e.g. financial needs, market
focus, and access to inputs. However, areas of concern that were only lightly
touched upon in the PAPA and RPED studies, have gained weight in the
country by country analysis, e.g. the state of infrastructure, lack of advisory
services, corruption etc. We have also started to see that there may be
differences related to the sector of operations, and whether the enterprises
are operating in urban or rural areas.
Departing from the enterprise level to the policy level, it is obvious that the
development of the enabling environment varies from one country to another
in the region covered by the RPO, and that the state of the enabling
environment does have a considerable impact on enterprise growth.
Let us so relate the findings from the regional overview with the country
specific ditto, and highlight some key issues. At the enterprise level, we will
look at the two major issues that came out from both the general and the
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country-by-country overview, i.e. access to finance and market orientation.


Taking into account also the findings from the general overview, we will add
networking and human resources. We will also take a look at the economic
environment, raised in both overviews, where issues pertaining to
infrastructure, regulations and the macro economic climate in general are
discussed.

Human resources
Human resources are very important for enterprise growth. This becomes
increasingly important the higher up in the organization we get. Thus, the
managing director will be the key person. A good manager will pick the right
people, give the lower staff the right incentives and keep adequate control.
S/he will also make sure that complacency with performance never spreads
in the organization.

INTRODUCTION OF THE ORGANISATION


Brief About the Metro group
So long as we nave confidence in the
Value of the goal & excitement at
The prospect of setting forth into
Familiar territory & the will to do
New & good things.

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I have no doubt that the Future of


India & both safe & glorious.

Methods and Techniques used in job of Training and


Development programme:
A multitude of methods of training are used to train employees. Training
methods are categorized into two groups-(i) on-the-job and (ii) off-the-job
methods. On-the-job' methods ' refer to methods that are applied in the
workplace, while the employee is actually working. Off-the job methods be
used away from workplaces.
Training techniques represent the medium of imparting skills and
knowledge to employees. Obviously, training techniques are the means
employed in the training methods. Among the most commonly used
techniques are lectures, films, audio cassettes, case studies, role playing,
video-tapes and simulations.
MANAGEMENT PROVIDE OFF THE JOB METHODS TO THEIR
EMPLOYEES

Methods
Off the Job
Lectures
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On the Job
Programmed Instruction

Audio Visuals
Coaching
Job Rotation
Committee Assignment

Computer-Assisted Instruction
Stimulation
Case Study
Role-Playing
Vestibule-Training
Sensitivity Training

1. Lectures: Lecture is a verbal presentation of information by an


instructor to a large audience .the lecture is presumed to possess a
considerable depth of knowledge of the subject at hand. A virtue of this
method is that can be used for very large groups, and hence cost per
trainee is low. This method is mainly used in colleges and universities,
though its application is restricted in training factory employees.

2. Audio-Visuals: Audio-visuals include television slides, overheads, videotypes and, films. These can be used to provide a wide range of realistic
examples of job conditions and situations in the condensed period of time.
Further, the quality of the presentation can be controlled and will remain
equal for all training groups. But, audio-visuals constitute a one-way system
of communication with no scope for the audience to raise doubts for
clarification. Further, there is no flexibility' of presentation from audience to
audience.
3. Coaching: When a manager takes an active role in guiding another
manager, we refer to his activity as coaching. The effective gives guidance
through direction, advice criticism and suggestions in an attempt to aid the
growth of employee. The technique of managers coaching other managers as
the advantages that goes with learning by doing, particularly the
opportunities for high interaction and rapid teed back on performance. Its
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two disadvantages are


1. Its tendencies~ to perpetuate the current managerial styles
And practice in the organization and
2. Its heavy reliance on the coach's ability to be a good teacher
As a staff assistant to a manager, the understudy gets the

opportunity to

learn the manager's job. However, it is not usual that this merely becomes
the performing of "paper shuffling" chores. Should this be the case, or
should the manager

be threatened by the understudy, the learning

experience becomes quite limited. In contrast, in those organizations where


managers recognize that their own promotion and advancement depends on
preparing underlings to satisfactorily move into their jobs, managers are
motivated to prepare their understudies for their current jobs.

4. Job Rotation:

represent an excellent method for broadening the

manager or potential manager, and for turning specialists into generalists.


In addition to increasing the manager's experience and allowing the
manager to absorb new information, it can reduce boredom and stimulate
the, development of new ideas. It can also provide opportunities for a more
comprehensive and, reliable evaluation of the manager by his or her
supervisors.

5. Committee Assignments: Assignment to a committee can provide an


opportunity for the employee to share in managerial decision making, to
learn by watching others, and to investigate specific organizational
problems. When committees are of an "ad hoc" or temporary nature, they
often take on task force activities designed to delve into a particular
problem, ascertain alternative solutions, and make a recommendation for
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implementing a solution. These temporary assignments can be both


interesting and rewarding to the employee's growth.

ON THE JOB METHODS :


Majority of industrial training is of the on-the-job training type. OJT is
conducted, work site and in the context of the job. Often, it is informal, as
when an experienced worker shows a trainee how to perform the Job tasks.

1. Programmed Instruction (PI). This is a method where training is


offered without the intervention of a trainer. Information is provided to the
trainee in blocks, either in a book form of through a teaching machine. After
reading each block of material, the learner must answer a question about it.
Feedback in the form of correct answers is provided after each response.
Thus, programmed instruction (PI) involves:
I. Presenting questions, facts, or problems to the learner.
2. Allowing the person to respond.
3. Providing feedback on the accuracy of his or her answers.
4. If the answers are correct, the learner proceeds to the
Next block. If not, he or she repeats the same.
The main advantage of PI is that it is self-paced-trainees can progress
through the programmes at their own speed.

Strong

Motivation is

provided to the learner to repeat learning. Material is also structured and


self- contained, offering much scope for practice. The disadvantages are
not to be ignored. The scope for learning is less, compared to other
methods of training. Cost of preparing books, manuals and machinery is
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considerably high.

2. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAl): This is an extension of the PI


method. The speed, memory and data manipulation capabilities of the
computer permit greater utilization of basic PI concept. For example, the
learners response may determine the frequency and difficulty level of the
next frame. CAI is an improved system when compared to the PI method
in at least three respects.
First, CAI provides for accountability as tests are taken on the computer
so that the management can monitor each trainee's progress and needs
second, a CAI training programme can also be modified easily to reflect
technological innovations in the equipment for which the employee is
being trained. Third, this training also tends to be more flexible in. that
trainees can usually use the computer almost any time they want, and thus
get training when they prefer. Not to be ignored is the fact that feedback
from CAI is as rich and colorful as modem electronic games, complete
with audio instructions and visual displays. A deterrent with regard to is its
high cost, but repeated use may justify the cost.
3. Stimulation: A simulator is any kind .of equipment or Technique
that duplicates as nearly as possible the actual conditions
encountered on .the job. Simulation then, is an attempt to create a
realistic decision-making trainee. For example, activities of an
organization may be simulated and the trainee may be asked to
make a decision in support to those activities. The results of those
decisions are reported back to the trainee with an explanation of
what would have happened had they actually been made in the

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workplace. The trainee learns from this feedback and. improves


his/her subsequent simulation and workplace decisions.
4. Case study: It is a written description of an actual situation in
business which provokes, in the reader, the need to written description
of an actual situation in business which provokes, in the reader, the
need to done. Taken from the actual experiences of organizations, these
cases represent attempts to describe, as accurately as possible, real
problems that managers have faced. Trainees study the cases to
determine problems, analyze causes, develop alternative solutions,
select the best one, and implement it. Case study can provide
stimulating discussions among participants, as well as excellent
opportunities for individuals to defend their analytical and judgment
abilities. It appears to be an ideal method to promote decision-making
abilities within the constraints of limited data.

5. Role playing: it generally focuses on emotional (mainly human relations)


issues rather than actual ones the essence of role playing is to create a
realistic situation, as in case study, and then have the trainees assume the
parts of specific personalities in the situation. For example, a male worker
may assume the role of a female supervisor, and the supervisor may assume
the role of a male worker. Then, both may be given a typical work situation
and asked to respond as they expect others to do. The consequence is a better
understanding among individuals.
Role playing helps promote interpersonal relations. Attitude change is
another result of role playing. Case study and role playing are used in
MDPs.

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6. Vestibule training: it utilizes equipment which closely resembles the


actual ones used on the job. However, training takes place away from the
work environment.
A special area or a room is set aside from the main production area and is
equipped with furnishings similar to those found in the actual production
area. The trainee is then permitted to learn under simulated conditions,
without disrupting ongoing operations.. A primary advantage of vestibule
training is that it relieves the employee from the pressure of having to
produce while learning. The emphasis is on learning skills required by the
job. Of course, the cost of duplicate facilities and a special trainer is an
obvious disadvantage.
The advantage of simulation is the opportunity to 'create an environment'
similar to real situations the managers incur, but without the high costs
involved should the actions prove undesirable. The disadvantages are: (i) it
is difficult to duplicate the pressures and realities of actual decision-making
on the job; and (ii) individuals often act differently in real-life situations than
they do in acting out a simulated exercise.

7. Sensitivity training: it uses small numbers of trainees, usually fewer than


12 in a group. They meet with a passive trainer and gain insight into their
own and others', behavior. Meetings have no agenda, are held away from
workplaces, and questions deal with the 'here and now' of the group process.
Discussions focus on 'why participants behave as they do, how they perceive
one another, and the feelings and emotions generated in the interaction
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process.

The objectives of sensitivity training are to provide the participants with


increased awareness of their own behavior and how others perceive themgreater sensitivity to the behavior of others, and increased understanding of
groups processes. Specific results sought include increased ability to
empathies with others, improved listening skills, greater openness, increased
tolerance of individual differences and increased conflict-resolution skills.
The drawback of this method is that once the training is over, the
participants are themselves again and: they resort to their old habits.
Sensitivity training can go by a variety of names laboratory training,
encounter groups, or T-groups (training groups).

Types of Informal and Formal Training and


Development
Informal Training and Development
Informal training and development are rather casual and incidental.
Typically, there are no specified training goals as such, nor are their ways to
evaluate if the training actually accomplished these goals or not. This type of
training and development occurs so naturally that many people probably
aren't aware that they're in a training experience at all. Probably the most
prominent form of informal training is learning from experience on the job.
Examples are informal discussions among employees about a certain topic,
book discussion groups, and reading newspaper and journal articles about a
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topic. A more recent approach is sending employees to hear prominent


speakers, sometimes affectionately called "the parade of stars".

Informal training is less effective than formal training if one should


intentionally be learning a specific area of knowledge or skill in a timely
fashion. Hardly any thought is put into what learning is to occur and whether
that learning occurred or not.
(However, this form of training often provides the deepest and richest
learning because this form is what occurs naturally in life.)
Other-Directed learning
This form, of course, is where someone other than the learner drives what
training activities will occur. Other-directed, informal training includes, e.g.,
supervisors sending employees to training about diversity, policies, sexual
harassment in the workplace.
Other-directed, formal training includes where someone other than the
learner specifies the training goals will be met in training, how those goals
will be met and how evaluation will occur to verify that the goals were met.
This form of learning is probably the most recognized because it includes
the approach to learning as used in universities, colleges and training
centers.

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This form of learning typically grants diplomas and certificates. Note that
this form of training, although readily available in universities, etc., is
usually somewhat "generic", that is, the program is geared to accommodate
the needs of the most learners and not be customized to any one learner.
Therefore, a learner may pay tuition fees to learn knowledge and skills that
he or she may not really need.
Another form of "other-directed', formal training is employee development
plans. The plans identify performance goals, how the goals will be reached,
by when and who will verify their accomplishment.
"Other-directed', formal training can be highly effective for helping learners
gain desired areas of knowledge and skills in a timely fashion. A drawback is
that learners can become somewhat passive, counting on the "expert" to
show them what they should be doing and when.

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Evaluation of the Programme

The last stage in the training and development process is the evaluation of
results. Since huge sums of money are spent on training and development,
how far the programme has been useful must be judged/determined.
Evaluation helps determine the results of the training and development
programme. In practice, however, organizations either overlook or lack
facilities for evaluation.

Need for Evaluation:


The main objective of evaluating the training programmes
is to determine if they are accomplishing a specific training objective that is,
correcting performance deficiencies. A second reason for evaluation is to
ensure that any changes in trainee capabilities are due to the training
programme and not due to any other conditions. Training programmes
should be evaluated to determine their cost effectiveness. Evaluation is
useful to explain programme failure, should it occur. Finally, credibility of

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training and development is greatly enhanced when it is proved that the


organization has benefited tangibly from it.

Principles of Evaluation
Evaluation of the training programme must be based on the following
principles:
1. Evaluation specialist must be clear about the goals and
Purposes of evaluation.
2. Evaluation must be continuous.
3. Evaluation must be specific.
4. Evaluation must provide the means and focus for trainers
To be able to appraise themselves, their practices, and
Their products.
5. Evaluation must be based on objective methods and
Standards.
6. Realistic target dates must be set for each phase of the
Evaluation process. A sense of urgency must be developed
But deadlines that are unreasonably high will result in
Evaluation.
Training might be defined as the process of refining & increasing the skill &
abilities of an individual, towards the best performance of a particular job; in
which training is imparted. Training aims at getting a desired change in the
individual behavior towards the best attainment of common objectives.

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No organization has a choice of whether to train its employees or not, the


only choice is that of methods. The primary concern of an organization is its
viability, & hence its efficiency. There is continuous environmental pressure
for efficiency, & if the organization does not respond to this pressure, it may
find itself rapidly losing whatever share of market it has.
Training imparts skills & knowledge to employees in order that they
contribute to the organizations efficiency & be able to cope up with the
pressures of changing environment. The viability of an organization depends
to a considerable extent on the skills of different employees, especially that
of managerial cadre, to relate the organization with its environment.
Training & development may be seen in the context of a continuum in which
training content proceeds in continuity rather than in discrete form because
an individual proceeds in his job hierarchy & what he has learned at a
particular job is transferred to another job because of transfer of learning.

Training-development continuum has manual training at the one end &


philosophy at the other end. Managerial personnel have greater needs for
conceptual & human relations skills as compared to job-related skills.
Therefore, their need for training does not remain confined to the

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development of skills needed for specific jobs. They require skills &
competence for future managerial jobs besides their present jobs.
Training programmes offer something for everyone from pre-employment
preparation for the first job to pre-retirement courses for those who are due
to retire soon.
The range of training methods is such that they can provide opportunity to
the unskilled, to become skilled; so that they could be promoted at various
levels of the organization. Training methods are means of attaining the
desired objectives in a learning situation.
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES AT:
The basic aim of training is to induce a suitable change in the individual
concerned. It can be useful in improving the transformation process that
takes place in the organization in terms of processing of inputs to outputs.
Therefore, training needs have to be related both in terms of the
organizations demands that of individuals. There may be numerous
situations & the organization will have to identify the training needs of its
employees. There are various methods for identifying the training needs of
employees.
With the help of questionnaire we analyze the training need. We analyze that
they need job related training to increase their job knowledge they want such
kind of training session which increase the productivity, improve their level
of morale. Most of the employees want to work as a part of team with
different kind of work. So it proves that they need such kind of training
session which builds cooperation among team members. They need such
kind of training session which fills their need of technical knowledge
according to their job. They want training session on the job or at workplace
because it doesnt waste their time. They want training method will be like
28

case study, role play programmed instruction. They want more theoretical
knowledge than practical things. According to them training session would
be conducted once in a month.

There are training sessions have been held after the shift of ea employ
mostly after 30 clock. The method use in the training session is hand outs,
visual aids & presentation lectures, seminars. By analyze these sessions they
want more theoretical things.
METHODS OF TRAINING
Training programmes offer something for everyone-from pre-employment
preparation for the first job to pre-retirement courses for those who are due
to retire soon. By methods of training we mean the manner or the style, in
which training is imparted. There are separate systems for imparting training
to operatives & managerial personnel.
Thus, methods of training are categorized into two categories

METHODS OF TRAINING FOR OPERATIVES


The methods of training for operatives could be divided into the following
categories
i.

29

On-the-job training

ii.

Off-the-job training

iii.

Mixed approach to training

I. ON-THE-JOB TRAINING
Under this system of training, the workers are trained; while they are put on
their respective jobs i.e. the workers are first put on jobs; & then trained, in
the art of handling the job either by the immediate superior or by some
senior experienced worker.
For some type of jobs, this method of training seems imperative as
If you want a man to learn swimming;
First plunge him into water.
There are certain jobs in which no amount of theoretical training will do.
The requirement in such cases is to first put the person on the job; & then
initiate the process of training.
II. OFF-THE-JOB TRAINING
Under this method of training, workers are first trained at a place away
from the job; & are placed on jobs, only after training process is over.

1. VESTIBULE TRAINING

30

Vestibule training is a special part of the plant where qualified personnel


impart training to workers. An attempt is made to create an environment for
work as nearly as possible similar to that which the workers might face in
real work situations.
The idea behind vestibule training is that unless & until a person
successfully undergoes the vestibule training; he/she is not allowed to be
placed on the actual job.
2. CLASSROOM TRAINING
Under this method of training, workers are trained in the theory of handling
jobs in a classroom manner. The workers might be trained in a classroom
either in the enterprise itself or sent to training institutes. The scheme of
training usually consists of
Lectures, delivered by experts on various aspects of workperformance.
Group discussions among trainees.
III. MIXED APPROACH TO TRAINING
There are some methods of training workers which involve both an
element of theoretical & practical training.

1. APPRENTICESHIP TRAINING

31

Under this method, a trainee being called an apprentice works under the
direct supervision of an expert, for a long time. During
training, the apprentice is imparted both

this process of

theoretical & practical

training by the expert. Apprenticeship training is compulsory in certain


occupations. Some of the areas for such training include
Building construction
Skilled crafts, like those of mechanics, electricians, etc.
Professional lines like chartered accountancy
2. INTERNSHIP TRAINING
Under internship training, there is an agreement between industrial houses &
training institutes that workers would be trained by the latter in the theory of
work-mechanics; & the workers getting practical work experience at
industrial houses.
This method of training is quite prevalent in the medical line; where the
young doctors get theoretical training in medical colleges & acquire
practical experience by working in hospitals the young doctor being
termed as an intern.
METHODS OF TRAINING FOR MANAGERIAL PERSONNEL
Some of the important & popular methods of managerial development are as
follows:1. EXPERIENCE
Experience is a conventional method of the development of a manager.
Under this method, a person who is to act & perform as a manager is placed
on some appropriate managerial position; & is expected to develop as a
manager through learning from the experience of others.

32

Experience is a costly & irrational method of managerial development. This


method is usually followed in private organizations.

2. COACHING
Under this method, a new manager is taught the art of managing by a senior
experienced manager, known as the coach. The extent & quality of
managerial development of the new manager depends on the skills of the
coach & the interest taken by the coach in the development of the new
person.
This is a popular method of managerial development & is widely followed
in many organizations. The necessity of this method arises because of the
fact that newly recruited managers require instructions & guidance from a
senior manager to adjust them fully.
3. UNDERSTUDY
Under this method, a junior manager works under the instructions &
guidance of some senior manager; with the intention that after the period of
training, the junior manager will take over the position of the senior
manager. During the period of training, the junior manager is called an
understudy.
Understudy as method of managerial development is quite popular in cases
where some responsible senior manager is about to retire; & the organization
plans to get his best substitute through imparting training to some good
junior manager making him act as an understudy.

33

4. POSITION ROTATION
Position rotation is that method of managerial development; whereby, one
manager is rotated among several managerial positions at the horizontal
level in different departments, at regular intervals of time.
This method widens the horizons of knowledge of the manager who is so
rotated among several positions. Through position rotation, inter
departmental co-ordination is greatly facilitated.
5. SPECIAL PROJECTS
A special project might be assigned to a manager; which is a piece of task
falling outside the scope of his normal functions.
Usually a special project team is created, in which a manager is provided
with a group of subordinates; the manager acting as the head of the team.
During the continuance of the project work, the manager develops sharp
analytical abilities; & is also able to appreciate the functioning of the
organization.
6. PLACEMENT ON COMMITTEES
In management, a committee is a special type of micro-organization; which
is constituted for discussing & making recommendations on some complex
or controversial issue. Its members are representatives from several quarters
holding different viewpoints on the issue affecting their interests.
Placement of a manager on a committee is a device for imparting training in
human relations making him a better manager.
7. SELECTIVE READINGS
Many organizations maintain libraries well equipped with latest books on
management, & professional magazines & journals containing latest

34

research findings conducted in the area of management & allied commercial


disciplines.

8. SPECIAL COURSES
Management institutes & other professional management bodies offer
specialized courses in various areas of management to foster managerial
development in the economy.
Several progressive organizations send their selected executives to
management institutes for undertaking a study of any of the specialized
management courses.
9. CASE STUDY (or PROBLEM SOLVING) METHOD
This method of executive development aims at the development of decision
making skills among managers. A manager is provided with a case from a
real life organizational situation; pertaining to a specific managerial area.
This method is a way of imparting decision making skills to managers
the biggest asset of any manager.

10. CONFERENCES
A conference is a meeting held for consultations among eminent
personalities on a particular discipline through exchange of views on the
theme of conference among themselves.
A conference reflects a pooling of expertise & experience of managers &
experts drawn from several organizations. Through this method, managers
learn from the expertise & experience of others & make the benefit of this

35

knowledge available to the organization through practicing refined


managerial concepts, principles & techniques.

11. ROLE PLAYING


Role playing technique of managerial development is almost similar to
plays or dramas staged by the artistes. Under the role-playing method, an
artificial managerial situation is created in contemplation of some real life
situation. This situation is explained to the participants in role-playing; &
each one is assigned a specific role. Each participant acts out samples of real
business behavior.
Some situations created for role playing might be: Handling complaint made by a customer
Attending to employee grievances
Discussion on line-staff conflict
Problem created by labour-strike
Role-playing is training in practical manager ship.
12. SENSITIVITY - TRAINING (or T GROUP TRAINING)
Under this method, there is a group of ten to fifteen participants called the Tgroup i.e. training group. This group is sent to a place, away from the job,
under the guidance of a leader.
It is training in interpersonal relations; wherein the emphasis is on
maintaining emotional stability through appreciating viewpoints of others
& tolerating criticism of ones own valuable ideas. It is a process of giving
& receiving feedback.

36

13. BRAIN STORMING


In a brain-storming session, a problem is posed before a group of trainee
managers; & ideas invited from them for solution to the problem.
In brain-storming, the emphasis is on the quantity of ideas generated by
various trainees; & not on the quality of ideas; because it is illogical to
expect qualitative ideas to come from each & every one as soon as the
problem is posed for solving.
In this method, one idea leads to a chain reaction. Trainees learn to acquire
creativity for immediate problem solving on the basis of their own
knowledge & borrowing from the suggestions to others. Patience &
tolerance are also developed by managers in this process.
14. MULTIPLE MANAGEMENT
Under this method of managerial development; there are usually two Boards
of Directors a Senior Board & a Junior Board.
The junior board studies the organizational problems & offers various
suggestions but the final decisions being taken by the senior board.
No person can be a member of the Senior Board unless he has served for at
least some time period on the junior board. The Junior Board is a training
ground for getting eligibility to placement on the senior board.

37

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE TRAINING


Training is not offered merely as a solution to the long term problem of
making the enterprise a success. Training costs money, time & effort.
Therefore, the executives who establish & initiate training programme
demand some practical return.
Following are the important factors determining the significance of training.
1. BETTER ORGANISATIONAL PERFORMANCE
There is a manifold improvement in the organizational performance
manifested in the following spheres
More production in lesser time
High quality production
Lesser wastages of raw material
Better handling of machines, causing lesser depreciation
Thus, the enterprise is able to maximize its profits, in a rational &
legitimate manner through affecting maximum reduction in the cost
of production.
2. APPRECIATION OF MANPOWER ASSET
Expenditure on training programmes, in an organization, is a sort of
investment in the human asset. It is a permanent advantage to the
organization; which leads to an appreciation in the value of the human
asset. Through the process of training, the potentials of people are
38

sought to be fully exploited; & a second line of competent personnel


is gradually developed.

3. BETTERMENT

OF

RECRUITMENT & SELECTION

PROCEDURES
The process of training brings to surface the deficiencies in
personnel; which gives a feedback to management for effecting
improvements in the recruitment & selection procedures, hitherto,
followed by the organization.
4. ORGANISATIONAL GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT
With trained employees at its disposal, an organization can introduce or
install new and better techniques of production. This leads to
organizational growth and development, in the long run.
5. MINIMISATION

OF LABOUR TURNOVER

Training leads to a minimization of labour term; & provides an


organization with a dedicated & stable labour force which is so essential
for successful management. This is so because; through training the
motivation & morale of employees are up; as evidenced by the adage that
a bad workman quarrels with his tools.
6. BETTER HUMAN RELATIONS
Training helps in the development of better human relations in the
organization that is good superior-subordinate relationship & good
relations among subordinates. Good human relations develop as the fact

39

of imparting training to employees gives them a feeling that they are


being cared for by the management.

7. WIDER SPAN OF MANAGEMENT


Trained employees require less attention of the supervisors; as they can
attend to their jobs otherwise efficiently without requiring frequent
consultations with the superiors. As such, training facilitates a wider span
of management; which leads to a reduction in the administration costs.
8. REDUCTION IN INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS
With trained employees, the incidence of industrial accidents is
minimized. Not only do employees gain out of it; but also the employer,
whose liability for workman compensation is reduced to the minimum.
9. FACILITY IN CO-ORDINATION
Training is an aid to co-ordination; as trained employees better
appreciate one anothers viewpoint & better know how to link up their
performances with those of others.
10. TECHNICAL NATURE OF THE PRESENT-DAY WORKENVIRONMENT
The present day work environment is industrial enterprises is so
technical that without training, employees may not be able to do justice
with their jobs. This makes training a matter of practical necessity.
11. JOB-SATISFACTION

40

Trained employees who do their work with dedication derive an


intangible pleasure, technically called job-satisfaction. Job-satisfaction
makes employees better & happy, in their day-to-day lives.

12. CHANCES FOR PROMOTION /ADVANCEMENT


Training opens the doors to promotion for employees. Having acquired
better skills for performance through training; many trained employees
become eligible for promotion.
13. PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT
Training helps employees build self-confidence & leads to their
personality development. Self-confidence acquired in this manner, helps
employees in all walks of life.
14. HIGH MARKET VALUE
Training enhances the market value of the employees. They can seek
better avenues for their career development outside the organization.
15. FEELING OF HOMELY ENVIRONMENT
Trained employees are easily able to adjust themselves to the worksituations. They can turn formal into informal homely environment.

41

DATA COLLECTION
For the successful completion of this study, the data is collected both from
primary as well as secondary sources.

a) Primary sources :The study of training needs of employees is done with the help of
questionnaires which were supplied to the employees for filling. These
questionnaires form primary source of data for the study.
b) Secondary sourcesThe secondary source consists of that information which is being gathered
from the website of the company group from company profile.
Sample design
Sample design of this research is 100 which distributed e among the
employees in order to analyze the training and development programme.
Data analysis
Different data & information is presented in different forms which gave the
data a more concise & easily understandable look. Data is presented in form
of tables, pie-charts, various diagrams & pictures where it is possible to do
so.

42

ANNEXURE
1. Identify the type of the training that should be imparted to you to
enhance your efficiency?
Job related
Behavior related

Job related
55%

Behavior related
45%

Interpretation: we concluded after analyze of the training need of


employees that they want job related training to increase their skills
according their job.

43

2. Why an employee want training?


To increase productivity
To improve performance
To improve morale

To increase

To improve

productivity
35%

performance
45%

To improve morale
20%

Interpretation: we concluded that employee want such kind of training


session which increase productivity and improve morale among themselves.

3: Why you want behavior related training?

44

To increase interpersonal skills


To increase soft skills
To increase interpersonal skills
32%

to increase soft skills


68%

Interpretation: we concluded that employee wants behavior related training


for increasing their soft skills.

4. How frequently do you want training programme?


Weekly

45

Monthly
Fortnight

Weekly
15%

Monthly
22%

Fortnight
63%

Interpretation: Employee wants training session fortnightly because it


doesnt effect on their jobs.

5. What training do you still need to perform your current


job competently?
46

On the job
Off the job

On the job
78%

Off the job


22%

Interpretation: Employee wants on the job training sessions which are on


the work place.

6. Through which of the following method, would you like


the training to be conducted for you?
Lectures
47

Case study
seminars
Role play

lectures
39%

Case study
10%

seminars
39%

Role play
12%

Interpretation: We interpretive that employee wants training method which


is more practical which is more interactive like seminars.

7. Do you require a high degree of technical knowledge for your job?


Yes
No

Yes
85%
48

No
15%

Interpretation: After survey we analyze that they want such kind of


training session which increase their technical knowledge.

8. Please specify your training requirement.


K-Knowledge ( job knowledge)
S-Skill ( technical, soft skill)
B-Behavior ( interpersonal, leadership)

K-Knowledge
65%

49

S-Skill
13%

B-Behavior
22%

Interpretation:

After analyze the data we concluded that trainee or

employee want such kind of training session which are related with the
knowledge e.g. job knowledge and some of them wanted to improve
interpersonal and leadership skills.

9. What difference would you be able to be making after attending


the training programme?

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

50

They give best performance in their work.


Improvement in communication skills.
Increase in productivity.

FINDINGS
51

The employees never over felt or asked the management about the

training required by them. The office staff & workers taken in this study
replied in sharing their views about the training needs that they felt.

The organization provides assistance to its employees who want to

improve further. It provides the technical instructions to workers by


specialized personnel from outside the organization.

The HR manager is guiding all through her valuable experience that

how can the employees increase their knowledge which is likely to


contribute more effectively for the efficient functions of the organization.

CONCLUSION
It is rightly said,
Practice makes a man perfect.
Training is ahead of practice & a good training when put into practice
makes a raw-head a perfect master. Therefore training is very essentially
52

required for the efficient functioning of an organization. In this scientific


age, the imparting of training is rather a more important factor. The old
systems are undergoing a rapid change to keep pace with the changing
circumstances & thus without proper training, the progress of an
organization may be affected adversely.
The analysis of this study reveals that although the employees do not find
any difficulty in the performance of their duties yet they feel need of some
training in their fields of work. They are sure that training can bring them
awareness about the fool proof methods of doing a job must result in
overall improvement in the working of an organization.
Training is very useful; it can bring bright results in the operation of an
organization. But the success of training largely depends upon the response
from the trainees. For this purpose, all-round interest is required to be
infused in the employees. Training instructions are made interesting; the
employees should also be realized that they are being helped to attain
knowledge in various procedures of the department for their betterment of
employment career in an organization. When they are better equipped with
the sound knowledge of their jobs they can qualify for higher positions or
responsibilities in an organization in the years to come.
This will lure the employees to take training courses seriously & this will
surely meet the aim of holding of training programmes.
The main objective of HR department is to improve the capabilities of
employee through the training. It believes in the concept of right person for
the

right job and encourages teamwork and believes that it enhances

problem- Solving capabilities. It strives to attract, develop and retain the best
talent

available. As a part of the overall corporate attempt to significantly

upgrade the technical and behavioral skills of its employees. It arranges


developmental programs like supervisory developmental programs. For this
53

company conduct a number of in house training programs every year


involving the faculty from plant & HRD department.
Executives are also encouraged to participate in external training programs,
workshops, seminars etc. The companys policy has always been to give the
top most priority to human resource development, with a view to improving
the effectiveness on the job in organizational communication and in their
attitude towards work also arranges computer training programs for its
employees and staff members, which has helped in gaining exposure to
modern techniques in the field of computer education.

SUGGESTIONS

Company has successfully undertaken in house as well as external training


sessions. The specialized & qualified personnel guide the staff & workers
timely.
Following suggestions are recommended for the improvement of the
employees as well as the organization.

54

1. It is considered that there is no need of installation of a separate head


of Training department, but a Training cell should be introduced under the
control of HR manager.
2. To keep abreast of the latest technical development, an effort must be
made to keep them familiar with the technological changes.
3. Proper inputs must be used for imparting trainings to improve the
effectiveness.
4. Training programmes should be made out & training classes should be
held from time to time to acquaint the employees. This will positively create
a confidence in the workers to achieve more efficiency in their work
performances.
5. Training must be given with the help of new advanced technology such
as with help of projectors.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY


Besides the significant results, the study had some flaws in it that are as
follows:1. Lack of time
It was difficult to personally interview the majority of staff & workers
as their number was quite large & the training time span was not
enough to do so.
2. Degree of accuracy
55

As the study is totally dependent on the minds of the staff workers, so


they might be biased in some aspects. Such personal biasness may not
provide accurate results.
3. Degree of reliability
Some people hesitated to come out with answers to the questionnaire.
As a result of this, though the questionnaire was distributed among
IOO persons, yet only 75 persons responded to it.
4. Inaccurate access
Due to short span of time, it was not possible to access all employees
as factory is wide.
5. Uninterested
Some were not interested in filling the questionnaires and they did not
give back the questionnaires.
6. Area
The area of research was also small. As I have taken only one business
unit.

7. Unpredictability of human behavior


The workers exert behavioral influence on each other with their
policies & actions. They might have responded under the influence
of each other to the questionnaire. As a result of this, the results
may not reveal exact needs of the organization.

Timings and Venue will be shared shortly.

Area

56

Department

Employee Name

Mon 5th May Tue-6th May Wed-7th May Thu-8th

Food

Administration

Field-Ops

AGM-Sales

Neeraj Tiwari

Grocery

Arvind Kumar

AL
M

AL
M

W/O

AL
M

Grocery

Pranav Nagarkar

W/O

Training

Fresh

Ajay Sonkar

AL

AL

AL

AL

BWST/Confi

Dilpreet Singh

W/O

Trainin

NFIF/Confi

Satrajit Sen Gupta

Trainin

NFIf

Jitender Poddar

Training

W/O

Confi

Amarjeet Singh

W/O

AL

AL

Trainin

NF

Sushil Parsad

W/O

NF

Rohit Sharma

Training

NF

Sanjay (Non-food)

W/O

AGM-Admin

Debabrata Acharya

GR

Ashish Sharma

W/O

GR

Devender Singh

Trainin

GR

Sukhdeep Singh

Training

FOH

Sunil Kumar

W/O

Trainin

Deco

Ashish Kumar

Deco

Vipan

AL

AL

AL

Reordering

Deepak Kumar

Training

Reordering

Hardeep Singh

W/O

ALC

Nitin Mahajan

W/O

ALC

John Luthra

CL

Trainin

ALC

Surinder Kumar

W/O

Checkout

Sunny Rana

Training

W/O

Main Cash

Girish Bhatia

W/O

AL

Trainin

Pritpal Singh

W/O

FSD

...
[Message clipped] View entire message

57

AL

PROJECT REPORT
ON
HUMAN RESOURCE
AT

ON
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
IN PARTIAL REQURIEMENT FOR AWARD OF
DEGREE OF MASTER OF
MASTERS OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

SUBMITTED TO:

SUBMITTED BY:

PG DEPT. OF GNIMT COLLEGE

NEHA SAREEN
MBA 3 [1332632]

GURU NANAK INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT


AND TECHNOLOGY

PREFACE
58

As part of the fulfillment of the MBA program summer training was


undertaken with the METRO Cash & Carry at LUDHIANA.
The purpose of the training was to have the practical knowledge and
experience of working in a HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT and to
have the exposure to the various management practices in field of human
resource and how the Training and Development of the located and
approached candidates is done in organization.
This project is an attempt to provide the detail about Training and
Development procedure adopted by the organization.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I take this opportunity to express my profound gratitude and deep regards to
my Professors and my project guide Dr. Sandhya Mehta and Col. H.S.
59

Singha

for

their

exemplary

guidance,

monitoring

and

constant

encouragement throughout the course of this project. The blessing, help and
guidance given by them time to time shall carry me a long way in the
journey of life on which I am about to embark.

I also take this opportunity to express a deep sense of gratitude to Mr. Rohit
Kumar Chauhan [TRAINING HEAD], Mr. Satinder Singh [ASSISTANT
TRAINING HEAD] of METRO CASH AND CARRY LDH., for their
cordial support, valuable information and guidance, which helped me in
completing this task through various stages.

I am obliged to staff members of METRO CASH AND CARRY LDH, for


the valuable information provided by them in their respective fields. I am
grateful for their cooperation during the period of my assignment.

Lastly, I thank almighty, my family and friends for their constant


encouragement without which this assignment would not be possible.

TABLE OF CONTENT
S.NO.
1.
60

PARTICULARS
Introduction of the Study

PAGE NO.

2.

Metro Cash & Carry

3.
4.

Theoretical Background of recruitment

5.

Recruitment at Fortis Hospital Ludhiana

6.

Finding Suggestions & Conclusions

7.

Bibliography

61