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Mathematics, Abstract Algebra

© All Rights Reserved

86%(7)86% нашли этот документ полезным (7 голосов)

4K просмотров141 страницаMathematics, Abstract Algebra

© All Rights Reserved

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to

A First Course in

Abstract Algebra

John B. Fraleigh

sixth edition

ISBN 0-201-33596-4

Addison Wesley Longman

by

Ben Hekster

PO Box 391852

Mountain View, CA 94039-1852

heksterb@acm.org

http://www.hekster.org/Academic/Mathematics/

These are completely unofficial and unverified worked solutions by me. Corrections welcome.

Typeset in Galliard and Gill Sans using AppleWorks 5 on Apple Macintosh.

Copyright 1999-2005 All Rights Reserved by: Ben Hekster.

Abstract Algebras

set

+ binary operation

+ associative binary operation

semigroup

+ identity

monoid

+ inverse

group

+ finite order

+ commutative operation

finite group

commutative group

+ prime order

symmetric group

+ generator

cyclic group

+ prime order

alternating group

Glossary

:

+ i , i

reads as so that

summation, multiplication over i

(i {i

, , <, >

, , ,

scalar operators

set operators

=n

<

congruent modulo n

is normal to, is ideal to

fx

function application f x

commutative group

maximal p-group

abelian group

Sylow p-group

()

0.1 Preliminaries

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

proving theorems

set

precision?

definition

A triangle with vertices P, Q, R is the collection of points X such that

X is in the line segment PQ, or

X is in the line segment QR, or

X is in the line segment RP.

An equilateral triangle is a triangle with vertices P, Q, R such that the length of the line segment PQ equals both

the length of the line segment QR and the length of the line segment RP.

A right triangle is a triangle with vertices P, Q, R in which the two line segments through one of its vertices (say PQ

and PR) are such, that for any point X on PQ there is no point Y on PR such that the length of the line segment XY

is less than the length of the line segment XP.

The interior of a triangle is the collection of points X such that the line segments XP, XQ, XR from X to its vertices

P, Q, R have only the vertices in common with the triangle.

A circle with center C and radius r is the collection of points X such that the length of the line segment XC equals

r.

A disk with center C and radius r is the collection of points X such that the length of the line segment XC is less

than or equal to r.

Define the relationship between PQ and PR in 7. to be a right angle. Then, a rectangle with vertices P, Q, R, S is

the collection of points formed by the four line segments PQ, QR, RS, SP, where PQ is at a right angle to QR, QR to

RS, RS to SP, and SP to PQ.

Let n and m be even integers. Then by (2), there are integers p, q such that n = 2p, m = 2q. Then n + m = 2p + 2q

= 2(p + q), so n + m is even.

Let n, m, p, q as in 12. Then nm = 2p 2q = 4pq. Since pq is an integer, 4pq is an integral multiple of 4.

Define an odd integer m to be an integer such that there exists another integer n such that m = 2n + 1.

Let r be an even integer and s an odd integer. Then there are integers p, q such that r = 2p, s = 2q + 1. So r + s =

2p + 2q + 1 = 2(p + q) + 1, so r + s is odd.

counterexample

A B F G M, C D J, E H K N, I, L, O.

1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 31 (the conjecture is false).

Suppose that i is the square of an odd integer k. Then

i : k = 2l + 1 i = k 2 = (2l + 1) 2 = 4l 2 + 4l + 1

Since i is also even,

j :

i = 2j

4l 2 + 4l + 1 = 2 j

2l 2 + 2l +

1

2

= j

l : k = 2l i = k 2 = (2l) 2 = 4l 2

so i is indeed an integral multiple of 4.

19.

20.

Let n 2 + 2 = 3

21.

Let n = 2

n 2 + 4 = 22 + 4 = 8 .

22.

Let n = 3

n 2 + 5 = 3 2 + 5 = 14 .

23.

Let n = 3

24.

Let n = 0:

25.

26.

Let x =

1

2

n2 = 1

n2 > n

n2 > 0

x2 < x

()

1

2

n2 > 0 >n .

<

1

2

1

4

2

n2 > n

22 > 2

27.

Let n = 2:

28.

n = 0: n 2 = n 0 2 = 0

Let

2

2

n = 1: n = n 1 = 1

29.

4 > 2.

0=0

1=1

, so x is not unique.

k : j = 2k + 1

j

= (2k + 1) 2

= 4k 2 + 4k + 1

= k 2 + k

m :

31.

Let n = 2:

32.

Let n = 2, m = 1:

33.

34.

30.

n3 < n

(2)3 < 2

( ) =( )

n

m

2

1

8 < 2 .

= (2) 2 = 4 </ 1 .

mn (n 0) n m n < m

. So let m = 1 and n = 2:

( ) ( ) mm 00:: nn mn

(n 0) n m n </ m

n

m

n

m

n

m

n

m

( ) ( )

n

m

n

m

( ) ( )

2

1

2

1

8 4 , which is a contradiction.

17. An equivalence relation extracts a property from the whole identity of its arguments and asserts the equality of just

this property: equivalence is property equality. For example, congruence modulo asserts equality of the

remainder under division.

1.

{x | x 2 = 3} = { 3 , + 3}

2.

{m | m 2 = 3} =

3.

4.

{m | mn = 60 for some

{m | m

m 2 m = 115

m=

m 2 m 115 = 0

+1 (1) 2 4 1 115

=

2 1

= 1 (1 461) 10.2, 11.2

2

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

1 1 + 460

2

1

(1

2

461)

1

(1 +

2

461)

not a set

m

2

| m

function

one-to-one

onto

a.

yes

no

no

b.

yes

no

no

c.

no

3

13.

d.

yes

e.

yes

f.

no

Map x to y(x).

P

yes

no

yes

no

B

x

D

y(x)

14

b. f : [1, 3] [5, 25]: x a (x 1) 20 + 5

2

d c

c. f : [a , b] [c , d]: x a (x a)

+c

b a

15.

16.

f : S : x a tan x 12

a. P () = ,

P () = 1

b. P ({a}) = ,{a} ,

P ({a}) = 2

P ({a , b}) = 4

17.

P ({a , b , c}) = 8

Conjecture P (A) = 2 .

Let An be a series of sets such that |An| = n, and An An +1 .

P (A0 ) = P () = 1.

Let P (An ) = 2

An

An =

P An

P P {sn + 1}

Every subset P of An +1 either does or does not contain sn +1 :

sn + 1 P

sn + 1 P

P An P An

P \ {sn + 1} An P An

so P (An + 1) An .

So P (An + 1) = An , and P (An + 1) = 2 P (An ) = 2 2

An

=2

An + 1

=2

An +1

18.

Let f : A B BA .

a P: 0

f P : A B: a a

a P : 1

Let there be two such subsets P , P A such that f P = f P . Then a A:

a P f P (a) = f P (a) = 1

so P = P .

a P ; a P a P

4

Pf = a A | f (a) = 1 .

Let there be two functions f , f BA such that Pf = Pf . Then a A:

f (a) = 0

f (a) = 1

a Pf

a Pf

f (a) = 0

f (a) = 1

so f = f .

So, Pf : BA P (A) is a bijection, and B A = P (A) .

19.

For every element of A there is a distinct singleton subset containing just that element, which is an element of P (A)

. is not such a singleton set, yet is an element of P (A) . So P (A) > A .

Let A be such that A = . Then the power set of A has P (A) >, and P P (A) > P (A) , ad infinitum.

20.

2+3 = 5

A = 2, B = 3, A B = 5 .

(*)

: + {0} + : m a m 1 .

m odd :

ii. 0 + 0 = = = 0 , where (*) : : m a

m even :

b. It is possible to define multiplication in in terms of a Cartesian product:

1

2

(*)

1

2

1

m

2

1

m

2

1) +

1

2

2 3 = {1, 2} {1, 2, 3} = 6 , so

0 0 = + +

21.

fig 14

+ = 0 .

102 digits, 105 digits. By extrapolation, 100 would equal the number of digits of the form 0.###, where # is

repeated 0 times name this set R. Since any number in R = {x | 0 x < 1} can be expressed arbitrarily

precise by an element of R, R R. Since R R , R = R . By Exercise 15, R = , so R = and 100 = .

22.

Similar arguments can be made in terms of duodecimal and binary expansions of numbers of R , so 120 = 20 = .

Since

(17)

P() = 2

(18)

= 20 = ;

(19)

P() = {0, 1}

= {0, 1} = {0, 1} exp ,

{0, 1}{0 , 1}

28.

et cetera.

x R y i: x , y Pi y , x Pi y R x (symmetric)

x R x i: x Pi x S (reflexive)

x R y y R z i: x , y Pi j : y , z Pj

29.

30.

y Rz

not reflexive because 0 0 >/ 0 0 R/ 0

not symmetric because 2 1, 1 / 2 2 R 1, 1 R/ 2 .

5

31.

R is a relation, because

y

x = x

x = y y = x

x = y y = x x = z

32.

33.

x R x

x R y y R x

x R y y R z x R z

0 3 = 3 3,

3 6 = 3 3,

0 R 3,

0 R/ 6

3 R 6,

0 6 = 6 / 3

R

x

.

so R is not transitive.

+

The number of digits of n is base 10 notation is 1 +

transitive.

10

R

0

34.

35.

10

100

R is congruence modulo 10 on *.

a. {1, 3, 5, }, {2, 4, 6, }

b. {1, 4, 7, }, {2, 5, 8, }, {3, 6, 9, }

c. {1, 6, 11, }, {2, 7, 12, }, {3, 8, 13, }, {4, 9, 14, }, {5, 10, 15, }

36a.

r : r r = 0 = 0 n r ~ r

r, s ,r ~ s : q : r s = qn s r = (qn ) = ( q )n s ~ r

r, s ,t,r ~ s , s ~ t :

b.

p ,q :

r s = pn , s t = qn

r s + s t = pn + qn

r t = (p + q)n r ~ t

r s r s

r, s + ,r ~ s : q : r s = qn (n )

= =q

n

n n

rn , sn , rn, s n : r = r n n + rn, s = sn n + s n , 0 r n, s n < n

r s = qn

r n n + rn s n n s n = qn

(r n sn )n + (rn s n ) = qn

(r n sn )

r n sn +

r s

Since rn , sn , q , n n = 0

n

=q

r n sn

<1

n

rn s n .

c.

{, 2, 1, 3, }, {, 2, 0, 2, }

{, 2, 1, 4, }, {, 1, 2, 5, }, {, 3, 0, 3, }

{, 4, 1, 6, }, {, 3, 2, 7, }, {, 2, 3, 8, }, {, 1, 4, 9, }, {, 5, 0, 5, }

1.

Prove that

+ i2 =

i = 1n

n = 1: 12 =

( )(

)(

).

n n + 1 2n + 1

6

) = 23 = 1

1 1 + 1 2 1 + 1

6

n + 1:

+ i = + i + n +1

i n + 1

i n

) +n

)(

n n + 1 2n + 1

+ 2n + 1 =

)(

)(

n n + 1 2n + 1 + 6 n 2 + 2n + 1

)(

= n 2n + 3n + 1 + 6n + 12n + 6 = = n + 1 n + 2 2n + 3

n 2(n + 1 )

Prove that + i =

, n + .

i =1n

4

2

2.

n = 1: 1 =

n + 1:

( )

12 1 + 1

4

3

1 22

=1

4

+ i = + i + n +1

1n + 1

i n

2

) + (n + 1)(n + 1)

n2 n + 1

) ( )(

)=n

n n + 2n + 1 + 4 n + 1 n 2 + 2n + 1

)(

2

+ 2n3 + n 2 + 4n3 + 8n 2 + 4n + 4n 2 + 8n + 4

4

n +1 n + 2

n + 6n + 13n + 12n + 4

=

==

4

4

4

3.

(2i 1) = n .

2

Prove that

i = 1n

n = 1: 1 = 12

n + 1:

4.

(2i 1) =

i = 1n + 1

i = i n

(2i 1) + 2(n + 1) 1 = n

n + 1:

( )

1 1+1

1

2

1

=

1+1

n

1

+

n +1 n +1 n + 2

( ) (n + 1)(n + 2)

( )( )

n(n + 2) + 1

(n + 1) = n + 1

n + 2n + 1

=

=

=

(n + 1)(n + 2) (n + 1)(n + 2) (n + 1)(n + 2) n + 2

a (1 r

).

Prove that a,r , r 1, n : + ar =

i = 1n + 1 i

(i + 1)

1

2

i = 1n

i i +1

n + 1:

a + ar =

n +1

1 r

1 r

1 r

i =0

=a

7.

+ ar = + ar + ar

i =0

i =0

a 1 r

n +1

n = 1:

6.

+ 2n + 1 = n + 1

1

n

Prove that +

=

,n + .

i =1n i (i + 1 )

n +1

n = 1:

5.

1 r

n +1

n +1

a 1 r n +1

+ 1 r r

1 r

1 r

n +1

=a

) + ar

n +1

) ( )

a 1 r n + 1 + 1 r ar n + 1

1 r

n+2

1 r n +1 + r n +1 r n + 2 a 1 r

=

1 r

1 r

the concept interesting property is not well defined

1.

(2 + 3i ) + (4 + 5i ) = 6 + 2i .

2.

i + 5 3i = 5 2i .

7

3.

4.

(5 + 7i ) (3 2i ) = 2 + 5i .

(1 3i ) (4 + 2i ) = 5 5i .

5.

i 3 = ii 2 = i .

6.

i 4 = i 2 i 2 = 1 1 = +1.

7.

i 23 = i 20i 3 = (i 4 )5 i 3 = 15 i 3 = i .

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

(i ) = i = (i i ) = (1 i ) = i .

(4 i )(5 + 3i ) = 20 + 12i 5i 3i = 23 + 7i .

(8 + 2i )(3 i ) = 24 + 6i 8i 2i = 26 2i .

(2 3i )(4 + i ) + (6 5i ) = 8 + 2i 12i 3i + 6 5i = 17 15i .

(1 + i ) = (1 + i )(1 + i ) = (1 + i )(1 + 2i + i ) = (1 + i )2i = 2i + 2i

7 5i (7 5i )(1 6i ) 7 42i 5i + 30i

=

= ( 23 47i ) .

=

1 + 6i (1 + 6i )(1 6i )

1 36

i (1 i )

i i

i +1

1

=

=

.

=

1 + i (1 + i )(1 i ) 1 i

2

1 i (1 i )i

= i i = 1 i .

=

35

35

32 3

= 2 + 2i .

14.

1

35

15.

16.

17.

i2

(

)

2 4i

2 (1 2i )(1 + 2i )

1 4i

(3 + 7i )(1 i )(2 + 3i ) = (3 3i + 7i 7i )(2 + 3i )

3 + 7i

=

(1 + i )(2 3i ) (1 + i )(1 i )(2 3i )(2 + 3i )

(1 i )(4 9i )

.

(10 + 4i )(2 + 3i ) = (5 + 2i )(2 + 3i ) = 10 + 15i + 4i + 6i = 4 + 19i

=

i 3+i

1

2

1

10

1

10

18.

2 13

13

13

19.

(1 2i )(1 + i ) (1 2i )(1 + 2i )(1 + i )(1 i )

(1 4i )(1 i )

20.

3 4i = 5 .

21.

6 + 4i = 23 + 2i = 2 9 + 4 = 2 13 .

22.

3 4i = 5 3 4i = 5

23.

1 + i = 2

24.

12 + 5i = 144 + 25 = 169 = 13

25.

3 + 5i = 9 + 25 = 36 = 6

26.

3

5

13

) = 2i 5i = i

5 2

= 1.

4i .

5

1

1

1

1

1 + i = 2

+i

= 2 2 2 + 2 i 2 .

2

2

12 + 5i = 13

12

13

5

i

13

).

3 + 5i = 6 1 + 5 i .

2

r1 i ( 1 2 )

e

. So z 1 z 2 is the point in the complex

r2

point at the end of a line from the origin with length r1 r2 and angle 1 2 from the positive x-axis.

z 1 = r1e i 1 , z 2 = r2e i 2

z 1 z 2 = z 1z 21 = r1e i 1 r2e i 2

27.

28.

( ) = 1e

(re ) = 1e

4

z 4 = 1 re i

z 4 = 1

r = 1, 4 = 2 0

0i

1

2

1.

2.

3.

4.

(( ) )

2 +i

2,

1

2

r = 1, = 1

2

1

2

2 1 i 2,

2

z 1, i , 1, i .

r = 4 1, 4 = 2 i

2 + 1 i 2,

1

2

r = 1, = 1 0

1

2

2 1i 2

2

( )

b d = e, c c = b , a c e a = c e a = a a = a .

a (b c ) = a a = a

(b d ) c = e c = a , so * is not associative.

b (d c ) = b b = c

no, because e b b e .

5.

*

a

b

c

d

a

a

b

c

d

b

b

d

a

c

c

c

a

d

b

d

d

c

b

a

6.

*

a

b

c

d

a

a

b

c

d

b

b

a

d

c

c

c

c

c

c

d

d

d

d

d

( )

( )

d b = (c b ) b = c (b b ) = c a = c ,

d c = (c b ) c = c (b c ) = c c = c ,

d d = (c b ) d = c (b d ) = c d = d .

1 0 = 1 0 = 1, 0 1 = 0 1 = 1 , (a b ) c = (a b ) c = a b c , a (b c ) = a (b c ) = a b + c , so * is neither

d a = c b a = c b a = c b = d ,

7.

8.

Let a,b :

9.

a,b : a b = 12 ab = 12 ba = b a , a,b ,c :

commutative and associative.

10.

Let a,b + :

1 2 = 12 = 1;

( )

12.

1;

2 2 = 2 4 = 16;

13.

1;

22

( )

33 = 39 = 19683;

( ) = 21 = 2;

2 2 1

32

32

= 20 = 1 and 0 0 1 = 2 2

3

00

= 21 = 2 , so * is

( ) = 33 = 27;

3 3 1

01

) ( ) = 2 ; (2 3) 2 = (2 )

2 1 = 21 = 2 and 2 3 2 = 2

associative.

2

(a b ) c = 12 ( 12 ab )c = 12 a ( 12 bc ) = a (b c) , so * is

a b = 2 ab = 2 ba = b a , then 0 0 1 = 20 2

11.

a b = ab + 1 = ba + 1 = b a , 0 0 1 = 0 0 + 1 1 + 1 = 2 , 0 0 1 = 0 0 1 + 1 + 1 = 1, so *

n2

n n 1

(n 1) entries, each

1

n

2

9

14.

15.

16.

well defined

Correct the last part to read a , b H .

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

C1, C2 good.

C1, C2 good.

C1, C2 good.

C1 is not well defined, C2 is good.

22.

23.

a

M =

b

a

a.

b

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

c

b

, N =

a

d

b c

+

a d

a b = b a .

d

H :

c

d a + c

=

c b d

b d

H

a +c

a b c d a c b d

a d b c ac + bd ad bc

b.

=

=

H

b a d c b c + a d b d + a c ad bc ac + bd

a. false; b. true; c. false; d. false; e. false; f. true; g. true; h. true; i. true; j. false.

Let * be addition and *' subtraction on the set of colors {K, R, G, B, C, M, Y, W} (black, red, green, blue, cyan,

magenta, yellow, and white).

+ K R G B C MY W - K R G B C MY W

K K

K K K K K K K K K

R R R

R R K R R R K K K

G G Y G

G G G K G K G K K

B B MC B

B B G B K K K B K

C C WC C C

C C C B G K G B K

MMMWMWM

MMB MR R K B K

Y Y Y Y WWWY

Y Y Y R Y R G K K

WWWWWWWWW WWWWWWWWW

(a b ) (c d ) = (c d ) (a b ) = (d c ) (a b ) = ((d c ) a ) b

Let S be a set with single element s.

A binary operation * on S always maps its operands to s, so * must be associative and commutative.

Let * be the binary operation defined by the table. Then

* a b

a b a

b a a

29.

Let f , g , h F . Then x :

30.

Let f : : x a 0,

31.

so is not commutative on F.

Let f : : x a 1, then

= f ( x ) + ( g + h )( x ) = ( f + ( g + h ))( x )

g : : x a 1 , then

( g f )(0) = g (0) f (0) = 1 0 = 1

10

( f ( f f ))(0) = f (0) ( f f )(0) = f (0) ( f (0) f (0)) = 1 (1 1) = 1

so is not associative on F.

32.

f , g F , x :

33.

For f , g F , x ,

so multiplication is associative on F.

g : : x a x 2 , then

34.

Let f : : x a x + 1,

35.

Let = +, = , S = . Then

( g o f )(1) = g ( f (1)) = g (2) = 4

(

) ( )

(1 0) (1 3) = (1 + 0) (1 + 3) = 1 4 = 4

1 0 3 = 1 + 0 3 = 1 + 0 = 1

36.

For h , h H :

(h h ) x

associative

h hx

h commutative

(h x ) h

associative

( x h ) h

associative

h h x

37.

For a , b H :

38.

39.

40.

so a b H .

(deposit deposit) talk (deposit press press) = (deposit deposit deposit press) talk (press)

( doesn't affect whatever symbol is next on input.

a,c

s1

(a b ) (a b ) = (a b ) (b a ) = ((a b ) b ) a = (a (b b )) a

= (a b ) a = (b a ) a = b (a a ) = b a = a b

a,c

b

s0

a,c

s2

41.

a,b

s0

a,b

s1

a,b,c

s2

42.

a,b

s0

a,b

s1

a,b

s2

a,b

s3

a,b,c

s4

11

43.

0

s1

0

1

s0

1

s2

44.

45.

s0

s1

s2

0

s0

s0

s0

1

s1

s2

s2

s0

s1

s2

a

s0

s1

s2

b

s0

s1

s2

c

s1

s2

s2

1.

( )

s , t S: s t = s t .

2.

m :

n :

n1 , n2 : n1 = n2

n = n = ( m ) = m (surjection)

n = m

n1 = n2

) (

n1 = n2 (injection)

) ( ) ( )

n1 , n2 : n1 + n2 = n1 + n2 = n1 + n2 = n1 + n2

3.

4.

1 Z, / n : n = 2n = 1 , so is not surjective.

For n1 ,n 2 ,

) (

)

+ n = (n + 1) + (n

n1 + n2 = n1 + n2 + 1 = n1 + n2 + 1

n1

so is not an isomorphism.

5.

y :

x :

+ 1 = n1 + n2 + 2

x 1 , x 2 :

x 1 = x 2

x 1 , x 2 :

(x 1 + x 2 ) =

6.

1 , / x :

7.

y :

x :

x =

x = 2y

1

x

2 1

1

2

1

x

2

1

x

2 2

2y = y (surjection)

x 1 = x 2 (injection)

( x 1 + x 2 ) = 12 x 1 + 12 x 2 = x 1 + x 2 .

x 2 = 1, so is not surjective.

x = 3y

x = x 3 =

3

( y)

3

=y

x 1 , x 2 :

x 1 = x 2

x 1 , x 2 :

( x 1 x 2 ) = ( x 1x 2 ) = x 1 x 2 = x 1 x 2

8.

0 0

= 0,

0 0

9.

y :

x1 = x2

3

x1 = x2

3

0 0

= 0 , so is not injective.

1 0

X M 1:

X = [ y ] (surjective)

12

X 1 = X2

X1 ,X 2 M 1:

(X 1 X 2 ) = X 1X 2 = [ x 1] [ x 2] = [x 1x 2] = x 1x 2 = x 1 x 2 = X1 X 2 .

y + :

10.

X1 = X2

x =2ln y

x :

x1 =x2

x = 0.5 x = 0.5

x1

x2

2 ln y

=2

ln y

x 1 , x 2 :

x 1 = x 2

x 1 , x 2 :

0.5

= 0.5

g F :

X 1 = X 2 (injective)

= y (surjective)

x 1 = x 2 (injective)

11.

[ x 1] = [x 2]

X1 ,X 2 M 1:

( ) g (t ) dt (f )(x ) = ( f )(x ) = g (t ) dt (x ) = g (x )

f F :

f x =

f 1 = f 2

f 1 , f 2 F :

) (

f 1 , f 2 F : f 1 + f 2 = f 1 + f 2

12.

f 1 F : x a x 2 ,

13.

g F :

f 2 F : x a x 3 :

f F :

f = g

f 1 = f 2

f 1 , f 2 F :

f 1 ( x ) = f 2 ( x ) f 1 ( 0) = f 2( 0 ) = 0

x :

)( ) ( f

(f )(x ) = ddx f (t ) dt = f (x )

f 1 = f2

) = f + f = f + f

f (0) = ( 2x )(0) = 0, f (0) = (3x )(0) = 0 , so is not injective.

2

x : (f

f 1 , f 2 F : f 1 + f 2 x =

f 1 ( x ) = f 2( x )

) (x ) = (f 2 ) ( x )

)( )

+ f 2 t dt =

x :

f (t ) dt +

x

f 1 (t ) dt =

f (t ) dt

0

f1 = f2

()

f 2 t dt = f 1 + f 2

14.

15.

16.

x : ( f 1 f 2 ) ( x ) = x ( f 1 f 2 )( x ) = x f 1 ( x ) f 2 (x )

f 1 , f 2 F :

a. ni :

, so is not an isomorphism.

(f 1 f 2) ( x ) = (f 1 )( x ) (f 2 )( x ) = x f 1 ( x ) x f 2 (x )

mi :

m i = ni

m i = ni 1

n1 n 2 = m 1 m2 = (m 1m2) = m 1m2 + 1 = (n 1 1 ) (n 2 1 ) + 1

(m 1 m 2) = m 1 + m 2

b. m1, 2 :

17.

a. ni :

mi :

m i = ni

(m 1 m2 ) + 1 = m 1 + 1 + m 2 + 1

m i + 1 = ni

m 1 m 2 = m1 + m 2 + 1

m i = ni 1

n1 n 2 = m 1 m2 = (m 1 m2 ) = m 1m2 + 1 = (n 1 1 ) (n 2 1 ) + 1

b. m1, 2 : (m1 m 2 ) = m 1 m2

18.

a. y i :

x i :

x i = y i

3x i 1 = y i

m1 m 2 = (m 1 + 1) (m 2 + 1) 1 .

3x i = y i + 1

y 1 y 2 = x 1 x 2 = ( x 1 + x 2 ) = 3 ( x 1 + x 2 ) 1 = ( y 1 + 1 ) + ( y 2 + 1 ) 1 = y 1 + y 2 + 1

b.

19.

x 1 , x 2 :

( x 1 x 2 ) = x 1 + x 2

3 ( x 1 x 2 ) 1 = (3x 1 1 ) + (3x 2 1 )

3 ( x 1 x 2 ) = 3x 1 + 3x 2 1

a. y i :

x i :

x i = y i

x1 x 2 = x 1 + x2 +

3x i 1 = y i

1

3

3x i = y i + 1

y 1 y 2 = x 1 x 2 = ( x 1x 2 ) = 3x 1x 2 1 = ( y 1 + 1 )( y 2 + 1 ) 1

b. x 1 , x 2 :

( x 1 x 2 ) = x 1 x 2

3 ( x 1 x 2 ) 1 = (3x 1 1 ) (3x 2 1 )

3 ( x 1 x 2 ) = (3x 1 1 ) (3x 2 1 ) + 1

x 1 x 2 = x1

1

3

)(x

1

3

)+

1

3

20.

The result of the operands after * then must be equal to that after then *.

21.

a , b S:

( )

a b = a b .

22.

23.

( )

eL s = s ,

s eR = s . Let

13

* be defined by the table. Then a and b are both such that s S: a s = s , b s = s , so left, right identites are not

unique. The proof of uniqueness of identity breaks down when applied to left, right identities at the point of the

role reversal of the two identities.

* a b

a a b

b a b

24.

( )

s S:

s S:

25.

eL eR = eR

eL eR = eL

eL s = s

s eR = s

s1 , s 2 S :

eL = eR

isomorphism

invertible

s1 s 2

s1 s 2

=

=

s1 s 2

, so is an isomorphism.

invertible

=

s 1 s 2

s1 s 2 = s1 s 2

isomorph

isomorph

26.

27.

( o )(s s ) = ((s s )) = (s s ) = (s ) (s ) = ( o )s ( o )s

reflexive: (S , ) (S , ) by I : S S: s a s .

symmetric: (S , ) (S , ) by :S S . Then, by Exercise 25 (S , ) (S , ) by .

s1 , s 2 S:

inv

( )(

transitive: If S , S , ,

28.

si S :

si S : si = si : s1 s 2

isomorphism

( ) (

(s s )

=

s1 s 2 s3 = s1

((

isomorph

) )

isomorph

= s1 s 2 s3

30.

commutative

commutative on S .

29.

( )( )

(s s )

=

(s

c S :

c S:

c = c , x S:

Let b S:

32?

Let : H : a + bi , a,b R :

b b S . Then b = b S :

isomorph

isomorphism

( (

s1 s 2 s3

s3 = s1 s 2 s3

b = b = b b = b b = b b .

a b

a

, and let v,w ;

b a

v = v + iv , w = w + iw , v , v , w , w .

(

) ((

) (

)) ((

) (

))

(

) (

)

b. (v w ) = ((v + iv ) (w + iw )) = (v w v w + i (v w + v w ))

v w v w (v w + v w ) v w v w v w v w v

=

=

=

v w v w v w + v w v w + v w

v w + v w

= v + iv + w + iw = v w

(s s )

c = c = ( x x ) = x x , so x x = c has a solution

=

) (

s 2 s1 , is

))

v + w v + w

a. v + w = v + iv + w + iw = v + w + i v + w =

v + w

v + w

= v + iv + w + iw = v + w

si = si . Then

isomorph

s1 s 2 s3

x x =c

x = x S .

31.

s1 s 2 s3

si S:

2 s1

) = v

v w w

+

v v w w

v w w

v v w w

14

( ) ( )

The two isomorphisms possible are the identity and : a , b a b , a , so the equivalence classes have either one or

33.

two elements. Calculate the number of equivalence classes with one element these are the ones where coincides

with the identity:

C = F , F = C

C = F

, which corresponds to the four tables where C , D a , a , a , b , b , a , b , b . So

E = D , D = E

D = E

16 4

= 4 + 6 = 10 equivalence classes.

2

b a

b a

a b

b C' D' a E' F' a F' E'

a E' F' b C' D' b D' C'

there are 4 +

a

b

) {( ) ( ) ( ) ( )}

a b

C D

E F

1.3 Groups

1.

2.

is closed under .

G1. a,b ,c : (a b ) c = ( ab ) c = (ab )c = a (bc ) = a (bc ) = a (b c ) .

G2. a :

1 a = 1 a = a,

G3. a :

/ a :

a 1 = a1 = a.

a a = aa = 1

a =

1

.

a

a b = a + b = 2m + 2n = 2 (m + n ) , m + n , so 2 is closed

under .

G1. a,b ,c 2 : ( a b ) c = ( a + b ) + c = a + (b + c ) = a (b c ) .

G2. a 2 :

a + 0 = 0 + a = a.

G3. a 2 :

n :

a,b + :

3.

(a b ) c = (

a,b :

( )

a a = a + a = 0 .

ab c = c ab = abc 2 .

a (b c ) = a

4.

( )

ab + , so + is closed under .

ab =

G1. a,b ,c + :

( ) ( )

a = 2n . Let a = a = 2n = 2 n 2Z, so a a = a + a = 0,

( bc ) =

a bc = a 2bc

a b = ab , so is closed under .

G1. a,b ,c :

G2. a :

G3. a :

1 a = 1 a = a, a 1 = a 1 = a .

/ a : 0 a = 1

+

a,b : a b = a b + , so + is closed under .

5.

G1. a,b ,c + :

a,b :

6.

( a b ) c = ( a b ) c = a (bc ) .

a (b c ) = a (b c ) = ac b

a b = ab , so is closed under .

G1. a,b ,c :

a (b c ) = a bc = a bc = abc .

(a b ) c =

/ e :

G2. a :

i e = ie = i .

a , b 0, , 999 :

7.

G1.

ab c = ab c = abc

a , b , c 0, , 999 :

a (b c ) = (a + (b + c ) mod 1000) mod 1000 = (a + b + c ) mod 1000

15

8.

( )

.

a 0 = (a + 0) mod 1000 = a mod 1000 = a

a a = a + ( a ) mod 1000 = 0 mod 1000 = 0

(

)

.

a a = (( a ) + a ) mod 1000 = 0 mod 1000 = 0

U = {e }

G2.

a 0, , 999 :

( a b ) c = (e

G2. e = 1 = e 0i U :

x U :

)e

x y = e i e

=e

,z = e

=e

i ( +

) = a (b c )

e x = x, x e = x .

x = e i

:

x U :

x = e i , y = e

, , :

G1. x , y , z U :

G3.

x = e i , y = e

, :

x , y U :

9.

x = e i U : x x = e i e i = e 0 = 1 = e

x x = e i e i = e 0 = 1 = e

x U :

yy = e

x = e i

:

( + 2 )i

y , y U :

y =e

( )

1

i

2

,y =e

+ i

, y y where y y = e i = x and

= e i = x . So U , has two distinct halves of each of its elements this is an algebraic property of

x : y :

y +y = x

y = 12 x

x , x < 0 : y y = x y = x y

so (,+ ) has just exactly one half for each element, and (, ) has elements with none. So neither of the three

groups are isomorphic.

10.

a. a,b (n, + ) :

l,m + :

G1. + is associative.

G2. 0 (n, + ) : a (n, + ) :

a = ln, b = mn

0 + a = a, a + 0 = a .

b. Define isomorphisms by n :

m :

: (n, +) ( , + ) : nm a m . Then

(nm ) = m (surjective)

nm n

m,p : m n ,p n : n = m nn , p = p nn : m = p

12.

mn = p n

m = p (injective)

G1. (A B ) C = [a b ] [c ] = [a b c ] = [a ] [b c ] = A (B C ) .

G2. A + 0 = [a ] + [0] = [a ] = A, 0 + A = = A .

G3. A = [a ] : A = A = [ a ] : A + A = [a ] + [ a ] = [0] = 0, A + A = = 0 .

Write these matrices as ai

i i

13.

14.

(m nn ) = (p nn )

a + a = ( m )n + mn = 0 .

m,p :

11.

a + a = mn + ( m )n = 0,

n 1

i i

i =0

i i i

n =1

i i

i =0

By the calculations in Exercise 12, the operation is closed, associative, with identity 0, and inverse A.

As Exercise 13.

n 1

15.

n 1

. The elements of A and B under the diagonal ai > j , j = bi > j , j = 0 are zero,

k = 0

i , j =0

so the elements of AB under the diagonal are:

16

n 1

i

n 1

j

= + aik bkj = + +

+ a b = + 0 bkj

k = 0 k = j + 1 k = i + 1 ik kj k j < i

i > j, j

k =0

[ ]

AB

n 1

n 1

cij

G1. A B C = + aik bkj

k = 0

i , j =0

[ ]

n 1

i , j =0

+ aik 0 + aik 0 = 0

j <k i

j <i <k

n 1

n 1 n 1

n 1

= + + aik bkl clj = + ail blkckj

and

k , l =0

i =0 k =0

i , j

i , j =0

n 1

n 1

n 1 n 1

n 1

n 1

+ bikckj

= + ail + blkckj = + ail blkckj

A B C = aij

.

i , j = 0 k = 0

l =0 k =0

k , l = 0

i , j =0

i , j =0

G2. A I = I A = A .

) [ ]

n 1

n 1

i =0

16.

17.

The operation is closed, associative, and identity by Exercise 15G2. Since A = 1, an inverse exists:

A = A 1

A 1A = AA 1 = I . Is the inverse in the group? Suppose that A 1 is not upper-triangular, then by the

18.

19.

A, B:

AB = A B , so the operation is closed. It is associative, with identity I, and the regular matrix inverse.

a. a,b \ {1} :

a b = a + b + ab ;

so a b \ {1} .

a,b ,c \ {1} :

a + b + ab = 1

a a = 0

Conversely, a a = a

c. 2 x 3 = 7

20.

a

b

c

d

a

e

a

b

c

b

a

e

c

b

c

b

c

e

a

d

c

b

a

e

a + a + a a = 0

ae = e

e = 0 a = 1

a

e

a

b

c

b +1

= 1,

b +1

b

a

e

c

b

e = 0 . Conversely,

(1 + a ) a = a (a 1 1 + a 0)

a =

a

.

a +1

a a +1 a a2

a

a2

= 0 , so a is the inverse.

a +1 a +1

a +1

a +1

(2 + x + 2x ) 3 = 7 (2 + x + 2x ) + 3 + (2 + x + 2x )3 = 7

a

b

c

d

b = 1 a =

( a b ) c = (a + b + ab ) c = ( a + b + ab ) + c + ( a + b + ab)c = a + b + c + ab + ac + db + abc ,

a (b c ) = a (b + c + bc ) = a + (b + c + bc ) + a (b + c + bc ) = a + b + c + ab + ac + bc + abc .

G2. a \ {1} : a e = a a + e + ae = a

0 a = 0 + a + 0a = a , so 0 is the identity.

G3. a \ {1} :

(b + 1) a = (b + 1)

c

b

c

a

e

d

c

b

e

a

a

b

c

d

a

e

a

b

c

b

a

b

c

e

c

b

c

e

a

d

c

e

a

b

1 i -1 -i

1 1

i

-1

-1

1

-i

-1

12x = 4

) (

x = 1.

3

The groups represented by the second and third tables are isomorphic by : e , a , b , c a e , b , a , c .

a. commutative

b. See fourth table it is isomorphic to the group represented by the second and third tables.

c. Since the group has four elements, n must equal two. The four elements are thus represented by

1 1

1 1

,

,

,

. Each of these squared equals the identity matrix, so this group must be

1

1

1

1

isomorphic to that represented by the first table.

21.

A two-element group must be isomorphic to the one represented by Table 1.3.18. A three-element group must be

isomorphic to the one represented by Table 1.3.19.

22.

The definition of an inverse depends on that of identity, so G2 must precede G3. So the logically possible orders

are G1-G2-G3, G2-G1-G3, and G2-G3-G1.

17

23.

a. associativity might be defined; the statement x = identity is false; the operation is not defined

b. a group is a set with an operation; associativity might be defined; identity should be defined; inverse should

be defined

c. the statement the binary operation is defined is redundant; associativity axiom is omitted; identity should be

defined; inverse should be defined, after identity

d. a set is called a group is incorrect, rather a set with an operation; associativity might be defined; the statement

an operation is associative under addition is meaningless, an operation is either associative or not; define what a

is; {e} is a set, many groups do not have a set as an identity element; define a' as the inverse; define a and a' as

elements of the group

24.

Name this group S.

S e a b

e e a b

a a e e

b b e e

x S: e S: x e = e x = x (G2)

x S: x x = e (G3)

(e a ) e = a e = a , so G1 is not satisfied.

e (a a ) = e e = e

25.

a. false; b. true; c. true; d. false; e. false; f. true, assuming the text is correct; g. by Table 18 and 19, true; h. true

(see calculation); i. false, no identity element; j.true.

a a x b = a c a a x b = a c e x b = a c x b = a c

(x b ) = a c (x b ) b = (a c ) b

26.

x = a c b

a A: a A:

x e = a c b

a a = e

( )

e = a a = a a

27.

x b b = a c b

(a ) e = (a ) a (a ) (a ) = (a )

By contradiction. Since G is finite, there are an odd number of elements in G besides e. Reduce by pairs until there

is just one element left.

Take any a G , a e . If a a = e , we stop; otherwise, a a = b G , b e

() (

b = b

= a a

(17)

= a a . If

contradiction, so a a , that is, a and a' are distinct elements that do not square to identity.

Continue this process until an appropriate element is found, or there is just one element left; call this element c.

Suppose c c = d e c c = d . If d = d , then e = d d and we can stop. If d = e , then c c = e , and we

can stop. Otherwise c c = b for some b we considered in the reduction process, so c c = d = b , which is

impossible because we already removed b'.

So we must have stopped at some point previous and found an appropriate element.

28.

a. For a,b ,c :

(a b ) c = ( a b ) c = a b c = ab c

a (b c ) = a ( b c ) = a b c = ab c

b. 1 :

a : 1 a = 1 a = a

1

1

1

a :

: a

= a

=1

a

a

a

c. 1 :

/ a :

a 1 = a 1 = a = 1 , so it is not a group.

d. The group axioms with left identity and inverse, or with right identity and inverse, both define groups; the group

axioms with left identity and right inverse do not.

29.

x x = x x x x = x x x = e , and the identity is unique.

30.

For a , b G ,

18

(a b ) a a = b a (a b ) e = b a a b = b a

so G is commutative.

31.

n + , let U n = z i C

n-1

i=0

(z

z j

= z i z j = 1 1 = 1, so

G1. multiplication is associative

G2. 1 U n : z i U n : 1 z i = z i 1 = z i .

G3. z i U n :

32.

(a b )

C:

zi zi

0

n

1

n

= zi = zi

= z i = 1, and z i

( )( )

(

= a b

) (a b ) = (a b )

n

( ) (b ) a b

a b = a

n +1

n +1

Let m = G , and consider the m + 1 elements a 0 , , a m . Since G has only m elements, i , j : a i = a j . Assume

(a b ) = a b (a b ) (a b ) = a a b b

(a b ) = a b a b (a b ) = a b (a b )

2

(a ) a = (a ) a

i

a j i

e = a j i .

a a b a b a = a a a b b b

e = a b a b

b = a b a

38.

39.

Let :

40.

g G :

i g : G G : x a gxg . Then

x G :

g xg G :

37.

U n .

(a ) a (b ) b = (a ) (b )

n times abelian

b c = a b c a = e .

Suppose x x e , then x x x e x x e x x x e x x

Suppose x e x , then x x e x x e e e e e .

Define e by e a = a for some a G . Then

b G : y G : a y = b e a = a e a y = a y e b = b ,

so e is a left identity. Also,

a G : a G : a a = e ,

so a' is a left inverse for a. By Exercise 37, G is a group.

36.

35.

= 11 = 1, so z i

= an ab

n +1

34.

(a b ) = (a b ) = (a ) (b ) = (a ) (b )

a , b G :

(a b )

33.

zi

b a = a b.

b a = a b .

a b c = e

e e e

e e.

(G , ) (G , ): a a a . Then

a (G , ): a (G , ): (a ) = (a ) = a because (a ) a = e (a ) a a = a (a ) = a , so is surjective.

a , b (G , ): a = b a = b a a = b a e = b a b e = b b a b = a , so is injective.

a , b (G , ): (a b ) = (a b ) = (b a ) = a b = a b , so (G , ) (G , ) .

(

i g g xg = gg xg g = x (surjective)

x , y G :

ig x = ig y

x , y G :

( )

gxg = gyg

g gxg g = g gyg g

x = y (injective)

so G i g G .

41.

a. monoid

b. semigroup ( is the identity element)

1.4 Subgroups

19

1.

x , y :

+

x + y (closed), e R = eC = 0 (identity), x :

2.

1 :

1

3.

x , y 7 :

x 7 :

4.

7.

x 7 , y 7 :

x , y i :

x i :

x , y :

{ }

2 n

x , y :

n

1. 0

x = x , y = y

{ }

2 + 2 n

x + y = i ( x i + y i ) i (closed), e i = e = 0 (identity),

x = i ( x i ) i (inverse).

x = ( x

x = x

x :

x 7 (inverse).

x = ix i , y = iy i

x = ix i

x (inverse).

x + y = 7( x 7 + y 7) 7 (closed), e 7 = e = 0 (identity),

x = 7x 7 , y = 7y 7

x = ( 7)x 7

x i , y i :

x :

6.

x 7 :

x i:

5.

x + y = (x + y

) (inverse).

n

x y + (closed), e + = e = 1 (identity), x + :

x 1 + (inverse)

4. i i, i i = 1 i (not closed), so not a subgroup.

5. e = 1 / q : q = 1 (identity), so not a subgroup.

{ }

6. x , y i

i

10.

11.

12.

x , y :

{ }

Let A, B GL(n, R ):

(identity), x

9.

= e = 0 (identity),

/

2. x , y + :

8.

) (closed), e

i

x = x ,y =

x :

A = B = 2

x =

xy =

=

{ }

x y

{ }

i

i

{ }

(closed), e = 1 = 0 i

i

(inverse).

[ ]

By 1.3.12, the set is closed. The identity is in the set. For all A = aii

ii

1

A 1 = aii is in the set also.

ii

1 1 1

1 1

By 1.3.15, the set is closed. The identity is in the set. By

==

we see that the inverse of at

1 1 1

1

least one element of the set is itself not in the set.

By the argument of Exercise 8, multiplication is not closed on that set.

By the argument of Exercise 8, multiplication is closed on that set. The identity has a determinant of one, and so is

in the set. Since A 1 = 1 A , the inverse is also in the set.

13.

( ) (AB) = B

identity is orthogonal also. Since the transpose of an orthogonal matrix is its inverse, the inverse is also orthogonal.

14. a. +1 F : : x a 1, 1 F : : x a 1 ( +1) + ( 1) = 0 F , so the set is not closed under

addition.

b. The question of whether F is a subgroup of itself is answered by whether F is a group.

15. a. f , g G : f + g : : ( f + g)1 = f 1 + g1 = 0 f + g G (closed)

0 :

f G :

b. f G :

16.

f G :

f + 0 : x a ( f + 0 ) x = fx + 0 (x ) = fx

f R R: x a fx

()

f 1 =0

x R:

f + 0 = f (identity)

( f + f )x = fx + f x = fx fx = 0

f + f = 0 G (inverse)

x = 1 : 1

a. Let f : x a

f G , then 1 + f 0 = 1 0 + f 0 = 1 + 1 = 0

x 1 : 1

not closed under addition.

( fg )x = fx gx 0 fg F

b. f , g G : x :

fg G (closed)

( fg )1 = f 1 g1 = 1 1 = 1

1 G : f G : x : (1 f ) x = 1 ( x ) fx = 1 fx = fx 1 f = f (identity)

()

( )

1 + f F , so the set is

20

f : x a ( fx )

f G :

f x = ( fx )

x :

17.

()

a. 1 F

b.

x :

= 1 1 = 1

( ff ) x

= fx f x = fx ( fx )

= 1

(inverse).

f G

x :

ff = 1

(inverse)

(1)0 = 1 (1 + 1)0 = (1)0 + (1)0 = 1 + 1 = 2 , so the set is not closed under addition.

( fg )0 = f 0 g 0 = 1 1 = 1, so the set is not closed under multiplication.

a. 1 F

b. f , g F:

a. Let a :

a,b :

a :

ff = 1

f F

( fg) x = fx gx 0 fg F

(closed)

( fg ) 0 = f ( 0) g ( 0) = 1 1 = 1

1 ( 0) = 1 : f F : x : ( f 1 ) x = fx 1 ( x ) = fx f 1 = f (identity)

1

1

f : x a ( fx ) : x : ( ff ) x = fx f x = fx ( fx ) = 1

1

f 0 = 1 f 0 = ( f 0 ) = 1

f , g F :

f F :

19.

1 0 =1

1 F

18.

f 1 = ( f 1)

f a {a} . Then

x :

x :

a : f a = f a

b. f F .

( f a + f b ) x = f ax + f b x = a + b f a + f b = f a + b (closed)

( f a + f 0 )x = f ax + f 0 x = a + 0 = a f a + f 0 = f a (identity)

x : ( f a + f a ) x = ( f a + f a ) x = f ax + f ax = a + ( a) = 0

f a + f a = 0 (inverse)

20.

21.

See table.

a. 50, 25, 0, 25, 50

b. 4, 2, 1, 1 ,

1

4

c.

1

, 1, , 2 .

22.

0 1

0 1

0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0

1 0 + 0 1 1 1 + 0 0 0 1

=

=

=

=

and

, so

1 0

1 0

1 0 + 0 1 1 1 + 0 0 0 1

0 0 + 1 1 0 1 + 1 0 1 0

1 0 0 1

0 1

=

,

.

0 1 1 0

1 0

0

23.

1 1

1 0 1 n

=

=

,

0 1

0 1 0 1n = 0

1 1

0 1

1 1

0 1

n +1

=

n 1

1 1 1 1 1 n 1 1 1 1 + n 0 1 1 + n 1 1 n + 1

=

,

=

=

=

1

0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 + 1 1 0

1 1 1 1 n

,

1 0 1 0 1n = 1

n

1 1 1 1

=

0 1 0 1

1 1

so by induction

=

0 1

1 1

0 1

24.

3 0

1 0 3n

=

=

0 2

0 1 0

1 n 1 1 1 1 + n 0 1 1 + n 1 1 n 1

=

,

=

=

1

0 1 1 0 1 + 1 0 0 1 + 1 1 0

1 n

0 1 n

0

,

2n n = 0

21

3 0

0 2

3 0

0 2

n +1

3 0 3 0 3n

=

=

0 2 0 2 0

1 2 0 3 1

=

6 0 3 0

=

n 1

3 0 3

=

0 2 0

3 0

so by induction

0 2

3 0

0 2

25.

0 2

0 1

= 2

2 0

1 0

26.

G 1 = ,+ = 1 ,

0 3 0 3n 3 + 0 0 3n 0 + 0 2 3n + 1

=

=

2n 0 2 0 3 + 2n 0 0 0 + 2n 2 0

0 3n

=

2 1 0

1

0

,

2n n = 1

0 3n 3 1 + 0 0 3n 0 + 0 2 1 3n 1

=

=

2 1 3n 0 + 2n 0 0 0 + 2n 2 1 0

3n

=

0

3 n

=

0

0

,

2

n +1

0 3 1

2n 0

0

.

2 n

n

0 2

2 0

Exercise 22

0

,

2n 1

1 0 0 1

2

,

.

0 1 1 0

G 3 = + , is not cyclic, because q 1 :

p + ,p > q ,p prime :

G 4 = 6, + = 6 ,

{ }

G 5 = 6n

n

= 6 ,

G6 = a + b 2

a, b

27.

3 0 = 0, 3 1 = 3,

28.

c 0 = e,

29.

U 6 = e 2ji

30.

3

i

2

, so

3 2 = 2,

3 3 = 1,

c2 = e

i =0

3 = 4 = 4 .

c = 2.

34 = 0

32 i

e ,

1 ji

2 i

= e 3 , so e 3 = 1,

i = 0

4

i

32 i

e = e 3 ,

6

i

32 i

2i

= e0 = 1

e = e 3 = e

4 i

, so e 5 = 1,

j =0

54 i

e ,

8

i

54 i

e = e 5 ,

12

2

i

i

54 i

e = e 5 = e 5 ,

16

6

i

i

54 i

e = e 5 = e 5

i =0

1 ij

3 i

= e 4 , so e 2 = e 0 ,

i = 0

3

i

32 i

e = e 2 ,

2

i

32 i

e = e 2 ,

1

i 3 i

32 i

0

e = e 2 , e 2 = e

= 4.

0

32.

n

= U 5 = 5.

U 8 = e 2ij

e

= 3.

U 5 = e 2ij

e5

31.

c 1 = c,

a + b 2 = na + nb 2

na + (n + 1 )b 2 a + b 2 .

n :

2

i

3

54 i

0

e = e ,

5

i

54 i

e = e 4 ,

3

i

54 i

e = e 4

e4

2

7

4

1

6

i 5 i

i 5 i

i 5 i

i 5 i

i

54 i

e = e 4 , e 4 = e 4 , e 4 = e 4 , e 4 = e 4 , e 4 = e 4 ,

= U8 = 8.

22

33.

,

1

=

1

34.

,

1

1

,

1

, so

[]

= 3.

a. See table.

1

,

, so

[]

= 2.

35.

36.

1

, so

[]

= 2.

{}

b. 0 = 0

2 = {0,2, 4} 3 ,

3 = {0,3} 2 ,

4 = {0,4, 2} 3 ,

c. 1 and 5.

d.

<1>, <5>

<2>, <4>

37.

38.

39.

<3>

<0>

Replace is a subset H of G with is a group on the subset of elements H of G, with the induced operation from

G.

Ok.

a. true (G1); b. false; c. true; d. false (the group itself is the only improper subgroup of itself); e. false; f. false;

g. false; h. false; i. true (under addition); j. false.

40.

In + , , e = 1,

41.

H G (subset)

h 1 , h 2 H:

(1.2.14)

eG

eG

h H:

12 = 1,

(1)

= 1.

h 1 , h 2 H: h 1 = h 1 , h 2 = h 2

= eH H (identity)

h 1 H:

h 1 h = eH

If G is cyclic, then g0 G :

g G :

43.

g G :

{ }

Write HK = hk

G = g0

g = g :

h H , k K

h 1 h = e

(inverse)

42.

h 1 h 2 = h 1 h 2 = h 1 h 2 H (closed)

(H G)

m :

g G :

g = g0

h 1 h = e

m :

g = g0

( )

h 1 h = eH , so h

= h 1

g = g0 .

m

= (g 0 ) , so G = g 0 .

m

, then

23

(h k )(h k )

h 1k1 , h 2k 2 HK:

1 1

abelian

(h h )(k k )

2 2

1 2

h1 h2 H , k 1k 2 K

1 2

HK (closed)

H, K G

eG = eG eG

hk HK:

h 1 H , k 1 K:

(hk )

eH eK HK (identity)

G3

a H,

46.

a 1 G ,

a G,

G1

a G a 1 H ,

a G a 1 = eG

45.

) ( ) = (h h )(k k ) = e

abelian

h 1k 1 hk

G3

( )

H G

( )

a , b H:

a =1 H ,

ab 1 H

1

a H: aa = eG H (G2)

1

1

b H: eb = b H (G3)

a , b H: c H: c = b 1

ab 1 H

Let G = g 0 , so g G :

G1

b 1 H

a , b H:

m :

g = g0

1

g = g0

( )

ac 1 = a b 1

g 0 = e,

g0 = g0,

g0 = g0 g0 = g0 g0

(h h )

h 1 , h 2 H :

commutative

1 2

e2 = e

e H (identity)

h H :

(h )

(inverse).

48.

h 2

Let Hn N + = x G

and

g0 2 .

(h h )

1

= e 2 = e;

(h ) = (h )

1

( )

e = h 1 h 2

(h h )

commut.

=e

(h )

1

. Then

x n =e

commut.

n

n n

h 1h 2

= h1 h 2

h 1 , h 2 Hn :

en = e

= e , so

h 1 h 2 = e e = e (closed)

commut.

= ab H (G1)

and its inverse as a generator. If a cyclic group has only one generator, then g 0 = g 0

47.

= eHK , so

H eK

= h 1k 1 (inverse).

H G

44.

h 1k 1 HK

= e e = e (closed)

e Hn (identity)

h Hn :

(h )

1

hn

(h h )

commut.

= e n = e;

(h ) = (h )

1

( )

e = h 1 h n

(h h )

commut.

49.

(inverse).

See Exercise 1.3.33.

50.

= en = e

(h )

1

Hn

h m H . Since H ,

m,n :

h 1 = h n m 1 H . So H is a subgroup of G.

51.

x , y Ha :

xa = ax , ya = ay

ea = a = ae

x Ha :

52.

a. x , y H s :

xy Ha (closed)

e Ha (identity)

s S:

xs = sx , ys = sy

x 1 Ha (inverse).

xy H s (closed)

24

s S:

es = s = se

x H s : s S:

b. By definition.

53.

a G :

aa 1 = eG = eH H

a , b G :

54.

e H s (identity)

1

a~b

ab

x 1 H s (inverse).

a~a

(ab ) = ba

1

b~a

a , b , c G : a ~ b b ~ c ab 1 , bc 1 H ab 1bc 1 = ac 1 H a ~ c .

q , r H K: q H , q K , r H , r K qr H qr K qr H K (closed)

H G eH = eG H

eG H K (identity)

K G eK = eG K

q H K: q 1 H q 1 K q 1 H K (inverse).

55.

g 1 , g 2 g 0 :

56.

g n , h n G n :

m 1 , m 2 Z:

g nh n

g1 = g0

commutative

( gh )

m1

, g 2 = g0

m2

g1 g 2 = g0

m1 + m 2

= g0

m 2 + m1

= g0

m2

g0

m1

= g 2 g1 .

G n (closed)

e = e G n (identity)

g n G n :

57.

( )

g 1

gn

(g g)

commutative

= e n = e,

(g )

1

G n (inverse).

g G , g e and by (17), the the nontrivial cyclic group g G . But G is not cyclic, so g G :

g g , so

g is proper.

1.

2.

3.

4.

42 = 4 9 + 6

42 = 5 9 + 3

50 = 7 8 + 6

50 = 6 8 + 2

5.

6.

7.

( ) (

)

gcd( 48, 88) = gcd( 2 3, 2 11) = 2 = 8 .

gcd(360, 420) = gcd( 2 3 5, 2 3 5 7 ) = 2

4

3 5 = 60 .

8.

13 + 17 8 = 21 mod 17 = 4 .

9.

21 + 30 19 = 40 mod 30 = 10 .

10.

26 + 42 16 = 42 mod 42 = 0 .

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

39 + 54 17 = 56 mod 54 = 2 .

1, 2, 3, 4: 4 (by relative primes).

1, 3, 5, 7: 4.

1, 5, 7, 11: 4.

1, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 57, 59: 16.

The image of a generator under an isomorphism must be another generator. By Exercise 52, an isomorphism is

defined completely by its action on a generator. Therefore, there is one automorphism for each generator that one

specific generator could be mapped onto that is, the number of automorphisms on a cyclic group is the number

of generators of that group.

1: 1.

1, 5: 2.

25

17.

18.

19.

20.

1, 3, 5, 7: 4.

1, 1: 2.

1, 5, 7, 11: 4.

21.

30 gcd 25, 30 = 30 5 = 6 .

22.

( )

42 gcd(30, 42) = 42 6 = 7 .

23.

{i, i

24.

(1 + i )

25.

1+ i = 2 e 4 ,

= 1, i 3 = i , i 4 = 1 : 4.

1

2=e4 ,

1

e4

e4

26.

= 8.

= 0 .

27.

23

22

28.

23

22

23

22 3

22 3

2 32

22 32

29.

30.

8 = 23

31.

12 = 2 2 3

20 30 = 1,

21 30 = 2,

20 31 = 3,

2 2 30 = 4,

21 31 = 6,

2 2 31 = 12 .

32.

20 = 2 2 5

20 50 = 1,

21 50 = 2,

2 2 50 = 4,

20 51 = 5,

21 51 = 10,

2 2 51 = 20 .

33.

17 = 17 1

34.

35.

36.

37.

38.

39.

40.

41.

20 = 2,

21 = 2,

17 0 = 1,

2 2 = 4,

21 30 = 2,

20 31 = 3,

21 31 = 6 .

23 = 8 .

17 1 = 17 .

{2, 3} = 1 .

{4, 6} = {2 , 2 3} = 2 .

{8, 10} = {2 , 2 5} = 2 .

{12, 30} = {2 3, 2 3 5} = 2 3 = 6 .

{12, 42} = {2 3, 2 3 7} = 2 3 = 6 .

{18, 24, 39} = {2 3 , 2 3, 3 13} = 3 .

2

Insert the phrase [if and only if] n is the smallest nonnegative integer such that [ a n = e ].

Ok.

26

42.

a. true; b. false; c. true; d. false; e. true; f. false (the group of order 3 with the operation that takes the right

element); g. true; h. false (G and G' don't even have to be defined on the same set); i. true; j. true.

44.

(,+ ) .

45.

46.

47.

E.

Every infinite cyclic group is isomorphic to , which has two generators.

5 has generators 1, 2, 3, 4.

48.

j 2i

43.

1 i 3 i

= e 2 , e 2 .

j = 1, 3

49.

U 6 6 :

2i

6

50.

U 8 8 :

2i

8

51.

U 12 12 :

52.

x G :

53.

p + q = (p n + q n )n + (p m + qm )m, p n + q n , p m + q m (closed).

0 = 0n + 0m S (identity)

p S : p n ,p m : p = p nn + p mm p = (p nn + p mm) = ( p n )n + ( p m )m S (inverse).

54.

(ab )

(ba )

1 i

= e 3 ,e

j =1, 5

= e

j =1, 3, 5, 7

= e

j =1, 5, 7, 11

x = an

n2

,e 4

1

i

6

,e 4

,e 6

x = a n

( ) ab = a(ba )

(ab ) = e , so ba =

ab ab

=e

1

i

4

2i

12

n :

=e

5

i

3

n 1

,e

,e 6

7

i

4

,e

11

i

12

isomorphism

(ba )

n 1

b =e

(a) n .

(ba )

n 1

b = a 1

ba = e

(ba )

= e . Similarly,

ab .

a. The least common multiple of r, s + is the generator of the group r s (which exists by Theorem 24). This

agrees with the intuitive notion because elements of the intersection must be multiples of both r and s.

b. When r s = rs .

c.

56.

Show that an infinite group has an infinite number of subgroups. If there is a generator a of the group, then it is

isomorphic to and thus has an infinite number of subgroups. If it does not have a generator, then

55.

57.

The group 0, 1, i , 1 + i under modulo addition is not cyclic, but all its proper subgroups 0 , 1 , i , 1 + i are.

58.

(r + s ) +

n

t=

(associative)

r n : r + 0 = r (identity)

r n :

r = 0 :

r =

r 0 :

n r

r = 0 :

r +n r =

r 0 :

( ( ))

( ( )

0 +n 0 = 0

r + n (n r ) = n modn = 0

(inverse)

a = xax 1

59.

x G :

ax = xa .

60.

pq is generated by all relative primes to pq, that is, to p and q, less than pq. There are p 1 divisors by q of pq, and

27

) (

) (

) (

generators when p = q .

61.

62.

This again amounts to finding the relative primes to p r , of which there are p r 1 1.

63.

n gcd n, m

64.

( )

( )

( )

65.

66.

67.

68.

69.

70.

Not obvious: one would need to find a path which generates the group.

No, because it does not include the identity element.

71.

0

0

7

5

6

4

2

5

72.

4

a. A relation is represented by a closed path from the identity element to itself.

b. b 2 = e ,

73.

74.

75.

76.

( )

abab = e ,

a 4 = e,

( )(

a 2ba 2b = e .

( )

a. a 2b a 3 = a 3b ; b. ab a 3b = a 2 ; c. b a 2b = a 2 .

e a b c

a e c b

b c e a

c b a e

See table, where c = ab .

e a b c d f

a e c b f d

b d e f a c

c f a d e b

d b f e c a

f c d a b e

See table, where c = ab ,

e

a

b

c

d

f

a

c

d

e

f

b

b

f

e

d

c

a

c

e

f

a

b

d

d

d

a

f

e

c

d = ba ,

f = aba .

f

b

c

b

a

e

28

77.

Z4

f = ba 1.

d = ba ,

78.

(nonabelian)

b

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

= 1 2 3 6 5 4

(

)

= (3 4 1 6 2 5)

= (51 6 2 4 3)

= ( 2 6 1 5 4 3)

= (1 2 3 4 5 6) , = (3 1 4 5 6 2) , = ( 4 3 5 6 2 1) , = (5 4 6 2 1 3) , = (6 5 2 1 3 4) , = ( 2 6 1 3 4 5) ,

= (1 2 3 4 5 6) = , so = 6 .

( ) = (1 2 3 4 5 6), ( ) = (4 3 2 1 5 6) , ( ) = (1 2 3 4 5 6) = ( ) , so = 2 .

2 = 2 4 1 5 6 3

2

2

1

( )

100 = 616 + 4 = 6

9.

0 = 1 2 3 4 5 6 , 1

3

Z2 , +

(

)

= (5 2 4 3 1 6) , = (1 2 3 4 5 6) , so

16

8.

S2

4 = 4 = 6 5 213 4 .

17

3Z, +

17Z, +

6!

100

( )

= e 50 = e .

R, +

R *,

= 250 = 2

50

S6

cyclic

Z6 , +

(3 5 4 1 2)

cyclic

acyclic

Z, +

Q, +

Q*,

C* ,

R +,

10.

{

}

= {1, 2, 4, 3} .

= {1, 5} .

11.

O1, = 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 2 .

12.

O1,

13.

O1,

14.

, 1 = , 2 = 2 , 1 = , 2 = , 3 = 2 .

29

15.

(

)

(

) (

)

= = (3 4 1 2) = ( 4 1 2 3) , = , = ( 2 3 41) = (1 4 3 2) = , = (3 4 1 2) = ( 4 3 2 1) =

= ( 4 1 2 3) = (3 2 1 4) = .

= 1 = 2 1 4 3 , = 0 , 1 = 1, 2 = 2 = 2 3 4 1 = 3 4 1 2 ,

= 1 = 2 3 4 1 ,

3

2,

16.

S4

17.

S5

18.

3 = 3

2=5

S3

S4

S4

S5

= S3 = 3! = 6 .

3 = 3

= S 4 = 4! = 24 .

2=5

( ) = (1 2 3) = {, , } ,

= ( 2 3 1), = (1 2 3) = {, , } ,

= , = , = ( 2 1 4 3) = (1 2 3 4) = = {, } .

b. = {, } , = {, } , ,

= D , = (1 3 2) = ( 2 1 3) = ,

= ( 2 1 3) = (3 2 1) = .

0

( )

= (1 2 3),

( )

= (3 1 2),

a. 1 = 1 2 3 ,

1 = 2 3 1 ,

1

0

1

1

1

3

1

1 = 3 1 2 ,

2

i = 1, 2; j = 1, 2, 3

1 1

D3

1 = 2

19.

1 = ,

1 = 1 ,

) (

) (

1 = 3 4 1 2 = 2 , 1 = 1 3 4 1 2 = 4 1 2 3 = 3 , 1 = 1 4 1 2 3 = 1 2 3 4 = ,

1 = , 1 , 2 , 3 ;

= {, } ;

(

) (

)

= , = , = ( 4 1 2 3) = (3 4 1 2) = , = (3 4 1 2) = ( 2 3 4 1) = ,

= ( 2 3 4 1) = (1 2 3 4) = = { , , , } ;

= , = , = ( 2 1 4 3) = (1 2 3 4) = = {, } ;

= = {, } ;

= , = , = (3 2 1 4) = (1 2 3 4) = = {, } ;

= = {, }

= (1 2 3 4 5), = ( 2 4 51 3), = ( 4 1 3 2 5), = (1 2 5 4 3) , = ( 2 4 3 1 5) , = ( 4 1 5 2 3) ,

= (1 2 3 4 5) = .

Since ( 2 1 3) = , (1 3 2) = , there are two distinct elements that square to the identity, while has only one

0

2 = ,

2 = 2 ,

2 = 2 3 4 1 2 = 1 2 3 4 =

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

20.

( 3 ), so / S3 .

30

0

1

2

3

4

5

21.

1

2

3

4

5

0

2

3

4

5

0

1

3

4

5

0

1

2

4

5

0

1

2

3

5

0

1

2

3

4 .

1 1

1

a. 1 2 = 2

1 3 3

1 1

1

1 2 = 3

1 3 2

1 1 3

~ 2 3 1 , 1

2 = 1

1 3 2

1 1 2

~ 3 2 1 , 1

2 = 1

1 3 3

( )

1 1 2

~ 123 ,

1 2 = 3

3 1

1

1 1 3

~ 1 3 2 , 1 2 = 2

3 1

1

[ ] (

[ ] (

[] ~ (3 1 2) ,

[ ] (

[ ] (

[] ~ (2 1 3) .

b. S3 .

23.

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

,

~

, 1 ~

, 2 ~

, ~

, 1 ~

1

3 1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

, ~

2 ~

, 1 ~

.

1

1

2

1

1

1

S2 .

24.

S2 S2 .

25.

S4 .

26.

S .

22.

27.

) (

( ) (

) (

) (

representation is : 4 S4 : x a x .

With S3 = , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 3 :

) (

) = (

1 2 1 2 3 = 1 2 1 2 3 = 1 2 1 2 3 ,

1 1 2 1 2

2 1 2 3 1 = 1 2 2 3 1 ,

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

et cetera, reading off the columns of Table 2.1.8. Then the right regular representation is : S3 S3 : a .

The book definition states onto, but this is the same as to when a set is mapped to itself.

Okay.

Permutation.

Not surjective for negative numbers.

Permutation.

Not surjective for nonpositive numbers.

34.

f 5x = x 3 x 2 2x f 5 x = 3x 2 2x 2 f 5 x = 6x 2 . f 5 x = 0

6x = 2

35

x = 1 , so

3

1

.

3

a. true; b. false, must map on the same set; c. true; d. true? (book says false); e. true; f. true (by Theorem

31

1.4.17); g. false, S10 = 10!; h. false, by Theorem 1.5.1. every cyclic subgroup is commutative, but in Example

2.1.17 S3 is shown not to be commutative and is thus not cyclic; i. true, any Sn has S3 as a subgroup and can

therefore be neither commutative nor cyclic; j. true

36.

37.

38.

and

commutative.

Function composition is associative by 1.1.13. The set has the identity function as an identity element, however the

set does not have an inverse for each of its elements. For example, let a A , then f a : x a a has no f a such that

f a o f a = 1. This algebraic structure is a monoid.

Let H = SA | b = b , then , H: 1 SA , b = b

1 SA , 1b = b = b

39.

1b = b , and

Let H = SA | b B . If B A then a A \ B:

H: a = b

1b = a

1 H , so H is not a

40.

41.

42.

43.

44.

Let H = SA | B B . , H: B B ( bijective)

B = B

1B = B , so 1 SA , and

1B = B = B and 1 H .

By 40., also a subgroup.

A copy of an n-gon is any permutation of the vertices of the original in which neighbors of vertices remain

neighbors. There are n permutations that leave the orientation unchanged, and another n that reverse it ( n 3).

The first set form a group in itself, because any product of permutations that leave the orientation unchanged itself

leaves the orientation unchanged.

How many different ways can a cube be rotated? One of its six faces can be rotated upwards, then one of four faces

can be rotated leftward, which fixes the rotation. So there are 6 4 = 24 possible rotations. Three subgroups of

order four are formed by rotating the cube around its three perpendicular axes, and four subgroups of order three

are formed by rotating it around its four diagonal axes.

( )( )

( )( )(

) ( )(

) (

) ( )( )(

) ( )(

) (

For Sn 3 : 1 2 , 1 3 Sn , and 1 2 1 3 1, 2, 3 = 1 2 3, 2, 1 = 2, 3, 1 , 1 3 1 2 1, 2, 3 = 1 3 2, 1, 3 = 3, 1, 2

so the group is not commutative.

45.

Let Sn :

( )

= 1 . Suppose

Sn : =

) ( )

1

= j i . So i = i =

46.

{ }

n Z

= n +n a a

n Z

= n n a a

n Z

{ }

= nc

n Z

= n nb b

n Z

= n + nb b

n Z

{ }

= nb

n Z

= Ob , .

permutations on A. Also, ai , j A:

48.

i: i i . Since n 3, j i , i , so define

Suppose c Oa , , Ob , , then na , nb Z: n a a = c , nb b = c . So

Oa , = n a

47.

j n i < n

j n i ai = a j .

If Oa, = A then it is possible to number the elements of A by a0n 1 such that n a0 = an . Then

ai , j A: j i ai = j i i a0 = j a0 = a j , and j i , so is transitive on A.

Conversely, let be transitive on A. Then for any given a A:

ai A:

j : j a = ai , so

Oa, = A .

49.

a. They will read every product a b = c as b a = c , and every instance of the associative property of the group

a b c = a b c as an associative property c b a = c b a of a corresponding, but different, group. Since

( ) (

( )

a group can be defined solely in terms of such expressions, their reversal defines a group also.

) ( )

( )

b. a b c = b a c = c b a = c b a = a c b = a b c (associativity)

e x = x e = e (left identity)

a a = a a = e (left inverse)

50.

( )

32

g , h G : ( g h ) = ( ( g h )) = ( g ) h = (g ) h = h o g , with Exercise 49 shows that (G, o) does indeed

form a group.

51.

52.

0

s0

s1

b.

s1

s0

c.

11101

s0

s1

d.

010100

s0

s1

Tx s 0

Tx s 1

Tx s 2

a.

0110

s0

s0

s0

b.

0110111

s2

s2

s2

c.

1101

s1

s1

s1

s1

s2

s2

s0

s1

s2

54.

(n + 1)

55.

yx is such a string.

57.

n +1

T 1

1

1 1 is a group, because it is a monoid with an inverse T 1 = T .

x

x

(

T (s

) (

s ) = (s

) (

) (

) (

) (

T s0 s1 s 2 = s0 s1 s 2 , T0 s0 s1 s 2 = s0 s0 s0 , T1 s0 s1 s 2 = s1 s 2 s 2 , T01 s0 s1 s 2 = s1 s1 s1 , and

11

0

1

01

11

58.

Tx s 1

a.

53.

56.

Tx s 0

0 s1 2

0

1

01

11

0

0

0

0

0

0

s2 s2 .

1

1

01

11

11

11

01

01

01

01

01

01

11

11

11

11

11

11

1

0

1

1

33

59.

e

a

c

c

b

e

a

e

60.

The state transition function for an input string g = g 0 g n 1 of the automaton of a finite group G is a function

Tg : G G : x a x ni =01 g i . Since ni =01 g i G , T is a permutation of G.

61.

isomorphic to G.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13

{1, 5, 8, 7}, {2, 6, 3}, {4}

{1, 2, 3, 5, 4}, {6}, {7, 8}

{2i}i ,

{3i}i ,

{2i + 1}i

{3i + 1}i , {3i + 2}i

(4 1 3 5 8 6 2 7)

(3 7 2 8 5 4 1 6)

(5 4 3 7 8 6 2 1)

(1 8)(3 6 4)(5 7) = (1 8)(3 4)(3 6)(5 7)

(1 3 4)(2 6)(5 8 7) = (1 4)(1 3)(2 6)(5 7)(5 8)

(1 3 4 7 8 6 5 2) = (1 2)(1 5)(1 6)(1 8)(1 7)(1 4)(1 3)

a. 4

b. The order of a cycle is equal to the number of elements in its orbit.

= ( ), = (1 4)(3 5 7 8), = (3 7 )(5 8), = (1 4)(3 8 7 5), = ( ) = = 4 .

d. (1 8)(3 6 4)(5 7 ), (3 4 6), (1 8)(5 7 ), (3 6 4), (1 8)(3 4 6)(5 7 ), ( )

= 6,

(1 3 4)(2 6)(5 8 7), (1 4 3)(5 7 8), (2 6), (1 3 4)(5 8 7), (1 4 3)(2 6)(5 7 8), ( ) = 6 ,

(1 3 4 7 8 6 5 2), (1 4 8 5)(3 7 6 2), (1 7 5 3 8 2 4 6), = 8 .

c. 0 =

0

= 6,

e. The order of a permutation is equal to the least common multiple of the numbers of elements of the orbits in a

decomposition into disjoint cycles.

14.

5 = 2 + 3,

( )

lcm 2, 3 = 6

34

15.

6.

16.

7 = 3 + 4,

17.

10 = 5 + 3 + 2,

18.

15 = 3 + 5 + 7,

19.

20.

21.

22.

( )

lcm(5, 3, 2) = 30

lcm(7, 5, 3) = 105

lcm 3, 4 = 12

okay

[A cycle is a permutation having] at most [one] nontrivial [orbit].

For all positive n, An [is the] sub[group of all even permutations] of Sn .

a. false, but every permutation is a product of disjoint cycles.

b. true

c. true, but it wouldn't have been obvious that a permutation couldn't have been both even and odd

(1 2 3 4) , (1 2 3 4) , (1 2 3 4) = (1 3)(2 4), (1 2 3 4) = (1 4 3 2) is a transposition.

d. false,

e. false, A5 =

1

2

S5 = 1 5! = 60 .

2

{( )} ( )

f. false, S1 = 1 = 1 .

g. true, A3 = , , 1 where = 1 2 3 ,

h. true

i. true

j. false, (1 2) and (3 4) are both odd permutations but (1 2)(3 4) is even.

23.

1

1 2

1 2

2 1

24.

( )

2 = 1 3 ,

( )

3 = 1 2 are odd.

)

So (n n)(n n) = is a product of at most n transpositions.

n > 1, for any Sn , the permutation n n does not move n so is a permutation of Sn 1 and can be written as a

product of at most n 1 transpositions.

b. If a permutation Sn is not a cycle it consists of at least two cycles. Since by (a) each cycle can be written as a

product of at most n 1 transpositions, can be written as a product of at most n 2 .

c.

25.

( )(

)( ) (

a. i j b j i = b i j

b

35

( )( )( ) ( )

b. i j j i = i j

26.

Let H Sn . Either H where is odd, or all the permutations in H are even. In the first case let He be the

set of even permutations of H, and let : He H: a . Since is even and is odd, must also be odd. If

, He : = = , so is a bijection.

1.

4 + 0 = {, 8, 4, 0, 4, 8, } ,

4 + 1 = {, 7, 3, 1, 5, } ,

4 + 2 = {, 6, 2, 2, 6, } ,

4 + 3 = {, 5, 1, 3, 7, } .

2.

2 = {, 4, 2, 0, 2, 4, }

3.

w12 =

4 + 0 = {, 4, 0, 4, } , 4 + 2 = {, 2, 2, 6, } .

2

12

12

4.

5.

{ 18

6.

7.

8.

12

12 2

{

}

+ 1 = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11} .

+ 0 = {0, 4, 8} , 4 + 1 = {1,

12

= {0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10}

+ 0 = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 ,

36

+i

12

5, 9 , 4

12

+ 2 = 2, 6, 10 , 4

12

+ 3 = 3, 7, 11 .

i 0, , 17

{ } { }

{ , } = { , } ,

{ , } = { , } ,

{ , } = { , } .

{ , } = { , } ,

{ , } = { , },

{ , } = { , } ,

{ , } = { , } .

0 0 , 2 = 0 , 2 ,

1

Neither the left nor the right cosets form a group.

36

9.

10.

11.

0 2 1 2 1 2 1 3

0 2 1 1 1 2 2 3

0 0 2 1 2 1 2 1 3

0 0 2 1 1 1 2 2 3

2 2 0 1 3 2 1 1 2

2 2 0 1 1 2 1 3 2

1 1 2 2 1 1 3 2 0

1 1 2 2 2 1 3 1 0

2 2 1 2 0 3 1 2 1

1 1 3 1 0 1 2 2 2

1 1 2 2 1 0 2 3 1

1 1 2 2 3 0 2 1 1

2 2 1 3 1 2 0 2 1

2 2 1 3 2 2 0 1 1

1 1 3 1 2 1 2 0 2

2 2 1 2 2 3 1 0 1

3 3 1 0 2 2 1 1 2

3 3 1 0 1 2 1 2 2

{ } { }

{ , } = { , } ,

{ , } = { , } ,

{ , } = { , } .

{ , } = { , } ,

{ , } = { , },

{ , } = { , } ,

{ , } = { , } .

0 0 , 2 = 0 , 2 ,

1

The left and right cosets of this subgroup are the same.

So, even a noncommutative group may (must?) have left and right coset partitions that equal, and thus a coset

group, if the subgroup is appropriately chosen.

This subgroup induces a coset group isomorphic to the Klein 4-group.

0 2 1 3 1 2 1 2

0 0 2 1 3 1 2 1 2

2 2 0 3 1 2 1 2 1

1 1 3 2 0 1 2 2 1

12.

3 3 1 0 2 2 1 1 2

1 1 2 2 1 0 2 3 1

2 2 1 1 2 2 0 1 3

1 1 2 1 2 1 3 0 2

2 2 1 2 1 3 1 2 0

24

24 : 3

13.

= 0, 3, , 21 ,

24

= 24

24

= 24 8 = 3 .

1 = 0 , 1 ,

S3 : 1 = S3

1 = 3! 2 = 3 .

37

14.

D 4 : 1 = D 4

15.

= 1

)(

= 1

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

= 5,

= 5! 5 = 24 .

)(

= 22 = 4 ,

5 3

S6 : = S6

17.

18.

19.

) (

6 = 1

5 3

S5 : = S5

16.

1 = 8 2 = 4 .

= 6! 4 = 180 .

Insert where a G .

Amend H G (H is a subgroup of G).

a. true

b. true

c. true (every subgroup of prime order is cyclic (2.3.11), thus isomorphic to n , and thus commutative)

d. false (the trivial subgroup of any infinite group obviously has left cosets)

e. true ( H = H )

f. false

g. true (by Theorem 2.2.20)

h. true

i. false (not necessarily if the group is noncommutative)

j. true (because cyclic groups are commutative (1.5.1) and by the remark after 2.3.14)

Impossible, by the boxed remark after Example 2.3.3.

The improper subgroup of any group G.

The trivial subgroup of any group of order 6 such as 6 .

Impossible, since a partition of a set can never produce more cells than the order of the set.

Impossible, since by the boxed remark before 2.3.10 the order of each cell of the partition must be equal, and thus

equal 6 4 = 1 1 , and the order of a set must obviously be integral.

2

25.

The relation ~ R is

reflexive: g G :

g ~R g

gg 1 = e H ,

symmetric: g , g G : g ~ R g

g ~R g .

) = (g )

1

g 1 = g g 1 H so

( gg ) ( g g ) = gg

1

26.

H , so g ~ R g ,

so it is an equivalence relation.

Let : H Hg : h a hg . This function is

surjective:

h H : h = hg Hg H Hg

hg Hg h H : h = hg Hg H

injective: hg , h g Hg : hg = h g

so it is bijective.

27.

h = h,

( g ) h ( g ) H

1

ghg 1 H

H = Hg ,

h H : ghg 1 = h

gh = h g

gh Hg , so gH Hg . Conversely,

Hg gH , so Hg = gH .

hg gH

h H : hg = gh

g 1hg = h

g 1hg H .

28.

h H , g G : hg Hg

27 and 28 together state that H G induces the same left and right coset partition iff h H , g G : g 1hg H .

We already know from Example 7 that this is equivalent to the existence of a coset group.

38

29.

Counterexample: choose a = e

(H = bH

H = Hb

1

30.

a , b G : Ha = Hb

h a H : h b H : h a a = h b b

hb ha a = b

b Ha .

31.

a , b G : aH = bH

h a H : h b H : ah a = bh b

h a = a 1bh b

ha hb

h H : ha 1 = hh a h b b 1

ha 1 Hb 1

that Ha 1 = Hb 1 .

= a 1b

h a h b b 1 = a 1 , so

(H = bH

H = b 2H

bH = b 2H

32.

Counterexample: choose a = e

33.

The order of any proper subgroup H G must divide the order pq of G, so H 1, p , q is prime, so by (11) H is

cyclic.

34.

{ }

Let : H

surjective:

{ }

{ }

{ }

g G : g H {H }

( g H ) = H ( g ) = Hg {H } {H }

injective: g , g G : gH , g H {H }

: ( gH ) = ( g H ) Hg

G

: gH a Hg 1, which is:

{ }

( )

g G : Hg {H }

g G : gH H

H = bH which is false if b H .

gH = Hg 1 H

(h

h H : h H : h 1 g 1 = h g 1

g 1

) = (h g )

1

{ }

{ }

{ }

= H

= Hg 1 , so

gh = g h 1

gh g H

gH g H .

So the function is bijective, which shows the existence of an isomorphism between the left and right coset partition,

and thus (for infinite sets, by definition) their equal size.

35.

Suppose there were two elements c, d of order 2, then c , d would generate a subgroup of order 4 (remebering

that the group is commutative):

e

c

cd

cd

cc = e

cd

ccd = d

dc = cd

dd = e

dcd = ddc = c

cd

cd

cdc = ccd = d

cdd = c

cdcd = cddc = cc = e

36.

g G :

n

n

, but

is not integral.

2

2

which contradicts G not having a proper subgroup, so G must be of finite order. Similarly, if

n > 1, then

37.

g is divisible by

We need to show that each of the elements is in fact a left coset of K in G, that every such coset is an element, and

that the elements are distinct. So, let ai

be such that ai H is the set of distinct left cosets of H in G, and

{b }

i

0 i < H :K

ai , b j

{ }

{ }

0 i < G :H

{ }

ai b j G

ai b j K is a left coset of K in G;

U a H =G

i

ai : g ai H

h H : g = ai h , and since

39

U b K = H b : h b K k K : h = b k , so gK = a b kK = a b K ;

a , a {a }; b , b {b } : abK = a b K (a H are distinct in G ) a = a bK = b K , so

j

i j

i j

So

38.

39.

40.

i, j

i j

a G , so a divides G , that is m N : m a = G , so a n = a

The left cosets of in (,+ ) are { + } . Then :

x x = ( x ) ( x )

x , x

=G :H H :K.

=a

m a

= em = e .

x , x +

[ [

} .

x , x [0,1[ ,

x = x.

Then

n : x = + n 2

+ and x x 0, 1 < 1 , so x x = 0

: x + 2

42.

Obviously H is itself one of the left cosets of H in G. Since there is just one other left coset, and since the cosets

form a partition of G, the other is G \ H . The same argument holds for the right coset partition, so the left and

right coset partitions are equal.

41.

} [ 1, +1] .

reflexive: a ~ a h H , k K : a = hak a = a ; h , k = e ;

transitive: a , b , c : a ~ b , b ~ c h , h H ; k , k K : a = hbk , b = h ck a = hh ck k , hh H , k k K , so

a ~c.

b. h H , k K : a = hbk a HbK .

43. a. Prove it is a subgroup because it satisfies the requirements of Theorem 1.4.14:

The identity permutation e of A certainly has e (c ) = c , so e S ;

, Sc , c :

A;

c,c

Sc , c : 1c = c , so 1 Sc , c ;

so Sc , c SA .

b. The identity permutation of SA is not closed in Sc , d , so again by Theorem 1.4.14, Sc , d / SA .

44.

45.

SA

of Sc , c .

n N : i : 0 i < n , i is a generator of exactly one subgroup of n , and conversely, any subgroup of n must

be generated by i : 0 i < n , so it suffices to enumerate the generators of the subgroups. By Exercise 44, the

subgroups of n are { d }d| n , and by Corollary 1.5.18, d has d generators, so n = + d : d |n d .

46.

1.

2.

1 4 2 4

2 4 =

. The orders are

. There is no element of order

(1,0) (1,1) (1, 2) (1,3)

2 4 2 4

2 4 = 8 , so it is not cyclic.

(0, 0) (0,1) (0, 2) (0,3)

(2, 0) (2,1) (2, 2) (2,3)

3

3

4

12

12

2

6

6

12

40

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

lcm(3, 5) = 15.

lcm(3, 9) = 9.

lcm(4, 6, 5) = 60.

lcm(4, 2, 5, 3) = 60.

3 8 6 8, 3 8 = 24 (excepting the nonproper subgroup).

{ (0, 0,1) , (0,1, 0) , (0,1,1) , (1, 0,0) ,

{(0, 0),(0,1), (0, 2), (0,3)}

{(0, 0),(1,1), (0, 2), (1,3)} .

{(0, 0),(0, 2), (1, 0), (1,2)}

14.

}

(1, 0, 2)} .

(0,1, 2)}

(0, 0, 2), (1, 0, 0),

(0, 0, 2), (0,1, 2),

60 = 2 2 3 5, so by Corollary 6

60 4 3 5

12 5

.

20 3

15 4

a. 4 ( 0, 18, 12, 6 ).

b. 12 (by Corollary 6, 3 4 12).

c. lcm(3, 4) = 12.

d. V 2 2.

e. 2 1 4 = 8.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

{(4, 2),(2,3)}

21.

22.

23.

} 2 2 2 .

2 1 V

2 2 V 2

, so the subgroups are

2 2 2 / V

{(0, 0, 0),

{(0, 0, 0),

{(0, 0, 0),

13.

{

Ui {(0, 0 ), (1, 0)} {(2, 0), (0,1)}

i {0}

i {0, 1}

12 + i .

{2} + i .

i {0, 1}

{2} + i .

i { 0 , 1}

8 = 2 3, giving 2 2 2,

4

{ 2 , 1} i .

i { 0}

{ 1 ,2} i .

i .

4 2 ,

16 = 2 , giving 2 2 2 2,

8 .

4 2 2 ,

4 4 ,

8 2 ,

16 .

32 = 2 , giving

2 2 2 2 2,

4 2 2 2 ,

4 4 2 ,

8 2 2 ,

8 4 ,

16 2 ,

32 .

41

24.

8 2 3 3 5, 16 3 3 5, 2 2 2 2 9 5, 4 2 2 9 5,

4 4 9 5, 8 2 9 5, 16 9 5.

25.

9 11 11 ,

26.

24 = 2 33, giving 2 2 2 3,

25 = 5 2, giving 5 5, 25 ;

so 24 25 has 2 3 = 6.

8 3 ;

27.

order n to

i

p i

ri

4 2 3,

i

pi

ri

3 3 121 ,

i

p i

i

ri

pi

9 121 .

ri

there is no rearrangement of factors between the two halves that gives the same order, so this product is unique for

the given halves.

Conversely, any commutative group of order nm can be written (by Theorem 12, reordering factors as required) as

p ri

p ri .

28.

i

pi

ri

i

p i

ri

= rs groups.

5

29.

2:

2, 11 (2)

3:

3, 21, 111 (3)

4:

4, 31, 22, 211, 1111 (5)

5:

5, 41, 32, 311, 221, 2111, 1111 (7)

6:

6, 51, 42, 411, 33, 321, 3111, 222, 2211, 21111, 111111 (11)

7:

7, 61, 52, 511, 43, 421, 4111, 331, 322, 3211, 31111, 2221 22111, 211111, 1111111 (15)

8:

8, 71, 62, 611, 53, 521, 5111, 44, 431, 422, 4211, 41111, 332, 3311, 3221, 32111, 311111, 2222, 22211,

221111, 21111111, 11111111 (22)

b. 3 5 15 = 225; 15 15 = 225 ; 22 5 = 110 .

30. a. true

b. true

c. false

d. true

e. false ( 2 4 is not cyclic whereas 8 is)

f. false ( S8 = 8! whereas 2 4 = 8)

g. false? (there is no element of S4 of order 8 that generates the subgroup isomorphic to 8)

h. false ( = 1 )

i. true

j. true

31.

32.

{ }

Z 2 = 0, 1 .

a. 1, because every proper subgroup has fewer elements than the group.

b. , because n * : n .

33.

34.

S3 = 3!= 6 .

a. true (Corollary 3.11)

b. false (the Klein 4-group V is not cyclic, and V = 4 = 2 2 )

c. false ( 1

{4, 6}

= 2 )

d. true ( {4, 5, 6} = 1 = 8)

42

e. true

f. false ( 2 / 3 both have Betti number 0)

g. true (by Theorem 16 G 5i K, and 5i is cyclic)

h. false (it could be that G 2 2; but there exist G for which it is true)

i. false (by Theorem 16, there is no isomorphic factorization containing 6 )

j. true

35.

It is equal. For each commutative group of order p r the factorization of Theorem 16 gives the structure of a

corresponding group of order q r .

36.

a. In each of the three cases, G has one subgroup of order 8.

b. In the first case, G has three subgroups of order 4; in the second case, two ( 4 and 2 2 4 2); in the

third case, one.

37.

By Theorem 12, G i

pi

Zp

ri

m . Then H = i

pi

ri

ri

i

38.

12 E 12, which has 12 12 = 144 elements.

39.

40.

41.

.

pi

pi

42.

{1, +1} .

{1, j , 1, j }

c. Let G = i j < ni

pi

qij

ri

ri

m . E n is

, i , j : qij qi , j + 1 , then T = j

i :j <ni p i

qij

factorization. Note that I reverse the order of the torsion coefficients because it simplifies the expressions.

a. G = 2 2 3 2 , so i = 0, 1; n0 = 1, n1 = 1; p0 = 2, p1 = 3; q00 = 2, q10 = 2 . Then T = 2 2 3 2 = 36 .

b. G = 2131 2 231 2 251 , so T = 2 2 31 51 2 2 31 21 = 60 12 2 from

43.

( g , h), ( g , h ) G H : ( g , h) ( g , h ) = (g g , h h ) = ( g g , h h) = ( g , h ) (g , h) , so G H is

commutative.

44.

H = h G | h = 2 E

e H (identity)

{ }

{ }

h H : h = e , h .

h H : h 1 = h = e , h

h 1 = 2

h 1 H (inverse)

h, h H \ E : hh = h 1 h 1 = h 1 h 1 = (hh ) 1

so H G .

45.

a. H = h G | h = 3 E

e H (identity)

hh = 2 (closure)

h H : h = e , h , h 2 .

} {

h H : h 1 = h 2 = e , h 2 , h 4 = e , h 2 , h

h, h H \ E :

hh = e , h h

h 1 = 3

h 1 H (inverse)

h h : hh = e , hh ,(hh ) 2

h = h :

hh = h 2 = h 1

2

h = h : hh = e

hh H E (closure).

43

so H G .

b. H = h G | h = 4 E

{ }

h H : h = e , h , h 2 , h 3 . Then hh = e , h 2

hh 4

H

/ G.

c. For any n, the identity and inverse exist in the subgroup. Suppose n is divisible by m, then

h H :

(h )

m

n/ m

= hn = e

hm =

n

m

h m H , so n must be prime.

<n

47.

a. By Definition 1.

hk = (h,e ) (e, k) = (he ,ek) = (h, k)

b.

hk = kh .

kh = (e , k) (h,e ) = (eh, ke ) = (h, k)

c. h H, k K , h = k : (h,e ) = (e, k) h = e k = e H K = E .

48.

h, h H , k, k K : hk = h k (h,e ) (e , k) = (h ,e ) (e, k ) (he ,ek) = (h e ,ek ) h = h k = k . Also,

H K H K.

49.

Consider the factorization of any finite commutative group by Theorem 12. If it contains a factor of the form

p p , the group is not cyclic because that subgroup has no generator. Since the group is finite, it contains no

factors. Any factors p q where p q have (1,1) as generator, but factors p p m p p have no

generator.

50.

of p, so the order of any element of p

51.

ri

i

i

pi

ri

ri

Is there a counterexample for noncommutative groups?

From the isomorphism,

: G K H K : ( g , k),( g , k ) G K : (( g , k) ) (( g , k ) ) = (( g , k) ( g , k ) ) = (( gg , k k ) ) , so then

52.

n r

(a b) = (a a + 1)(a + 1 a + 2)K(b 2 b 1)(b 1 b)(b 2 b 1) K(a + 1 a + 2)(a a + 1). By Corollary

2.12, every g Sn is a product of such transpositions, so the given set indeed generates Sn .

53.

. (0,1)

. (1,0)

54.

a. G will be commutative when the inner and outer n-gons have the same orientation.

b. 2 n .

c. If n is odd, n = 2m + 1 :

d. The dihedral group.

55.

fx = sin 2x .

2 n = 2 2m + 1

/ 2 2 it is (49) cyclic.

44

56.

57.

58.

59.

60.

61.

62.

fx = sin

x.

3

f (x , y ) = sin 2x sin 2 y .

2

2

f (x , y ) = sin

x sin

y.

3

5

2

3

2 x + cos

2y

2

2

2

2

1(x , y ) = x +

, y ; 2(x , y ) = x , y +

2

3

y

f (x , y ) = sin12 arctan

x

y +5

f (x , y ) = sin12 arctan

.

x 3

the rotation over zero degrees is the identity isometry (identity)

if rot H

rot

if rot , rot H

rot

= rot H (inverse)

rot o rot G

the composition of a preserving with a non-preserving function is non-preserving, 0 + 1 = 1). The isometries in H

are all the orientation-preserving ones. If there is at least one orientation non-preserving isometry in G, then

G H 2 G = 2 H . Otherwise, G = H.

63.

64.

65.

rotation

N

N

h-reflection

N

N

v-reflection

N

Y

glide

N

N

66.

Z Z2

67.

68.

69.

70.

Y

N

Y

Y

N

N

Y

N

Y

N

Y

Y

D Z 2

Z

Z D ?

72.

{

a. {0,180 } ;

73.

74.

a. no; b. yes; c. no.

75.

71.

isomorphism

Z

D

b. yes; c. yes. (see center figure)

77.

{

}

a. {0,120 , 240 } ;

a. {0,120 , 240 } ;

78.

79.

a. 0, 90,180 , 270 ; b. yes; c. no; d. (2,0) and (0,2) (why does the book say (1,1) and not just

(1,0)?).

80.

76.

81.

82.

{

}

a. {0,120 , 240 } ;

b. yes; c. yes (? book says no).

Space rotation of a cube is a permutation of its four diagonal axes, so G S4 . How many ways are there of

permuting them? Fix one arbitrary axis there are 2 4 = 8 ways of doing this. Then there remain three 120

45

1

6

3

2

3

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

0B007F7F2500257F39 (hexadecimal).

GONE_HOME.

x 4 = x 1 + x 2; x 5 = x 1 + x 3; x 6 = x 2 + x 3 .

000000, 001011, 010101, 011110, 100110, 101101, 110011, 111000.

An error in one bit generates an error in two parity bits; an error in two bits also generates an error in two parity

bits; an error in three bits is never detected.

One- and two-bit errors both generate errors in two parity bits, so only one type can be reliably corrected.

7.

8.

a. 110;

1

H = 1

0

9.

10.

b. 001;

1 0

0 1

1 1

1 0 0

0 1 0 .

0 0 1

a. H [110111 ] = [100 ]

110 .

b. H [001011 ] = [ 000 ]

001 .

c. H [111011 ] = [ 011 ]

110 .

d. H [101010 ] = [111 ]

not decodable.

e. H [100101 ] = [ 011 ]

101 .

T

T

T

11.

12.

000000

000

000001

001

000010

010

000100

100

001000

011

010000

101

100000

110

Hw

corrected

code

100

110011

110

000

001011

001

011

110011

110

111

incorrigible

011

101101

101

a. wt(u) = 7 ; b. wt(v) = 6 ; c. u + v = 1010011001 ; d. 5.

13.

14.

v n : v 1 n : v + v 1 = 0 i : v 1i = v i v 1 = v , so u v = u + v 1 = u + v.

Because it has a 1 bit in each position where a transmission error occurred.

46

15.

16.

17.

18.

a. d(u , v) = 0 u and v agree in each bit position u = v .

b. In every bit position where u differs from v, v differs from u.

c. If u differs from w in some bit position, then u differs from v or w differs from v in that position, so

d(u , v) + d(w, v) d(u, w) .

d. If ui = v i for some bit position i, then also ui + 0 = v i + 0, ui + 1 = v i + 1 , so u + w = v + w .

n = ( 2 ) .

n

x C : x = (x 1x 2x 3x 4 x 5x 6 x 7 )

)(

(inverse)

)(

= (x 1x 2x 3x 4 ) x 1 + x 2 + x 3 x 1 + x 2 + x 3 x 1 + x 2 + x 3

x , y C : x + y =

(x 1x 2x 3x 4 x 5x 6 x 7 ) + (y 1y 2y 3y 4 y 5y 6 y 7) =

(x 1 + y 1

(x 1 + y 1

x2 + y 2

x 3 + y3

x4 +y4

x2 + y 2

x 3 + y3

x4 +y4

x 5 + y5

x6 +y6

x7 + y 7) =

(x 1 + x 2 + x 3) + (y 1 + y 2 + y 3)

(x 1 + x 3 + x 4 ) + (y 1 + y 3 + y 4 )

(x 2 + x 3 + x 4 ) + (y 2 + y 3 + y 4 ) ) =

(x 1 + y 1

x2 + y 2

x 3 + y3

x4 +y4

(x 1 + y 1) + (x 2 + y 2) + (x 3 + y 3)

(x 1 + y 1) + (x 3 + y 3) + (x 4 + y 4)

(x 2 + y 2) + (x 3 + y 3) + (x 4 + y 4) ) =

((x + y ) 1

(x + y ) 2

(x + y ) 3

(x + y) 4

(x + y ) 5

(x + y) 6

(x + y ) 7 ) C

so C .

16d

19.

20.

15

C.

m

d = m +1

d

21.

m

d = 2m + 1

d

22.

23.

24.

25.

From Exercise 19, the minimum nonzero weight of code words is the minimum distance between code words.

Then we can detect 2t + 1 = m + 1 m = 2t and correct 2t + 1 = 2m + 1 m = t errors.

For there to be a minimum distance of 3 between code words, changing one bit in each of two code words may

map those two code words into the same coset. The number of cosets is thus the number of ways of changing 0 or

1 bits in a code word, so 2 n k 1 + n .

Similarly, the number of cosets is the number of ways of changing 0, 1, or 2 bits in a code word, so

2 n k 1 + n + 12 n(n 1 ) .

Simply try the formula with increasing value of n:

47

k

a. 2

b. 4

c. 8

d. 2

e. 4

f. 8

26.

27.

m

3

3

3

5

5

5

nk

3

3

4

5

6

7

1

1 1

1

1

1

G =

1

1

1 . By Exercise 24, n k 4.

1

1 1

1

1

1

1

1

G =

1 1

1

1

1

1

1

1 1

. By Exercise 24, n k 4.

1 1 1

1

1

1 1

1

1

13

28.

1

1

1

a. wt(0) = 0 0 H (identity). h H : h = h wt(h ) = wt(h) x H (inverse). Finally, see that

wt(x + y ) = wt(x) + wt(y ) 2a , where a is the number of positions where x i = y i = 1 (closure).

b. A word is either even or odd. Let x G be odd, then h H : xh is odd, and because G is a group, xH is a coset

of G so G = H xH .

29.

3.1 Homomorphisms

1.

a,b : ( a + b ) = a + b .

2.

3.

a,b : ( ab ) = ab = a b = a b .

4.

a,b 6 : a = 2a 2 + a 0 , b = 2b2 + b 0

1

2

+

1

2

) = 1 = 1,

1

2

+

1

2

= 0 + 0 = 0 .

) (

a + 6 b = 2 ( a 2 + b 2 ) + 6 ( a0 + b 0 ) = (a 0 + b 0 ) mod 2 =

5.

a 0 + 2 b 0 = ( 2a 2 + a0 ) + 2 ( 2b 2 + b 0 ) = a + 2 b

6.

a,b : ( a + b ) = 2 a + b = 2 a 2 b = a b .

7.

def.

8.

If G is commutative, g, g G :

not generally an isomorphism.

9.

f , g F : ( f + g ) =

10.

f , g F : ( f + g ) =

d 2( f + g )

dx 2

( gg ) = ( gg )

=

d2 f

dx 2

f + g dx =

4

0

d2 g

= g 1 g 1 = g 1 g 1 = g g . If G is not commutative, f is

= f + g .

dx 2

f dx +

g dx = f g .

48

11.

f , g F : ( f + g ) = 3( f + g ) = 3 f + 3 g = f + g .

12.

1 0 0 0

1 0 1 0

1 0

0 0 1 0 0 0

= 1;

+

= 0 + 0 = 0.

+

=

=

+

=

0 1 0 1

0 0

0 1 0 0 0 1

0 0 0 1

13.

A, B M n : (A + B) = tr( A + B) =

14.

15.

f (x ) = x

(f + f ) =

(f ) =

a

i

+bi =

( f f )(x ) d x =

1

a +b

i

= trA + trB.

x 2 d x = 13 x 3

f (x) d x = x d x = 12 x 2

0

(f ) + ( f ) = x 2

16.

Ker = A3 .

17.

= 7 o 4 , 1 = 4 1 mod 7 = 4 mod 7 = 4 is a homomorphism. Then

Ker = Ker 7 o 4 = ( 7 o 4 )

18.

Let = 10 o 6 ;

Ker =

19.

inv

inv

0 = 4

inv

7 =

0 = ( 10 o 6 )

inv

0 = 6

inv

10 =

25 = ( 7 o 4 ) 25 = 7100 = 2 .

10

6

5

3

=

= 5;

18 = ( 10 o 6 )18 = 10 108 = 8 .

20 = (1 4 2 5 7 6)

= (1 2 7)(4 5 6) .

20.

Let : 10 20 : n a 8 Z 20 n;

21.

n

20

8

10 = 10 + 5;

3 = 8 20 3 = 4 .

1 = (2 5)(1 4 6 7) , then

23.

= 7;

1 = 6 . Then

22.

7

4

2

Ker = inv 0 = {(x , y) | 3x 5y = 0}; ( 3, 2 ) = 3 3 5 2 = 9 10 = 19 .

Let : : (x , y ) a ( 2x y , 3x + 5y );

2x y = 0

y = 2x

y = 0

, and (4, 6) = (2 4 6, 3 4 + 5 6) = (2,18) .

3x + 5y = 0

3x + 10x = 7x = 0

x = 0

inv

24.

: S10 : (x , y) a ((3 5)(2 4) ) ((1 7)(6 10 8 9) ) ; (1, 0) = (3 5)(2 4), (0,1) = (1 7)(6 10 8 9) ,

x

1

25.

26.

n N :

27.

28.

x , y G : g (xy ) = g x g y

g ( xy ) = gx gy

29.

x , y G : g ( xy ) = g x g y

30.

31.

32.

1 : : i a i .

n : : m a nm .

xy = xgy

y = gy

g=e.

g G .

A group homomorphism of a group G into a group G' is a map : G G such that for all x , y G

OK

a. true (odd times even equals even times odd)

b. true (the trivial homomorphism)

c. false (the trivial homomorphism)

d. true (Corollary 18)

e. false (there are 4 cosets in G, but 4 does not divide 6)

f. false ( is a function, so G G )

49

h. true (the trivial homomorphism)

i. false ( e e = e e = e e Ker )

j. false ( : 2 2 : i a (0,i) )

33.

No, there must be 5 cosets in G, but 5 does not divide 12.

34.

: 12 4 : i a i mod 4.

35.

36.

: 2 4 2 5 : (i , j ) a (i, 0) .

No.

37.

: 3 S3 : i a (1 2 3 ) .

38.

: S3 : i a (1 2 3 ) .

39.

: 2 : (x , y ) a 2x .

40.

: 2 : i a (i , 0 ) .

41.

, , , a (1 2) 0

: D4 S 3 : 0 1 2 3

.

1, 2, 1 , 2 a (1 2) 1

42.

: S3 S 4 : s a s .

43.

44.

s even a (1 2) 0

: S4 S 3 :

.

s odd a (1 2) 1

partitions G into |G| cosets (Theorem 15), so |G| divides |G|. Also, since is a function

G < G G < G < .

45.

G G

G divides G .

46.

g G : g = i a k i

47.

48.

Obvious. Ker = An .

g = i a ki = i a ki = i a ki = i a ki = g

49.

g, g G : ( gg ) = (g g ) = g g .

50.

G commutative

h, h G H : hh = h h

h = h hh 1

Theorem 12.2

g, g G : g gg 1 g 1

g, g G : g gg 1 g 1 Ker

51.

n,m : (nm ) = a nm = a n a m = n m . = a ,

52.

53.

m,n : (mn ) = m n

= .

g g (g )

Ker =

h hh 1h 1 = e .

(g )

=e

(where E) .

(m 1n1 ,m 2n2) = (m 1,m 2 ) (n 1 ,n 2)

h m 1 n 1 k m2 n 2 = h m 1 k m 2 h n1 k n 2

kh = hk, so

54.

h, k G : hk = kh

55.

i, j n : (ij ) = i j

{h , k}

is commutative

G is commutative .

i + Zn j

= h ih

h = e

h = n

hn =e .

50

1.

6

3 = 6

2.

4 12

3.

4 2 (2,1) = 8 2 = 4 .

4.

3 5 {0} 5 = 3 {0} 5 5 = 3 1 = 3 .

5.

2 4

6.

12 18 (4,3) = 12 18

7.

2 S3 (1, 1) = 2 S3

8.

11 15 (1,1) = 11 15

9.

5+ 4

10.

26 + 12

11.

(2,1) + (1,1)

12.

(3,1) + (1,1)

13.

(3,1) + (0,2)

14.

(3,3) + (1,2)

15.

(2,0) + (4,4)

16.

i 1 : S 3 S3 : a 11

17.

12

3 = 6/2 = 3.

2 2 = 4

2 12

(1,1) = 2 4

4

60

=1+ 4

12

(1,1) = 8 4 = 2 .

12

(1, 1)

4 4

(1, 1)

4 8

(0, 2)

4 8

(1, 2)

6 8

(4,3) = 216 6 = 36 .

(1, 1) = 12 6 = 2 .

= 2 + 12

3 6

2 = 2 2 = 4.

= {1,2,3, 4 = 0} + 4 = 4 .

60

12

= {2,4, 6,8,10,12 = 0} + 12 = 6 .

= (1, 0) + (1,1)

= (2, 0) + (1,1)

3 6

(1, 1)

4 4

(1, 1)

= (4 = 0,5) + (1, 2)

4 8

(1, 2)

= (2 = 4, 4 = 4) + (4, 4)

(4, 4)

: i 1{ 0 , 1} = 1 0 1

6 8

(4 , 4 )

= (0, 0) + (4, 4)

= 0 , 1 1 1

6 8

(4, 4 )

=1.

= 2 .

Replace into with onto. This makes the homomorphism an isomorphism, which is what an automorphism is

supposed to be.

20.

A normal subgroup can be used to form a factor group.

21. a. This doesn't necessarily have to be nonsense, but apparently students that write a G H don't realize that

a = g a H , g a G . Since they don't realize that elements of G/H are sets (cosets of H), the proofs make no sense.

b. Let aH and bH be two elements of G/H.

18.

19.

22. a. See Exercise 21a.

b. See Exercise 21b.

( gH ) n

c. gH G H : n N : g n = e

23.

H normal

G commutative

a(bH)H

Theorem 4

(ba)HH

H normal

b(Ha)H = (bH)(aH) .

a. true (if N is not normal, the factor group does not exist Definition 6)

b. true (Example 8)

c. true ( i g : G G : x a gxg 1

commutative

xgg 1 = x )

e. true (Exercise 22)

f. false ( 2 = 2 )

g. true (Exercise 21)

h. false (G/G is commutative)

i. true (Example 7)

51

j. false ( n =

n = E )

All permutations of A are even, and those of S\A are all odd. {A, S \ A} are the cosets of A in S. If Sn is even,

so are A = A ; similarly if is odd.

evenA evenA

Z2 0 1

24.

oddA oddA

evenA

0 0

1 1

25.

26.

gT G T : n N * : ( gT ) = T

n

27.

H G :

g nT = T

i e (H ) = H (reflexive)

H,K G : H ~ K

g G : i gH = K

) ( )(

k K : h H : i g h = k

)( )

i g 1 k = i g 1i g h = i g 1 ghg 1 = g 1 ghg 1 g 1

H,K ,L H :

H ~ K,K ~ L

h H : i g g h = ( g g )h ( g g )

i g gH = L

28.

=h

i g 1K = H

(symmetric)

K ~H

g, g G : K = i gH , L = i g K

(transitive)

( )

= g ghg 1 g 1 = g ghg 1 g 1 = g i g h g 1 = i g i g h = i g i g h

H ~L

If H is normal to G, then by the discussion after Definition 9, the image of H under all the inner automorphisms is

H itself. So H is normal iff its cell of the partition under conjugacy contains only itself.

29.

{i

30.

31.

= i 3 ,

i 0 = i 2 ,

} {{

i 1 = i 1 =

0 , 1

}, { 0 , 2}, { 0 , 3}} .

g (H K) Hg g (H K ) Kg

32.

g (H K ) Hg Kg = (H K ) g .

Suppose there were two distinct smallest normal subgroups containing S, then their intersection would be smaller,

contain S, and be (Exercise 31) normal.

33.

34.

If G has one subgroup H of order |H|, then H must be invariant under all inner automorphisms, so (by the

discussion after Definition 9) H is normal.

H N H by Exercise 1.5.54. h H : h (H K) H K h (H K ) = H K , and by the converse,

35.

(H K ) k = H K , so h(H K ) = (H K) h .

36.

37.

g n T , so G /T is indeed torsion-free.

a. g G : i e o i g : x G : i e o i g x = i e i g x = i g x

i e o i g = i e (identity)

g G : i g 1 o i g : x G : i g 1 o i g x = i g 1 gxg 1 = g 1 gxg 1 g = x

i g 1 o i g = i e (inverse)

b.

38.

39.

*( gH g H ) = * gH * g H * (( gg )H ) = * gH * g H

( gg )H = (g H ) (g H ) = (g g ) H ( gg ) = g g

which holds because is an isomorphism.

40. a. H = {M GL (n , R) | det M = 1} is normal in G because

g G, h H : ghg 1 H

= det h = 1 .

52

41.

(AB )C = {ab | a A,b B}C = {( ab)c | a A,b B,c C } = {a (bc ) | K} = A{bc | K} = A(BC )

(associativity). E G H G : EH = {eh | e E , h H} = {h | h H} = H (identity). Suppose G has an

inverse G' in its power set, then GG = E { gg | g G , g G } = {e } , but { gg | K} G E .

a. A,B,C G :

b.

c. Let M = {m G | m is a coset of N } = { gN | g G } . The operation is associative, as shown in (a).

gN M : g 1N ( gN ) =

1

1.

2 4 (0,1) 2 {0} 2 .

2.

2 4 (0, 2) 2 2 .

3.

2 4 (1, 2) 4 .

4.

4 8 (1, 2) 8 .

5.

4 4 8 (1, 2, 4) = 4 8 .

6.

(0,1) = .

7.

(1, 2) = .

8.

(1,1,1) = .

9.

4 (3, 0, 0) = 3 4 .

10.

8 (0, 4, 0) = 4 8 .

11.

(2, 2) = 2 .

12.

(3,3,3) = 3 .

13.

14.

15.

ZD4 = { 0 , 2} . Is the center a natural choice for a minimal normal subgroup? In any case,

D4 E D4 is not commutative, so E

/ C C =Z.

First, note that for any commutative group a,b G : aba 1b 1 = ab (ba ) = (ab ) ( ab ) = e , so CG = E . Then,

Z 3 = 3, and by Example 19 Z S3 = E . Further, C 3 = E , and by Example 21 C S3 = A 3. So

Z( 3 S 3) = 3 E , C ( 3 S3 ) = E A3 .

1

16.

||

4 4 < >

<>

{<>}

(0,0)

(0,0)

4 4

(0,1)

4 1

(0,2)

(0,3) ~ (0,1)

(1,0)

(0,0) (0,2)

4 2

1 4

(1,1)

4

(1,2)

4 (figure left)

(1,3)

4 (figure center)

53

(2,0)

(0,0) (2,0)

2 4

(2,1)

4

(2,2)

(0,0) (2,2)

2

2 4

(2,3) ~ (2,1)

(3,n) ~ (1,n)

Subgroups with two generators (not cyclic), with order less than or equal to 4:

(0,2) (2,0)

(0,0) (0,2) (2,0) (2,2)

4

V (figure right)

(0,2) (2,2) ~ (0,2) (2,0)

(2,0) (2,2) ~ (2,0) (0,2)

There are no subgroups with more than two generators with order less than or equal to 4.

17.

18.

19.

The book uses aba 1b 1, but this definition is equivalent.

a. true (Theorem 9)

b. false (by Exercise 16, G G E )

c. false (

1

2

d. true (

1

)

n

e. false ( 1 12

1

2

= 0 )

1

).

2

g. false (not C H but H C )

h. false (when G is simple and commutative)

i. true (By Theorem 20, the commutator subgroup is normal to G, so if G is simple then C is trivial or nonproper.

But if C were trivial, then G E G would be commutative. So C is nonproper.)

j. false (by Theorem 15, A5 is nontrivial, finite, simple, and of 5! nonprime order)

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

{f

{f

F | f 0 = 0} F .

F * | f 0 = 1 F * .

The cosets each represent a specific additive discontinuity, of the form a ( x b ) , where is the step function. An

element of order two would represent a discontinuity that is its own inverse, which under addition could only be the

identity discontinuity, which has order one.

See Exercise 22. Each discontinuity with a < 0 is its own inverse under multiplication, and has order two.

z 0U =U U z 0U E .

25.

1 U = {1,+1}; U 1 U .

26.

z n ; U z n U .

27.

[ 0,1[ U .

28.

has 2 2 .

29.

30.

a. The center of every commutative group consists of all the elements of that same group.

b. Suppose z ZG : g G : zg = gz

54

b. Since G is not commutative, by the same argument C

/ E C E . Since G is simple, C must then be

nonproper.

simple group G

not commutative

commutative

center ZG

E

G

commutator CG

G

E

32.

If H G such that G H exists, then H is normal to G. Since G : H > 1 H G , and since H is nontrivial

H E . So H is a proper nontrivial normal subgroup of G, so G is not simple.

33.

g G : g N = N g inv g N = N inv g inv g N = N inv g

31.

inv g N = N inv g

34.

35.

) (

g G : n : g ( g * ZG ) = g * n ZG

n

z ZG : g = g * n z . Then

)(

g, g G : z , z ZG , n ,n : gg = g * n z g * n z = zg * n g * n z = z ( g *)

)(

n +n

z = zg * n g * n z =

g * n zz g * n = g * n z zg * n = g * n z g * n z = g g

so G is commutative. So if G is not commutative, G ZG is not cyclic.

36.

37.

Since G = pq , the order of any subgroup of G must (Lagrange) have order pq, p, q, or 1, and the resultant factor

group must therefore have order 1, q, p, or pq. By Exercise 35, the factor group G ZG is not cyclic. Since all

groups of prime order are cyclic, the factor group must have order pq, so ZG = 1 ZG = E .

a. (i j k ) = (i j ) ( j k ) , so every 3-cycle is the even product of transpositions and is therefore in An . Obviously An

only contains 3-cycles if n 3.

b. An consists of all products of even transpositions. Every type of even transposition

(a b )( a b) = ( a b c ) 0 ; ( a b ) (a d ) = (a d b ) ; ( a b ) (c d ) = ( a c b) ( a c d )

can be formed from 3-cycles, An is generated by the 3-cycles.

c. For any r, s: (r s i ) (r s k) (r s j

An and therefore An itself.

2

) 2 (r s i ) = (r i s )(r

s k ) (r j s) (r s i ) = (i j k ) , so

{i (r s i )} N

N = An .

) ) (r s i ) 2 ( (r s ) (i j ) ) 1 = (r

sj

) N , so

e. First, canonicalize the elements of N into products of disjoint cycles. Then, one of the following cases must hold:

1 N contains a 3-cycle, so by (d.) N = An .

2 N contains a product in which at least one of the cycles has length greater than 3, = ( a 1 a 2 a3 a r ) . Then

N

( a 1 a 2 a3 ) (a 1 a2 a 3) = ( h N ) h N, and

1

1

1

1

( a 1 a 2 a3 ) (a 1 a2 a 3) = ( ( a1 a 2 a 3 a r ) ) ( a1 a 2 a 3 ) ( a 1 a 2 a 3 ) =

( a 1 a 2 a3 ar ) 1 1 ( a1 a 2 a 3 ) ( a 1 a 2 a 3 a r )( a 1 a 2 a3 ) 1

( a 1 a 2 a3 a r ) 1 (a 1 a2 a3 ) ( a 1 a 2 a 3 a r ) ( a 1 a 2 a 3 ) 1 =

( a 1 a 3 ar ) ( a2 ) ( 3<k <r a k ) = (a 1 a3 a r )

disjoint

so Case 1 applied.

3 N contains no single 3-cycle or products with cycles of length greater than 3, but contains a product of at least two

3-cycles, = ( a 1 a 2 a3 ) ( a4 a 5 a 6 ) . Then

( a 1 a 2 a4 ) (a 1 a2 a 4 )

= ( h N ) h

1

N, and

55

1( a 1 a 2 a4 ) (a 1 a2 a 4 )

disjoint

( a 4 a 5 a 6 ) 1 (a 1 a2 a 3) 1 ( a 1 a 2 a 4 ) (a 1 a2 a 3) ( a 4 a 5 a 6 ) (a 1 a2 a 4 ) 1 =

( a 1 a 4 a2 a3 a 6 ) ( a 5 )

so Case 2 applied.

4 N contains no products with cycles of length greater than 3, no products with more than one 3-cycle, and no 3cycles, but contains a product with one 3-cycle, = ( a 1 a 2 a3 ) , where is an even product of 2-cycles. Then

N

disjoint

2 N, and 2

2( a 1 a 2 a3 )

are

transpositions

( a1 a 2 a 3 ) 2 = (a 1 a3 a2 ) , so Case 1 applied.

5 N contains no products containing cycles of length greater than or equal to 3. Since N is nontrivial and consists

solely of products of even transpositions, it must contain an element = ( a 1 a 2 ) (a 3 a4 ) . Then

( a 1 a 2 a3 ) (a 1 a2 a 3)

1( a 1 a 2 a3 ) (a 1 a2 a 3)

= (h N) h

N, and

disjoint

( a 3 a 4 ) 1( a 1 a 2 ) 1 (a 1 a2 a 3) ( a 1 a 2 )( a 3 a 4 ) (a 1 a2 a 3) 1 = ( a 1 a 3 ) (a 2 a4 ) .

Since n 5, there is an a5 , and let = (a 3 a1 a5 ) . Then

( ) ( )

1 = 1 1

= ( N) N , and

1 = (a 3 a1 a5 ) ( a 1 a 3 )( a 2 a 4 ) (a 3 a1 a 5) ( a 1 a 3 )( a 2 a 4 ) = ( a1 a 5 a 3 )( a 2 )( a 4 ) = (a 1 a5 a 3) ,

so Case 1 applied.

So, Case 1 always applies, so N = A5 .

1

38.

(closure) hn, h n HN : ( hn ) (h n ) = hn h n

N normal

(inverse) hn HN : (hn )

(n N , h H) hnn h = h (nn ) h =

(n N , h H ) hh n = ( hh )n HN

( hn) = n 1h 1hn = n 1n = e .

N H = {i n i} { i hi } ij n i hj = HN , so HN must be the smallest subgroup that does.

39.

M is normal to G

M G

NM G . Then

40.

N, M normal

(n N , m M) n m NM , so NM is normal in G.

K normal

hkh 1 k 1 = ( k K ) k k 1 K

h H, k K : hkh 1k 1 =

= e , so C = E ,

H normal

1 1

= ( h H ) hh H

h kh k

so E C

H K E H K is commutative.

1.

{0} 10

{0} 25

( 10 ,

( 25 ,

10 {0} 10

)

25 {0} 25)

{0} 250 10

2.

{0} 60 20

(, 3 , 20 )

(, 5 , 49 )

56

{0} 14700 300 60 20

3.

{0} 3 24

{0}

4.

( 8, 3 )

8 24 ( 3 , 8 )

are already isomorphic.

The two series

{0} 18 3 72 (4 , 6 , 3 )

have isomorphic refinements

{0} 36 18 9 3 72

{0}

5.

24 12 6 2 72

( 0, 0) 60 10

( , 6 E , 10 E )

{ }

{( 0, 0)} 80 20 ( , E 4 , E 20 )

( 0, 0) 60 80 60 20 60 10

{ }

{( 0, 0)} 60 80 10 80 80 20

6.

(this is not the answer the book gives, but seems okay)

Because 60 = 2 2 3 5, the composition series are of the form

60 2 2 2 = 4 2 2 3 = 12 2 2 3 5 = 60

60

7.

8.

60

60

60

=E

where the series of generators are formed from the following 12 permutations of the factorization of 60:

2235

3225

2253

3252

2325

3522

2352

5223

2523

5232

2532

5322

The series that are thus constructed are obviously isomorphic.

As in Exercise 6, the series of generators are formed from the following 5 permutations of the factorization of

48 = 2 2 2 2 3:

22223

22232

22322

23222

32222

5 3 E 3 E E = E

5 3 5 E E E = E

9.

S3 2 A 3 2 E 2 E E = E

S3 2 S 3 E A3 E E E = E

Isn't the following a composition series too?

S3 2 A 3 2 A3 E E E = E

57

10.

2 5 7 E 5 7 E E 7 E E E = E

2 5 7 E 5 7 E 5 E E E E = E

2 5 7 2 E 7 E E 7 E E E = E

2 5 7 2 E 7 2 E E E E E = E

2 5 7 2 5 E E 5 E E E E = E

2 5 7 2 5 E 2 E E E E E = E

11.

Z( S 3 4 ) = Z S 3 Z 4 = E 4 .

12.

Z( S 3 D4 ) = Z S3 ZD 4 = E { 0 , 2} .

13.

E E, E 4 , .

14.

15.

16.

17.

E E, E { 0 , 2}, E D 4 ,

the canonical homomorphism.

Okay.

A solvable group is one that has a composition series of which the factor groups are all commutative.

a. true ( G i < G G i < G i + 1)

b. false ( G i < G i + 1

/ Gi < G)

c. true

d. false

e. false ( E 3 15 and

15

E 5

15

15 )

g. false ( S7 is not solvable (h.), but E A7 S 7 is a composition series with simple factor groups)

h. false ( E A7 S 7 is a composition series, but A7 is not commutative)

i. true

j. true (Every finite group of prime order is cyclic and thus commutative. Every finite group has a composition series,

and each of the factor groups is commutative because each of the numerator groups is a commutative subgroup of a

commutative group.)

18.

S3 S 3 A3 A 3 E E; S 3 S3 A 3 A3 2 2 , A3 A 3 E E A3 A 3

is solvable because it has a composition series with commutative factors.

19.

D4 { 0 , 2} E ; D 4 { 0 , 2} = 4, { 0 , 2} E = 2

is solvable because it has a composition series with commutative factors.

20.

Hi + 1 = Hi + 1 Hi Hi

Hk =

21.

22.

Hk

H0

= i

Hi + 1 Hi = Hi + 1 Hi

Hi + 1

= s1 sk

Hi

with infinite order, so by the Exercise it has a proper normal subgroup and is this not simple.

Concatenate the factor groups' composition series into a series for the product group:

E i E k 0 i >1 j <k H j , nj H k , i j >k H j , 0

i H i, n i

It is simplest to think of a G-set as a group of functions, where the group operations is just function composition.

The functions operate as permutations on some set.

58

1.

g G

2

1

s1 , s 3

s2 , s 4

m1 ,m 2

{ 0 , 1}

P2 ,P4 { 0 , 2}

{1, 2,3, 4}, {s 1, s 2 , s 3, s 4 }, {m1 ,m 2}, {d 1, d 2}, {C }, {P1 ,P2 ,P3 ,P4 } .

2

9.

D4

2,4

7.

8.

1

3

4.

5.

6.

d1 , d2

1,3

{C }

{m 1 ,m2 , d 1, d 2 ,C}

{C }

{s 1 , s3 ,m 1 ,m2 ,C ,P1 ,P3}

{s 2 , s4 ,m 1 ,m2 ,C ,P2 ,P4 }

{2, 4, d1 , d2 ,C }

{1,3, d1 , d2 ,C }

Gx

{ 0 , 2}

{ 0 , 1}

{ 0 , 1}

{ 0 , 2}

{ 0 , 2 , 1, 2}

{ 0 , 2 , 1 , 2}

0 = e X

2

3.

2. x X

Xg

P1 ,P3

Insert x X .

Insert x X and delete other.

The G-set can be thought of as a direct product of its orbits. A sub-G-set consists of a subset of the orbits of the Gset.

A G-set is transitive iff it has exactly one orbit.

a. false (the elements of a G-set are not associative)

b. true (Definition 1, Condition 1)

c. false (G may not act faithfully)

d. true (g are permutations, which are injective)

e. false (any number of distinct permutations may operate on any particular element in the same way)

f. true (Exercise 7)

g. true ( H G automatically abides by the same Conditions of Definition 1)

h. true (they are the same orbits, but not necessarily all of them)

i. true (Example 2)

j. true (G consists of Gx cosets of G x elements, each coset of which permutes x in a different way in its orbit)

a. : {s 1 , s 2, s 3 , s 4} {P1 ,P2 ,P3 ,P4 } : s i a Pi .

b. 2 G leaves 1 and 3 fixed in their orbit, but leaves no elements of the orbit {s 1 , s 2, s 3 , s 4} fixed.

c. {m 1 ,m 2} and {d 1 , d2} are not isomorphic. But trivially, any direct product of the two isomorphic sets of (a.) with

any other orbit, is again isomorphic.

10. a. Yes, there is only e G that leaves all the elemens of X fixed.

b. {1, 2,3, 4}, {s 1, s 2 , s 3, s 4 }, {P1 ,P2 ,P3 ,P4 } .

11.

12.

(identity) e G : x X : ex = x

y Y X : ey = y

(closure) g, g G Y : y Y : ( gg ) y = gg y = gy = y

gg G Y

( g g) y = g

(inverse) g G Y : g 1 G : y Y : g 1 g y = ey = y

13.

a. (identity) 0 G = (,+ ) :

a. Let X =

( gy ) =

g 1y = y

g 1 G Y

x 2 : rot 0 x = x

b. The circle centered around the origin containing P.

c. GP = 2.

14.

GY

x.

UX .

i

(Condition 1) e G : x i X i : ex i = x i

x X : ex = x

(Condition 2) g, g G : x i X i : ( gg ) x i = g( g x i )

x X : ( gg )x = g ( g x )

59

15.

Let : L X : gG x 0 a gx 0 .

(well-defined) Let g, g gG x 0 be elements of the same coset of G x 0 . Then g G x 0

( )

g * G x 0 : g = gg * ,

so g = g x 0 = gg * x 0 = g g *x 0 = gx 0 = g .

(surjective) Because X is transitive, x X : g G : gx 0 = x

g 1G x 0 g G x 0 G x 0

(injective) g G x 0 gG x 0

g

( g x 0 ) x 0

16.

17.

gG

g 1 g G x 0

(g

g x0 x 0

g g

g x 0 gx 0

So is an isomorphism from

gG x 0 = gx 0 = x

gG x 0 X .

Every G-set is the union of its orbits (Exercise 14b). An orbit is a transitive G-set, so every G-set is (Exercise 15)

isometric to a union of G-sets of left cosets in G. By the Exercise, this union can be made disjoint.

a. G x 0 g0 are the actions g G that leave g0 x 0 fixed. If we move g0 x 0 into x 0 , act leaving x 0 fixed, and return

x 0 to g0 x 0 , we have actions that leave g0 x 0 fixed, so G g 0 x 0 g 0G x 0 g 0

g 0G x 0 g 0

G g0 x 0

G x 0 g 0 = g 0G x 0 g 0

b. It seems reasonable that H K if g G : K = gHg 1, that is K is inner automorphic to H, that is (Exercise 3.27)

K is conjugate to H.

c.

1.

The group has one permutation that leaves all 8 elements invariant, and 3 others that leave 4 invariant:

1

r=

+ g G X g = 1 8 + 3 4 = 20 = 5 .

4

4

G

2.

The group has one permutation that leaves all 8 elements invariant, one (1 3) that leaves 6 invariant, two (2 4 7)

and (2 7 4) that leave 5 invariant, and two more that leave only 3 elements invariant:

1

r=

+ g G X g = 1 8 + 6 + 2 5 + 2 3 = 30 = 5.

6

6

G

3.

G is the group of 12 rotations of the tetrahedron, and X is the set of 4! markings. The identity rotation leaves all

markings invariant; because every face has a different color, every other rotation none:

1

r = 12

(4!) = 2 .

4.

G is the group of rotations of the cube: there are six ways to fix one face, then four ways to fix a second, so G = 24 .

X is the set of 8! 2! markings. As in the previous exercise, there is only the identity rotation leaving all markings

invariant:

1 8!

r = 24

= 840 .

2!

5.

The identity rotation leaves all 8 6 markings invariant. The 9 rotations that leave a pair of faces invariant can be

divided in three groups (rotations along the x, y, and z-axis) of 3 rotations: one of which rotates the cube 180

along the axis, which leaves four independent choices of color for markings that remain invariant under the rotation;

and two which rotate the cube 90, and leave only three independent choices of color. The 8 rotations that leave a

pair of opposite vertices invariant are 120 rotations along the four diagonal axes that leave only two independent

choices of face coloring. The 6 rotations that leave a pair of opposite edges invariant are 180 rotations along axes

perpendicular to diagonally opposite edges, which leave three independent choices of face coloring:

1

r = 24

1 8 6 + 3 1 8 4 + 2 8 3 + 8 8 2 + 6 8 3 = 11712 .

6.

The identity rotation leaves all 4 markings invariant. The 3 groups of 9 face-invariant rotations each have one

180 rotation leaving four independent colors, and two 90 rotations leaving two. The 8 vertex-invariant

rotations leave four independent colors. The 6 edge-invariant rotations also leave four:

60

r=

7.

1

24

(1 4

+ 3 1 4 4 + 2 4 2 + 8 4 4 + 6 4 4 = 2916 .

a. Only the identity rotations leaves all markings invariant:

6!

r = 18 = 45 .

2!

b. 0 leaves 4 choices of color, 1, 3 leave one, 2 leaves two, 1, 2 leave three, and 1, 2 leave two:

r=

8.

1

8

(1 6

+ 2 6 1 + 1 6 2 + 2 6 3 + 2 6 2 = 231 .

The tetrahedron can be rotated by fixing one of four faces and then one of three remaining faces, so G = 12 . The

rotation that leaves the first and the second face invariant leaves six independent choices of color. The two

rotations that leave the first face invariant and rotates the second leaves two choices. In each of the two remaining

groups of rotation for the first face, one leaves the second face invariant and leaves four choices, and two rotate the

second face also and leave only once independent choice of color:

1

r = 12

1 2 6 + 2 2 2 + 3 1 2 4 + 2 2 1 = 11 .

9.

))

r = 18 6 6 + 1 6 4 + 2 6 3 + 1 6 4 + 1 6 3 + 2 6 2 = 6246 is not correct.

3.

Homomorphisms preserve normal subgroups. The Lemma states that, in factor groups at least, this preservation is

bijective: there are no more or fewer normal groups containing the factor, then there are in the factor group.

Let N < G , and : G G N the canonical homomorphism. Then, the canonical correspondence given by

: L L between normal groups containing N in G, and normal groups in G N is bijective.

Note the fact that we have two names and for essentially the same operation. operates on elements h to

produce (h) , but has an implicit extended interpretation in which it operates on sets H to produce

[H] h H (h) . is simply a name given to this interpretation. The book uses the special notation with square

brackets to indicate the extended interpertation.

First, show that is well-defined. If L < G ( L N is not really relevant here), and : G G N is a

homomorphism, then by Theorem 3.3.16 L = L < G N , so really does produce normal groups.

To show that is injective we need to be able to calculate inverses. By Theorem 3.1.15, the inverse of the forward

homomorphism of an element is the coset of its kernel containing that element, i.e. inverses of forward mappings of

elements g G under are of the form g Ker . Let L < G,L N . Since Ker = N L and L is a subgroup and

thus closed, g L : g Ker L, so L Ker L. Conversely, g L : g g Ker so L L Ker , so

L Ker = L L = 1L = 1L.

Now, show that is injective. Let L,M < G such that L = M. Then from the above, L =

M = 1M = 1L so L = M.

5.

L and

G by Theorem 3.3.16.

Given a homomorphism, Theorem 2 allows us to generate isomorphisms between the image of that homomorphism

and a factor group. Applying this procedure twice, this allows us to generate isomorphisms between factor groups.

Note that it is not even necessary to consider the canonical homomorphism (the missing side of the triangles in

the diagram).

61

H

H N

HN

|H homomorphism

|HN homomorphism

Ker |H = H N

Ker |HN =N

HN

N

1 isomorphism

HN

2 isomorphism

H

H N

HN

N

1.

a. : 12 3 : i a 2i mod3;

1 = 2 . Ker =

3

2

12.

c. : 12 K 3 : Ker + i a i .

2.

a. : 18 12 : i a 10i mod12;

1 = 10 . Ker =

12

10

18 = {0, 6,12} .

c. By Theorem 2 it is isomorphic to 18 Ker 18 3 6 .

d. : 18 18 : Ker + i a i .

H= 4

3.

24

= {0,4,8,12,16, 20}, N = 6

24

= {0, 6,12,18} .

HN

= {0, 6,12,18}, {2,8,14, 20}, {4,10,16, 22} .

N

H

c.

= {0,12}, {4,16}, {8, 20} .

H N

HN

H

d. :

: N + i a (H N ) + 2i .

N

H N

Note that the book gives a different correspondence. This is possible because 3 is automorphic.

b.

H= 6

4.

36

= {0,6,12,18, 24}; N = 9

HN

= {0, 9,18, 27}, {3,12, 21,30}, {6,15, 24,33} .

N

H

c.

= {0,18}, {6,24}, {12,30} .

H N

HN

H

d. :

: N + i a (H N ) + 2i .

N

H N

H = 4 = {0,4,8,, 20}; K = 8 = {0,8,16} .

b.

5.

36

24

24

62

G

= {0, 4,8,12,16, 20}, {1,5,9,13,17, 21}, {2,6,10,14,18, 22}, {3, 7,11,15,19, 23} .

H

G

b.

= {0,8,16}, {1, 9,17}, {2,10,18}, {3,11,19}, {4,12, 20}, {5,13, 21}, {6,14, 22}, {7,15, 23} .

K

H

c.

= {0,8,16}, {4,12, 20} .

K

G /K

d.

= {0,8,16}, {4,12, 20} , {1, 9,17}, {5,13, 21} , {2,10,18}, {6,14, 22} , {3,11,19},{7,15, 23} .

H /K

a.

{{

} {

} {

} {

}}

G

G /K

: H + i a (H /K ) + i .

H

H /K

Note that the book writes the correspondence as i a (H /K ) + (K + i ) . This gives the same sets using a different

computation.

H = 9 = {0,9,18, 27}; K = 18 = {0,18} .

e. :

6.

36

36

G

a.

= {3,12, 21,30}, {4,13, 22,31}, {5,14, 23,32}, .

H

G {0,18}, {1,19}, {2, 20}, {3, 21}, {4, 22}, {5, 23}, {6,24}, {7, 25}, {8, 26},

=

.

K {9, 27}, {10, 28}, {11, 29}, {12,30}, {13,31}, {14,32}, {15,33}, {16,34}, {17,35}

H

c.

= {0,18}, {9,27} .

K

{0,18}, {9, 27} , {1,19}, {10, 28} , {2, 20}, {11, 29} ,

G /K

d.

= {3, 21},{12,30} , {4,22}, {13,31} , {5, 23}, {14,32} , .

H /K

G

G /K

e. :

: H + i a (H /K ) + i .

H

H /K

b.

{

{

{

7.

} {

} {

} {

H : {0} 12 3 36 ;

H0

H1

H2

H3

} {

} {

} {

}

}

}

K : {0} 18 36 .

K0

K1

K2

(

)

H 01 = H 0 (H 1 K1 ) = E ( 12 18 ) = EE = E

H 02 = H 0 (H 1 K2 ) = E ( 12 36 ) = E 12 = 12

H 10 = H 1(H 2 K0 ) = 12 ( 3 E ) = 12 E = 12

H 11 = H 1(H 3 K1 ) = 12 ( 3 18 ) = 12 18 = 6

H 12 = H 2(H 3 K2 ) = 12 ( 3 36 ) = 12 3 = 3

H 00 = H 0 (H 1 K0 ) = E 12 E = EE = E

H 20 = H 2(H 3 K0 ) = 3 ( 36 E ) = 3 E = 3

H 21 = H 2(H 3 K1 ) = 3 36 18

)=

3 18 = 3

H 22 = H 3(H 3 K2 ) = 3 ( 36 36 ) = 3 36 = 36

and

63

(

K01 = K 0 (K 1 H 1 ) = E ( 18

K02 = K 0 (K 1 H 2 ) = E ( 18

K03 = K 0 (K 1 H 3 ) = E ( 18

K00 = K 0 (K 1 H 0 ) = E 18 E = EE = E

) = EE = E

12

) = E 18 = 18

36 ) = E 18 = 18

3

K10 = K 1(K 2 H 0 ) = 18 ( 36 E ) = 18 E = 18

(

) = 18 12

K12 = K 2(K 2 H 2 ) = 18 ( 36 3 ) = 18 3 =

K11 = K 1(K 2 H 1 ) = 18 36 12

= 6

3

K13 = K 2(K 2 H 3 ) = 18 ( 36 36 ) = 18 36 = 36

This gives the chains

E

=E

12

12

3

6

3

3

36

and E

=E

18

E

6

18

3

18

36

,

= 36

= 36

or E 12 6 3 36 ;

E 18 6 3 36 .

A:

12 E 6 18 3

8.

B:

12 18 E 2

C:

6 3

D:

36

3 36 3 3

6 2

H : {0} 12 4 24 ;

H0

H1

H2

H3

K : {0} 6 3 24

K0

K1

K2

K3

(

)

H 01 = H 0 (H 1 K1 ) = E ( 12 6 ) = E 12 = 12

H 02 = H 0 (H 1 K2 ) = E ( 12 3 ) = E 12 = 12

H 03 = H 0 (H 1 K3 ) = E ( 12 24 ) = E 12 = 12

H 10 = H 1(H 2 K0 ) = 12 ( 4 E ) = 12 E = 12

H 11 = H 1(H 2 K1 ) = 12 ( 4 6 ) = 12 12 = 12

H 12 = H 1(H 3 K2 ) = 12 ( 4 3 ) = 12 12 = 12

H 13 = H 1(H 4 K3 ) = 12 ( 4 24 ) = 12 4 = 4

H 00 = H 0 (H 1 K0 ) = E 12 E = EE = E

H 20 = H 2(H 3 K0 ) = 4 ( 24 E ) = 4 E = 4

(

)=

H 22 = H 3(H 4 K2 ) = 4 ( 24 3 ) =

H 21 = H 3(H 4 K1 ) = 4 24 6

4 6 = 2

4 3 = 1 = 24

H 23 = H 3(H 4 K3 ) = 4 ( 24 24 ) = 4 24 = 24

and

K00 = K 0 (K 1 H 0 ) = E 6 E = EE = E

(

K01 = K 0 (K 1 H 1 ) = E ( 6

K02 = K 0 (K 1 H 2 ) = E ( 6

K03 = K 0 (K 1 H 3 ) = E ( 6

12

) = E 12

) = E 12

24 ) = E 6

4

= 12

= 12

= 6

64

(

K11 = K 1(K 2 H 1 ) = 6 ( 3

K12 = K 2(K 3 H 2 ) = 6 ( 3

K13 = K 3(K 3 H 3 ) = 6 ( 3

K10 = K 1(K 2 H 0 ) = 6 3 E = 6 E = 6

12

)=

6 12 = 6

) = 6 12 = 6

24 ) = 6 3 = 3

4

K20 = K 2(K 3 H 0 ) = 3 ( 24 E ) = 3 E = 3

(

) = 3 12 = 3

K22 = K 2(K 3 H 2 ) = 3 ( 24 4 ) = 3 4 = 1 = 24

K21 = K 2(K 3 H 1 ) = 3 24 12

K23 = K 3(K 3 H 3 ) = 3 ( 24 24 ) = 3 24 = 24

This gives the chains

E

=E

12

12

12

12

4

12

2

12

24

4

24

or E 12 4 2 24 ;

and E

= 24

=E

12

12

6

3

6

3

6

24

3

24

,

= 24

E 12 6 3 24 .

A:

12 E 12 E 2

B:

12 4

3 3

C:

4 6

12 2

D:

24

2 3

6 2

H

H*

gN = Ng

hH* = H* h

N<G

9.

10.

so H N < H .

(right figure) Let h H K . Then h(H* K) hH* K . Also, obviously

h H \ H K : h (H* K) hH* K , so h(H* K) = hH* K . Similarly, (H* K )h = H* h K .

Because H* < H ,

11.

K /H . Since

coset multiplication is well-defined by H < G , this is true if gkg 1 H K /H or gkg 1 K , which is just to say

that K < G . The same argument proves L /H < G /H .

Inclusion follows immediately from K L l L \ K : lH L /H , lH K /H K /H L /H .

A /B

b. Because B,C < A, B C , by the Third Isomorphism Theorem

A /C , or writing the synonyms out,

C /B

65

G /H

K /H

L /H

K /H

12.

G /H

G /L . This exercise proves a sort of transitivity of the Third Isomorphism Theorem.

L /H

mutandis G /K .

13.

14.

KL

K

L

K L

G K

= K . Mutatis

L

E

K G i < K G i + 1, so ( i K G i ) forms a subnormal series. I don't know by what argument the factor groups

are simple, so that this is also a composition series. G i are commutative, and thus so are K G i and

K G i + 1 K G i . So K G is solvable.

(See figure)

Obviously

H i <Hi+1

N<G

H 0N = E < H 1N . For all other subgroups in the series, hn H i + 1N : ( hn )(H iN ) = H i (hn )N = (H iN ) (hn )

so H i < H i + 1 and the series is subnormal. To see that the factor groups are simple, we evaluate

H i + 1N H i + 1 H iN

=

H iN

H iN

2 Iso Th

Hi +1

H i + 1 H iN

3 Iso Th

H i + 1 /H i

(Hi + 1 H iN ) /Hi

denominator is proper and must therefore be trivial. So the fraction as a whole is isomorphic to just H i + 1 /H i , and

thus the factor groups of our series are simple also.

H 3N

H3

H 2N

H 1N

H2

H1

N<G

15.

hN H i + 1 /N : hN (H i /N ) = (H i /N ) hN .

subnormal series with simple factors. H i /N < H i + 1 /N iff

Hi < H i + 1

hH i = H i h

coset multiplication

well-defined

hH i N = H i h N

N<G

hN H i = H i hN

canonical

homomorphism

hN H i H i hN

=

N

N

hN H i /N = H i /N hN

so the series is indeed subnormal. To see that the factor groups are simple, we first find that

H i + 1 /N H i + 1N

H i /N

H iN

(*) which (we saw in Exercise 14) is simple. The isomorphism follows from the fact that

66

H i + 1 /N

: hn a hN (H i /N ) is a homomorphism:

H i /N

hn, h n H i + 1N : i ( hn ) i ( h n ) = hN (H i /N ) h N (H i /N ) = hN h N (H i /N ) =

i : H i + 1N

16.

) (

hh N (H i /N ) = i ( hn h n )

By the First Isomorphism Theorem, the range of the homomorphism is isomorphic to the kernel factor group of the

range, which is the beforementioned (*) isomorphism above.

Let G be solvable by ( i G i ) , and be a homomorphism. By the First Isomorphism Theorem, G G / Ker .

Then by Exercise 15, G / Ker has a composition series also in the distinct groups of ( i G i / Ker ) . Since

G i + 1 /G i are commutative, then so are G i + 1 / Ker G i / Ker . So G / Ker and G are solvable.

1.

This theorem applies the obvious fact that when a G-set X is stripped of its irrelevant part, the remainder reflects

something of the structure of the group. In particular, if G is a p-group, the important part of X has a multiple of p

elements.

6.

orbits of X

This is the important part of X that

actually says something about G

X XG p

p-group G

3.

XG

This is the irrelevant part of X that is

invariant for all g and says nothing about

G

G-set X

This applies the previous theorem. The entire X also has a multiple of p elements, so we can conclude that the

irrelevant part does too. That irrelevant part happens to consist of p-tuples of one single element, and because there

is at least one, there have to be at least p.

Now the theorem leads to conclude that there is a multiple of p cosets of H outside of the normalizer.

G

NGH

8.

Since there is a multiple of p cosets of H in the whole of G, and (by Lemma 6) a multiple outside of the normalizer,

there must be a multiple of p inside it as well. Inside the normalizer, we can then find one that has exactly p, and if

H is of order p i , this new one will form a subgroup of order p i +1 .

67

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

) {

) {

} { }

) {

} { }

} { }

(1 2 3) = {( ), (1 2 3), (1 3 2)} is a 3-subgroup and maximal, and so are the other three 3-cycles.

example, (1 2 4) is conjugate by (3 4) :

(3 4) ( )(3 4) = ( ); (3 4) (1 2 3)(3 4) = (1 2 4); (3 4) (1 3 2)(3 4) = (1 4 2) .

them. Now

By

6.

The order of a maximal 2-subgroup of S 4 is (Exercise 5) 23 = 8 , and there are (Exercise 3) either 1 or 3 of them.

There are 4! 0!4 = 6 4-cycles, 4! 1!3 = 8 3-cycles, 4! 2!2 = 6 2-cycles, 4! 4 2 = 3 22-cycles, and 1 1-cycle. The

3-cycles have order 3 and cannot participate in 2-subgroups. Every subgroup must contain the 1-cycle identity.

Conjecture that the remaining 7 elements of each of the three 2-subgroups result from some symmetric

distribution of the 4-, 2-, and 22-cycles. One such distribution is to assign all 3 22-cycles, and one-third each of

the 4- and 2-cycles to each 2-subgroup. Since the 1- and 22-cycles are the only even permutations, they are closed

in each subgroup. It remains to be shown that the product of any odd and even permutation results in one of the

four odd 4- and 2-cycles from its distribution. Assign to a 2-subgroups the two component 2-cycles from one of

the 22-cycles, for example, (1 2) and (3 4):

(1 2)(3 4) (1 2) = (3 4), (1 2)(3 4) (3 4) = (1 2)

(1 3)(2 4) (1 2) = (1 4 2 3), (1 3)(2 4) (3 4) = (1 3 2 4)

(1 4)(2 3) (1 2) = (1 3 2 4), (1 4)(2 3) (3 4) = (1 4 2 3)

Hence the two 4-cycles that need to be distributed to the 2-subgroup follow naturally. Note that the two 2- and 4cycles are each others' inverses, so the entire 2-subgroup is closed and thus well-defined.

The other two 2-subgroups follow directly from mechanical substitution of letters in the permutations.

To show conjugacy, note first that the subgroup of even cycles (which is contained by each 2-subgroup) is normal.

Finally, verify that the odd cycles of one 2-subgroup are conjugate to those in another under one of the 3-cycles:

(1 2 3) 1 (1 2) (1 2 3) = (1 3);

(1 2 3) 1 (1 3 2 4) (1 2 3) = (1 4 3 2);

(1 2 3) 1 (3 4) (1 2 3) = (2 4); (1 2 3) 1 (1 4 2 3) (1 2 3) = (1 2 3 4).

7.

order power of p

8.

the maximal set of elements by whose inner automorphisms

9.

Correct this uses Corollary 4.

10. a. true (by the Third Sylow Theorem)

b. true (by Example 13)

c. true (by Corollary 4)

d. false (a 2-subgroup of a group of order 2 2 could have order 21 )

e. true (any subgroup of a commutative group is invariant under conjugation)

f. false?

g. true (Definition 5)

h. true (by the Second Sylow Theorem all maximal p-subgroups are conjugate and thus not invariant)

i. false (for a commutative group N G H = G )

j. false (but it is true that it has no proper p-subgroup)

11.

( ) ( )

(closure) g , g G H : gg H gg

(identity) e G :

eHe 1 = H

(inverse) g G H :

= gg Hg 1 g 1

e G H .

gHg 1 = H

Hg 1 = g 1H

g GH

g GH

gHg 1 = H

gg G H .

( )

H = g 1Hg = g 1H g 1

g 1 G H .

68

12.

By the Second Sylow Theorem, all maximal p-subgroups are conjugate. If G has only one such subgroup, then it

must therrefore be invariant under conjugacy, which is to say, it is a normal subgroup. Assuming that G p , this

subgroup is proper; and assuming that p > 1, it is not trivial. Then G is not simple.

13.

14.

15.

45 = 3 251, so the maximal 3-subgroups of such a group have order 3 2 = 9 and their number is in

3 + 1 1, 3, 5, 9, 15, 45 = 1 . So by Exercise 12 the subgroup is normal.

) {

} {}

If a group is divisible by a prime other than p, then by Cauchy it has a subgroup of that order, which is cyclic and

thus has an element of order of that prime, so the group is not a p-group. Conversely, suppose that a p-group has

an element of order of a power of some other prime. Then that would generate a subgroup of other prime power

order which would hence not divide the order of the group, which is impossible by Lagrange.

P < N G P g N G P : i g P = P so by the Second Sylow Theorem, N G P has only the p-subgroup P. Now,

suppose N GN G P N G P

g N GN G P \ N G P : i g P P

of N G P . However, g N GN G P

i g N G P = N G P and P N G P i g P i g N G P = N G P so this other p-

16.

By Cauchy, H is contained in some maximal p-subgroup P of G. By the Second Sylow Theorem,

g G : gP g 1 = P gHg 1 P .

17.

G = 353 = 537 3 , so the 5-subgroups in G have order 53 = 125. The only divisors of 125 that can be in 5 + 1

} {}

normal.

18.

The only divisors of G that can be in 17 + 1 cannot contain powers of 17. The largest remaining divisor of G is

3 5 = 15 < 18 also cannot possibly be in 17 + 1. Therefore there is one normal 17-subgroup.

19.

The number of p-subgroups divides p r m and is in p + 1, so the divisors p s r m t 1 cannot contain any powers of p.

The only possible divisors therefore are m 0, 1 , but since m < p it cannot be in p + 1. So there is one normal psubgroup.

20.

} {

a. G G = g G | x G : i x g = xgx 1 = g = g G | x G : xg = gx = Z G .

b. By Theorem 1, G G G is divisible by p, and because G is a p-group and thus divisible by p, so is G G . Because G is

nontrivial, p > 1. Since e G G , G G > 1 so G G = Z G is nontrivial.

21.

By the First Sylow Theorem, we know that a group G with the given characteristics has a subnormal series. The

Exercise asks us to prove that it has a normal series. We will prove this by showing that any subnormal series is itself

a normal series.

Let

0 i n

Hi be a subnormal series of G; we show that these are the only subgroups of G. Let H be a subgroup of

as Hi . By the First Sylow Theorem, this group is contained in an Hi+ 1 and so on. Obviously for some k, Hk = Hk

. By the First and Second Sylow Theorem, Hk 1 , Hk 1 are normal conjugate maximal p-subgroups of Hk , so

Hk 1 = Hk 1 , and so forth.

Now we show by induction that every Hi < G . Obviously H0 = E < G . Consider ZG . By Exercise 20,

ZG = Hk 0 for some 0 < k0 n . Now for i : 0 < i k0 : Hi Z G so h H : g G : hg = gh Hi < G . If

k0 = n we are done. Otherwise, consider G Hk 0 , and since G Hk 0 = G Hk 0 = p n p k 0 = p n k 0 it is again a p-

subgroup. The same argument shows that Z G Hk 0 = Hk1 Hk 0 for some k0 < k1 n . For

i : k0 < i k1 : Hk1 Hk 0 Z G Hk 0

homomorphism, then inv Hk1 Hk 0 = Hk1 < G . Since ki > ki 1 , this procedure terminates under induction.

22.

Let H be a normal p-subgroup of G, so H is invariant under conjugation by G. By the First Sylow Theorem, H is

contained in at least one maximal p-subgroup. Since by the Second Sylow Theorem every other maximal p69

subgroup is conjugate to this one, and since H is invariant under conjugation, H is also contained in every

conjugate.

1.

x

1

2

3

1

2

1

2

g

g 1

1

2

3

0

1

2

2

1

3

1

2

3

2

1

2

1

3

0

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

3

1

2

1

2

{ }{

3

0

1

2

2

1

1

2

1

1

2

3

2

1

2

1

}{ }{

1

2

2

1

0

2

3

1

}{

1

3

2

1

1

2

2

1

1

1

2

2

0

1

3

2

3

2

1

1

2

2

1

1

3

2

1

2

1

1

2

1

2

2

1

3

0

2

2

2

1

1

3

1

2

0

2

3

2

1

2

1

1

2

2.

3.

b. 8 = 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 .

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

00

10

20

30

E12

14

40

40

45

50

prime

Example 9

Theorem 7

Exercise 2.19

40

40 = 235 has one 5-subgroup

45

45 = 3 25 has one 5-subgroup

a. true ( 159 = 53 3 , and 53 = 27 3 + 2 so cyclic by Theorem 7)

b. true ( 102 = 2 3 17 , not simple by Exercise 2.19)

13

d. true (Theorem 1)

e. true

f. true (Theorem 7)

g. true ( 125 = 53 , by Exercise 21 has a normal subgroup of order 51 , i.e. commutes with every element)

h. true ( 42 = 2 3 7 , by Exercise 2.19)

i. false ( 42 = 2 3 7 cannot by Lagrange even have any subgroup of that order)

j. false (trivially, A5 is simple)

4.

Let G be a group of order 5 7 47 . By familiar reasoning, it has one 5-subgroup H5 and one 7-subgroup H 7 .

Then G / H5 = 7 47 and G / H 7 = 5 47 so both factor groups are cyclic by Theorem 7. Then by Theorem

{ } { }

G / C G = G / E G is commutative, and each of its subgroups is normal.

5.

Let G be a group of order 96 = 253 . The number of 2-subgroups of order 25 = 32 must be 1 or 3. Suppose it has

3, and let H and K be two distinct ones. H K is again a 2-subgroup of order a power of 2. If H K = 23 then

by Lemma 8 HK =

25 25

3

2

H K = 2 4 . Then H H K = 25 2 4 = 2 , so H K < G .

6.

H K < G , so

Let G be a group of order 160 = 255. The number of 2-subgroups of order 25 = 32 must be 1 or 5. Suppose it has

70

5, and let H and K be two distinct ones. H K is again a 2-subgroup of order a power of 2. If H K = 2 2 then

by Lemma 8 HK =

25 25

2

N G H K H , K and (why?)

7.

(

)

(H K ) = G

H K < G , so

N G H K = G , so H K < G .

a. 1 = a0 a 2 am 1 1 , so the only letters affected by are the ai and all other letters are invariant under the

)( ) (

) ( )

( )

), = (b

i : x = ai x a bi

of all the letters not in , and similarly. Then define :

, which is a bijection and a

i : x = ai x a bi

permutation. By (a.), 1 = i ai 1 = i ai = i bi = , so ~ .

( )

) ( )

( a ),

j < ri

ij

= i < s i = i < s

j < ri

j <rs

a j be any

cycle of all the letters not in any i < s , and similarly. Then define : i s , j < rs : x = aij a bij , which is a

8.

9.

i disjoint

i s

) (

(b.)

i 1 = i s i = .

d. Differently factored disjoint products cannot be conjugate. Any disjoint factoring into cycles is unique: disjoint

factors cannot be combined into a cycle, and a cycle cannot be split into disjoint factors. For any disjoint

permutation, every letter must be in exactly one cycle (perhaps a 1-cycle). So pn as described gives the number of

ways permutations of Sn are factored into disjoint cycles, which are (by c.) the conjugate classes.

e. p1 = 1 1

p2 = 2 1 1, 2

p3 = 3 1 1 1, 2 1, 3

p4 = 5 1 1 1 1, 1 1 2, 2 2, 3 1, 4

p5 = 7 1 1 1 1 1, 1 1 1 2, 1 2 2, 1 1 3, 2 3, 1 4, 5

p6 = 11 1 1 1 1 1 1, 1 1 1 1 2, 1 1 2 2, 2 2 2, 1 1 1 3, 1 2 3, 3 3, 1 1 4, 2 4, 1 5, 6

p7 = 15 1 1 1 1 1 1 1, 1 1 1 1 1 2, 1 1 1 2 2, 1 2 2 2, 1 1 1 1 3, 1 1 2 3, 2 2 3, 1 3 3, 1 1 1 4,

1 2 4, 3 4, 1 1 5, 2 5, 1 6, 7

By Exercise 7, S 4 has 5 conjugate classes:

4!

=1

(1)(2)(3)(4)

4!

4!

=6

(1 2), (1 3), (1 4), (2 3), (2 4), (3 4)

2!2!

4!

=3

(1 2)(3 4), (1 3)(2 4), (1 4)(2 3)

2!2 2

4!

=8

(1 2 3), (1 3 2), (1 2 4), (1 4 2), (1 3 4), (1 4 3), (2 3 4), (2 4 3)

3

4!

=6

(1 2 3 4), (1 2 4 3), (1 3 2 4), (1 3 4 2), (1 4 2 3), (1 4 3 2)

4

24 = 1 + 6 + 3 + 8 + 6

The class equation can be found as follows. First, find the structure of each of the conjugate classes as in Exercise

7e. To find the number of distinct permutations in each conjugate class, imagine listed in a table the n! different

ways of writing the letters of Sn , and draw dividing lines between the columns of this table so as to separate each

row into cycles according to the partition of the conjugate class. This surely represents every possible element of the

class, although each element may be overrepresented. In particular, if the conjugate class has m l cycles of a certain

71

length l, the m l ! rearrangements of these cycles within a permutation are equivalent. Also, every cycle of length p

can itself be written in p different ways by rotating its letters. So the number of cycles of a conjugate class is

n!

. With the help of the partitioning found in Exercise 7,

l m l ! i pi

5!

5!

5!

5!

5!

5! 5!

+

+

+

+

+ +

120 = 1 + 10 + 15 + 20 + 20 + 30 + 24

5! 3!2 2!2 2 2!3 2 3 4 5

6!

6!

6!

6!

6!

6!

6!

6!

6!

6! 6!

6! = +

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+ +

720 = 1 + 15 + 45 + 15 + 40 + 120 + 40 + 90 + 90 + 144 + 120

5! =

S5 :

S6 :

10.

i p ni = p n + i ni = n . Therefore the commutative groups of order p n differ only (up to isomorphism) in the

distribution of n, which can be done in pn ways.

11.

under conjugation of all Sn , which is the conjugate classes of Sn that have exactly one element. By Exercise 7 the

conjugate class consisting only of 1-cycles contains only the identity. Also, any permutation containing an n-cycle

will be conjugate to every other permutation with an n-cycle. If n > 2 two distinct n-cycles can always be found, so

that the conjugate class has more than one element. Therefore, for n > 2 ZSn = E .

1.

2.

2 + 3 = 0

1 + 1 = 0

( )

2 + 3 = = 0

= 0

= 0

3.

4.

(2, 1), (4, 1) = (2, 1), (2, 0) = (0, 1), (2, 0) does not form a basis.

(a , b) + (c , d) = (0, 0)

(0,1).

(a , b), (c , d) = and

, = 0. Show that these conditions are equivalent to being able to generate (1,0) and

(a , b) + 1 (c , d) = (1, 0)

Suppose that 1, 2 , 1, 2 : 1

. Prove that this implies (a , b), (c , d) is a basis by showing that

2 (a , b) + 2 (c , d) = (0, 1)

it satisfies Condition 2 of Theorem 1. For any (e , f ) ,

) (

) (

(e , f ) = e (1, 0) + f (0, 1) = e 1 (a , b) + 1 (c , d) + f 2 (a , b) + 2 (c , d) = e 1 + f 2 (a , b) + e1 + f 2 (c , d)

so (a , b), (c , d) = . Next,

(a , b) + (c , d) = (0, 0)

) (

)

(a + c )(1, 0) + (b + d )(0, 1) = (0, 0)

a + c = 0 b + d = 0

) (

) (

) (

)

Suppose 0, then a = 0 and b = 0 , but then {(a , b), (c , d)} cannot possibly generate .

= 0 a = 0 = 0 c = 0 = 0 b = 0 = 0 d = 0

Similarly 0 is

impossible. So , = 0 .

If (a , b), (c , d) is a basis, then obviously they can generate (1,0) and (0,1).

(a , b) + 1 (c , d) = (1, 0)

Now, find conditions on a, b, c, d such that 1, 2 , 1, 2 : 1

, that is

2 (a , b) + 2 (c , d) = (0, 1)

72

1a + 1c = 1 2a + 2c = 0

1b + 1d = 0 2b + 2d = 1

[2] 2c = 0 2 = 0

[1] 1c = 1 1 , c = 1

, so (0, 1), (1, d) are possible

[4] 1 d = 0 d = 1 [3] 2b = 1 b = 1

bases. Similarly for b, c, or d = 0.

The remainder of the cases have a , b , c , d 0. Then

[2] 1 d b a + 1c = 1 ad b + c 1 = 1

ad b + c 0

ad bc

[1] 1b = 1d 1 = 1 d b

b ad c 0

This is the familiar condition of linear independence that the determinant formed by a basis be nonzero.

Replace generating set with basis.

Correct.

2 both have rank 1.

a. true (Exercise 10)

b. true (any minimal generating set is a basis)

5.

6.

7.

8.

c. true ( n )

d. true (the condition implies that the group is torsion-free)

e. true

f. false (if Y X the expression of elements in terms of Y is not unique)

{ }

h. true (Theorem 9)

i. true (why?)

j. false ( 2 = 2 is not free commutative)

9.

(injective) g , g G : g = g ,

( n )

(surjective)

: g G : g = + i ni x i , g =

ni , ni : g = + i ni x i , g = + i ni x i

( n ).

i

( n ) = ( n )

i

g = g.

g + g =

10.

) (

ni x i +

) ( n ) + ( n ) = (

ni x i =

) ( (n

) (

)(

) ) (( n x ) + (

for some basis { x } , then

ni + ni =

+ ni x i =

i

i i

ni x i

)) = ( g + g ) .

11.

Let X and X be bases for G and G , respectively. Show that Condition 2 of Theorem 1 holds:

g , g G G : g G , g G

) (

i x i , 0 i 0, x i

ni , ni : g = + i ni x i , g = + i ni x i

( g , g ) = (+

ni x i , + i ni x i so

= G G.

+ i ni x i , + i ni x i = (0, 0)

+ i ni x i = 0 + i ni x i = 0

ni = 0 ni = 0 .

12. If G is free commutative of finite rank, then by Condition 2 of Theorem 1 the finite basis generates it. By Exercise

10 it has no elements of finite order.

Let X be a minimal generating set of G. We just have to prove the uniqueness of zero. Suppose + i ni x i = 0, and

let K partition the coefficients such that nk K 0, nk K = 0 , and + i K ni x i = 0. Suppose there is k K , and thus

nk x k = + i K , i k ni x i . If + i K , i k ni x i 0 then it and nk x k are different expressions of the same element so X could

not have been minimal. If + i K , i k ni x i = 0 then x k is an element of finite order nk . So K = .

13.

Since for any prime p, 1 p n cannot be formed from 1 q m for any other prime q, or from 1 p n for n < n, a basis

for would have to contain at least p lim p n , but no element can have a definite expression in terms of such

n

a basis.

73

14.

Clearly the torsion subgroup is finite. By the First Sylow Theorem, T has a p-subgroup Tp of elements of some

power of p, and p does not divide T Tp . So T Tp has no elements of order p, which must therefore all be in Tp .

15.

16.

Since T is isomorphic to its prime-power decomposition, the subgroup Tp of all elements of power of p has a

corresponding subgroup of all elements of power of p in the decomposition, which is exactly the direct product of

the cyclic factors of order some power of p.

G [n] G follows from:

(identity) 0 G : n0 = 0 0 G [n] ;

(inverse) g G [n] : ng = 0

( )

ng

(closure) g , g G [n] : ng = 0, ng = 0

17.

g p r [p]

pg = 0

( )

commutative

=0

n g 1 = 0

( )( )

commutative

ng ng

n : pg = n p r

g = np r 1

g 1 G [n] ;

( )

n gg = 0

gg G [n] .

p r [p] p .

18.

19.

p i [p] = i p i [p] i p .

a. If i p ri i p si

i p ri [p] i p si [p]

i p ri i p si

r

r

p j p s j E

20.

rj

i p ri p

rj

i > j p j p ri i < j E

m = n.

r

i p si i p j p ri i p j p si . Now,

r

i = j E

p m p n

i = j p j p si

i > j p j p si with

q

p j , q j + , then G = i j

m 0 = 2333 , m 1 = 2 2

T = 216 4

q ij

pj

qj

. For example,

G = 23 33 2 2 .

21.

m 0 = i pi

22.

qi 0

1.

a. a 2b 2a 3c 3b 2 ;

2.

3.

a. a 5c 3 ; a 5c 3 ; b. a 4b 3c 6 ; a 4b 3c 6 .

By Theorem 12, there is exactly one homomorphism for each selection of 2 elements in the range G , so there are

G

4.

b 2c 3a 3b 2a 2 ; b. a 1b 3a 4c 6a 1 ;

homomorphisms: a. G

= 4 2 = 16 ; b. G

a 1c 6a 4b 3a 1 .

= 6 2 = 36 ; c. G

( ( ) )

= 3!2 = 6 2 = 36 .

( ( ) ) ( )

( )

( )

c. 2 2 3 + 2 3 2 = 24 .

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Correct.

Insert free before generators. I don't think it's been proved that there are no other generators.

It would seem obvious that this operation of multiplication is well-defined and associative. I think this is obvious

too. Can't think of anything that might throw a spoke in the wheel.

10. a. false (E is not free by definition)

b. false (a subgroup of a commutative group is commutative and thus not generally free)

c. false (the image of the trivial homomorphism is not free)

d. true (by Definition 4.2)

74

e. false (torsion groups are finitely generated but not free commutative)

f. false (is this a trick question?)

g. false (a free group generated by one element is free commutative on the basis of that element)

h. true (a free commutative group of rank greater than one must have more than one generator, but any free group

with more than one generator is not commutative)

i. false (Theorem 9)

j. true (Theorem 4.5)

11.

a. 1 2 + 2 3 = 0,

b. {1} is a one-element generating set and hence a basis. Also, {2, 3} = 6 .

+ i m i bi = 0 m 0 2 + m 1 3 = 0 2m 0 = 3m 1 so m 0 is a multiple of 3 and m 1 is a multiple of 2, so 2m 0 and

3m 1 are multiples of 6, so 2m 0 = 0, 3m 1 = 0 .

c. No, because a basis of a free commutative group induces unique expressions in terms of it.

d. A finite commutative group has an expression in terms of torsion coefficients, one dividing the next, where each

factor in the direct product has an element of the order of its coefficient.

G

12.

a. G

2 = 21

G1

G2

1 = 1 2

G2

G1

isomorphism

1

G Ker

G K

1 = 1 2 = 1 21 i = 1 2 ; 2 = 21 = 21 2 i = 21 . Now

*

*

*

ker 1 = g G 2 | 1 g = e 21 g = e ig = e = E ; g G 1 : 2 g G 2 : 1 2 g = 1 2 g = ig = g

( ) (

b. Consider all possible homomorphisms of G into commutative G , and let K be a minimal set contained by the

kernels of all these homomorphisms. If K1, 2 < G are kernels of two homomorphisms such that G K1, 2 are

commutative, then K1 K 2 < G must be the kernel of a homomorphism with G K1 K 2 commutative, so K is the

minimal kernel of all commutative homomorphisms.

Refer to the figure on the right. By Fundamental Homomorphism Theorem, any homomorphism can be

factored into a homomorphism onto its kernel factor group and an isomorphism from this group. By Exercise

3.3.35. K < G ker K = K < K ker , so there are canonical homomorphisms G G K and G K G ker

. G K is thus a blip group.

c. The blip group of G is its commutator subgroup.

13.

a.

S

f1

f 2 = f 2 f1

G1

G2

f 2

S

f2

f 1 = f1 f 2

G2

G1

f1

Refer to the figure on the left for the adjusted naming. Suppose f is not injective. Then

s1 , s 2 S , s1 s 2 : fs1 = fs 2 . Then there is a group G and f : S G such that g 1 = f s1 , g 2 = f s 2 and g 1 g 2 .

But then there cannot be a homomorphism f such that f = f f , because then

f s1 = f fs1 f g 1 = g 1 ;

Now, suppose fS does not generate G. Then there is a g G that is not generated by fS, and then for any G , f

and f : f = f f we can let f g equal any element of G without affecting f f , contradicting the uniqueness

of f .

75

Now let G 1, 2 be blop groups. The figures on the right illustrate how f 1, 2 can each be factored in terms of the

other, so f 1 = f 1 f 2 ,

f 2 = f 2 f 1 . Then f 1 = f 1 f 2 f 1 f 1 f 2 = i ;

ker f 1 = g 2 G 2 | f 1 g 2 = e

f 2f1 g 2 = f 2 e

g 1 G 1 : g 2 G 2 : f 1 g 2 = g 1

ig 2 = e

f 2 f1 g 2 = f 2 g1

f 2 = f 2 f 1 f 2 f 2 f 1 = i . Then

g2 = e = E ;

ig 2 = f 2 g 1

g 2 = f 2 g1,

so f 1 is an isomorphism and G 1 G 2 .

b. Let F [S] be the free group on S =

{ s }.

i

unique homomorphism f such that f fsi = f si Since fS = G , it follows that f f = f , so F [S] is a blop

group on S.

c. A blop group on S is the free group on S.

14.

1.

4 a : a 4

Trivially, 4 a , b : a 4 , b is akin to saying that b does not generate anything at all. Also 4 a , b : a 4 , a 2b 1

which implies a = 1, b = a = 2 .

?

2.

3

2

2

1

S3 1 , 1 , 2 : 1 , 1 , 2 , 1 2 1 .

3.

a

a 2 a3

b

ab a 2b a 3b

1

a

a 2 a3

ab a 2b a 3b

b

1

2

3

2

3

a

a

a a b a b

b

ab

1

a3

a

a 2 a 3b

b

ab a 2b

1

b

a 3b a 2b ab

a3 a 2

a

1

3

2

3

ab

b

a b a b a

a

a2

1

2

3

2

a b ab

b

a b a

a

a3

1

a 3b a 2b ab

b

a3 a 2

a

1

4.

The commutative groups of order 14 are isomorphic to 14 2 7 . Suppose G is a noncommutative group of

order 14. Then G contains normal subgroups G 2, 7 of order 2 and 7 respectively, and both cyclic so

a G : a = G 2 , a 2 = 1;

aba

a

a 2 a3

b

ab a 2b a 3b

1

a

a 2 a3

ab a 2b a 3b

b

1

2

3

2

3

a

a

a a b a b

b

ab

1

a3

a

a 2 a 3b

b

ab a 2b

1

b

a 3b a 2b ab a 2

a

a3

1

ab

b

a 3b a 2b a 3 a 2

a

1

2

3

3

2

a b ab

b

a b

a

a

a

1

a 3b a 2b ab

b

a

a3 a 2

1

2i 6

= b ab = ba that G was commutative. By Exercise 13b. this gives a group of order 14 iff i 2 = 7 1 i = 6 .

5.

order 21. Then G contains normal subgroups G 3, 7 of order 3 and 7 respectively, and both cyclic so

a G : a = G 3 , a 3 = 1;

2i 6

aba 1 = b 1 ab = ba that G was commutative. By Exercise 13b. this gives a group of order 21 iff

i 3 = 7 1 i 2, 4 . Why are these isomorphic?

{ }

6.

76

7.

8.

This appears to be completely incorrect. Example 3 shows that presentations with different numbers of generators

(between which hence no one-to-one correspondence can exist) can still give isomorphic groups. Rewrite the

definition as: Group presentations are isomorphic iff they give isomorphic groups.

a. true (remark before Example 4; by Theorem 5.13 every group is homomorphic to a free group, and the generators

of the kernel are the relators of its presentation)

c. false (if the presentations are not isomorphic then neither are the groups)

d. false (the question is unsolvable by the remark after Example 3)

( )

g. true (the relators form a normal subgroup that is thus invariant under conjugation)

h. false ( a : a 2 2 , a : a 3 3 )

9.

i. true ( F [A] R is isomorphic to the group and thus commutative, so R contains the commutator subgroup)

j. true (I think so)

A noncommutative group G of order 15 would have normal subgroups G 3, 5 of order 3 and 5 respectively, and both

cyclic so a G : a = G 3 , a 3 = 1;

i 2 = 5 1, but this is not so for any i.

10.

2i 4

2

commutative, then ab = ba ab = a b 1 = a , but then the group would have one generator of order 1 and one

of order 2, which cannot possibly generate a group of order 6.

11.

12.

A4 consists of the even permutations on 4 letters, so disjoint products of 1111-cycles (order 1), 22-cycles

(order 2), and 31-cycles (order 3), and no elements of order 6, so cannot be isomorphic to 6 .

2i 2

bi

S3 has two elements ( 1, 2 ) of order 3 and three elements ( 1, 2, 3 ) of order 2. Suppose A4 has two elements of

order 3, that is two 3-cycles. To form a group, these elements have to be each other's inverse. Without loss of

generality, let (1 2 3), (1 3 2) be these two elements. A4 would have to contain three elements of order 2, that is

all three 22-cycles. But then (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3) = (2 4 3) and A4 would have to contain at least three elements of

order 3, so cannot be isomorphic to S3 either.

13.

14.

1.

12 24 16 = 192 mod 24 = 0 .

2.

16 32 3 = 48 mod 32 = 16 .

3.

11 15 4 = 44 mod 15 = 1 .

4.

20 26 8 = 160 mod 26 = 22 .

5.

6.

7.

77

(closed) na , nb n : na nb = n 2ab n

So they are also commutative fields. Do they have a multiplicative identity?

(multiplicative identity) na n : nb n : na nb = nb n 2ab = nb

So only 1 = has unity. Which elements have a multiplicative inverse?

(multiplicative inverse) a : b : ab = 1 a = 1, b = a

So not even is a division ring.

8.

9.

na = 1 n = 1, a = 1

is a commutative group. Checking the multiplication:

)(

(a , a ) (b , b ) = (a b , a b )

(associative) (a , a ), (b , b ), (c , c ) :

((a , a ) (b , b )) (c , c ) = (a b , a b ) (c , c ) = (a b c , a b c ) = (a , a ) (b c , b c ) = (a , a ) ((b , b ) (c , c ))

(commutative) (a , a ), (b , b ) : (a , a ) (b , b ) = (a b , a b ) = (b a , b a ) = (b , b ) (a , a )

(identity) (a , a ) : (b , b ) :

(a , a ) (b , b ) = (b , b ) (a b , a b ) = (b , b ) aa bb == bb aa == 11

(closed) a0 , a1 , b0 , b1 :

0

0 0

0 0

1 1

0 0 0

1 1 1

0 0

0 0

1 1

1 1

0 0

1 1

0 0

1 1

0 0

1 1

1 1

0 0

1 1

10.

2 is a commutative group. 2, are both commutative rings by Exercise 7, so 2 is a commutative ring

by Example 7. 2 does not have a unity by Exercise 7, so neither does 2 .

11.

g G , g = a + b 2 , a , b : g = 0

{ }

a +b 2 =0

a, b = 0

(closed) a0 + a1 2 , b0 + b1 2 G :

a + a 2 b + b 2 = a b + a b + a b

2 + 2a1b1 = a0b0 + 2a1b1 + a0b1 + a1b0 2 G

1

1

0 0

0 1

1 0

0

0

) (

Multiplicative associativity and commutativity follows from the operation in . Since is a commutative group

under addition, G is a commutative ring. Obviously 1G = 1 is the multiplicative identity.

(inverse) a = a0 , a1 2 G * : b = b0 , b1 2 G * :

a b + 2a1b1 = 1

2 =1 0 0

a0b1 + a1b0 = 0

From the first equation, a0b0 must be odd, but if a0 is even this is not possible, so G is not a division ring.

From Exercise 11, G is a commutative ring with multiplicative inverse. Also from that exercise,

(inverse) a = a0 , a1 2 G * : b = b0 , b1 2 G * :

1

2

a0b0 + 2a1b1 = 1 a 0 0a0b0 + 2a1 a1b0 a0 = 1

a0 2a1 a0 b0 = 1

b0 = a0 2a1 a0

b1 = a1b0 a0

a0b1 + a1b0 = 0

b = a b a

0

1 0

1

) (

12.

a0 = 2a1 a0

2a1 a0

78

is a field.

13.

14.

The identity of * is 1. a : b : ab = 1 a = 1.

15.

16.

17.

The identity of * is 1. a b * : b a :

18.

19.

20.

{1, 3} have inverses.

a. M 2 2 = 2

22

= 2 4 = 16 .

b. Under matrix multiplication, the identity is obviously the identity matrix, and all matrices with nonzero determinant

have an inverse:

0 1 1 0 1 0, 1 0, 1 1

,

,

,

1 0, 1 0, 1 1 0 1 1 0

( )

( )

21.

22.

1 0 1 0 2 0

+

=

, 1 + 1 = 2 4 ,

0 1 0 1 0 2

so it is not even a group homomorphism.

23.

0 a 0

: a a ia are all the group homomorphisms.

By Theorem 4.5.12, since is free on 1 , i : :

1 a i

a , b : ab = a b i ab = ia ib = i 2ab i = 0 i = 1, so the only ring homomorphisms are trivial or

{ }

( )

( )

the identity.

( ) (

24.

25.

26.

From Exercise 25, there are 3 + 1 = 4 .

0

1

/ a = 0 b = 0 . For example,

= 0 .

1

0

( x 2 ) ( x + 3) = 0

x = 2 x = 3 = 11

x 2 + x 6 = 0 (x 2 ) ( x + 3) 14

( x 2 ) ( x + 3) = n 14

27.

28.

i , j = 0, 1.

31.

x = 2,11

x {2, 9} {1,3,5,,11}

x = 9

x {2, 4,9,11}

x = 4

That is the definition for a division ring. A field also needs commutative multiplication.

The concept of magnitude has not been defined in the context of a ring. A unit in a ring is an element with a

multiplicative inverse.

2,3 6 : 2 3 = 0 .

32.

x 2 7 x + 3 2

x 2 2 x + 3 7

29.

30.

33.

b. false ( 2, by Exercise 7)

79

c. false (E)

d. false ()

e. true ( 2 )

f. false (they relate its two operations)

g. true (by Definition 16)

h. true (the operation is associateive by definition of ring, the identity exists and is nonzero by definition of field, and

every nonzero element has an inverse by definition of division ring)

i. true (by Definition 1)

j. true (because a ring is an additive group)

34. (associative) f , g , h F : x :

f ( gh ) x = fx ( gh ) x = fx gx hx = ( fg ) x hx = ( fg ) h x f ( gh ) = ( fg ) h

( f ( g + h ) )x

f , g F : x : x ( fg ) = ( fg )x = fx gx = x f x g

35.

36.

= fx ( g + h ) x = fx ( gx + hx ) = fx gx + fx hx = ( fg ) x + ( fh ) x = ( fg + fh )x f ( g + h ) = fg + fh

i (ab ) = ab = ia ib .

( ab ) = a b = a b

) (

inv

(transitivity) : R R, : R R : a,b R :

( ab ) = a b ( ) (ab ) = (ab ) = (a b) = (a ) (b ) = ( )a ( )b .

37.

( ab ) (b a ) = abb a = aa = 1

ab U .

(identity) 1 R : 1 1 = 1 1 U .

(inverse) a U : a U : aa = 1 a U .

so U is a group.

(a + b ) ( a b) = ( a + b) ( a + ( b) ) = ( a + b ) a + (a + b ) ( b ) = a a + b a + a ( b ) + b (b ) = a 2 b 2 + b a a b

38.

= a2 b 2 b a a b = 0 a b = b a

Clearly this multiplication is associative and distributive, and hence forms a ring.

2 has an element such that a a = a + a (for a = 2), while 3 does not. has an element of multiplicative order

4 (i), while does not.

n

n

Since p is distributive and commutative, the binomial expansion holds: (a + b ) = + i a ib n i . So

i

)

i

i (

for 0 < i < p , so that any such term is always zero.

A field is some closed collection of units of a ring, and by Exercise 37 forms a group under multiplication, so the

identity of any of its subgroups is its identity.

By Exercise 37, U , is a group, which has unique inverses.

39.

40.

41.

42.

43.

44.

a. a,b R : a 2 = 1,b 2 = 1 :

b.

45.

46.

a,b R : n,m + : a n ,b m = 0

( ab )

nm

commutative

47. x 0 : x 2 = 0 x is nilpotent

80

x 0 : x is nilpotent

minimal n 0, x n = 0

(additive inverse) a,b S : a b S

(additive closure) a,b S

49.

1

1n

n

n even : x 2 = 0, x 2 0

2

1

( n + 1) = 0,x 21 ( n + 1) 0

n +1

= x n x = 0 x 2

n odd : x

0 b = 0 + ( b ) = b S

a ( b) = a + b S

b S

So S is a subgroup.

(multiplicative closure) a,b S : ab = S

(multiplicative associativity, distributivity) follow because R is a ring.

So S is a subring.

a. Let R1, 2 R be subrings. From Exercise 48,

0 R1, 0 R2 0 R1 R2

a,b R1 R2 a,b R1 a,b R2

a b R1 a b R2

ab R1 ab R2

a b R1 R2

ab R1 R2

so R1 R2 is a subring.

b. If R is a field, then it is multiplicatively commutative and every element has a multiplicative inverse. Obviously,

multiplication remains commutative in R1 R2 and becuase it is closed, every element has an inverse in R1 R2.

So it is a subfield.

50.

Using Exercise 48. x , y I a ,

a0 = 0 0 Ia

ax, ay = 0 a (x y ) = ax ay = 0 x y Ia

a( xy ) = ( ax ) y = 0y = 0

so Ia R is a subring.

51.

52.

53.

xy Ia

0 : rs r : x a x modr and 1 : rs s : x a x mod s . So the problem amounts to finding x such that

0x = m modr , 1x = n mod s , i.e. x = (m modr ,n mod s ) r s . Since is an isomorphism and thus

surjective, such an x exists.

a. For a set S = {i s i} of relatively prime positive integers. By the Fundamental Theorem of commutative groups,

i

si

: i

si

x , y i

si

: ( xy ) = ( xy ) ( i 1) = ( i xy ) =

( i x ) ( i y ) = x ( i 1) y ( i 1) = x y .

So is a ring isomorphism.

b. Let ri , si * with ri relatively prime, show that x + : i : x = s i r i . Consider the isomorphism of (a.),

: i

si

i s i . Obviously i : i

ix = ri mod s i , i.e. x =

54.

si

( i ri mod s i ) i s

(1 + 1 ) a + (1 + 1 )b = a + a + b + b

a + a +b +b = a +b + a +b a +b = b + a

(1 + 1) ( a + b) =

1 ( a + b ) + 1( a + b ) = a + b + a + b

so S is a commutative group.

(multiplicative associativity) Even though we haven't shown S is a ring, the proof of Theorem 8 shows that

multiplication is associative when either of the operands is 0, so multiplication is associative over all of S * (that is,

including the additive identity).

Distributivity holds by axiom, so S is a ring.

(multiplicative identity and inverse) Since S * is a group, it has an identity not the same as the additive identity, and

81

55.

56.

So S is a division ring.

Since every element is idempotent, a R:

a + 1

(a + 1) ( a + 1) = 2

a + 1 = a + a + a + 1 a + a = 0 a = a

a + a + a + 1 = a + a + a + 1

so then a,b R

a + b

(a + b ) ( a + b) = 2

a + b = a + ab + ba + b ab + ba = 0 ab = (ba ) = ba

a + ab + ba + b 2 = a + ab + ba + b

so R is commutative.

S = {a,b }, PS = {,{a},{b},{a,b}} .

a. +

a

b

ab

a

b

ab

a

a

ab

b

b

b

ab

a

b

ab

ab

ab

b

a

b. We show that PS

b

b

ab

a

b

ab

by : PS : ( i b i ) a {s i S | b i = 1} .

S

(additively homomorphic) x , y :

( x + y ) = si S | ( x + y ) i = 1

xi +yi =1

x i =1 y i = 1 x i yi

= {si S | x i = 1} + {si S | y i = 1} = x + y

S

(multiplicatively homomorphic) x , y :

( xy ) = si S | ( xy ) i = 1

x iy i = 1

x i =1 y i = 1

= {si S | x i = 1} {si S | y i = 1}

= {si S | x i = 1} {si S | y i = 1} = x y

S

injective and surjective, so is a ring isomorphism.

Now b n : b 2 = b b =

( i bi b i ) = ( i bi ) = b

1.

2.

3x = 7 2

3x = 23 2

x = 23 2 3 = 23 2 3 1 = 23 2 8 = 23 16 . Since 3 does not divide 23, there are no other solutions.

2 4 4 2 1 2 2 i

=

has no integer solutions.

2

2

3.

x 2 + 2x + 2 = 6 0

4.

x 2 + 2x + 4 = ( x + 2 ) = 6 0

5.

x =

2

10. char 6 15 = 30.

11.

(a + b ) 4

= a 4 + 4a 3b + 6a 2b 2 + 4ab 3 + b 4 = a 4 + 2a 2b 2 + b 4 .

12.

(a + b ) 9

3

= ( a + b ) = a 3 + 3a 2b + 3ab 2 + b 3

) = (a

3

+b3

) = (a )

3

( ) (b ) + 3( a ) (b ) + (b )

+ 3 a3

= a9 + b 9 .

82

13.

(a + b ) 6

3

= ( a + b ) = a 3 + 3a 2b + 3ab 2 + b 3

) = (a

2

+b3

) = (a )

2

) ( )

+ 2 a 3b 3 + b 3

= a 6 + 2a 3b 3 + b 6 .

1 2

1 2 2 2 0 0

det

= 0 so the row vectors are linearly dependent:

=

.

2 4

2 4 1 1 0 0

15.

If a,b R are elements of a ring R

16.

If n is the least positive integer

17. a. false ( n does not have a multiplicative identity for n > 1)

b. true (Theorem 9)

c. false (they all have characteristic 0)

d. false ( has multiplicative inverse but 2 doesn't)

e. true (Definition 6 and Theorem 5)

f. true (if it was finite n a = 0 for some n )

g. false (Example 7)

h. true ( a : b : ab = 0 : c : ac = 1 ab + ac = 1 a(b + c ) = 1 and because the inverse is unique, b + c = c b = 0

so a would not be a divisor of 0)

i. false ( n does not have a multiplicative identity for n > 1)

j. false ( is not a division ring or a field)

18.

ring

14.

M n 2

+ multiplicative identity

+ commutative

multiplication

Mn

+ multiplicative inverses

commutative ring

2

division ring

M n | det 0

+ not multiplicatively

commutative

+ no divisors of 0

integral domain

19.

field

The matrix is not invertible, has a zero determinant, linearly dependent row or column vectors. (Book says

something about eigenvalues.)

20.

integral domain

commutative

ring

21.

22.

field

strictly skew

field

and multiplicative identities are the only idempotent elements of a division ring.

By Exercise 1.49a, an intersection of rings is a ring, and therefore an intersection of commutative rings is again a

commutative ring. Since the multiplicative identity is unique, it is contained in each of the domains and hence in

83

their intersection. Finally, none of the domains have divisors of zero so neither does the intersection. Therefore,

the intersection is itself an integral domain.

It remains to be shown that each element has a multiplicative inverse. Let R* = {i 1, ai } , and consider

23.

a1 = aai

cancellation

a. Suppose a R* : b R : ab = 0

*

b. a R : b R : aba = a

b=0

a i = aj

a j aai = a i

abab = ab

abab ab = 0

cancellation

a(bab b ) = 0

aba a = a (ba 1) = 0

ba = 1

no divisors

of 0

bab = b . If

a 1 = b .

Using Theorem 15, the smallest n such that n 1 = 0 must be the same in any subdomain.

{n n 1} D is a commutative ring with unity and no divisors of 0, so is itself an integral domain. Since any

subdomain of D contains unity and is closed under addition, it must certainly contain

{n n 1} .

(n 1) (m 1) = ( + i <n 1) ( + i <m 1)

28.

a j = a i , so the left

a = aba = a0a = 0 , so b R .

d. a R* : b R* : aba = a

27.

i = j and

c.

25.

26.

a1 = 1 a = 1 a 1 = 1 or aai = 1 a 1 = a i . Suppose aj : a j a = 1

multiplicative inverse is also the right multiplicative inverse.

24.

cancellation

distributive

distributive

= + i <n (1 + i <m 1 )

= + i <nm 1 1 = + i <nm 1 = 0

and (Theorem 15) n 1,m 1 0 , which would show that D has divisors of 0. So the characteristic has to be prime

or 0.

a. It is fairly obvious that multiplication is closed on S, and we know that S is a commutative group because R and n

are. Multiplicative associativity follows directly from the definition by observing that swapping indices yields the

same expression. Multiplicative distributivity obviously holds for the second component. For the first,

(r 1,n 1 ) , (r 2 ,n2 ) , (r3 ,n 3) R n :

= (r 1 (r 2 + r3 ) + n 1 (r2 + r 3) + (n 2 + n 3) r 1 ,n1 (n 2 + n3 ) )

= (r 1r2 + r 1r3 + n 1r2 + n1r3 + n2r1 + n 3r1,n 1n2 + n 1n3 )

= (r 1r2 + n 1r2 + n2r1 ,n1n2 ) + (r1r3 + n 1r3 + n3r1 ,n1n3 )

= (r 1 ,n1 ) (r2 ,n 2 ) + (r 1 ,n1 ) (r3 ,n 3)

b. (r 1,n 1 ) : (r 2 ,n2 ) : (r1 ,n 1 ) (r 2 ,n2 ) = (r2 ,n 2 ) (r1r2 + n 1r2 + n 2r1,n 1n2) = (r 2,n 2 )

n 1 = 1

so 1 S = (0,1 ) .

c. The characteristic of S is the minimal n such that n 1 S = 0 n (0,1 ) = 0 n 1 n = 0 , which is the characteristic

of n by axiom.

d. Show that is a ring isomorphism so that R S is a ring. r1 ,r2 :

r1 = r2 (r1 , 0 ) = (r2 , 0 ) r 1 = r2 (injective)

29.

There are 3 = 3 4 = 81 code words and 3 = 9 message words. (Note that the terminology used in this

exercise appears to be inconsistent with that in 2.5).

84

30.

There are F

1.

2.

3.

{

4 = {4 =

3 = {3 =

2 = {2 =

2 = {2 =

3 = {3 =

3 = 30 = 7 1, 31 = 7 3, 3 2 = 7 2, 33 = 7 6, 3 4 = 7 4, 35 = 7 5, 36 = 7 1 = 7

}

1}

11 1,

41 = 11 4, 4 2 = 11 5, 43 = 11 9, 4 4 = 11 3, 45 = 11 1 11

11 1,

31 = 11 3, 3 2 = 11 9, 33 = 11 5, 3 4 = 11 4, 35 = 11

11 1,

*

11

17

17

38 = 17 16, 39 = 17 14, 310 = 17 8, 311 = 17 7, 312 = 17 4, 313 = 17 12, 314 = 17 2, 315 = 17 6, 316 = 17 1 = 17

( )

= (37 ) 37

4.

3 47 = 23 3 22 33 = 23 12 33 = 23 27 = 23 4 .

5.

37 49

6.

22

17

= 7 18 37 1 = 7 37 = 7 2 .

( )2

= 19 2n 18 + 14 = 19 218

14

( )

( )

= 19 1n 214 = 19 214 = 19 2 4 2 2 = 19 3 4 = 19 27 4 = 19 11 4 = 19 44 = 19 6

217 = a 18 + b 216 = a 9 + 1 b

( )

216 = 9 26

2 4 = 9 12 2 4 = 9 7 217 = 18 14

17

2 2 + 1 = 19 6 + 1 = 19 7

7.

0x

x0

x1

x2

x3

x4

x5

x6

x7

x8

x9

1

1

2

21 = 2

4

2

6

4

32 = 6

1x

2x

4

8

10

12

4

10

12

22

6

8

8 54 = 20

8

12

16

18

6

12

18

28

8.

p 2 = p p 1 .

9.

pq = pq p q + 1 = p 1 q 1 .

( )

( )

125

( )

= 24 7 24

)(

125

3x

8

10.

7 1000 = 24 7 8

11.

2x = 4 6 x = 2 3 x

12.

22x = 15 5 7 x = 15 5 x = 15 7 15 = 15 55 = 15 10

= 24 1125 = 1 .

}.

{ } (3 + k 2) + 4

k 0, 1

10 + 15

85

13.

14.

45x 24 15 15x =8 5 7 x =8 5 x =8 7 15 =8 7 5 = 35 =8 3

) (

) (

7 1, 3, 5, 7 = 7, 21, 35, 49 =8 7, 5, 3, 1 7 1 =8 7

x 3 + 3 + 8

15.

16.

41x =9 125 5x =9 8

) (

) (

1

x =9 5 8 =9 2 8 = 16 =9 7

x 7 + 9

17.

5 8 = 40 =13 1 51 =13 8

x =13 512 =13 8 2 = 16 =13 3

x 3 + 13

18.

3 7 = 21 =10 1 31 =10 7

x =10 314 =10 7 4 = 28 =10 8

x 8 + 10

)(

19.

By Exercise 26, p 1 ! =p 1 p 1 p 2 ! = 1 = p 1 p 2 ! =p 1.

20.

(37 2)!=

37

( )

5 15 = 75 =37 1 51 =37 15

7 16 = 112 =37 1 7 1 =37 16

(Ex 19)

21.

=53 61 = 9

9 6 = 54 =53 1 61 = 9

22.

(Ex 19)

= 29 17 1 = 29 8

27 26 25 = 27 650 = 27 27 2 = 54 = 27 17

8 17 = 136 =53 1 17 1 = 8

23.

b. true

c. true (by definition)

d. false ( 1 = 1 / 1 1 = 0 )

e. true

f. true (a product of two relatively prime numbers is still relatively prime)

g. false (the product will not be relatively prime)

h. true

i. false ( if a = p ax =p px =p 0 b )

24.

The units of 12 are 1, 5, 7, and 11.

86

1

5

7 11

5

1 11

7

7 11

1

5

11

7

5

1

Its multiplicative group is isomorphic to the Klein 4-group.

(ring)

25.

) (

(ring)

)(

has no divisors of 0, so x =p 1 x =p 1 = p 1.

26.

{2,, p 2}

is also even. Since by Exercise 25, 1 and p 1 are the only elements

who are their own inverses, the even number elements in 2,, p 2 each have their inverses in that same subset,

so

pi = 2 i

) (

)(

) (

383838 = 37 19 13 7 3 2

27.

1

n37 n = n36 n n =p n n = 0

n37 n = n18 n n =p n n = 0

37

12

n n = n

n n =p n n = 0

n37 n =383838 0 .

6

n37 n = n6 n n =p n n = 0

18

n37 n = n 2 n n =p n n = 0

36

n37 n = n1 n n =p n n = 0

28.

n37

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

n = (n ) n n = (n ) n n =

4

51

1.

2.

3.

4.

In the same way that the field of quotients was reinterpreted as , this field of quotients D D can be

interpreted as i .

+ 2?

A field is a division ring, in which by definition every nonzero element is a unit. Since the zero of D is the zero of F,

that last part of the definition is redundant.

a. true

b. false ( 2 is not a quotient of )

c. true ( * )

d. false (i is not a quotient of )

e. true

f. true (otherwise + and could not be defined)

g. false (see h.)

h. true (every nonzero element of a division ring is a unit, and a field is a division ring)

i. true

j. true (Corollary 9)

5.

[(2, 4)] + [(2, 4)] = [(2 4 + 4 2, 4 4)] = [(16, 16)] = [(16 1, 16 1)] = [(1, 1)], so its field of quotients is at least a subset

of . Similarly, for any element [(a , b )], a , b in the field of quotients of , [( 2a , 2)], [( 2, 2b )] are in the

2 is an integral domain. Its field of quotients includes

87

6.

Prove that addition in F is associative.

[( ) ( ) ( ) ]

= [(adf + bcf + bde , bdf )]

= [(a (df ) + b (cf + de ), b (df ))]

= [(a , b )] + [(cf + de , df )]

= [(a , b )] + ([(c , d )] + [(e , f )])

[(0, 1)] is an additive identity in F: [(a, b )] F : [(a, b )] + [(0, 1)] = [(a 1 + b 0, b 1)] = [(a, b )].

[(a, b )] is an additive inverse in F. [(a, b )] F :

[(a, b )] + [(a, b )] = [(a b + b a, b b )] = [((a + a) b , b b )] = [(0 b , b b )] = [(0, b b )] = [(0, 1)]

= ad + bc f + bd e , bd f

7.

8.

( )

0 1 = b b 0 0 = 0

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

[( )] [( )] [( )] F :

([(a, b )] [(c, d)]) [(e, f )] = [(ac, bd)] [(e, f )] = [((ac)e, (bd) f )]

= [(a (ce ), b (df ))] = [(a , b )] [(ce , df )] = [(a , b )] ([(c , d )] [(e , f )])

Multiplication in F is commutative. [(a , b ), (c , d )] F :

[(a, b )] [(c, d)] = [(ac, bd)] = [(ca, db )] = [(c, d)] [(a, d)].

Distribution laws hold in F. [(a , b )], [(c , d )], [(e , f )] F :

[(a, b )] ([(c, d)] + [(e, f )]) = [(a, b )] + [(cf + de, df )] = [(a(cf + de ), b (df ))] = [(ba(cf + de ), bb (df ))]

= [(bacf + bade , bbdf )] = [(ac bf + bd ae , bd bf )] = [(ac , bd )] + [(ae , bf )] = [(a , b )] [(c , d )] + [(a , b )] [(e , f )]

a. t T : [(t , t )] is unity.

b. t , t T : [(t , t )] [(t , t )] = [(tt , t t )] = 1.

By Exercise 12, Q (R, a ) is a commutative ring with unity.

Q ( , {1, 3}) = { = , = , = = , = = } has 4 elements.

Q , {

2 } are all {

n 2 }.

Q 3, {

6 } are {3n 6 } = {3n 6 6 } = { n 6 } = all fractions n 2 + o 3 .

Multiplication in F is associative. a , b , c , d , e , f

0

1

n +

n +

0

3

1

1

3

3

2

1

6

3

n , m +

2

3

3

1

9

3

1

3

n 1

1

2

n 1

17.

[]

R x is the set of formal polynomials with coefficients in R and indeterminate x. Formal means that the

indeterminate is to be seen as purely a symbol with no algebraic interpretation. A polynomial is an infinite sum

88

[]

[]

f x = + i f i x i with a finite number of nonzero coefficients. R R x are the constant polynomials. The

1.

finiteness enables or simplifies some kinds of operations (see for example Phigh in the section on ordered rings) but

isn't necessary for the polynomial concept itself. In fact, that same section defines power series rings and

Laurent series fields which modify this restriction in different ways.

The evaluation homomorphism assigns a value from some superfield E to the indeterminate:

a + i f i x i = + i f i a i .

[]

[]

[]

f [ x ] + g [ x ] = ( 4x 5) + ( 2x 4x + 2) = 2x + ( 4 4)x + ( 5 + 2) = 2x + 5 .

f [ x ] g [ x ] = ( 4x 5)( 2x 4x + 2) = 4x ( 2x 4x + 2) 5( 2x 4x + 2)

f x = 4x 5, g x = 2x 2 4x + 2 in 8 x :

2

2.

[]

[]

[]

f [ x ] + g [ x ] = ( x + 1) + ( x + 1) = 2x + 2 = 0

f [ x ] g [ x ] = ( x + 1)( x + 1) = x ( x + 1) + 1( x + 1) = x + 2x + 1 =

f [ x ] = 2x + 3x + 4, g [ x ] = 3x + 2x + 3 in [ x ] :

f [ x ] + g [ x ] = ( 2x + 3x + 4) + (3x + 2x + 3) = 5x + 5x + 7 =

f [ x ] g [ x ] = ( 2x + 3x + 4) (3x + 2x + 3)

f x = x + 1, g x = x + 1 in 2 x :

2

3.

x 2 + 1.

5x 2 + 5x + 1

) (

) (

= 2x 2 3x 2 + 2x + 3 + 3x 3x 2 + 2x + 3 + 4 3x 2 + 2x + 3

= 6x 4 + 4x 3 + 6x 2 + 9x 3 + 6x 2 + 9x + 11x 2 + 8x + 12

= 6x 4 + 13x 3 + 24x 2 + 17 x + 12

= 6 x 3 + 5x

4.

[]

[]

[]

f [ x ] + g [ x ] = ( 2x + 4x + 3x + 2) + (3x + 2x + 4) = 3x

f [ x ] g [ x ] = ( 2x + 4x + 3x + 2) (3x + 2x + 4)

f x = 2x 3 + 4x 2 + 3x 2, g x = 3x 4 + 2x + 4 in 5 x :

3

+ 2x 3 + 4x 2 + 5x + 6 = 5 3x 4 + 2x 3 + 4x 2 + 1

) (

) (

= 2x 3 3x 4 + 2x + 4 + 4x 2 3x 4 + 2x + 4 + 3x 3x 4 + 2x + 4 + 2 3x 4 + 2x + 4

7

= 6x 7 + 12x 6 + 9x 5 + 10x 4 + 16x 3 + 22x 2 + 16x + 8

= 5 x 7 + 2x 6 + 4x 5 + x 3 + 2x 2 + x + 3

3+1

= 2 4 = 16 .

5.

2

6.

5

7.

2 x 2 + 3 = 22 + 3 = 4 + 3 = 7 = 7 0 .

8.

2+1

= 53 = 225.

( )

( 2x x

3

+ 3x + 2 = 2 03 0 2 + 3 01 + 2 = 2 = 7 2 .

89

9.

( [ ] [ ])

3 f x g x

homomorphism

[]

[]

3 f x 3 g x

) (

)

= (3 + 2 3) (3 3 3 + 3) = (81 + 6) ( 27 27 + 3)

= 3 x 4 + 2 x 3 x 3 3 x 2 + 3

4

10.

)(

=7 3 3 = 9 =7 2

)(

) (

) (

5 x 3 + 2 4x 2 + 3 x 7 + 3x 2 + 1 = 5 x 3 + 2 5 4x 2 + 3 5 x 7 + 3x 2 + 1

)(

)(

= 53 + 2 4 52 + 3 57 + 3 52 + 1

= 5 127 103 5 + 75 + 1 = 5 2 3 + 1 = 6 = 5 1

11.

4 3x 106 + 5x 99 + 2x 53 = 4 4 3x 4 + 5x 3 + 2x 5

4

= 3 4 + 5 4 + 2 4 = 3 256 + 5 64 + 2 1024

=4 3 0 + 5 0 + 2 0 = 0

) ( ) ( ) ( ) {}

) ( x + 2x + 2) = ( 2, 5, 14, 35, 74, 137, 230) = ( 2, 5, 0, 0, 4, 4, 6) Ker( x + 2x + 2) = {2, 3} .

) ( x + 3x + x + 2x ) = (

) (3x + x + 3x ) = (0, 7, 34, 99, 220) = (0, 2, 4, 4, 0)

Ker(3x + x + 3x ) = {0, 4}

12.

(0, 1) x 2 + 1 = 1, 2 = 2 = 1, 0 Ker x 2 + 1 = 1 .

13.

(0,, 6

14.

(0,, 4

15.

0, , 4

( [ ] [ ])

[]

[] (

= (5 0, 1 5, 0 2, 1 5, 3 0, 6 1, 5 5)

= (0, 5, 0, 5, 0, 6, 25) = (0, 5, 0, 5, 0, 6, 4)

Ker( f [ x ] g [ x ]) = {0, 2, 4}

(0,6) f x g x = i (0,6) i f x i g x = 5 0, 8 5, 21 16, 50 33, 101 56, 230 85, 293 110

7

) (

16.

3 x 231 + 3x 117 2x 53 + 1 = 5 3 x 3 + 3x 1 2x 1 + 1 = 3 x 3 + x + 1 = 27 + 3 + 1 = 31 = 5 1 .

17.

2x 219 + 3x 74 + 2x 57 + 3x 44 = 5 2x 3 + 3x 2 + 2x 1 + 3x 0

) (

+ 3x ) = {0, 1, 2, 3}

) (

Ker 2x 219 + 3x 74 + 2x 57

18.

19.

20.

44

Seems okay.

(3x

) (

) (

) (

+ 2x y 3 + x 2 6x + 1 y 2 + x 4 2x y + x 4 3x 2 + 2

( ) (

) (

) (

= y + 1 x 4 + 3y 3 x 3 + y 2 3 x 2 + 2y 3 6y 2 2y x + y 2 + 2

21.

22.

23.

1 i +1

i 5 x

[]

x i Ker 5 : x .

a. true

b. true (Theorem 2)

[]

[]

= 1 2x .

[]

c. true (If D has no divisors of zero, then D x cannot possibly have them either)

d. true (if d D is a divisor of zero with d D : dd = 0 , then dx d x = 0x 2 = 0 )

90

e. false

f. false ( 2x 3 2x 4 = 4 [ x ] 4x 7 = 0 )

( [ ] [ ])

[]

[]

[]

g. true (because f x g x = a f x g x = 0 a g x = 0)

h. true (if F is a field it has no divisors of zero, so a product with a polynomial of degree > 0 can never have degree 0)

i. true (because 1 R is never a divisor of zero)

[]

24.

[]

of zero, neither does D[ x ] . f [ x ] D[ x ], f [ x ] 0 f [ x ] = +

f x : i a 0 . For any

g D[ x ], g [ x ] = +

g x , let f , g be the first coefficients of f [ x ], g [ x ] such that f , g 0. Since D is an

integral domain, f g 0, and since this the only term of degree i + j of f [ x ] g [ x ], f [ x ] g [ x ] 0.

a. Since an integral domain has no divisors of zero, suppose f [ x ] is of degree 1 and f [ x ] = + f x , g [ x ] = + g x ,

let f , g be the highest coefficients f 0, g 0; i , j 1. Then f [ x ] g [ x ] will contain a term

f g 0 f [ x ] g [ x ] 1. For every f [ x ] of degree 0 f [ x ] = f , so f [ x ] g [ x ] = 1[ x ] iff f D is a unit. If the

degree of f [ x ] / 0, then f [ x ] = 0 f [ x ] g [ x ] 1[ x ] . So the units of D[ x ] are exactly the units of D.

b. The only units of are 1 and 1, so by (a.) 1[ x ], 1[ x ] are the only units of [ x ] .

c. By Corollary 2.12, is a field so all i are units, so by (a.) all {

i[ x ]} are units.

f [ x ], g [ x ], h [ x ] R[ x ] :

f [ x ] ( g [ x ] h [ x ]) = + f x ( + g x + + h x )

= + f x + ( g + h )x

f ( g h ))x

= + (+

Theorem 2 says that if F is a commutative ring then F x is also. Remaining to be proved that if D has no divisors

i i

25.

i

i

26.

definition

i i

i

j =0

Def 5.1R3

definition

i 7

ij ij

+ i + ij = 0 f j g i j + + ij = 0 f j h i j x i

) (

= + i + ij = 0 f j g i j x i + + ij = 0 f j h i j x i

= + i + ij = 0 f j g i j x i + + i + ij = 0 f j h i j x i

definition

+i f i x i +i g i x i + +i f i x i +i hi x i

[] [] [] []

= f x g x + f x h x

27.

[] [] []

D( f [ x ] + g [ x ]) = D( + f x + + g x ) = D + ( f + g )x

= + i ( f + g )x

= + (i f + i g )x

= + (i f )x

+ + (i g )x

=D+ f x

= Df [ x ] + Dg [ x ]

a. f x , g x F x :

i +1

i 1

definition

i +1

5.1R3

i 1

i +1

i 1

i 1

+ D +i g i x i

[] []

[]

b. f x F x : Df x = 0 D + i f i x i = + i + 1 if i x i 1 = 0 i > 0 : f i = 0 , so Ker D =

f 0 F

f 0x 0 = F .

91

[] [] []

() f [ x ] F [ x ] : f [ x ] = + f x

[]

c. () f x F x : Df x = D + i f i x i = + i 1 if i x i 1 F x

i

28.

a.

) : F [ i x i ] E : f [ i x i ] = + ( p ) f ( p ) i

n

n

i i

[]

f

f

: D + i i x i + 1 = + i 1 i i 1 x i 1 = + i 1 f i 1x i 1 = + i f i x i = f x .

i +1

i

n

i

n

i

( )

xi

pi

a+

( p ) f ( p ) i i

n

n

i

n

i

pi

( )

2

4

4

2 2

b. 3, 2 x 1 x 2 + 3x 1 x 2 = 3 2 2 + 3 3 21 = 9 4 + 3 81 2 = 36 + 486 = 519 .

c. A zero of a polynomial f

29.

RR =

f :R R

n

i

n

i

) f [ i i ] = 0.

n

n

i i

f .

(associativity) , , RR , r R :

(( + ) + )r = ( + )r + r = r + y + r = r + ( + )r = ( + ( + ))r .

(

RR : + 0 r = r + 0r = r .

(additive identity) 0 RR : r a 0;

( )

(additive inverse) RR : 1 RR : r R : r a r + 1 r = r + 1r = r + r = 0 .

(multiplicative associativity) , , RR : r R:

(( ) )r = ( )r r = r r r = r ( )r = ( ( ))r

(left distributivity) , , RR : r R:

( (

))

+ r = r + r = r r + r

R a ring

) ( ) (

r r + r r = r + r = + r

Ex. 29

30.

[]

(additive closure) , PF : PF ,

( )

f , g F x : a F : a = fa , a = ga

a F : a = a a = fa ga = f g a PF .

(additive identity) 0F F F F : a a 0 . 0PF PF : + i 0 x i : a a 0

[] []

[]

0PF = 0F F .

(additive inverse) PF : f x F x : a F : a = f x a :

1 F F : a F : 1a = a

( )

a F : + 1 a = a + 1a = a + a = 0

a = fa a F : a = fa

[]

(multiplicative closure) , P : f , g F [ x ] : a F : a = fa , a = ga

a F : ( )a = a a = ( f g )a , f g F [ x ] P .

f

F x : a F : f

PF

b. It seems obvious that every polynomial can be interpreted as an element of PF under the evaluation

homomorphism, and conversely. So they can be not isomorphic only considering tricks such as letting x 2 and

( x )

31.

a. 2

2

b. 2

2

be different functions in F F .

= 2

2

= 2 2 = 4 ; 3

3

= 3

3

= 33 = 27 .

, + 2 2 ; 3 3 , + 3 3 3 .

[] []

)(

) (

)(

f i x F x : a a1 a 2 ai 1 ai + 1 a F so that

92

[]

[] (

ai : f i x = 0

= ai : f i x = ai a1 ai a 2 ai ai 1 ai ai + 1 ai a F

fi x

F

Let f F x : a + i x i

(exists because F is a field), so

f i x i

)(

[]

ai F : fai = + j a j

[]

[]

[]

f [ x ]a

f j x ai

j

) (

= ai

)(

[]

f [ x ]a

f i x ai

i

= ai and f PF F F PF F F = PF .

1.

i

Let f [ x ] = + ni f i x i , g[ x ] = + m

i g i x F [ x] ;

f [x ]

r[x ]

= q[x ] +

g[ x]

g[ x ]

1.

x 2 + 2x 3

x 6 + 3x 5 + 4x 2 3x + 2 x 4 + x 3 + x 2 + x + 5

x 6 + 2x 5 3x 4

x 5 + 3x 4 + 4x 2 3x + 2

x 5 + 2x 4 3x 3

x 4 + 3x 3 + 4x 2 3x + 2

x 4 + 2x 3 3x 2

x 3 + 7x 2 3x + 2

x 3 + 2x 2 3x

5x 2 + 2

5x 2 + 10x 15

10x + 17 = 4x + 3

2.

3x 2 + 2x 3 x 6 + 3x 5 + 4x 2 3x + 2 5x 4 + 5x 2 + 6x

x 6 + 3x 5 + 6x 4

x 4 + 4x 2 3x + 2

x 4 + 3x 3 + 6x 2

4x 3 + 5x 2 3x + 2

4x 3 + 5x 2 + 3x

x +2

3.

2x + 1

x 5 2x 4 + 3x 5 6x 4 + 7x 3 + 2x 2 + 10x + 2

x 5 + 6x 4

3x 4 + 3x 5

3x 4 + 7x 3

4x 3 + 3x 5

4x 3 + 2x 2

9x 2 + 3x 5

9x 2 + 10x

4x 5

4x + 2

4

93

4.

5x 2 x + 2

x 4 + 5x 3 3x 2 9x 2 + 5x + 10

x 4 + 2x 3 + 7x 2

3x 3 + x 2

3x 3 + 6x 2 + 10x

6x 2 + x

6x 2 + x + 9

2

5.

2 = 5 2 0 = 1,2 1 = 2, 2 2 = 4, 2 3 = 3 = 5 , so 5 = 2 1 = 5 2 = 2 3 = 5 3 ; {2,3} .

6.

3 =7

7.

3 = 17

{

{3 = 1,3 = 3,3

{3 = 1,3 =

0

17

17

, so

17 = 3 1 = 17 3 , 3 3 = 17 10 , 3 5 = 17 5 , 3 7 = 17 11 , 3 9 = 17 14 , 3 11 = 17 7 , 3 13 = 17 12 , 3 15 = 17 6 ;

{3,10,5,11,14, 7,12, 6} .

8.

5 9 = 23 11,5 10 = 23 9,5 11 = 23 22,5 12 = 23 18,5 13 = 23 21,5 14 = 23 13,5 15 = 23 19,5 16 = 23 3,

*

, so 23 = 5 = 23 5 = 5 = 23 15 = 5 = 23 20 = 5 = 23 17 = 5 9 = 23 11

= 5 13 = 23 21 = 5 15 = 23 19 = 5 17 = 23 15 = 5 19 = 23 7 = 5 21 = 23 14

9.

10.

(

(

(

x4 + 4

= x3 + x 2 + x +1

x 1

x3 + x 2 + x +1

2 x 3 + x 2 + x + 1 = 5 3 + 4 + 2 + 1 = 5 0;

= x 2 + 3x + 2

x 2

x 2 + 3x + 2

3 x 2 + 3x + 2 = 5 4 + 4 + 2 = 5 0;

= x +1

x 3

x 4 + 4 =5 x 1 x 2 x 3 x 4

1 x 4 + 4 = 5 0;

(

(x

)(

)(

x 3 + 2x 2 + 2x + 1

= x2 + x +1

x +1

1 x 3 + 2x 2 + 2x + 1 = 7 1 + 2 = 2 + 1 = 7 0;

2

x + 2x + 2x + 1 = 7

x2 + x +1

= x +3

x 2

x +1 x 2 x + 3

+ x + 1 = 7 4 + 2 + 1 = 7 0;

11.

)(

)(

)(

2x 3 + 3x 2 7 x 5

= 2x 2 + 9x + 9

x 3

2x 2 + 9x + 9

= 2x + 3

x +3

3 2x 3 + 3x 2 7 x 5 = 11 1 + 5 + 1 5 = 11 0;

3 2x 2 + 9x + 9 = 11 18 27 + 9 = 11 0;

4 2x + 3 = 11 8 + 3 = 11 0;

2x 3 + 3x 2 7 x 5 = 11

2x + 3

=2

x 4

2 x 3 x +3 x 4

)(

)(

94

12.

(

(x

)

+ 2x + 1) = 1 2 + 1 =

x 3 + 2x + 3

= x 2 + 2x + 1

x 2

x 2 + 2x + 1

= x +1

x +1

2 x 3 + 2x + 3 = 5 3 + 4 + 3 = 5 0;

1

)(

)

(2, 2, 1, 1, 4) is irreducible.

x 3 + 2x + 3 = 5 x 2 x + 1

0;

2

13.

(0,, 4) 2x 3 + x 2 + 2x + 2 = 5

14.

If f x is reducible over , then by Theorem 10 it has a zero in , and by Corollary 12 it has a zero in that

[]

[] {

[]

divides 2, which should therefore be one of 1, 2 . But {1, 2} f x = 7, 9, 18, 16 . The roots of f x are

8 8 2 4 1 2

= 4

2 1

15.

16.

17.

[]

1

2

[]

irreducible over but reducible over .

By Corollary 12, if it is reducible over then it has a zero in that divides 8, which should therefore be one of

{1, 2, 4} .

) {

Likewise, it should have a zero that divides 1, which should therefore itself be 1. But

) {

18.

Yes for p = 3, a 2 = 1 3 0,

a1 = 3 0,

19.

Yes for p = 3, a3 = 8 3 0,

a 2 = 6 = 3 0,

20.

21.

22.

x 5 , 2 ,

6x + 17 x + 7 x 2 + x 10

x+

5

2

6x 3 + 2x 2 + 2x 4

x

23.

24.

25.

2

3

a0 = 12 3 2 0 .

a1 = 9 = 3 0,

a3 = 25 = 5 0,

a0 = 24 3 2 0 .

a 2 = 10 = 5 0,

a0 = 30 52 0 .

= 6x 3 + 2x 2 + 2x 4

= 6x 2 + 6x + 6

6x 2 + 6x + 6 = 0 x 2 + x + 1 = 0;

12 4 1 1 = 3 , so there are no other roots in .

nonconstant polynomial. Insert and g, h both of lower degree than f.

a. true (of degree 1, so both factors can't have degree less than 1)

b. true (same reason)

c. true (both roots are in \ )

d. false (because 2 is a zero, so by Theorem 10 is reducible)

e. true (The degree of a product of nonzero polynomials is always the sum of the degrees of the factors, so a nonzero

polynomial can only have an inverse if it is of degree 1. The zero polynomial has no inverse.)

()

f. ? (what is F x ?)

g. true (Corollary 3)

h. true (Corollary 3)

i. true

j. false (because of the zero polynomial; however, the book gives true)

26.

x + 2 is a factor if 2 is a zero, so

2 x 4 + x 3 + x 2 x + 1 = 0

4

{ }

0 , so p 2, 7 .

95

27.

x 2 + x + 1.

28.

x 3 + x 2 + 1,

29.

x2 +1

2x 2 + 2

x2 + x + 2

2x 2 + x + 1

2

x + 2x + 2 2x 2 + 2x + 1

30.

x 3 + 2x + 1

x 3 + 2x + 2

x3 + x 2 + 2

x3 + x 2 + x + 2

x 3 + x 2 + 2x + 1

x 3 + 2x 2 + 1

x 3 + 2x 2 + x + 1

x 3 + 2x 2 + 2x + 2

x 3 + x + 1.

2x 3 + x + 2

2x 3 + x + 1

2x 3 + 2x 2 + 1

2x 3 + 2x 2 + 2x + 1

2x 3 + 2x 2 + x + 2

2x 3 + x 2 + 2

2x 3 + x 2 + 2x + 2

2x 3 + x 2 + x + 1

31.

32.

By Euler's Theorem, x p 1 = p 1

33.

34.

35.

( )

a 0

a n 1 a + ni = 0 an i x i = a n + ni = 0 an i a i = + ni = 0 an i a n i = + ni = 0 ai a i = a ai x i = 0

( )

[ ] [ ]( ) [ ]

a. : [ x ] [ x ] : + a x a + a x . For any f [ x ] = + f x , g [ x ] = + g x

( f [ x ] g [ x ]) = ( + f x + g x ) = ( + + f g x ) = + ( + f g )x

1 a + ni = 0 an i x i = 0.

i

m i

i

j

ij

i

j

ij

[]

x :

= m + i + ij m f i g i j x i = m + i + ij m f i m g i j x i = + i m f i x i + i m g i x i = m + i f i x i m + i g i x i

[] []

b. f [ x ] [ x ] : deg f [ x ] = deg f [ x ] . Suppose f [ x ] = g [ x ] h [ x ], deg g [ x ], deg h [ x ] < deg f [ x ] .

Since is a homomorphism, g [ x ], h [ x ] [ x ] : g [ x ] = g [ x ], h [ x ] = h [ x ], so

f [x ] = g [x ] h [x ]

=

g [ x ]h [ x ] . Suppose f [ x ] is reducible in [ x ] and by Theorem 11 then in

[ x ] as f [ x ] = g [ x ] h [ x ] . Then f [ x ] = g [ x ]h [ x ] = g [ x ] h [ x ] would also be reducible in [ x ] (

= m f x m g x

homomorphism

c. Consider 3 x 3 + 17 x + 36 = x 3 + 2x = x x 2 + 2

1.

2.

3.

(2e + 3a + 0b ) + (4e + 2a + 3b ) = 1e + 0a + 3b .

(2e + 3a + 0b )(4e + 2a + 3b ) = (2 4 + 3 3 + 0 2)e + (2 2 + 3 4 + 0 3)a + (2 3 + 3 2 + 0 3)b = 2e + 1a + 2b .

(3e + 3a + 3b ) = (3 3 + 3 3 + 3 3)e +a +b = 2e + 2a + 2b

(3e + 3a + 3b ) = (2e + 2a + 2b ) = (2 2 + 2 2 + 2 2)e +a +b = 2e + 2a + 2b .

(i + 3 j )(4 + 2 j k ) = (0 4 1 0 3 2 0 1) + (0 0 + 1 4 + 3 1 0 2)i

+(0 2 1 1 + 3 4 + 0 0) j + (0 1 + 1 2 3 0 + 0 4)k = 6 + 1i + 13 j + 2k

2

4.

96

5.

6.

7.

( )

( )

(i + j ) = i i + i j + j i + j j = 1 + k k 1 = 2 (i + j ) = i +1 j ii ++ jj = i +2j = (i + j ) .

(1 + 3i )(4 j + 3k ) = 1 4 j + 1 3k + 3i 4 j + 3i 3k = 4 j + 3k + 12k 9 j = 5j + 15k = 5( j + 3k )

( j + 5k ) = j j j 3k + 3k j + 3k 3k = 1 3i + 3i 9 = 10

1

1

j + 3k

j + 3k

((1 + 3i )(3 j + 3k )) =

=

=

= ( j 3k )

j + 3k j + 3k

10

5( j + 5k )

1

1

2

8.

1

5

1

50

(0 + 1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 1 )(1 + 1 + 0 + 1 + 0 + 1 )

= (0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 ) + (1 + 1 + 0 + 1 + 0 + 1 ) + (0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 )

+(0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 ) + (1 + 1 + 0 + 1 + 0 + 1 ) + (1 + 1 + 0 + 1 + 0 + 1 )

0

9.

1

5

= 10 + 11 + 0 2 + 11 + 0 2 + 13

is commutative, so Z = . Now consider

\ , that is all the quaternions that are nonzero in at least one

of i, j, or k. Considering just these three components, we can show that they form a group isomorphic with 3

under vector cross product: g , h

\ :

( ) ((

)(

))

= (( g h 1 + g h k g h j ) + ( g h k g h 1 + g h i ) + ( g h j g h i g h 1))

= (()1 + ( g h g h )i + ( g h + g h ) j + ( g h g h )k )

= [g h g h

g h gh

gh g h ]

= [g

g

g ] [h h h ]

gh = g i i g j j g k k h i i h j j h k k

i i

i k

j k

j k

k i

j i

i k

i k

j k

k i

k i

k k

j i

j i

= g h

This shows that for any g

\ we can find an h which is noncolinear under its vector interpretation. Since

gi

gj

] [

g k , g 1 hi

hj

h k will not

commute. So Z

\ = E , and Z

* = * .

10.

Let

1 j ,

1k

such that

1 j =

hi , hk = 0 h 11 + h i i

+ h j j + h k k and

1k =

hi , hj = 0 h 11 + h i i

+ h j j + h k k . In the

following, consider j, k as quaternions but let i be the complex root of 1. Show that the field of complex numbers

is isomorphic to one of these subsets of the quaternions under a simple projection

1 j :

1 j : h 11 + 0i

+ h j j + 0k a h 1 + h j i . Then g , h : g = g 1 + g i i , h = h 1 + h i i :

1j

(h + h i )

= ( g 1 + 0i + g j + 0k ) + (h 1 + 0i + h j + 0k )

= (( g + h )1 + 0i + ( g + h ) j + 0k )

=

(( g + h ) + ( g + h )i ) = ( g + h )

h =

( g + g i ) (h + h i )

= ( g 1 + 0 g + g j + 0 g ) (h 1 + 0h + h j + 0h )

= ( g h 1 + g h j + g h j g h 1)

= (( g h g h )1 + 0i + ( g h + g h ) j + 0k )

=

(( g h g h ) + ( g h + g h )i ) = ( g h )

g + 1j h = 1j

(g

+ g i i + 1j

1j

1j

g 1j

1j

1

1 1

1 1

1j

1j

1 i

i 1

i i

i i

1 i

i 1

1 i

i 1

1j

1 1

i i

1j

97

so 1 j

= 0 and 1 j =

1 j , so it is an isomorphism and

1j . Similarly,

1k . Obviously

1 j

1k .

11.

b. false (for A M 2 2 to have an inverse, A 0)

c. false ( EndE has only one element and can therefore not have a nonzero multiplicative identity)

d. false ( End has nonzero multiplicative identity)

e. false (isomorphisms under addition are generally not again isomorphisms, e.g. f : : x a x , f f = 0 )

f. false ( R , + as a group ring has elements that are formal sums that can't be combined under + and is therefore

infinite-dimensional)

R is commutative)

h. false (

is not commutative)

i. true (

* is associative by the definition of a ring, generates inverses because the field of quaternions is strictly skew

by Theorem 9, and thus commutative with multiplicative identity 1 by definition; and thus meets all of the

requirements for a group)

j. false (

is a field)

12.

a. In

, x 2 + 1 = 0 has solutions i 2 + 1 = 0, j 2 + 1 = 0, k 2 + 1 = 0 .

b. Consider the multiplicative subgroup of

. This is indeed a group because it is associative by definition of a ring,

and each element has an inverse because it is strictly skew. None of the elements of this group are generators:

(1)

13.

( ) = 1, (k ) = 1.

End : (m , n) = (m + n, 0) , and let End : (m , n) = (m , m ) .

( )(m , n) = ( (m , n)) = (m , m ) = m + (m ) = 0, so is a left divisor also.

14.

Since F is a field, 0, 1 F . An element of M 2 F has a multiplicative inverse iff its determinant is nonzero, which

15.

1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1

includes

,

,

,

,

,

.

0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1

Characterize all the endomorphisms of . First, 0 = 0 . Second, let 1 = n , then i = n i and this fully

( )

= 1, i

= 1, j

Then

determines . So n , n are all the endomorphisms. Also, if n * then n is an automorphism. Now consider

the map : End : n a n . Then n , m End and i :

( )

)i = ( i ) = (m i ) = (n m ) i =

n i + m i = n i + m i = n + m i = n + m i

n m

17.

n m = n m n m = n m = n m = n m .

n m i

so is a homomorphism. Furthermore, n * :

and bijective, so is an isomorphism.

16.

n + m = n + m n + m = n + m = n + m = n + m .

[]

+ i ai x i F x :

i

= Y X + i ai x i X Y + i ai x i

= Y + i ai x

( )

i +1

) X (+ ia x )

i

i 1

= + i i + 1 ai x i + i iai x i = + i ai x i

so YX XY = 1.

18.

{}

If G = E = e , then by definition RE =

re R re e

}.

Let : RE R : re e a re , then re , r e RE :

98

) ((

))

( ) ( )

) (( ) )

( ) ( )

re + r e = r + r e = r + r = re + r e and re r e = rr e = rr = re r e ,

so is a homomorphism. Since r R :

( )

rg = r = 0R

RE R .

a , b , c

:

19.

{ }

rg = 0RG we have that Ker = 0RG so is injective and bijective, so is an isomorphism and

a = a11 + ai i + a j j + ak k , b = , c = :

(a b )c = (a 11 + a i i + a j j + a k k ) (b11 + bi i + b j j + bk k ) (c 11 + c i i + c j j + c k k )

= (a 1b 1 )1 + (a 1b i )i + (a 1b j ) j + (a 1b k )k + (a i b 1 )i (a i b i )1 + (a i b j )k (a i b k ) j

+(a j b 1 ) j (a j b i )k (a j b j )1 + (a j b k )i + (a k b 1 )k + (a k b i ) j (a k b j )i (a k b k )1 (c 11 + c i i + c j j + c k k )

) (

) (

) (

) (

)

(

) (

) (

) (

)

+(a 1b i + a i b 1 + a j b k a k b j )c 1i (a 1b i + a i b 1 + a j b k a k b j )c i 1 + (a 1b i + a i b 1 + a j b k a k b j )c j k (a 1b i + a i b 1 + a j b k a k b j )c k j

+(a 1b j a i b k + a j b 1 + a k b i )c 1 j (a 1b j a i b k + a j b 1 + a k b i )c i k (a 1b j a i b k + a j b 1 + a k b i )c j 1 + (a 1b j a i b k + a j b 1 + a k b i )c k i

+(a 1b k + a i b j a j b i + a k b 1 )c 1k + (a 1b k + a i b j a j b i + a k b 1 )c i j (a 1b k + a i b j a j b i + a k b 1 )c j i (a 1b k + a i b j a j b i + a k b 1 )c k 1

= (a 1b 1c 1 a i b i c 1 a j b j c 1 a k b k c 1 a 1b i c i a i b 1c i a j b k c i + a k b j c i a 1b j c j + a i b k c j a j b 1c j a k b i c j a 1b k c k a i b j c k + a j b i c k a k b 1c k )1

+(a 1b 1c i a i b i c i a j b j c i a k b k c i + a 1b i c 1 + a i b 1c 1 + a j b k c 1 a k b j c 1 + a 1b j c k a i b k c k + a j b 1c k + a k b i c k a 1b k c j a i b j c j + a j b i c j a k b 1c j )i

+(a 1b 1c j a i b i c j a j b j c j a k b k c j a 1b i c k a i b 1c k a j b k c k + a k b j c k + a 1b j c 1 a i b k c 1 + a j b 1c 1 + a k b i c 1 + a 1b k c i + a i b j c i a j b i c i + a k b 1c i ) j

+(a 1b 1c k a i b i c k a j b j c k a k b k c k + a 1b i c j + a i b 1c j + a j b k c j a k b j c j a 1b j c i + a i b k c i a j b 1c i a k b i c i + a 1b k c 1 + a i b j c 1 a j b i c 1 + a k b 1c 1 )k

= a 1 (b 1c 1 b i c i b j c j b k c k )1 + a i ( b i c i + b 1c 1 b k c k b j c j )i + a j ( b j c j b k c k + b 1c 1 b i c i ) j + a k ( b k c k b j c j b i c i + b 1c 1 )k

+a 1 (b 1c i + b i c 1 + b j c k b k c j )i a i (b i c 1 + b 1c i b k c j + b j c k )1 a j (b j c k b k c j + b 1c i + b i c 1 )k + a k ( b k c j + b j c k + b i c 1 + b 1c i ) j

+a 1 (b 1c j b i c k + b j c 1 + b k c i ) j + a i ( b i c k + b 1c j + b k c i + b j c 1 )k a j (b j c 1 + b k c i + b 1c j b i c k )1 a k (b k c i + b j c 1 b i c k + b 1c j )i

+a 1 (b 1c k + b i c j b j c i + b k c 1 )k a i (b i c j + b 1c k + b k c 1 b j c i ) j + a j ( b j c i + b k c 1 + b 1c k + b i c j )i a k (b k c 1 b j c i + b i c j + b 1c k )1

= (a 11 + a i i + a j j + a k k ) (b 1c 1 b i c i b j c j b k c k )1 + (b 1c i + b i c 1 + b j c k b k c j )i + (b 1c j b i c k + b j c 1 + b k c i ) j + (b 1c k + b i c j b j c i + b k c 1 )k

(b c )1 + (b c )i + b c j + (b c )k + (b c )i (b c )1 + b c k (b c ) j

= (a 11 + a i i + a j j + a k k )

( 1 j) 1 k 1 1 i i ( i j) i k

1i

11

+(b j c i ) j (b j c i )k (b j c j )1 + (b j c k )i + (b k c 1 )k + (b k c i ) j (b k c j )i (b k c k )1

= (a 11 + a i i + a j j + a k k ) (b 11 + b i i + b j j + b k k ) (c 11 + c i i + c j j + c k k ) = a (b c )

= a 1b 1 a i b i a j b j a k b k 1 + a 1b i + a i b 1 + a j b k a k b j i + a 1b j a i b k + a j b i + a k b i j + a 1b k + a i b j a j b i + a k b 1 k c 11 + c i i + c j j + c k k

= a 1b 1 a i b i a j b j a k b k c 11 + a 1b 1 a i b i a j b j a k b k c i i + a 1b 1 a i b i a j b j a k b k c j j + a 1b 1 a i b i a j b j a k b k c k k

x 2 x 1 Phigh

1.

x a Phigh

2.

x i x i + 1 Plow

3.

n + m 2 P

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

i. a c d e b

i. a c e d b

i. c a b e d

i. d a b c e

i. e a c b d

i. c a e d b

bdace

a:

a < x;

inv

n + m 2 P

n m 2 P

n m 2 > 0

n > 0 m < 0

n > 0 2m 2 < n 2 .

2

2

m > 0 n < 2m

ii. d b a e c

ii. e c b a d

ii. e c a b d

ii. d c e a b

ii. c d a e b

ii. e c b a d

1

x2

1

x

= 1 + x + x 2 + ; b:

= x 2 x 3 + x 4 + ; c:

= x 1 + 1 + x + ; d:

= x + x 3 x 5 + ;

2

2

1 x

1+ x

x x

1+ x

99

e:

12.

13.

14.

a:

3 2x

4x + x 3

5 7x

3

4

x 1

1

2

+ . d b a e c.

= 5x 2 22x 1 + ; b:

2 + 4x

7 + 2x

= 1 + 5 x + ; c:

=

2

8

4 3x

4 3x

x 2 + 3x 3

3 5x

e:

= 1 + 4 x + . a b e c d.

2

6

6 + 2x

1 x

3 5x

1

a:

= 1 10 x + ; c:

=

= 1 2x + ; b:

3

1+ x

3 + 5x

4x + x 2

4x + x 2

e:

= 4x + 5x 2 + . d e b a c.

1 x

1

4

x 1

1

16

2 is

7

4

+ ; d:

1

3x + x

9

2

+ ;

= 1 x 1 1 + ;

3

ordering from the field of real numbers. By Theorem 10, a subfield of containing

15.

9 3x 2

=

2 + 6x

+ ; d:

1 + i 3

has an ordering

2

a. true (discussion after Example 2)

b. true (id.)

c. false (?)

d. true

e. true (both Plow and Phigh )

f. false (even in , if a < 0 there is no such n)

g. true (if b 0 it's always true; if b > 0 it's a restatement of Definition 7)

( )

h. false ( 1 is positive)

16.

17.

j. true (Theorem 3)

With the ordering Phigh , q : q < .

m , n, m , n : m + n 2 , m + n 2 2 :

m + n 2 + m + n 2 = m + m + n + n

) ( )

= (m + m ) (n + n ) 2

= m n 2 + m n 2

= m + n 2 + m + n 2

) (

)

= (mm + 2nn ) (mn + m n) 2

m + n 2 m + n 2 = mm + 2nn + mn + m n

= m n 2 m n 2

= m + n 2 m + n 2

Theorem 5

18.

19.

a P

a 0 P

Lemma: a , c P ; b R;

0 < a.

Definition 1

b P : a b P

c P

ab = c : b P : a b P ab P c P (contradiction)

b = 0 :

a b = 0 P c P (contradiction)

b P .

100

c =0

ac = 0

b P b 0

bd = 0

d = 0.

Lemma

c P

ac P

bd P

( )

c P

a<b

b a P

21.

a < 0 0 a P

0 < b b 0 P

b b 1 = 1; b , 1 P

23.

a < 1 1 a P

( ) b ( d ) P

( a ) ( b ) P b < a .

ac P

bd P

a P

ab P

b P

Lemma

from Ex.19

22.

cd P .

Lemma

( )

( b ) a P

a c P

20.

d P

b 1 P ;

0 ab P

a b = ab 1

0<a

24.

a 0 = a P

1 < a

( )

0 a = a P

( )(a + 1) P

a

25.

( )

a + 1 P

a<0

a 1

a a a

ab < 0.

c d = c d P .

Definition 1

1

a 1 a P

1

a P

Lemma

d P

= 1 a 1 P

a 1 P

1< a

a 1 < 1 1 a < 1

) ( )

( )

(trichotomy) a R : a R : a = a . Because P is positive:

a P

a = a P

a P a = a = a P

a =

a = a = 0

0

a , b R : a , b R : a = a , b = b :

( )

a<b

26.

b a P

b a = b a = b a P

a < b .

(closure) a , b S : a , b P :

ring

a +b S

Definition 1

a +b

ring

a b S

27.

b a P

a + b P S

Definition 1

a b

a b P S

(trichotomy) a S :

a P a P S

group

a R a P a S a P S

a = 0

Let P be such that p P if and only if 0 < p . Show that P is a well-defined set of positive numbers:

(closure) a , b P :

isotonicity

0 < a, b

transitivity

b <a +b

0<b <a +b

0<a +b

isotonicity

0 < a, b

a + b P

transitivity

a 0 < a b

a < ab

0 < a < ab

0 < ab

ab P

101

(trichotomy) a P :

0 a P

a < 0

a = 0 a = 0

a = 0 P

0 < a

Now a , b R :

28.

For all a, b:

a = b

a b = 0

a = b

a + b = 0

a b 0

a + b 0

a b

a b

so a 2 = b 2

29.

a<b

a P

a = 0

a P

0<b a

)(

a2 = b2

)(

a2 b2

a + b a b = a2 b2 = 0

a + b a b = a2 b2 0

a = b . So a 2n + 1 = b 2n + 1

[ ][ ]

b a P

( ) ( )

n

a2 a = b2 b

x 1y 1

y 1

x 1

x 1y

1

y

a =b.

xy 1

x :

xy

Rx y

low

low

low

high

high

low

high

high

low

low

low

high

high

low

high

high

[ ][ ]

Ry x

1.

The concepts of normal and ideal didn't accidentally result in factor groups and rings their requirements were

defined precisely so that the resulting groups and rings would be well-defined:

N a normal group: g G : g + N = N + g (Definition 3.1.19)

N an ideal ring: r R : r + N N , N + r N (Definition 6.1.10)

A ring endomorphism of by Theorem 3 has to have 0 = 0 , and 1 = 1 iff R has unity 1 1 or else 1 = 0 . So

( ) ( )

0, 0 = 0, 0 and:

102

( ) ( )

(1, 0) = (1, 0)

(1, 0) = (0, 1)

(1, 0) = (0, 1)

(1, 0) = (1, 1)

(1, 0) = (0, 0)

(1, 0) = (0, 0)

(1, 0) = (0, 0)

(1, 0) = (0, 0)

( ) ( )

(0, 1) = (0, 0)

(0, 1) = (1, 0)

(0, 1) = (0, 0)

(0, 1) = (0, 0)

(0, 1) = (0, 1)

(0, 1) = (1, 0)

(0, 1) = (1, 1)

(0, 1) = (0, 0)

1, 0 = 1, 0

0, 1 = 0, 1

2.

For all even n there is a n m n m = 2 , whereas for all odd n there is no element i such that i 2 = 0 and so

= H or a subring isomorphic to 2 .

3.

121 12

12 121 12

6 2 12

12 6 2 6

43 12

12 43 4

3 4 12

12 3 4 3

26 12

12 26 2

112 12

12 112 1

4.

2 = , 4, 2, 0, 2, 4, ,

8 = , 16, 8, 0, 8, 16, ;

0 + 8

2 + 8

4 + 8

6 + 8

0 + 8 0 + 8

2 + 8

4 + 8

2 + 8 2 + 8

4 + 8

4 + 8 4 + 8

6 + 8 6 + 8

0 + 8

2 + 8

4 + 8

6 + 8

6 + 8

0 + 8 0 + 8

0 + 8

0 + 8

0 + 8

6 + 8

0 + 8

2 + 8 0 + 8

4 + 8

0 + 8

4 + 8

6 + 8

0 + 8

2 + 8

4 + 8 0 + 8

0 + 8

0 + 8

0 + 8

0 + 8

2 + 8

4 + 8

6 + 8 0 + 8

4 + 8

0 + 8

4 + 8

5.

6.

Insert is a ring homomorphism.

Change additive subgroup to subring.

7.

Change to r R r = 0 .

8.

isomorphism. The subring C of Example 12 is the kernel of . If would have been an homomorphism, then C

would have been an ideal in F.

9.

( )

( ) ( )

( )

( )( ) ( ) ( )

multiplicative identity of .

10. a. true (Theorem 17)

b. false (cf. last paragraph of the section)

c. true (Corollary 6)

d. false ( q : q 2 )

e. true (Definition 10)

f. false (Example 12)

g. true (because multiplication is defined by means of multiplication of representatives, which is commutative)

103

11.

12.

13.

14.

h. true (Example 8)

i. true (Obviously, if N = R then 1 N . Conversely, if 1 N then r R : r = r 1 N

j. true

No. (See discussion after Example 2.4)

See Example 2.1.

See Example 2.4.

See Example 2.2.

(1, 1)

15.

16.

( )( ) ( ) ( )

, but from 1, 0 1, 1 = 1, 0 1, 1

R=N)

is not ideal.

a. Because the expression rs = sr is a statement about the ring R and not about the quotient ring.

)(

) (

)(

c. Suppose R N is commutative. r , s R :

(r + N )(s + N ) = (s + N )(r + N )

so nr , ns , nr , ns N :

)(

) (

)(

)(

) (

)(

r + N s + N s + N r + N = 0R N = N ,

n N :

) (

) (

rs sr = n (rn + n s + n n ) + ( sn + n r + n n ) N

r + nr s + ns s + ns r + nr = rs + rns + nr s + nr ns sr + snr + ns r + ns nr = n

s

s r

r

so

r + N s + N s + N r + N = N = 0R N

)(

) (

)(

and R N is commutative.

17.

a , a

rs sr N . Then nr , ns , nr , ns N :

) (

+ nr s + nr ns snr + ns r + ns nr N

)(

) (

)(

r +N s +N = s +N r +N

inverse follow fairly obviously and directly from those properties in , so R is a group. Multiplicative closure and

additive commutativity are similarly obvious. Additive associativity follows from a , a , b , b , c , c :

a + a 2 b + b 2 c + c 2 = ab + 2a b + ab + a b 2 c + c 2

) (

) (

) (

= a + a 2 bc + 2b c + bc + b c

= a + a 2 b + b 2 c + c 2

a + a 2 b + b 2 + c + c 2 = a + a 2 b + c + b + c 2

) (

= a b + c + b + c

) (

) (

2 + a 2 b + c + b + c

= a + a 2 b + b 2 + a + a 2 c + c 2

a 2a

Right distributivity follows similarly. Therefore R is a ring. Now, showing that R = a , a

is a ring.

a a

Again, additive associativity, additive identity, and the additive inverse follow fairly directly from their corresponding

properties in M 2 and , so R is a group. Additive closure follows from a , a , b , b :

(

(

) (

) (

2 a + b

a 2a b 2b a + b

+

=

a +b

a a b b a + b

and multiplicative closure a , a , b , b :

) R

104

(

(

) (

) (

)

)

a 2a b 2b ab + 2a b 2ab + 2a b ab + 2a b 2 a b + ab

R .

=

=

2a b + ab a b + ab

ab + 2a b

a a b b a b + ab

Additive commutativity is again similarly obvious, and although multiplicative associativity follows directly from

M 2 and , it is derived in analogy to the additive property: a , a , b , b , c , c :

a 2a b 2b c 2c a 2a bc + 2b c 2bc + 2b c

2b c + bc

a a b b c c a a b c + bc

a bc + 2b c + 2a b c + bc a 2bc + 2b c + 2a 2b c + bc

=

a bc + 2b c + a b c + bc

a 2bc + 2b c + a 2b c + bc

=

2a bc + 2a b c + 2ab c + abc

a bc + 2a b c + ab c + abc

(

) (

) (

) (

) (

) (

) (

)

)

(

) (

)

)

(

(

ab + 2a b c + 2a b + 2ab c 2a b + ab 2c + 2ab + 2a b c

=

a b + ab c + ab + 2a b c

ab + a b 2c + 2a b + ab c

ab + 2a b 2ab + 2a b c 2c

=

2a b + ab c c

a b + ab

a 2a b 2b c 2c

=

a a b b c c

a 2a

Distributivity follows directly from M 2 , so R is a ring. Let : R R : a + a 2 a

. Then:

a a

(additive homomorphy) a , a , b , b :

a + a 2 + b + b 2 = a + b + a + b 2

( ) ( )

(a + b ) 2(a + b ) a

=

=

(a + b ) (a + b ) a

2a b 2b

+

a b b

= a + a 2 + b + b 2

(multiplicative homomorphy) a , a , b , b :

a + a 2 b + b 2 = ab + 2a b + ab + a b

) (

) 2

(ab + 2a b ) 2(ab + a b ) a

=

=

(ab + a b ) (ab + 2a b ) a

2a b 2b

a b b

= a + a 2 b + b 2

(isomorphy) a , a : a + a 2 = 0R

18.

19.

a, a = 0

Ker = 0R

Following Theorem 2.5, if N R is ideal and contains any nonzero element of R, it contains a unit and therefore

unity, and then N = R . So a field contains no proper nontrivial ideals, and by the Fundamental Homomorphism

Theorem any field homomorphism is either trivial or identity.

Exercise 3.1.49 already shows that is a group homomorphism. g , h R :

( ) ( ( ))

gh = gh

20.

a 2a 0 0

a a 0 0

homomorphism

g h

homomorphism

g h .

a , b R :

105

) (

a +b = a +b

p

p!

= +0i p a p i b i = +0i p

a p i b i

i

p i ! i!

( )

( )

p 1 ! p i i

p! p 0

p! 0 p

a b + +0 <i <p p

a b +

a b

0! p!

p! 0!

p i ! i!

= a p + +0 <i <p 0 + b p = a p + b p

The middle terms vanish because p is the characteristic of the ring.

( ) ( )

ab = ab

commutative

a p b p = a b .

21.

22.

divisors of zero. Consequently, if R has no divisors of zero, then 1 = 1. (Due to Doug Rosenberg)

a. a R, n N : a R, n N : a = a , n = n :

an N

( )

an N

a n N

a n N

Similarly, N a N , so N < R .

( )

a N N .

n

c. If N < R , then also N R < R , so we only need to consider the case of N < R . Consider the isomorphism

: R N R from the Fundamental Homomorphism Theorem. By isomorphism invN < inv R R M , so any

element r + M R M multiplied by invN is again in invN . Then obviously any element r R multiplied by

[ x ] : s S :

( )

s fg = s f s g = 0 s g = 0

[ x ].

23.

f N S , g F

24.

By Exercise 18, any homomorphism from a field is either an isomorphism or trivial. Since every ideal subring gives

rise to a homomorphism, the only ideals of a field are the field itself or the trivial field, so the only factor rings of a

field are trivial or the field itself.

If N R then R N E has more than one element. Since R has multiplicative identity, 1 multiplies any such

element to itself, and since in the factor ring multiplication happens by representatives, 1 must be a representative of

a multiplicative identity in the factor ring.

25.

NS < F

commutative

26.

a R : I a =

27.

Any element multiplied by either ideal is again that same ideal, so the subset must multiply to itself:

r R, n N N : n N n N rn N rn N rn N N .

Lemma. A ring homomorphism/isomorphism induces a ring homomorphism/isomorphism on any of its quotient

rings. Let R, R be rings, N < R , and : R R. By Exercise 22a, N < R . Let , be the canonical

28.

x R

x ax = 0 . So x I a , r R : a rx

fg N S

r ax = r 0 = 0

rx I a , and I a < R .

29.

isomorphism.

Back to the Exercise. : R R induces a homomorphism * : R N R N . Because N < R , under the

N

R

<

so there exists a canonical homomorphism

canonical homomorphism : R R N , N < R

N N

R

R N R

* :

N

N N N

* = * o * : R N R N is a ring homomorphism.

Suppose there is a unit of R in the kernel of , then 0 would have a multiplicative inverse in R , but then the

multiplicative identity in R would be 0 , which is counter to the definition of unity of Definition 1.16 and u

cannot therefore have a multiplicative inverse in R . Conversely, suppose no unit of R is in the kernel of . Since

106

( )

( )

30.

Let A be the set of all nilpotent elements of R. First, A is a subring because 0 is obviously nilpotent and

a , b A : n, m + : a n = 0, b m = 0:

n + m (n + m ) i i

= +0i n +m

b . Since the sum of the powers of a and b in

a

i

each of the terms is always n + m , either the power of a is at least n or that of b is at least m, so that the terms all

vanish and a + b is nilpotent.

( )

(multiplicative closure) ab

n +m

n +m

commutative

a n + mb n + m = a n a mb n b m = 0a m + b n 0 = 0 , so ab is nilpotent.

( )

Then a A, r R : n + : a n = 0, so ar

31.

commutative

The elements in the nilradical of n are those that contain all the prime factors of n:

{ }

12 : 12 = 2 23 has 0, 6

{

has {0}

32 : 32 = 2 has 0, 2, 4, , 30

32.

Obviously, 0 + N is nilpotent in R N . Since multiplication in the factor ring occurs by representatives in N, and no

elements in R \ N are nilpotent, it is also the only nilpotent element of R N .

33.

Let r R . Since the nilradical of R N is itself, there is an rN such that r rN + N and rN nilpotent, and there is

an n N such that r = rN + n and n nilpotent. By the proof of additive closure of nilpotents in a commutative ring

in Exercise 30, r is also nilpotent. Therefore R is its own nilradical.

34.

(identity) Since N is an ideal and a subring, 0 N and because 0 = 0 , 0 N .

n + m (n + m ) i i

= +0i n +m

b . Since the sum of the powers of a and b in

a

i

each of the terms is always n + m , either the power of a is at least n or that of b is at least m, so each of the terms is

of the form a j a n b k b m = a j na b k nb

n +m

commutative

of the ideal, a j b k nab N so each of the terms is as well. Because the ideal is a subring and closed under addition,

the entire sum is in the ideal.

( )

(multiplicative closure) ab

n +m

= a n + mb n + m = a n a m + b n b m = na a m + b n nb , where na , nb N . Similarly,

So

35.

a. < ;

b. 2 < ,

36.

( )

N is a subring. n N : i + : ni = nn N . Then r R: rn

commutative

r i ni = r i nn N , so

N <N.

i , i .

2 = 2 .

The radical of N is the set of all the elements that by some power end up in N. The nilradical of R N is the cosets

of N that by some power equal the coset 0 + N . So

element of the nilradical of R N .

107

37.

M +N

M +N

N

M

M

M N

M N

(identity) 0 = 0 + 0 M + N ;

) (

) (

) (

(additive closure) m + n + m + n = m + m + n + n M + N ;

)(

where m m , m n , m mn M , nm , nn , nmn N .

m r M , nr N .

Now, follow the proof of Theorem 4.1.5. Let : R R N be the canonical homomorphism. Under , then,

M R

Ker

M +N

M

M .

N M

: M + N M + N . Now n N : n = N = 1R N , so M + N = M and

: M + N M with Ker

M +N

M +N

M +N

M . Therefore,

N

M

M +N

.

N M

N

38.

RM

: r a r + M + N M . First, show that is a ring

N M

homomorphism. a , b R :

) ((

((

) (

(multiplication) ab = ab + M +

((

)(

))

(*)

(*)

N

N

N

N

= a +M + b +M +

= a + M + + b + M + = a + b , where

M

M

M

M

(*) holds because coset addition in a ring is well-defined.

(addition) a + b = a + b + M +

))

N

N

N

N

= a +M b +M +

= a + M + b + M + = a b , where

M

M

M

M

(*) holds because coset multiplication in a ring is well-defined.

N

RM

The identity element in

and Ker = N , so by the Fundamental Homomorphism Theorem

is 0 + M +

M

N M

R RM

.

N N M

( ) (

39.

a a'

Show that : M 2 : a + a i a

is an isomorphism. a + a i , b + b i :

a a

(addition)

108

a +b

a + b a a b b

a + a i + b + b i = a + b + a + b i =

=

+

= a + a i + b + b i

a b a + b a a b b

(multiplication)

a + a i b + b i = ab a b + ab + a b i

((

) (

)) ((

((

)(

)) ((

))

) (

ab a b ab + a b a a b b

=

=

= a + a i b + b i

ab a b ab a b a a b b

))

) (

40.

) (

) (

ring

a. x , y R, + : a x + y = a x + y = ax + ay = a x + b x .

b. Show that it is a ring: a , b R :

(identity) 1 : R R : x a 1 x = x is the identity of End R, + ;

(additive closure): x R :

(multiplicative closure) x R :

+ b x = a x + b x = a x + b x = a + b x = a + b x , so a + b = a + b R ;

( )

( )

( ) ( )

b x = a b x = a b x = a b x = a b x = a b x so a b = a b R .

c. Let : R R : a a a . a , b R :

(b.)

(addition) a + b = a + b = a + b = a + b ;

(b.)

( )

(multiplication) a b = a b = a b = a b ;

{}

So R R . a is a permutation, and every ring R is thus isomorphic to a ring of permutations.

9

As a proof of concept, restate Theorem 9 in a format that shows the hierarchial top-down structure of the proof.

This is truer to the 1 1 2 -dimensional nature of a proof than the flattened linear text, and more consistent than the

alternating bidirectional imply/infer logic of the text stream. Because it obviates mentally reconstructing the true

structure of the proof and permits the reader to selectively ignore details of the proof, it should theoretically be

easier to understand.

M is a maximal ideal of R R M is a field

( R M is a field M is a maximal ideal) (

R M is a commutative ring with unity (

R is a commutative ring with unity

)

R M has multiplicative inverses (

Let a R : N a =

r R, m M

ra + m .

N a is closed (

) (

) (

) (

ra + m , r a + m N a : ra + m + r a + m = r + r a + m + m N a

)

N a has identity (

) (

) (

) (

ra + m : 0a + 0 + ra + m = 0 + r a + 0 + m = ra + m

)

N a has inverses (

ra + m N a :

((r )a + (m )) + (ra + m ) = (r + r )a + (m + m ) = 0a + 0 = 0

Na

)

),

109

Na < R (

ra + m N a :

) ( )

g R : g ra + m = gr a + gm N a (

gr R ,

gm R (

M <R

)

)

),

Na = R (

Na M (

Na M (

m M : m = 0a + m N a

)

Na M (

a N a (

a = 1a + 0 N a

)

a M (

a + M 0R M

)

)

)

M maximal

)

1 N a

ba + m N a : ba + m = 1

)(

ba + M = b + M a + M = 1 + M

)

)

(M is a maximal ideal R M is a field) (

Suppose M is not maximal: N < R : R N M

R M is not a field (

R M contains a proper nontrivial ideal (

Let : R R M be the canonical homomorphism:

N <R

N < R = R M

R M N 0 + M

)

)

)

We can compact the presentation with a few simple heuristics. Roughly, let or be implied between two

lines at the same indentation level, and at increasing indentation:

M is a maximal ideal of R R M is a field

( R M is a field M is a maximal ideal)

R M is a commutative ring with unity

R is a commutative ring with unity

R M has multiplicative inverses

Let a R : N a =

r R, m M

ra + m .

110

) (

) ( ) (

)

identity: ra + m : (0a + 0) + (ra + m ) = (0 + r )a + (0 + m ) = ra + m

inverses: ra + m N : (( r )a + ( m )) + (ra + m ) = ( r + r )a + ( m + m ) = 0a + 0 = 0

closed: ra + m , r a + m N a : ra + m + r a + m = r + r a + m + m N a

Na < R

Na

) ( )

ra + m N a : g R : g ra + m = gr a + gm N a

gr R , gm R M < R

Na = R

Na M

Na M

m M : m = 0a + m N a

Na M

a N a a = 1a + 0 N a

a M a + M 0R M

M maximal

ba + m N a :

1 N a

)(

ba + m = 1

ba + M = b + M a + M = 1 + M

(M is a maximal ideal R M is a field)

Suppose M is not maximal: N < R : R N M

R M is not a field

R M contains a proper nontrivial ideal

Let : R R M be the canonical homomorphism:

N <R

11

N < R = R M

R M N 0 + M

R is a field R has no proper nontrivial ideals

Corollary 6

R is a field R has no proper nontrivial ideals

Theorem 9

R R E is a field

15

N is prime ab N

a N b N , so a prime ideal is such that the corresponding factor ring has no divisors

16 Maximal and prime in factor rings correspond to field and integral domain.

18 Let : R be the homomorphism from Theorem 17.

char R > 1

Ker = n

Ker <

N < s : N = s

n is the smallest integer such that n 1 = 0 Theorem 5.2.15

n n

char R = 0

Ker = E

m * : m 1 0

E

24

char R = 0

[]

(N principal

[ ])

N <F x

111

{} [ ]

N principal N = E = 0 F x

N principal N E

Let g N be of minimal degree.

(deg g = 0

[ ])

N = 1F x

Theorem 5

deg g = 0

(deg g > 0

25

[]

g F

[ ])

[]

[]

N = F x = 1F x

N = gF x

f N

f = gq + r where r = 0 deg r < deg g Theorem 5.6.1

r =0

r N

gq N

f N

g N gq N gq + r N

g N is of minimal degree deg g > 0

f = gq

[]

[]

f , g F x : p = fg

[]

[]

f pF x g pF x

[]

[]

pF x maximal

pF x prime

[]

p pF x

[]

[]

g N : N = gF [ x ]

[]

Let N < F x : F x N pF x

Theorem 24

N principal

[]

q F x : p = gq

p N

[]

p F x N

deg g = 0 deg q = 0

(deg g = 0

[]

N <F x

p irreducible

[ ])

N = gF [ x ] = 1 F [ x ] g F is a unit of F [ x ]

(deg q = 0 N = pF [x ])

g pF [ x ] gF [ x ] = pF [ x ]

N =F x

g = p q , q F

27

rs = p 0

contradiction.

r =p 0 s =p 0

[]

rs pF x

[]

rs = r 0

pF x is prime

1.

1

3

4

5

6

[]

pF x is maximal

By Example 2.7.

Not a division ring because it doesn't have a multiplicative inverse.

By Theorem 2.11.

Not an integral domain because it has a divisor of zero

By Theorem 2.9.

112

and isomorphic subrings

subring

factor ring

16

6 16 1

2.

3.

4.

5.

23

6 23 2

int dom?

no3

yes1

3 2

6 3 2 3

yes1

yes4

yes

yes

61

subring

112

6 61 6

factor ring

12 112 1

no

normal?

no

12 26 2

no6

field?

no6

yes4

no

prime?

no

26

no1

int dom?

no3

yes1

yes

yes

3 4

12 3 4 3

yes1

yes4

yes

yes

43

12 43 4

no

12 6 2 6

no6

no6

no

6 2

no1

no1

no

no

no1

int dom?

no6

field?

no

prime?

no

normal?

no3

no3

no

no

yes1

yes4

yes

yes

no5

no6

no

no

field?

no6

yes4

prime?

no

normal?

no

yes

yes

121

subring

factor ring

2 2

1 2 1 2

1

1 2 1 2

2 2

1 2 2 1 2

2

1 2 21

2 2

21 21 1

2 2

21 21

subring

factor ring

1 1 1

1 2 1 4

field?

no6

yes4

prime?

no

normal?

no

yes

yes

1 2 2 2

1 2 2

int dom?

no3

yes1

1 2 41

1 4 4

yes1

yes4

yes

yes

21 1 4

2 1 2

yes1

yes4

yes

yes

21 2 2

2 2

no

2 4

no6

no6

no

21 41

no5

no5

no

no

[]

3 x

[]

subring

{0, 2, 4}

{0, 3}

subring

{0, 2, 4, , 10}

{0, 3, 6, 9}

subring

{0, 1} {0}

subring

{0, 1} {0, 2}

{0, 1} {0}

{0} {0, 1, 2, 3}

[]

then it has at least one (i.c., actually two) factors of degree one x a and by the Factor Theorem then has a zero

for x = a . By calculation, the sets Ac of zeroes a for given c are: A0 = 0 , A1 = , A2 = 1, 2 . So the

polynomial is irreducible and the factor ring a field for c = 1.

{}

{ }

6.

Following the procedure of Exercise 5 if x 3 + x 2 + c is reducible, it has to have at least one factor of degree one

and a corresponding zero: A0 = 0, 2 , A1 = 1 , A2 = . So the factor ring is a field for c = 2 .

7.

A0 = 2 , A1 = 1 , A2 = ; c = 2 .

8.

A0

9.

A0

10.

11.

12.

is a proper ideal

The given definition is valid only if R = because prime elements have not been defined elsewhere.

Comparing to Definition 20, p and can contain no nontrivial proper subfields, and any other field properly

contains either of these fields so the definition is indeed equivalent.

Since a principal ideal consists of all products of the field with the geneator, it is certainly the smallest ideal

containing the generator. Since this defines minimal ideals for every element, all minimal ideals are principal

13.

{ }

{}

{}

{}

= {0, 4} , A = , A = , A = {1, 3} , A = {2} ; c = 1, 2 .

= {2, 3} , A = , A = {4} , A = {1} , A = ; c = 1, 4 .

1

113

14.

a. false (should find a counterexample of a factor ring that is an integral domain but not a field)

b. true (Corollary 16)

c. true (by Theorem 19 because the characteristic of is zero)

d. false (by Theorem 19 the characteristic of is zero, so is the prime subfield)

e. true (Theorem 19)

f. true ( )

g. true (Theorem 19)

[]

[]

h. true (if F has no divisors of zero then F x and F x N don't either, so N is prime)

15.

j. false (by Theorem 25, only if the generating polynomial is maximal)

2 < . 2 2 E 2 is a field, so 2 is maximal.

17.

E is prime.

4 < . 4 4 E 4 has divisors of zero, so 4 E is not prime.

18.

x

16.

[]

[]

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

4 1 6

( ) (6)

4 1 6

6 12

= 3 3

2 1

2

and the factor ring is therefore a field.

Since R is finite, so is N R and R N . Since R is prime, R N is an integral domain. By Theorem 5.2.11, R N

is a field, therefore N is maximal.

n m is a ring with multiplicative identity containing n E n and E m m as subrings.

Idem.

If a ring contains subrings isomorphic to p , q , then it should contain a subring isomorphic to pq , which is not

an integral domain. So any containing ring cannot be an integral domain either.

x=

20.

5 1

=

= 2, 3 ,

2 1

2

so the factor ring is not a field.

Following the procedure of Exercise 18:

x=

19.

( ) (5)

N < R maximal

R N simple

R N not simple

M : R M N , M < R

Let : R R N be the canonical homomorphism

:M R N

M <R

M < R N and M R N

N not maximal

R N not simple M < R N M 0 + N

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

A+B =

a A, b B

a +b .

114

(additive identity) 0 A, B 0 = 0 + 0 A + B .

( ) ( )

(additive inverse) a + b A + B : a A, b B

a + b A + B :

(a + b ) + ((a ) + (b )) = (a + (a )) + (b + (b )) = 0 + 0 = 0

(additive closure) a , a A; b , b B : (a + b ) + (a + b ) = (a + a ) + (b + b ) A + B , where a + a A, b + b B

(multiplicative closure) a , a A; b , b B :

(a + b ) (a + b ) = aa + ab + ba + bb

A, B <R

= a + a + b + b = a + b A + B where a = aa A, a = ab A

and similarly in B.

A, B <R

= a + b , where a A, b B

.

b. Because A, B are ideals they are subrings and contain the additive identity. Then a A:

a = a + 0 A + B A A + B and similarly B A + B .

31.

AB =

+ ni , a

n +

A, b i B

ai bi .

(additive identity) 0 = + 0i ai bi AB .

(additive inverse) n + , ai A, bi B :

+ ni ai bi

)+(

+ ni

) (a b + (a b )) =

ai bi =

+ in

i i

i i

+ in ai bi AB : ai A

+ in 0

( )

+ ni ai bi = + in ai bi AB :

=0

(additive closure) The sum of both sums of terms is just a larger single sum of terms.

(multiplicative closure) n, n + ; ai , ai A; bi , bi B :

(+ a b ) (+

n

i i i

n

i aibi

)=+

n

i

+ nj ai bi a j b j

A, B <R

ai = r ai .

A <R

A <R

r + ni ai bi = + in r ai bi = + ni aibi AB , where

B <R

AB A B .

32.

A:B =

r R

r b B : rb A .

(additive identity) 0 R : b B : 0 b = 0 A

0 A : B .

(r ) b = (rb ) A r A : B .

(additive closure) r , r A : B : b B : (r + r )b = rb + r b = a + a A , where a = rb A , a = r b A .

(additive inverse) r A : B , b B :

So

r + r A : B .

(multiplicative closure) r , r A : B : b B :

r r A : B .

( )

33.

a = rb A and a = a s .

Show that S M 2 F is a subring:

( )

A <R

rr b = r r b = ra = a , where a = r b A and a = ra . So

(rs )b

commutative

(rb )s = a s = a A

rs A : B , where

115

0 0

(additive identity)

S .

0 0

a b

a b

a b a

(additive inverse)

S : a , b F :

S :

+

0

0 0

0

0 0 0

(additive closure) follows directly from the closure of F and M 2 F .

a b a b

(multiplicative closure)

,

S :

0 0 0 0

b 0 0

=

.

0 0 0

a b a b aa + b 0 ab + b 0 aa bb

=

=

S .

0

0 0 0 0 0a + 00 0b + 00 0

a b

f 00 f 01

Now

S;

M2 F :

0 0

f 10 f 11

a b f 00 f 01 af 00 + bf 10 af 01 + bf 11 af 00 + bf 10 af 01 + bf 11

=

=

S

0

0

0 0 f 10 f 11 0 f 00 + 0 f 10 0 f 01 + 0 f 11

but

f 00 f 01 a b f 00a + f 01 0 f 00b + f 01 0 af 00 bf 00

=

=

,

f 10 f 11 0 0 f 10a + f 11 0 f 10b + f 11 0 af 10 bf 10

which is not necessarily in S.

34.

0 0

= E M 2 2 is the trivial

0 0

1 0 n00 n01 1n00 + 0n10 1n01 + 0n11 n00 n01

=

=

0

0 0 n10 n11 0n00 + 0n10 0n01 + 0n11 0

which we know from Exercise 33 is not an ideal. By symmetry we know that neither are any of the other principals

generated by matrices with one non-zero component or with two non-zero components along a row or column. As

1 0

0 1

to the other two matrices with two non-zero components, obviously

=

= M 2 2 , and this

0 1

1 0

implies that neither are the ideals generated by matrices with three non-zero elements proper.

generators, and that they are

r

i

n

i

fi =

ri R

+ i ri f i

This is just a generalization of Theorem 2.24 to multiple indeterminates: every ideal of F x is principal

fi .

[]

fi .

116

f = gq + r

f3 = f 2 2f1

f3 = f 2 2f1

f 2 = 2f1 + f3

f3 f 2

=

2

f1

f1

divisor

11

Keep in mind that the algebraic variety of an ideal is equal to that of any basis. In the left figure are plotted the

zeros of the two original polynomials of the Example. Disregarding some plotting artifacts, it can be seen that they

intersect in one point. The right figure shows the zeros of the Grbner basis calculated in Example 13, and it can

be seen that they intersect in the same point.

3

-1

-1

-2

-2

-3

-3

-3

-2

-1

-3

-2

-1

1.

Write out the exponents of the power products, and sort them lexicographically like words:

135, 213, 221, 300 300, 221, 213,135 : 3x 3 + 7 x 2 y 2z 5x 2 yz 3 + 2xy 3z 5 .

2.

3.

4.

5.

000,101, 011,110, 013 110,101, 013, 011, 000 : 8xy 4xz + 3yz 3 + 2yz + 38 .

Write out the exponents in reverse order:

531, 312,122, 003 531, 312,122, 003 : 2z 5y 3 x 5z 3 yx 2 + 7zy 2 x 2 3x 3 .

6.

7.

8.

9.

4x + 5y 3z 3 + 3y 2z 5 8z 7 .

2x 2 yz 2 2xy 2z 2 7 x + 3y + 10z 3 .

8z 7 + 3z 5y 2 + 5z 3 y 3 4x .

3z 3 y + 2zy 4zx 8yx + 38 .

< z 2 < yz < y 2 < xz < xy < x 2

10.

11.

< z 3 < yz 2 < y 2z < y 3 < xz 2 < xyz < xy 2 < x 2z < x 2 y < x 3

<

Write the sum of the exponents as an exponent and sort by degree first:

1359 , 2136 , 2215 , 3003 1359 , 2136 , 2215 , 3003 : 2xy 3z 5 5x 2 yz 3 + 7 x 2 y 2z 3x 3 .

0257 ,1001 , 0336 , 007 7

3y 2z 5 8z 7 + 5y 3z 3 4x .

117

12.

13.

14.

2x 2 yz 2 2xy 2z 2 + 10z 3 7 x + 3y .

3yz 3 8xy 4xz + 2yz + 38 .

maximum-order term

xy 2 2x

x 2 y + 4xy

xy y 2

x 2y y 2x

4xy + y 2 x

leaving xy 2 2x , 4xy + y 2 x , xy y 2 .

15.

xy + y 3

y3 +z

x y4

xy y 5

y5 + y3

leaving y 5 + y 3 , y 3 + z , x y 4 .

( )

16.

17.

y 2z 3 + 3

y 3z 2 2z

y 2z 2 + 3

y 3z 2 + 3 y

3y 2z

leaving y 2z 3 + 3, 3y 2z , y 2z 2 + 3 .

18.

w + x y + 4z 3 2w + x + y 2z + 4 w + 3x 3y + z 5

2w + 2x 2y + 8z 6

2

x + 3y = 10z + 10

1

w + x y + 4z 3

2

2x 2y 3z 2

2x 6y + 20z 20

4y 23z + 18

x 3y + 10z 10

w + 2y 6z + 7

2y 23 z + 9

w+

2

11

z

2

1

2

2

3y 69 z +

x +

2w + 11z 4

4

29

z

4

27

2

7

2

4x + 29z 14

leaving 2w + 11z 4, 4x + 29z 14, 4y 23z + 18 . Every Sij has a leading term containing at least a nonzero

power of w, x, or z and can thus be divided by the leading term of one of the basis polynomials. We have thus

found a Grbner basis.

118

19.

w 4x + 3y z + 2 2w 2x + y 2z + 5 w 10x + 8y z 1

2

2w 8x + 6y 2z + 4

6x 5y + 1

1

w 4x + 3y z + 2

6x + 5y 3

zeros, the Grbner basis is 1 .

20.

x 4 + x 3 3x 2 4x 4 x 3 + x 2 4x 4

x

x 4 + x 3 4x 2 4x

x2 4

x

x 3 4x

x2 4

21.

x 4 4x 3 + 5x 2 2x

x 4 x 3 4x 2 + 4x

x 3 x 2 4x + 4

x

x 3 3x + 2

3x 2 + 9x 2 6x

3x 3 + 3x 2 + 12x 12

6x 18x + 12

x 2 3x + 2

x 3 3x + 2

x x + 2

x

x 3 + x 2 2x

x 2 x + 2

x2 + x 2

4x + 4

x 1

x

x 2 + x

2x + 2

x 1

leaving just x 1 .

119

22.

x 5 + x 2 + 2x 5

x5 x 4 + x3 x 2

x3 x 2 + x 1

x2

x 4 x 3 + 2x 2 + 2x 5

x 4 x3 + x 2 x

x + 3x 5

x 3 + 3x 2 5x

4x 2 + 6x 1

4

4x 2 12x + 20

18x 21

6x 7

x2 7 x

1x

25

x 5

6

36

25

6x 36

5

1

5

leaving 1 .

x 2y x 2

23.

xy + 2y 9

x y + 2xy 9x

2xy + 8x 2

xy 4x + 1

1

xy 4x + 1

4x + 2y 10

2x + y 5

xy + 1 y 2 5 y

2

4x 1 y + 5 y + 1

2

4x 2y + 10

1 2

y

2

2

+ y 9

9

2

y 9y + 18

y has zeros y =

+9 9 2 4 1 18 9 81 72 9 9 9 3

=

=

=

= 3, 6 and from

2 1

2

2

2

2x + y 5 = 0

2x = y + 5 x =

1

2

)} . In the left

1

,6

2

figure are plotted the zeros of the two original polynomials, in the right figure the zeros of the corresponding

Grbner basis. Again, the common zeros of the Grbner basis are the same as those of the original, but the basis is

as simple as it could possibly be.

120

7.5

7.5

2.5

2.5

-2.5

-2.5

-5

-5

-7.5

-7.5

-7.5

24.

x 2y + x

-5

-2.5

2.5

xy 2 y

7.5

-7.5

) (

S12 = y x 2 y + x x xy 2 y

2 2

-5

-2.5

2.5

7.5

2 2

= x y + xy x y + xy

= 2xy

x 2y

1 x

2

x

xy 2

1 y

2

y

2 y

2xy

0

25.

x 2y + x + 1

xy 2 + y 1

) (

{(0, 0)} .

S12 = y x 2 y + x + 1 x xy 2 + y 1

= x 2 y 2 + xy + y x 2 y 2 xy + x

=x +y

x 2 y + xy 2

xy

xy + x + 1

xy 2 y 3

y 2

x + y3 +1

x +y

y y +1

xy 2 + y 3

y 2

y 3 + y 1

y3 y +1

leaving y 3 y + 1, x + y .

121

-1

-1

-2

-2

-3

-3

-3

26.

-2

x 2 y + xy 2

2

x y x

-1

-3

-2

-1

xy x

x

) (

S12 = y x 2 + xy 2 x xy x

x 2 + xy 2

= x 2 y + xy 3 x 2 y + x 2

= xy 3 + x 2

y 2

xy 3 xy 2

x 2 + xy 2

x 2 + xy 2

0

2

xy xy

x + xy

xy x

x +x

leaving x 2 + x , xy x .

27.

b. false (a fractal for example has infinite complexity, or has infinitely many disjoint subsets, and neither can be

described by a finite-basis ideal)

c. true ( V 1 )

d. true (every point in 2 is the intersection of 2 and a line perpendicular to 2 )

e. true (corresponding to the intersection of two planes in 3 )

f. true (every line is the intersection of 2 and a plane perpendicular to 2 in 3 )

g. true

h. true (finding solutions to systems of linear equations)

i. false

j. false (the algebraic variety is only a property of the basis, not the basis itself notably, x x , y but x x 2 , y 2 )

28.

y < x but y x 0.

29.

+ i ci f i I :

r R :

[]

f = gq + r

r = f gq = sf sg q = s f g q so s is also a divisor of r.

122

[]

divisor of f.

31.

y2 y

xy

( )

S = y xy x y 2 y

= xy xy + y = y

x

xy

0

y2

y

y

0

Since the only possible S is reducible to 0, the given basis must be a Grbner basis.

32.

[]

f F x

(additive identity) 0F [ x ] :

[]

f s S : fs = 0 F x is a subring:

s S :

0F [ x ] s = 0

0F [ x ] I S ;

( f )s = ( fs) = 0 = 0 f I ;

(additive closure) f , g I : s S : ( f + g )s = fs + gs = 0 + 0 = 0 f + g I ;

(multiplicative closure) f , g I : s S : ( fg )s = fs gs = 0 0 = 0 fg I .

Next, show that I < F [ x] :

f I : g F [ x] : s S : ( fg )s = fs gs = 0 gs = 0 fg I .

(additive inverse) f I S :

s S :

33.

x F n :

34.

Let S =

x V IS :

(x , y ) x

x , y

f I S :

2

} {( )} be the unit circle about the origin except for the single point on the

+ y 2 = 1 \ 1, 0

positive x-axis. Then I S is the ideal generated by x 2 + y 2 1 of all polynomials intersecting that circle. Because of

( )

The following figures demonstrate some elements (polynomials) in that ideal and how they each intersect the unit

circle:

1

1

0

-1

-1

0

-1

1

-0.5

-1

-1

-1

0

x2 + y 2 1

-1

-1

-1

(x

)( )

+ y 2 1 y x

(x

)( )

+ y 2 1 x 2

35.

36.

Let N = x 2 , so N is every polynomial in x , y in which every term is divisible by x 2 . Obviously the yaxis

[ ]

{ (0, y )} V N . Also, any point (a, b ) not on the y-axis cannot be in VN because x

y

N and (a , b ) x 2 = a 2 0

, so VN is precisely the y-axis. Now I V N are all the polynomials that are zero-valued for the y-axis, which obviously

123

By definition, a reducible can be factored into irreducibles but not vice versa. The key characteristic of a Prinicpal

Ideal Domain is that every element can be identified with an ideal. Since the infinite union of an infinite sequence

of properly contained ideals is 1 , this terminates the sequence of ideals, and correspondingly therefore every

element has a finite factorization. In a Prinicpal Ideal Domain an irreducible is prime, so the factorization is unique.

7.1.16

D PID

D UFD

7.1.28

[]

[]

F x PID

D x UFD

5.6.20

6.2.24

F field

28

[]

D UFD

D x UFD

recover a factorization of

f D x from one in F x

[]

5.6.20

F field of quotients

[]

[]

F x UFD

3.

4.

Since 17 is prime, the only factorization up to associates of 17 is 17 = 1 17 where 1 is a unit, so 17 is

irreducible.

14 = 2 7 is reducible.

Is a primitive polynomial and irreducible.

5.

2x 10 = 2 x 5 is reducible.

6.

2x 3 is of degree 1 and a 0 : 2x 3 =

7.

8.

Idem, irreducible.

Irreducible.

9.

x :

1.

2.

2x 3

a where a is a unit, so irreducible.

a

[ ] {2x 7, 2x + 7}

[ x ] : {2x 7, 4x 14, 6x 21, 8x 28}

[ x ] : {2x 7, 4x 3, 6x + 1, 10x 2}

11

10.

x=

( ) (4)

[]

So in x :

[]

11 x :

2 4

4 48

4 16 128 4 112 4 4 7

=

=

=

8

8

8

[]

2 2 x 2 x + 2 , in x :

)(

1

2

1

2

7 .

2 2 x 5 x 7 .

124

11.

12.

234 = 21 3 2 131

1690 = 21 51 13 2

4

2

784 = 2 7

3

1

2

1960 = 2 5 7 gcd = 23 7 1 = 56

448 = 26 7 1

13.

2178 = 21 3 2 112

396 = 2 2 3 2 111

1

2

1

gcd = 2 3 11 = 198

3

2

1

792 = 2 3 11

594 = 21 33 111

14.

6 3x 2 2x + 8 .

15.

18x 2 12x + 48 .

16.

2x 2 3x + 6 .

17.

2x 2 3x + 6 .

a b = ab 1 is only well-defined if b has an inverse. But even elements without an inverse can be associates, e.g.

26 = 26 1. So if and only if a = bu , where u is a unit.

19.

Insert without one of the factors being a unit.

20.

Smaller is not defined. if and only if any divisor divides at least one of the factors in any factorization.

21. a. true (a field does not have any nonzero nonunit elements)

b. true (by Corollary 6.2.6 a field has only the trivial and nonproper ideals, which are both principal)

c. true (Theorem 16)

d. false (Example 30)

18.

[]

f. false ( 5, 7 are irreducible but not associates)

[]

[ ][ ] [ ]

h. true (Theorem 28)

i. false (an associate of p could appear)

j. true (by Definition 5 a UFD is only defined for an integral domain, which cannot have divisors of zero)

22.

[]

[]

By Lemma 26. The irreducibles of D x are the irreducibles of D and the irreducibles in F x that are primitive in

[]

Dx .

23.

[]

[]

[]

Again following Lemma 26, a nonprimitive polynomial in D x is reducible in F x but irreducible in D x , for

[]

[]

( ) ( )( ) ( )( )

24.

25.

Suppose p = ab is reducible where a , b are not units. Then a , b p 0 are not divisible by p, for suppose without

loss of generality that a = p 0 then a = ab 0 c : a = abc . Since an integral domain has no divisors of zero and

26.

27.

p 0, then a 0. Since cancellation holds in an integral domain we have 1 = bc c = b 1 but b is not a unit. So p

is not prime. So if p is prime, it is irreducible.

Let p = ab be a factorization of an irreducible p. Then without loss of generality, a is a unit. Since this

factorization is unique up to associates and ab = p 0 b = p 0, so p is prime.

(reflexive) a = a 1 so a ~ a ;

125

(symmetric) a , b D : a ~ b

u D : a = bu

(transitive) a , b , c D : a ~ b , b ~ c

b = au 1

u, v D : a = bu, b = cv

( )

( )

a = bu = cv u = c vu

a ~ c , where vu is

also a unit.

28.

Let a , b D * U be two nonzero nonunits. Since D is an integral domain, it has no divisors of zero so ab 0.

1

1

1

= 1 a b ab = 1 a 1 = b ab

and a would be a unit. So

( )( )

( )

( )

29.

[]

[]

[]

f = cg h and f is thus not primitive.

30.

Lemma 9 shows that every principal ideal is contained in a finite chain of ideals that terminates in D = 1 .

31.

x=

32.

y y 2 4 1 y 2

y 3y 2

)(

y y 3

that are not in .

2

2 1

2

ACC MC

By ACC, any chain of strictly increasing ideals is finite, therefore there is a last ideal in this chain that is not properly

contained in any other ideal.

MC FBC FBC MC

Suppose there is an ideal N that has no finite basis set. Surely it has at least an infinite one. Then we can construct

an infinite set of ideals by iteratively adjoining one element from theis basis set, with each new ideal containing the

pervious ideal. This set therefore does not satsify MC.

FBC ACC

If every ideal has a finite basis, then we can construct a finite chain of ideals by iteratively adjoining an element from

the basis set to the previous ideal. Since every ideal in any chain can be constructed from a finite chain of ideals, the

chain must be of finite length. (shaky)

33.

DCC mC mC DCC

Suppose S was a set of ideals in which every ideal contains some other ideal of S. Then an infinitely long decreasing

sequence of ideals would exist.

mC DCC

If any strictly decreasing sequence of ideals has an ideal that does not properly contain any other ideal in that

sequence, the sequence must be finite.

34.

ACC holds in , but for any finite-basis ideal n < there is always another relative prime that can be adjoined to

the basis to construct a new ideal properly contained in it.

The valuation gives a measure by which we can guarantee that a factorization will at some point terminate.

r0 = r1q 2 + r2

r1 = r2q3 + r3

1.

r2 = 0 r2 < r1

r3 = 0 r3 < r2

M

ri 1 = ri qi + 1 + ri + 1 ri + 1 = 0 ri + 1 < ri

If ri 1 = d 0, ri = d 0 ri + 1 = ri 1 ri qi + 1 = d 0 and if ri + 1 = d 0, ri = d 0 ri 1 = ri qi + 1 + ri + 1 = d 0 , so the

common divisors of ri 1 , ri are the same as those of ri , ri +1 . So when rs is the first remainder equal to zero, a

greatest common divisor of rs 2 , rs 1 is also one of r0 and r1 . And since rs 2 = rs 1q s + rs = rs 1q s , a greatesst

common divisor of rs 2 , rs 1 is rs 1 .

On , the q and r of Condition 1 do exist by Theorem 1.5.3 and 0 r < b . From r < b and r , b 0 we have

126

( )

2.

a 2 ab

= a 2b 2

1 b

b 1.

We know by Theorem 5.6.1 that on the ring of polynomials over a field the quotient and remainder q and r in

a = bq + r are unique, so a solution may not exist in x and Condition 1 is not satisfied. For example,

[]

1

2

3.

4.

Again, the quotient and remainder are unique but if the remainder is nonzero we cannot guarantee that r < b and

satisfy Condition 1. For example, 1x + 7 = 1x 1 + 7 where 7 </ 1x

7 </ 1 . The problem is that the

) ( )() ( )

( )

In a field, for any a , b F , b 0, a = bq always has a solution so Condition 1 is satisfied. But in , for 0 < b < 1

( )

( )

and any a * : a / ab

( )

ab < a

a 2b 2 = ab

< a2

b2 <1

( )

5.

6.

23 = 3 138 391

0 < b < 1.

7.

49349 = 15555 3 + 2684

gcd 49349, 15555 = 61

2684 = 549 5 61

549 = 61 9

61 = 5 549 1 2684

8.

9.

(x

10

)(

) (

= x 4 2x x 6 3x 5 + 3x 4 9x 3 + 5x 2 5x + 2 + x 4 3x 3 2x 2 5x + 3

(x 3x + 3x 9x + 5x 5x + 2) = (x + 6x 19) (x 3x 2x

(x 3x 2x 5x + 3) = ( x + ) (59x 118x + 59)

so 59 ( x 2x + 1) and x + 2x 1 are greatest common divisors.

6

1

59

) (

5x + 3 + 59x 3 118x + 59

3

59

10.

11.

d1 = gcd 2178, 396 = 198

396 = 198 2

792 = 198 4

d2

726 = 198 4 66

198 = 66 3

12.

)

= gcd(792, 198) = 198

(

[]

a. Yes, because is a UFD by the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic and x is a UFD by Theorem 1.28.

[]

b. This is the subset of x with even constant term. It is fairly obvious that it is in fact closed and a subring. Now

[]

consider any g x : g = xg + g 0 + 1 ,

f = xf + f 0 ,

[]

[]

127

)) (

f g + f xg + ( g

f g + ( f g + ( g

(

f g = xg + g 0 + 1 xf + f 0

= x2

= x2

0

0

) ( )

+ 1) f )x + ( g f + f )

+ 1 xf + g 0 + 1 f 0

0 0

It is obvious that the constant term g 0 f 0 + f 0 is again even, so the subring is indeed ideal.

c. No. Any generator of the ideal in (b.) would have to have even constant term, but this wouldn't then generate

polynomials with odd coefficients on nonconstant terms. For example, there is no polynomial that will generate

both 2 and x.

d. No, by Theorem 4.

13. a. true (Theorem 4)

b. false (by the discussion after Corollary 5)

c. true (Corollary 5)

d. false (by the discussion after Corollary 5 and Exercise 12)

e. true (in a field, every nonzero element is a greatest common divisor of any set of nonzero elements)

f. true

g. true (Theorem 6)

h. false (by Theorem 6 every unit u has u = 1, not only the multiplicative identity)

i. true (Theorem 6)

j. true (Example 3)

14.

No, because the arithmetic structure of a domain D is defined by its operations and is independent of any particular

choice of valuation.

15.

If a and b are associates then there exists a unit u such that a = bu . By Condition 2 of Definition 1,

( )

a = bu bu u 1 = b , and conversely, so a = b .

( )

16.

17.

This is the set of all elements with valuation greater than that of a unit. Condition 2 shows that the set is closed

under multiplication, but it is not closed under addition and hence not a group. For example, for 3, 2 ,

( )

( ( ))

3, 2 > 1 and 3 + 1 = 1.

18.

In any field, Condition 1 holds with zero remainder always. If is the identity i D * , Condition 2 holds as well.

19.

a. Since is minimal for 1, has minimum value 1 = 1 + s > 0 , so : D * + . Also, if Condition 1 holds for

then it also holds for because r < b r < b , and if Condition 2 holds for it also holds for because

a ab a ab .

( )

( )

b. Since is minimal for 1 and r > 0, l has minimum value r 1 0 , and since maps to integers and r + ,

: D * + . If Condition 1 holds for then it also holds for because r < b r < b , and if Condition 2

holds for it also holds for because a ab a ab .

( )

( )

c. Let be any valuation. Then : D * + : a a a 1 100 + 1 is a Euclidean valuation by (a.) and (b.), with

)

a ((1 + 1) 1) 100 + 1 = 101 > 100.

1 = 1 1 100 + 1 = 1 . Since has minimum value 1, a 1 + 1 for any nonzero nonunit, and

20.

For any a , b D * , a , b are their principal ideals, that is, all their multiples. Then a b is an ideal by

Exercise 6.1.27 of all the common multiples of a and b. Since D is a Euclidean domain it is a PID, so

c D : a b = c . Since ab 0 and ab c we know that c E and c 0. Since c divides every element

of c , it is a least common multiple.

21.

( )

128

a b

Conversely, let d = gcd a , b . Every element generated by a and b is of the form a + b = d

+

d , so to

d

d

generate we must have d = 1, which is to say that a and b must be relatively prime.

If a and n are relatively prime, then by Theorem 9 , :

( )

22.

( ) ( )

a + n = 1 b a + n = b

23.

( )

( )

b a = n b

x = b .

a + n = d = b

: ax + n = b .

24.

b a + b n = b

( )a = b x = . Conversely, if ax = b then

( ) ( )

Now d = gcd(a , n) obviously divides ax + n , so if it does not also divide b the equation

a + n = b

cannot possibly have a solution. In other words, ax = b has a solution for x in n iff the greatest common divisor

of a and n divides b.

b

Find by the procedure outlined in Exercise 6, and let d = gcd a , n . Verify that d divides b, then x = =

. So

d

42 = 22 2 2, 22 = 2 11 so d = gcd 42, 22 = 2 . We see that 2 indeed divides 18, so there is a solution

x=

b 2 18

=

= 18.

d

2

( )

5 a bi

5

5a 5bi 5 10i

=

=

=

= 1 2i , where a = 1, b = 2 , so 5 = 1 + 2i 1 2i .

a + bi

5

a + bi a bi

a2 + b2

)(

1.

a + bi :

2.

N7 = 49 has to be factored into two factors, so we are looking for a + bi with norm 7 but that doesn't exist by

Theorem 10. Irreducible.

3.

4.

5.

6.

)(

( )( ) (

) (

) (

) (

)

( )( )

4 + 3i = (1 + 2i )( 2 i ) .

6 7i (6 7i )(a bi ) (6a 7b ) + ( 7a 6b )i (6 4 7 1) + ( 7 4 6 1)i

=

=

=

= 1 2i , where a = 4, b = 1 , so

a + bi (a + bi )(a bi )

1 +4

a +b

6 7i = ( 4 + i )(1 2i ) .

4 + 3i a bi

4a + 3b + 3a 4b i

4 1 + 3 2 + 3 1 4 2 i

4 + 3i

=

=

= 2 i , where a = 1, b = 2 , so

=

2

2

a + bi

a + bi a bi

a +b

12 + 2 2

6 = 23

= 1 + i 5 1 i 5

( )( ) ( ) ( ) + i = 1 + i

( )( )

= = (7 + 2i ) (3 4i )(1 + i ) = (7 + 2i ) ((3 + 4) + (3 4)i ) = (7 + 2i ) (7 i ) = i .

8 + 6i

(8 + 6i )(5 + 15i ) = (8 5 6 15) + (8 15 + 6 5)i = 50 + 150i = + i

=

5 15i (5 15i )(5 + 15i )

250

5 + 15

i (5 15i ) = 15 + 5i

(8 + 6i ) (15 + 5i ) = 7 + i

8 + 6i = i (5 15i ) + ( 7 + i )

7 + 2i 3 + 4i

21 8 + 28 + 6 i

7 + 2i

=

=

=

=

3 4i

3 4i 3 + 4i

32 + 42

7.

13

25

34

25

1

5

3

5

129

)(

) ( ( ) ( ) ( )) ( ( ) ( ) ( ))

)(

5 7 15 1 + 5 1 + 15 7 i 50 + 100i

5 15i 7 i

5 15i =

=

= 1 + 2i

=

7 + i

50

50

7 2 + 12

5 15i = 1 + 2i 7 + i

gcd 8 + 6i , 5 15i = 7 + i

8.

b. true (Theorem 4)

c. true (Definition 1)

d. false (

1

2

[]

i )

f. true (in the case of Theorem 7, a prime multiplicative norm corresponds to an irreducible)

g. true (Theorem 7)

h. false ( deg 0 < 0 so Condition 1 of Definition 6 doesn't hold, deg 1 = 0 so Condition 2 doesn't hold, and

9.

10.

i. true (all three conditions of Definition 6 hold)

j. true (Example 9)

If D such that N is minimal, then if was reducible there would be , D : = with neither , a

unit and thus N , N 1, but then either N , N < N which is a contradiction. So is irreducible.

( )

a. 2 = i 2i = i 1 + i .

)(

[]

2

expression by Theorem 10.

11. 1. N = a 2 + a 2 0 , where a , a .

2. N = a 2 + a 2 = 0 a 2 = 0 a 2 = 0 a = 0 a = 0 a = 0 .

( )

((

)(

)) ((

) (

))

= ( ) + ( + )

= ( ) 2 + ( ) + ( ) + 2 + ( )

3. N = N + i + i = N + + i

2

)(

= 2 + 2 2 + 2

) (

= N + i N + i = N N

12.

= + i 5, = + i 5 :

N = N + i 5 + i 5 = N 5 + + i 5

( )

(

= ( )

= 5

+ 5 +

)(

10 + 25 + 5

= 2 + 5 2 2 + 5 2

) (

+ 10 + 5

= N + i 5 N + i 5 = N N

13.

must be that Na , Nb < Nd . Otherwise, if / a , b : d = ab where a , b nonunit, d is irreducible. Because Nd has a

finite factorization in , repeating this procedure will at some point terminate.

130

(

(

15.

)(

)(

) (

)

( ) ) (

) (

16 + 7i 10 + 5i

16 10 7 5 + 16 5 + 7 10 i 125 + 150i

16 + 7i =

=

=

= 1+11i

5

10 5i

125

125

10 5i 10 + 5i

1 + i 10 5i = 10 1 5 1 + 10 1 5 1 i = 15 + 5i

16 + 7i 15 + 5i = 1 + 2i

16 + 7i = 1 + i 10 5i + 1 + 2i

10 1 5 2 + 10 2 + 5 1 i 25i

10 5i 1 2i

10 5i

=

=

= 5i

=

5

5

1 + 2i 1 2i

1 + 2i

gcd 16 + 7i , 10 5i = 1 + 2i

14.

( )(

) (

)

(

) (

)

( )(

) ( )

) ( ( ) ( ) )

(

)( ) (

( )( )

(

)

a. Since [i ] is a Euclidean domain, there exists a valuation on [i ] . Then D : , D : = +

[i ]

[i ]

where = 0 or < . So : [i ]

: a + is the canonical homomorphism onto

and the

*

[]

is maximal and [i ]

b. If were not maximal then there would be : i so : = where not a unit (else

a field.

c. I verified these by plotting on graph paper. The characteristic is pretty simple to find, the order seems always to be

equal to the norm.

i.

ii.

iii.

16.

[ ] ={

i

3

[]

i

1+ i

0 , < 3

= 2;

[]

i

[]

i

char

= 5;

1 + 2i

i

} 3[ ] = 9;

+ i + 3 .

1+ i

char

char

[ ] = 3;

i

3

= 2;

[]

i

1 + 2i

= 5.

I don't think n needs to be square free in this exercise but in the next one.

a. Obviously n : N 0. Also, N = 0 a 2 + nb 2 = 0 a 2 , b 2 = 0 a , b = 0 . Finally,

, n : = + i n , = + i n :

N = N + i n + i n

) (

)

= ( n ) + n( + )

= ( ) 2n + n + n( )

= N n + + i n

2

)(

= 2 + n 2 2 + n 2

+ 2n + n

= N + i n N + i n = N N

2 = 1 n 2 = 0

= 1 = 0

b. n : N = 1 N + i n = 2 + n 2 = 1

2

2

= 0 n = 1

= 0 = 1 n = 1

Since these elements are also the only possible units, this describes precisely all the units.

131

= 0 N = N N = 0 N = 0 N = 0 = 0 = 0

( )

17.

Then by Exercise 13 and (b.) every nonzero nonunit has a factorization into irreducibles.

I think n needs to be square free in this exercise but not in the previous one.

*

holds only if n is square free for example, if n = 3 : 2 = 3 2 , = 0 but if n = 4 :

2 = 4 2 = 2, = 1 . Then, , n :

N = N + n + n

( )

) (

)

= ( + n ) n( + )

= N + n + +

2

+ 2n + n

)(

= 2 n 2 2 n 2

2n n

= 2 n 2 2 n 2

= N + n N + n = N N

( )

b. This can only hold if one of 2 , 2 is even and the other odd. Since 1

2 = 1 n 2 = 0

2 = 0 n 2 = 1

= 1 = 0

= 0 = 1 n = 1

c. n is an integral domain because it has no divisors of zero because it has a multiplicative norm, so by Exercise

13 and (b.) every nonzero nonunit has a factorization into irreducibles.

18.

Let , 2 : = + i , = + i , 0 and let q = = q + iq , q , q , and let

((

))

) (

((

2

2

) (

) ) ( ) + 2 ( ) = + = and

= N = N ( ) = N ( ( )) = N N (q ) N < N = , so n is a Euclidean domain.

(

N q = N q + iq + i = N q + q i

1

2

1

2

1

4

2

4

3

4

3

4

Similarly for n , N q = n

Euclidean domains.

()

1

2

n = 2, 3

4

4

1.

x = 1+ 2

2.

x= 2+ 3

x 1 = 2

x 1

= x 2 2x + 1 = 2

x 2 2x 1 = 0 .

x 2 = 2 + 3 = 2 + 2 6 + 3 = 5 + 2 6

x 5= 2 6

x 5

= x 2 10x + 25 = 4 6 = 24

x 2 10x + 1 = 0

132

3.

x = 1+ i

4.

x = 1+ 3 2

x 1 = i

x 1

x=

2 i

= x 2 2x + 1 = 1 x 2 2x + 2 = 0 .

x 2 = 1+ 3 2

) = (x + 1)(x

x2 1

= x6 x 4 x 2 +1 = 2

5.

x2 = 3 2 i

2x 2 + 1 = x 6 2x 4 + x 2 + x 4 2x 2 + 1

x6 x 4 x 2 1 = 0

x2 +i = 3 2

(x + i ) = (x + i )(x + i ) = (x + i )(x + 2x i 1) = (x + 2x i x + x i 2x i ) = 2

(x 3x 2) = (3x + 1)i

(x 3x 2) = (3x + 1) (x 3x 2) + (3x + 1) = 0

3

x 12 3x 8 2x 6 3x 8 + 9x 4 + 6x 2 2x 6 + 6x 2 + 4 + 9x 8 6x 4 + 1 = 0

x 12 + 3x 8 4x 6 + 3x 4 + 12x 2 + 5 = 0

x2 = 3 6

x = 3 6

6.

x2 3

x2 3 = 6

= x 4 6x 2 + 9 = 6

x 4 6x 2 + 3 = 0

irr 3 6 , = x 4 6x 2 + 3;

x=

7.

1

3

x2 =

+ 7

irr

x = 2 +i

8.

1

3

1

3

x2

+ 7

deg 3 6 , = 4

1

3

+ 7 , = x 4 2 x 2 6 8 ;

3

9

x i = 2

x i

1

3

= x4 2 x2 +

3

1

9

=7

+ 7 , = 4

x 2 3 = 2ix

deg 2 + i , = 4

x2 3

= x 4 6x 2 + 9 = 4x 2

9.

x =i

10.

x = 1+ i

11.

x = ; transcendental.

12.

13.

x=

idem.

14.

x = 2 ; transcendental.

15.

x =2

16.

x =2

18.

deg

1

3

= x 2 2ix 1 = 2

irr 2 + i , = x 4 2x 2 + 9;

17.

x2

= 7

x 1 = i

x2 =

x 1

) (

x2 + x +1

= x + +1 x2 + x +1 = x x + +1 .

x

a. Since the polynomial has no zero for any element of 3 , it is irreducible by Theorem 5.6.10.

x2 +1

0

1

2

1

2

2

)(

b.

133

0

1

2

0

1

2

2

1+

1 + 2

2+

2 + 2

0

1

2

2

1+

1 + 2

2+

2 + 2

1

2

2

0

0

1

1+

2+

2

1 + 2 2 + 2

1+

2+

1 + 2 2 + 2 2

2+

1+

2 + 2

2

1 + 2

0

1

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

2

2

1+

1 + 2

2+

2 + 2

1+

1 + 2

2+

2 + 2

2

1 + 2

2 + 2

0

1+

2+

1 + 2

2 + 2

2

1

1+

2

2+

0

2+

2 + 2

2

1 + 2

2

2+

0

1+

2+

2

0

1 + 2

1

2 + 2

2

0

2

1

2

1

1+

2

2+

2

1 + 2

0

0

1+

1 + 2

2 + 2 2 +

1

2+

1+

2

1 + 2 2 + 2

1 + 2 2

2

2 + 2

2

1+

1

2

2+

1

0

2

2

2

1

2 + 2 2 +

2+

1+

1 + 2 2 + 2

1+

1 + 2

where + 1 = 0 = 1 = 2 .

1 + 2

1

2 + 2

2

2

0

1+

1+

2 + 2

2

2

0

1 + 2

1

1

1+

2+

2 + 2

0

2+

1 + 2

2 + 2

1+

1

2

0

2 + 2

1+

1 + 2

2+

1

2

2

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

[]

nonzero

are having the coefficient of the highest-degree term equal to 1.

Correct?

a. true (there is no polynomial over having as a root)

b. true

[]

d. true ( )

e. false ( / 2 because addition on 2 is not the one induced from )

f. true (Definition 14)

[]

[]

h. true (Kronecker's Theorem)

i. false ( 2 is an extension field but x 2 + 1 has no zero in it)

j. true (as in the discussion after Example 19)

24.

( )

( )

25.

) {}

b.

) ( )

x3 + x 2 +1

= x 2 + 1 + x + 2 + , so x 3 + x 2 + 1 = x x 2 + 1 + x + 2 + . To factorize the second

x

2

2

2

factor, finding a zero by applying the elements of 2 : 0, 1, , + 1, , + 1, + , 2 + + 1 . Eventually we

find that 2 x 2 + 1 + x + 2 + = 2

(

()

+ (1 + )

+ 2 + = 3 + + 2 + 3 + 2 + = 0 , where

134

3 + 2 + 1 = 0 3 = 2 + 1 ;

x + 1+ x + +

2

) = x + (

4 = 3 = 2 + 1 = 3 + . Then

( ) ( )( ) (

)

that the solution in the text has a minus sign in x ( + + 1) ?

deg ( , ) = 3 ( ) : x = 0 ; ( ) = {0, 1, , + 1, , + 1, + , + + 1} . The table gives

x

+ + 1 , so x 2 + 1 + x + + 2 = x x 2 x + 2 + + 1 . Note

26.

()

3 , + :

0

1

1

0

+1

2

2 +1

+1

+1

0

1

2 +1

2

2 +

2 + +1

2 + +1

2 +

2 +

2 + +1

0

1

2 + +1

2

2 +1

+1

2 +

2 +1

2

2

2

2

2

1

+1

+1

+

+ +1

2

2

2

2

0

+

1

+1

+ +1

+

0

1

+1

2 + 2 + +1

2

2 +1

+1

1

0

2 + +1 2 +

2 +1

2

By the Fundamental Theorem of Finitely-Generated Commutative Groups, this has to be isomorphic to either

2 2 2 , 4 2 , or 8 . Since 4 , 8 have elements of order 4 and 8, respectively, which 2 does not,

1

0

{ } { }

()

{ }

we must have 2 2 2 2 0, 1 0, 0, 2 .

27.

28.

29.

30.

()

()

to 7 .

Because it is (Theorem 13) of minimal degree.

}

a. x ( x + 1)( x + 2) = x ( x + 3x + 2) = x ( x + 2) = x

()

By Theorem 18, F =

)(

()

b i F

= qn .

()

b. By Exercise 29, 3 = 33 = 27 .

31.

a. Since 12 = 1 and p 1

()

()

32.

()

()

()

33.

34.

()

2

[]

2 x

3

x x +1

()

135

[]

2 x

()

2

x x +1

()

and 2 = 2 4 = 16 .

) {

iii. Since 25 = 52 , we look for an irreducible polynomial of degree 5 in 5 . Since 5 x 2 + 3 = 2, 3, 4 that one is

()

irreducible and 5

35.

[]

5 x

2

x +3

()

Since F is finite it is of prime characteristic and contains a prime subfield p F (Theorem 6.2.19). By Theorem

36.

By Exercise 35 every finite field can be considered an extension of its prime subfield. Then by Exercise 29, the

order of the field is a prime power.

1

4

So, dimensionality does not even enter into the definition of a vector space the defining aspect is only scalar

multiplication with a field. It's almost like a G-set (Definition 3.5.1) except X has to be an actual group and G a

field. Note in particular that no relationship between V and F is implied.

This seems profound but is almost meaningless: any superfield can be regarded as a vector space in the same way

that any field is a vector space.

1.

{(0, 1), (1, 1)}, {(1, 0), (1, 1)}, {(1, 0), (1, 1)} .

2.

Since

[1

[0

[0

0

1

0

] ([1

0] = ([1

1] = ([0

0 =

] [

0] + [0

1] + [1

] [

1] [1

1] [1

])

1])

0])

1

2

1 0 + 1 0 1 0 1 1

1

2

1

2

1

0

0

1

and by Lemma 16, this set of vectors obviously spans 3 . Since dim 3 = 3 , by Theorem 17 this is a basis.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

4 y + 2z = 0

10

y + 5z = 0

1 y + 1z = 0

5

5x 7 y = 0

10x 14y = 0

so not linearly independent by Definition 10, and hence not a basis.

1x + 1y + 2z = 0

2z 3y + 1z = 0

10x 14y = 0

{1, 2} .

{1}.

{2

, 21 3 , 2 2 3 .

{2

, 21 4 , 2 2 4 , 23

03

{1, i} .

{1, i}

0 4

}.

) ( ) + (1 + ) + 1 = 1 +

1+ x 2 + x + 1 = 1 +

11.

12.

13.

+ = 1+ +1+ = 0.

Delete uniquely.

Correct.

Correct.

136

14.

15.

independent.

a. true ( , V : + V )

b. false ( a , b F : a + b F )

c. true ( a , b F : a b F )

d. true ( a F , V : a V )

[]

f. false (Definition 15)

g. false (wouldn't be linearly independent)

h. true (Theorem 23)

i. true (idem)

j. true (discussion before Lemma 16)

16. a. A subspace of a vector space V over F is a vector space of a subgroup of V over F with the induced operations.

b. We have to show that the intersection is closed. Let U,V be subspaces over F:

, U V : + U , + V + U V ,

U V , a F : a U , a V a U V .

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

If every vector in V can be generated by the i then they certainly span at least V. If the zero vector is the sum of

none of the i , and the zero vector can be expressed only uniquely as a linear combination of i , then they are

linearly independent. So i are a basis. Conversely, if i are a basis then they span V. Each vector is a unique

linear combincation of the i , otherwise the difference between two expressions of the same vector would give a

linear combination of the zero vector and i would not be linearly independent.

22.

a j = a0 j am 1, j ,

+ j x j a j = b, where

{ a }.

can be expressed uniquely as a linear combination of the basis { a } .

)

23.

n 1

i =0

v i and

n 1

i = 0 fi

, respectively.

Then :V F n : x = + i x i v i a + i x i fi is an isomorphism: x = + i x i v i , y = + i y i v i V :

) (

= + (x

) ( (

) )

= ( + x v ) + ( + x v ) = x + y

x + y = +i x i vi + +i y i vi = +i x i + y i vi

i

+ y i fi = + i x i fi + + i y i fi

and a F , x = + i x i v i V :

i i

i i

( ) (

) ( ( )) = (+ (ax )v )

= + (ax )f = + a ( x f ) = a + x f = a ( + x v ) = a x

a. v = + v : v = ( + v ) = + (v ) = + v .

ax = a + i x i v i = + i a x i v i

i

24.

i i i

i i

i i i

i i

i i

i i

i i

b. Since by (a.) a linear transformation is completely determined by its action on the basis vectors, the action required

for the basis vectors specified here suffices.

25. a. homomorphism.

b. The nullspace of is the set of vectors v V : v = 0 . To show that Ker V is a subspace we have to show that it

is closed under the induced operations from V:

v , w Ker : v + w = v + w = 0 + 0 = 0 v + w Ker .

26.

The quotient space V S over F is the vector space in the group of cosets of S in V over F, with scalar multiplication

by representatives in V. The coset group exists by Corollary 3.2.5 and is clearly commutative. Show that the five

137

(1) a + S = a + S V S ;

( (

)) ( )

( )

(3) (a + b )( + S ) = (a + b ) + S = (a + b ) + S = ((a ) + S ) + ((b ) + S ) = a ( + S ) + b ( + S ) ;

(4) a (( + S ) + ( + S )) = a (( + ) + S ) = a ( + ) + S = (a + a ) + S = (a + S ) + (a + s ) ;

(5) 1( + S ) = 1 + S = + S .

(2) a b + S = a b + S = ab + S = ab + S ;

27.

a. We know that is a homomorphiosm so that operations under coincide with the ones induced from V . We

need to show that V V is closed:

, V : , V : = , = + = + = + V .

b. Let

i

To this basis can be adjoined dimV dim Ker vectors to form a basis for V.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

So we have two ways of determining the degree of an extension: by the order of the basis, and by the degree of the

irreducible polynomial.

deg 2 : = 2 , so by Theorem 2.23 , 20 2 , 21 2 is a basis for 2 .

0 2

12

2 ,2

is a basis for 2 over . It is clear that 3 cannot be axpressed as a linear combination of this

basis, so 30 2 , 31 2 is a basis for 2 , 3 over 2 . By Theorem 4, 1, 31 2 , 21 2 , 61 2 is a basis for

2 , 3 over and 2 , 3 : = 4 .

2 , 3 , 18 over .

{2

and by Theorem 4, 1, 21 3 , 2 2 3 , 31 2 , 21 3 31 2 , 2 2 3 31 2 spans 3 2 , 3 over . Since this set is linearly

independent, it forms a basis, and 3 2 , 3 : = 4 .

3

0 2

12

2 ,2

is a basis for 2 over . deg 2 , = 3 does not divide deg 2 , = 2 , so 3 2 2 . So

03

{

{2

03

( )

(

) ( ) ( )

( 2 ) , and ( 2 , 2 ) ( 2 ) . Then

2 , 2

) : = (2 , 2 ) : (2 ) (2 ) :

(

6 = ( 2 , 2 ) : ( 2 ) 6

16

13

13

13

12

12

16

12

16

13

12

16

13

12

16

16

13

) ( )

, 21 2 : 21 6 . So

138

21 3 , 21 2 , = 6 and

Exercise 8.1

x= 2+ 3

7.

8.

Analogous to Exercise 4,

11.

12.

2i

} is a basis.

{1,

2 + 3 : = 2 .

6 , and 6 : = 2 .

} is a basis for

2 , 3 5 , and 2 , 3 5 : = 6 .

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

24 = 2 6 , so 2 , 6 , 24 = 2 , 6 . 6 = 2 3 , so 2 , 6 = 2 , 3 (why?). Then

i 3

3 j 3 is a basis for 3 2 , 3 6 , 3 24 over , and 3 2 , 3 6 , 3 24 : = 9 .

0 i < 3, 0 j < 3 2

0

2

1

2

2 + 3 3 , so 2 3 and 2 , 2

is a basis for 2 + 3 over , 2 + 3 : = 2 .

By Theorem 4,

2 , 3 : 3 = 2 + 3 : 2 + 3 2 + 3 : 3

2 = 2 + 3 : 2 + 3 2

10.

0i <6

x 2 10x + 1 = 0 .

6.

9.

0 i < 2, 0 j < 3

2i

{ }

5j

13.

so 2 + 3 : 2 + 3 = 1 (?!?)

3 + 5 .

14.

15.

16.

17.

to a basis for F

Correct.

nonconstant polynomial over F

18.

[]

[]

elements as zeroes. However, x has polynomials such as x + 1 with imaginary roots that are not in .

19.

a. true (Theorem 3)

[]

c. true (Theorem 4)

[]

e. false ( x 2 [ x ], but the root 2 so )

f. true (the only elements of ( x ) that are algebraic in are itself; for example, x 1 has no root in [ y ] )

g. false (the polynomial ( x + 1)y + x ( x )[ y ] does not have a root y )

d. false ( x 2 + 1 x has no zero in )

2

i.

j. false ( is an algebraically closed extension of , but shows that is not an algebraic extension of )

20.

[(

) ]

[ : ] = [ : (a + bi )] [ (a + bi ) : ]

)]

: a + bi =

[ : ] = 2 = 1. So = (a + bi ).

[ : (a + bi )] 2

139

21.

()

{ }

()

()

E :F

[E : F ] = [E : F ( )] [F ( ) : F ] [E : F ( )] = F[( ) : F] = [E : F ] which is impossible because [E : F ] is prime, so

[

]

[E : F ] = 2 and [E : F ( )] = 1 so E = F ( ) is simple.

1

2

22.

x 2 3 has roots 3 3 2 .

23.

24.

pi : = 2n . Since a zero of x 14 3x 2 + 12

n

n

has degree 14 = 2 7 , which does not divide 2 , there is no element of i pi that can be such a zero.

Since E is a finite extension, by Theorem 11 i : E = F

g = +i g i i ,

( ).

i

Let g , h D E ; g , h 0, so

g h = +i , j g i h j i + j .

25.

Since

{ }

x= 3+ 7

x 3= 7

x2 4

x 3 = 7

x2 2 3 +3 = 7

x 4 8x 2 + 16 = 12

= 4 3 = 12

3 , 7 : 7 = 2 . Now consider:

x2 4 = 2 3

x 4 8x 2 + 28 = 0

so deg 3 + 7 , = 4 and 3 + 7 : = 4 , so

3 + 7 : = 3 + 7 : 7 3 :

4 = 3 + 7 : 7 2

2 = 3 + 7 : 7

Then:

3 , 7 : 7 = 3 , 7 : 3 + 7 3 + 7 : 7

2 = 3 , 7 : 3 + 7 2

1 = 3 , 7 : 3 + 7

26.

27.

28.

( )

( ) [() ]

()

If is of degree 1, , F and F ( ) = F ( ) = F . Suppose n is of at least degree 3. By Theorem 2.23, F ( )

has basis {

} , where n = deg ( , F ) . Since 2 is relatively prime to n, 2 generates by Corollary 1.5.18 and

) ={

} and F ( ) = F ( ) .

n 1

i =0

n 1

i =0

n 1

i =0

140