A Thes~s
~~Efd
o rv&laeaphy
in the Faculty of Enginecr~ng
BY
NAGESH PRABHU
September 2004
Acknowledgements
I express my deep sense of gratitude to my thesis supervisor Prof K R Padiyar, for his
unbounded patience and kindness I consider myself extremely fortunate to work under his
able supervision and receive invaluable guidance No words will be adequate to quantify his
tolerance, understanding and deep concern both for my academics and personal welfare I
am highly indebted to lum
I am thankful to Sri Girimaji N Rajagopal, Secretary, N E S Shimoga and the authorities of JNNCE for all the encouragement and support
I take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude to Prof H S Y Shastry, Prof
Abstract
Senes compensation of long transmssion l~nesis an economlc solution to the problem 01 enhancing power transfer and improving system stability However series compensated transmssion llnes connected to the turbo generator can result in Sub Synchronous Resonance
(SSR) leadmg to undamped SubSynchronous Oscillations (SSO)
The advent of FACTS Controllers using lugh power sermconductors has made it possible
to apply these controllers in conjunction wlth fixed senes compensation, not only to improve
system performance, but also to overcome the problem of SSR A notable example is e
application of TCSC
FACTS controllers based on Voltage Sourcl ,onverter (VSC) are emerging controllers
that have several advantages over the conventional ones uslng thyristors The STATCOM is
a shunt FACTS controller suitable for voltage regulation and damping of oscillations SSSC
1s a s e n e controller that can replace TCSC for power flow control UPFC is a combined
(series and shunt) controller that 1s most versatile and can be used for controlhng actlvc
and reactive power m a hne along w t h voltage regulation IPFC consists of multlple SSSC,
wh~chare mterhnked to provlde a h g h degree of control flexlbil~ty
It is well known that, the HVDC converter controls can also cause adverse torsional interactions VSC can also be applied for HVDC power transmission and enables simultaneous
control of active and reactive power at a converter without any problems of commutation
failure
There is hardly any work reported on SSR characteristics of VSC based FACTS and
HVDC controllers This thesis reports the work on modehg, analysis and s~mulationof
VSC based controllers The analysis of SSR is canled out by dampmg torque method, elgend u e analys~sand transient simulat~onwith hfferent FACTS controllers namely, STATCOM,
SSSC, UPFC and IPFC Tlvs them presents the analysis and simulation of SSR on a representative VSC based HVDC system The detaded investigat~onof SSR characteristics of
UPFC, IPFC and VSC based HVDC links is reported for the first time
The models of converters are denved from first pnnclples uslng smtchng functions Neglect~ngh m o m c s in the smtching funct~ons,models are denved based on DQvariables
These models can be mterfaced mth models of other system components including generator
and trmsrmssion network The converter controls are also modelled in deta~lThe hnearized
models are uthzed for damplng torque analysis for the fast assessment of tors~onalinteractions Here the generator 1s represented by the class~calmodel whereas, it is represented
by the detaled (2 2) model for the elgenvalue analysls The transient amulation is based
on nodnear 3phase model of the system inclu&ng switching action in the converters The
analysis of SSR has been illustrated usmg the case studies based on IEEE FBM and IEEE
SBM
The thesis also presents an effective, yet simple method for the design of SubSynchronous
Darnplng Controller (SSDC) on STATCOM and SSSC using control signal based on local
measurements The objective is to provide adequate damping torque in a range of cnt~cal
torsional kequenues The performance of SSDC is evaluated using transient simulation
Contents
Llst of Tables
Llst of Figures
1 Introduction
1 1 General
12 Subsynchronous Resonance in Power Systems
13 Flexlble AC Transmssion Systems (FACTS)
13 1 Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM)
13 2 Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC)
13 3 Urufied Power Flow Controller (UPFC)
13 4 Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC)
14 Voltage Source Converter Based HVDC Tkansmssion Systems
15 Literature %mew
15 1 Analys~sand Control of Subsynchronous Resonance
15 2 Control and Analysis of SSR with VSC based FACTS controllers
15 3 SSR Analysis with HVDC Systems
16 Objectives and Scope of the Thesis
17 O u t h e of the Thesls
2 Modelling and Revlew of Methods for the Analysls of SSR
2 1 Introduction
2 2 Modelbng of Electromechanical System
2 2 1 Synchronous generator
2 2 2 Modelhng of Excitation Control System
2 2 3 Power System Stabihzer(PSS)
2 2 4 Dansrmssion Network
2 2 5 Turbine Generator Mechanical System
Xlll
model of generator
Eigenvalue analysis
2 3 3 Tkansient simulation
2 4 Case Studies
2 4 1 Case study with IEEE FBM
2 4 1 1 Results of damplng torque analysis
2 4 1 2 Eigenvalue analysis
2 4 13 Tkansient simulation
2 4 2 Case study with IEEE SBM
2 4 2 1 Results of darnprng torque analysis
2 4 2 2 Eigenvalue analysls
2 4 2 3 Transient s~mulation
232
2 5 Conclusrons
3 Analysls of SSR and Design of SubSynchronous Damping Controller with
STATCOM
3 2 Modehng of two lekel converter based STATCOM
3 2 1 Basic equations [94]
3 2 2 Equations in DQreference frame
3 3 Modehng of three level converter based STATCOM
3 3 1 Basic equations
55
55
56
56
63
65
65
71
73
74
74
76
78
79
3 1 Introduction
332
83
84
4 1 Introduction
4 2 Modelhng of two level converter based SSSC
4 2 1 Basic equations
4 2 2 Equations in DQ reference frame
4 3 Modelhng of three level converter based SSSC
4 3 1 daslc equations
4 3 2 Equations in DQreference frame
4 4 Network solution
4 5 Controller structures for SSSC
4 5 1 Type1 controller
4 5 2 Type2 controller
4 6 Case study with Type2 SSSC
4 6 1 Damping torque analysis
4 6 2 Eigenvalue analysis
4 6 3 Transient simulation
4 7 Case study with Type1 SSSC
4 7 1 Darnping torque analysis
4 7 2 Eigenvalue malys~s
4 7 3 Transient simulation
4 8 Design and analysis wth SSDC
139
139
140
141
5 2 1 Basic equations
142
144
145
147
148
148
149
5 3 13
5 3 14
152
152
154
154
156
161
HVDC System
6 1 Introduction
6 2 Modelhng of VSC based NVDC
6 2 1 Basic equations
6 2 2 Mathematical model ~nDQ frame of reference
6 2 3 Converter control
163
163
164
165
166
167
7 1 Introduction
7 2 Conventional and VSC based HVDC
7 3 2 Eigenvalue analysis
7 3 2 1 Eigenvalue analysis with strong AC system (ESCRi4 5)
7322
7 3 3 Transient simulation
7 4 Conclusions
8 Analysis of SSR Interactions w t h h t e r l ~ n ePower Flow Controller
205
8 1 Introduction
205
8 2 Modebng of IPFC
8 2 1 Basic Equations
8 2 2 Mathematical model in DQ frame of reference
206
207
208
823
Converter control
8 3 A Case Study
209
211
212
8 3 1 1 Without IPFC
212
8 3 12 With IPFC
212
8 3 1 3 Sensitivity of damplng torque for senes r e d voltage(Vp) mjection
214
8 3 2 Eigenvalue analysis
8 3 3 Transient simulation
8 4 Conclusions
216
218
221
9 Conclusions
9 1 General
9 2 Modelhng and Revlew of Methods for Analysls of SSR
9 2 1 Modelhng of Generator and Network
9 2 2 Modelhng of FACTS controllers
9 2 3 Methods for the malysis of SSR
9 3 Analysis of SSR with FACTS controllers
9 3 1 STATCOM
9 3 2 SSSC
9 3 3 UPFC
9 3 4 IPFC
9 4 Torsional Interactions with VSC based HVDC
9 4 1 Design of Controllers
9 4 2 Analysls of SSR
9 5 Suggestions for Further Work
229
C System D a t a
C 1 IEEE FBM
C 2 Data for Chapter 3
C 3 Data for Chapter 4
C4
C5
C6
C7
249
CONTENTS
G Derivation of admittance functlon in DQ axes mth IPFC
XI
253
H Derivation of admittance functlon in DQ axes with VSC based HVDC 257
References
261
41
48
42
49
3 4 Torsiond mode eigenvalucs of the systcrn with three level VSC based STATCOM and SSDC
98
135
7 4 Eigenvalues of the detded system with VSC based HVDC for cases 5 and 7
with ESCR=4 5
196
7 5 Eigenvalues of the detaled system with VSC based HVDC for cases 6 and 8
with E S C b 4 5
7 6 Eigenvalues of the detded system with VSC based HVDC for cases 1 and 3
with ESCR=2 5
7 7 Eigenvalues of the detaled system with VSC based HVDC for cases 2 and 4
with ESCR=2 5
7 8 Eigenvalues of the detaled system with VSC based HVDC for cases 5 and 7
with ESCR=2 5
7 9 Eigenvalues of the detaded system with VSC based HVDC for cases 6 and 8
with E S C b 2 5
7 10 Sensitivity of damping with generator rating for case 6 with E S C k 2 5
197
200
210
217
217
218
198
198
199
199
List of Figures
1 1 A series compensated system
1 2 Schemat~cdiagram of STATCOM
1 3 Schematic diagram of SSSC
UPFC
1 5 Schematic diagram of IPFC
14 Schematic diagram of
2 17 Variation of electncal torque and generator temnal voltage for pulse change
in lnput mechmcal torque(Xc = 0 60)
2 18 FF'T analysls of LPALPB section torque (Xc = 0 60)
2 19 IEEE Second Benchmark Model
2 20 Variation of damping torque wlth frequency for IEEE SBM
LISTOF FIGURES
3 19 Vanation of damping torque wlth detaled DQ model of two level VSC based
STATCOM
3 20 Vanation of damping torque mth simphfied model of STATCOM considering
voltage measurement delay
3 21 Vanation of rotor angle and LPALPB section torque for pulse change in
input mechanical torque (DQmodel of two level VSC based STATCOM (with
voltage control))
3 22 Var~ationof rotor angle and LPALPB section torque for pulse change in input
mechanical torque (3 phase model of tuo level VSC based STATCOM (mth
voltage control))
3 23 FFT analysis of LPALPB section torque (3 phase model of two level VSC
based STATCOM (with voltage control))
3 24 Variation of damping torque with detailed DQ model of three level VSC based
STATCOM
3 25 Vanation of rotor angle and LPALPB section torque for pulse change in
input mechanical torque (DQ model of three level VSC based STATCOM
(vnth volt age control))
3 26 Variation of rotor angle and LPALPB section torque for pulse change in input
mechanical torque (3 phase model of three level VSC based STATCOM (with
voltage control))
3 27 FFT analysis of LPALPB section torque (3 phase model of three level VSC
based STATCOM (wth voltage control))
3 28 Comparison of damping torques with admttance function m DQ axes and
admttance function m single phase basis m t h type2 STATCOM
3 29 Subsynchronous and supersynchronous components of damplng torque with
Type2 STATCOM
3 30 Conductance and susceptance of Type2 STATCOM
xvli
LISTOF FIGURES
xvlil
3 34 Varlatlon of rotor angle and LPALPB section torque for pulse change m mput
mechmcal torque (with DQmodel of two level VSC based STATCOM w t h
SSDC)
3 35 Varlation of rotor angle and LPALPB section torque for pulse change m mput
mechmcal torque (with 3 phase model of two level VSC based STATCOM
wlth SSDC)
3 36 Variatlon of rotor angle and LPALPB section torque for pulse change m mput
mechmcal torque (wth 3 phase model of three level VSC based STATCOM
wlth SSDC)
3 37 Variatlon of reactive current and armature current for pulse change m mput
mechamcal torque (with DQ model of three level VSC based STATCOM
without SSDC)
3 38 Variation of reactive current and armature current for pulse change m lnput
mechamcal torque (with DQ model of three level VSC based STATCOM with
SSDC)
1
3 39 FFT analysis of hne current magmtude(unth DQ model of three level VSC
60 p u )
4 13 Vanation of rotor angle and LPALPB section torque for pulse change in input
mechmcal torque (with detaled DQmodel of type2 SSSC Combination of
Xsssc = 15%, and Xc = 45% )
121
4 14 Vanation of rotor angle and LPALPB section torque for pulse change m
input mechanical torque (with detaled three phase model of type2 SSSC
Combination of Xsssc= 15%, and XC = 45% )
122
4 15 Vanation of electrical torque and generator terrmnal voltage for pulse change
in input mechanical torque (with detaled three phase model of type2 SSSC
122
Combination of Xsssc= 15%, and Xc = 45% )
123
4 17 Vanation of rotor angle and LPALPB section torque for pulse change in
input mechanical torque (mth detaled three phase model of type2 SSSC
Combination of Xsssc= 20%, and Xc = 40% )
124
4 18 FFT analysis of LPALPB section torque for case3 (Xc= 0 40, Xsssc= 0 20) 124
4 19 Damping torque with and without Type1 SSSC
125
4 20 Variation of rotor angle and LPALPB section torque for pulse change m input
mechmcal torque (wlth detaled DQmodel of type1 SSSC Combination of
127
Xsssc = 15%, and Xc = 45% )
4 21 Vanation of rotor angle and LPALPB section torque for pulse change m
input mechanical torque (mth detaled three phase model of type1 SSSC
Combination of Xsssc= 15%, and Xc = 45% )
128
4 25 Vanation of rotor angle and LPALPB section torque for pulse change in
input mechanical torque (mth detaled three phase model of type1 SSSC
130
Comb~nationof Xsssc= 20%, and Xc = 40% )
4 26 Variation of electrical torque and generator terminal voltage for pulse change
in input mecharucal torque (wth detaled three phase model of type1 SSSC
131
Combination of Xsssc
= 20%, and Xc = 40% )
4 27 Variation of reactive voltage VR(Se)and DC voltage V& for pulse change m
input mechanical torque (unth detaled three phase model of type1 SSSC
Combination of Xsssc = 20%, and Xc = 40% )
131
4 28 FFT analysis of LPALPB section torque for case7 (XC= 0 40, Xsssc
= 0 20) 132
132
4 29 schematic of SSDC for SSSC
134
4 30 Damping torque with and without SSDC for type2 SSSC
134
4 31 Damping torque with and mthout SSDC for type1 SSSC
4 32 Variation of rotor angle and LPALPB section torque for pulse change m
input mechanical torque (with detaled three phase model of type2 SSSC
136
Combination of Xsssc
= 20%, and Xc = 40% with SSDC )
4 33 Variation of rotor angle and LPALPB section torque for pulse change m
input mechanical torque (with detaled three phase model of type1 SSSC
1
136
Combinat~onof Xsssc
= 20%, and Xc = 40% "0th SSDC )
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
5 18 Simulation with three phase model of UPFC for three phase fault
159
159
160
6 3 Converter controller
6 4 System diagram
4)
179
6 13 Simulatron results for step change with optimal controller parameters (case4) 179
6 14 Simulation results for step change with suboptimal controller parameters (case5)
180
6 15 Simulation results for step change with optimal controller parameters (cased) 180
6 16 Simulation results for step change mth suboptimal controller parameters (case6)
181
6 17 Simulation results for step change with optimal controller parameters (cased) 181
6 18 Simulatlon results for step change unth suboptimal controller parameters (case7)
182
6 19 Simulation results for step change with optimal controller parameters (we7) 182
6 20 Vanation of converter power and dc voltages for step change m power reference
(case7)
183
6 21 Simulation results for step change mth suboptimal controller parameters (case8)
184
6 22 Simulatlon results for step change with optimal controller parameters (case8) 184
6 23 Variation of rotor angle and power at converter 1 for three phase fault (DQ
model)
6 24 Variation of rotor angle and power at converter 1 for three phase fault (Three
phase model)
7 1 System diagram
7 2 Plot of damping torque with frequency for cases 1 and 2
for three phase fault (Three phase model) for case1 w t h ESCR=4 5
8 3 IPFC controller
8 4 System dagram
with R4
8 10 Simulation with detaled DQ model of IPFC for pulse change III
T, (VP~=
0 00)
8 11 Simulation with detded 3 phase model of IPFC for pulse change m T, (VP~=
0 00)
8 12 Simulation with detaled DQ model of IPFC for pulse change in T, (Vp2
=
0 06)
220
8 13 Simulation with detaded 3 phase model of IPFC for pulse change in T, (Vpa=
0 06)
220
A 1 Block diagram showlng interact~onbetween electrical and mechanical systems 229
B 1 SMIB system with series compensation
233
243
249
253
253
254
H 1 Simphfied system diagram with VSC HVDC represented as two port network 257
Chapter 1
Introduction
1 1 General
The contmuous increase for the demand of electrical energy and construnts on additional
Rght Of Way (ROW) for transmission lines has caused the power systems to operate under
more stressed conditions Hence the electrical utihties are forced to expand the generation
and transmissions facilities In view of difficulties involved in the addition of new transrmssion lines, it is challengng for power system engneers to efficiently utilize the existing
transmssion facihties m a secure matmer
The long transmission hnes are used for utihzation of remotely located resources The reasons for limtation of transm~ssioncapability of long transmssion hnes extend from thermal
considerations to transient and dynamc stability of the networks The power flow pattern in
the transmssion system is unfavourable if some of the transmission lines may be veq close
to the= thermal hrmts whle other lmes have large thermal margrns The Increase in pou er
flow over a given transmission network can be achieved by compensating the AC network by
(1) senes compensation to partly compensate for the transmssion hne reactances by series
capacitors (11) shunt compensation to m m t a m voltage dynarmcally at appropnate buses
m the network by reactive power compensators
Series capacitive compensation is an econormcal and drect approach for increasing the
transmssion capabihty of long distance transmission l~nes The serles capacitor decreases
electrical length of compensated transmssion line They also help in voltage regulation and
reactive power control among parallel transmssion paths However, introduction of Senes
capacitors m a transmssion system can gve nse to SubSysnchronous Resonance (SSR) by
interacting with the turbogenerators [l,21 The SSR phenomenon was discovered when it
resulted in the destruction of two generator shafts at the MOHAVE power station (m USA)
on December 9, 1970 and agam on October 26, 1971 This has prompted the research in
findmg remedies and countermeasures for the possible SSR problem
Chapter 1 Introdzlctzon
The problem of underutlllzation of AC transmission network and increasing the transmission loadmgs close to thar thermal l i n t s can be alleviated by the use of emergmg Flexlble
AC Transmssion System (FACTS) controllers [3] The Voltage Source Converter (VSC)
based FACTS controllers make use of Gate Turn Off(GTO)deuces for fast and rehable
control The VSC based FACTS controllers lnclude STATIC synchronous COMpensator
(STATCOM),Static Synchronous Series Compensators (SSSC), Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) and Interlme Power Flow Controller (IPFC) As the use of FACTS controllers
is increasingly considered by system planners, it becomes essential to investigate the SSR
characteristics of various FACTS controllers
12
Subsynchronous resonance is a major concern for the stabhty of turbinegenerators connected to transmssion systems whch employ series capacitors A dsturbance m the power
system can cause excitation of turbinegenerator natural torsional modes When the generator is connected to a series capacitor compensated transmssion system) these osclllations
can be amphfied and sustamed due to interaction between the electrical and the multimass
mechmcal system The osclllations of the shaft at natural modes may bmld up to dangerously hgh value resulting m shaft falure SSR has been defined by the IEEE SSR workmg
group [4] as follows
'Subsynchronous Elesonance' is an electncal power system condition where the electnc
network exchanges energy with the turbinegenerator at one or more of the natural fiequencies of the combined system below the synchronous frequency of the system
During the lncldents of generator shaft damage at Mohave [5], ~t was found that the
frequency of one of the torsional modes was close to the complementary frequency of subsynchronous currents present in the electncd system T h s resulted m large torque m the
shaft section between the generator and exciter whch subsequently damaged the shaft
The physical basls for the detnmentd effects of SSR phenomenon can be explamed by
tak~ngup a basic series compensated system as shown in Fig 1 1 The osclllations of the
generator rotor at subsynchronous frequency '',f result in voltages lnduced m the armature
havmg components of (1) subsynchronous frequency (f,  f,) and (11) supersynchronous fieS U ~ ~ C(&+A))
Y
where 'f.' ~9 the operatmg system kequency These voltages set up currents
m the armature (and network) whose magmtudes and phase angles depend on the network
lm~edances Both current components (sub and supersynchronus) set up electromagnetic
torques of the same frequency 'f
,' In general, supersynchronous frequency currents result
RL
3
Infinite Bus
where x" is the subtransient reactance of the generator Xt is the leakage reactance of the
transformer, XL and Xc are the transmssion llne mductive and capacitive reactances respectively Since Xc < XL,f,, < f, Thus for a particular level of serles compensation, it
is possible that f, N f,  f,,,
There are two aspects of thc SSR problcrri[l] Thcsc arc
1 Self excitation (also called as steady state SSR)
2 Transient torques (also c d e d as transient SSR)
Self excltat~on
Subsynchronous frequency currents entering the generator temnals produce subsynchronous
frequency terminal voltage components These voltage components may sustmn the currents
to produce the effect that is termed as self excitation There are two types of self excitation,
one involving only rotor electncal dynarmcs and the other involving both rotor electncal and
mcchamcal dynamcs The first one is termed as mduction generator effect whle the second
one is called as torsional interaction
Induction generator effect
Induction generator effect (IGE) results from the fact that subsynchronous frequency(f,,)
currents m the armature set up a rotatrng magnetic field whch Induce currents m the rotor
of frequency f, < fo As the rotating mmf produced by the subsynchronous frequency
Chapter 1
Intmductton
armature currents is moving slower than the speed of the rotor, the resistance of the rotor
(at the subsynchronous frequency viewed from the armature t e r m a l s ) 1s negatlve as the shp
of the maclvne vlewed as an induction generator is negative When the magnitude of t h s
negative resistance exceeds the sum of the armature and network resistances at a resonant
frequency, there wdl be self excitation However, t h s problem can be tackled by suitable
deslgn of amortisseuer m h g s of the generator rotor
Torsional I n t eractlon
Generator rotor osc~llationsat a torsional mode frequency f,, induce armature voltage
components at frequencies (f,,) glven by
f""
= fo f fm
When the subsynchronous component off,, 1s close to f,, (electrical resonant frequency
defined in equation (1 I)), the subsynchronous torques produced by subs~chronousvoltage
component can be sustaned T h s interplay between electrical and mechwcal systems u
termed as torsional interaction (TI) The torsional interaction cazl also be vlewed as the
lnscrtion of negative resistance m the generator armature viewed from the terrmnals Ths
effect is much more sigmficant compared to the induction generator effect
The self excitation aspect of SSR can be considered as a stabihty problem under small
disturbances and can be analyzed using h e a r models
Transient Torques
System dsturbances result~ngfrom surltclvng m the network can excite oscdlatory torques
on the generator rotor The transient electrical torque, in general has many components
m c l u b g u&rectional, exponentially decayrng and oscdlatory torques from sabsynchronous
to multiples (typically second harmonic) of network frequency Due to SSR phenomenon,
the subsynchronous frequency components of torque can have large amphtudes ~mmecbately
following the bturbance, although they may decay eventually Each occurrence of these
h g h amphtude transient torques can result m expendture of the shaft Me due to fatigue
damage
Since the system 1s nodmear, the effect of transient torque can be studed by numencal
mtegration of system Werential equations by incorporating all nonhnearities The EMTP
perrmts nodnear modellug of complex system components and 1s well suted for analyzmg
transient torque SSR problems [2]
18
13
controller that s most versatile and can be used for controlling active and reactive power
m a hne along with regulating the voltage Interhne Power Flow Controller (IPFC) conslst~
of multlple SSSC, whch are interhnked to provide a hgh degree of control flexlbhty In
adhtion to power flow control and voltage regulation, FACTS controllers can be used for
transient stabihty improvement, damping of power swlngs and mtigation of SSR
VSC can also be apphed for HVDC power transmssion and enable simultaneous and
rndependent control of active and reactive power at a converter wthout any problems of
commutation fdure
VSC
to =&mge red power w t h the AC system by controlhg the phase of the inverter output
voltages with respect to correspondmg bus voltages
The major advantages of the STATCOM over SVC are [9, 101
1 The STATCOM can supply required reactive current even at low bus voltage, whereas
the reactive current capablhty of SVC at its capacitive susceptance hrmt decreases
hnearly with decrease in the bus voltage
2 With proper choice of device rating and thermal design, STATCOM can have a short
tlme overload capacity This is not possible with SVC as it has Inherent susceptance
hmlt
3 Signficant sue reduction can be achieved as reduced number of passive components
wlth smaller size are involved
4 STATCOM can allow real power modulation with energy source at its DC terminals
13 2
The voltage source converter based series compensator is called Static Synchronous Series
Compensator (SSSC) SSSC injects a series voltage In the transmission hne for series compensation whch can be effectively used for active power control [ll] The schematic of SSSC
injecting a series voltage in the transmission line is shown m Flg 13 For normal capac~tive
VSC
Chapter 1 Intmductzon
have a classical series resonance at the fundamental frequency The SSSC therefore appears
m series with the hne as an 'energy neutral' device and thus lt is expected that, lt ~1.11
not
contribute to the occurrence of SSR Due to losses in VSC, the angle of injected voltage is
not exactly 90 degrees with respect to the line current but close to f 90 degrees
three controllable parameters vlz , the series injected real voltage, the series injected reactive
voltage and the shunt reactlve current
134
The Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC), was proposed by Gyugyi et a1 [15] The
schematic of IPFC with two VSCs is shown in Fig 1 5 The IPFC employs a number of VSCs
Line  2
T'
Chapter 1 Inimduclchon
10
DC Cable
VSC Stabon 1
VSC Stahon 2
15
Literature Revlew
1 5 Lztemture Revzew
1'1
multimass model or (11) decoupled modal model [l] In model (11) the mechanical system
equatlons are decoupled by a sultable transformation The generator IS modelled by detarled
2 2 model [I, 191
The phenomenon of subsynchronous resonance has been studied in depth and the list of
large number of hteratures are available in [20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 251 The analysis of steady
state SSR can be conveniently performed by heanzing the system at the operating point
The frequency scanning technique [26, 271 is used as a preliminary tool for the analysis
of SSR and is effective in studylng IGE Agarwal and Farmer [27] described a frequency
scanmng technique (a frequency domain analysis) which can detect the possible IGE and
TI The method involves the determlnatlon of driving point impedance at the operat~ng
point over the subsynchronous frequency range, as mewed from the neutral of the generator
under study When used in conjunction with approxlmate formula developed by Kllgore et
al [26], quantitative results are provided for the assessment of self excitation due to SSR
whch is helpful in identifying the system conditions that are potentially hazardous Self
excitation due to IGE is indcated ~f there are one or more frequencies where the equivalent
reactance is zero and the eqtuvalent resistance is negative
Torsional Interaction (TI) can occur when the complehent of electrical resonant frequency (f,) is close to or coincides with one of the natural frequencies of the turbinegenerator shaft system Under these conditions shaft torque oscillations can build up to
extremely h g h levels and cause shaft falure Canay 1281 suggested a frequency domam analysls based on the concept of synchronizing and damplng torques The concept of damping
torque is useful m the analysis of the contribution of the electrical system In the damping of
the torsional modes
The frequency doman methods are simpler and approxlmate but are still useful techniques for screening the system conditions that give rise to potential SSR problems
The small signal analysis of SSR can be performed based on eigenvalue analysis [29, 303
The eigenvalue techmque uses the mathematical model of the system using a set of differential
equatlons which are linearized about an operating polnt This technique was used by Fouad
et a1 [31] and Bowler et a1 [32] to study the torsional interactions and to detemne the
w o u s con&tions which lead to mstablhty Eigendue analysis is an exact method and can
employ detded system models as described m references 11, 21
Edns [33] describes a novel concept for mtigatlon of SSR based on asyrnmetncal senes
compensation for SSR frequencies Iravam and Edns [34] provlde quantitative evaluation a
the concept of asymmetric compensation using a novel elgenvalue approach The eigenvalue
12
Chapter 1 Intmductzon
analysis approach represents the mathematical models of power system components in the
three phase basls The phase unbalance concept [33] is extended to TCSC with dscrete
control strategy to mtigate SSR is suggested by Sujatha Subhash et al [35]
In a classlc paper, Bowler et al [32] analyze elgenvalue movements in a p a r of coupled
RLC oscdlators to give physical might m to subsynchronous resonance Mugwanya and Van
Ness [36] descnbe the concept of mode couphg which implies that a mode of response ln
one part of the system may also appear in another part of the system Padiyar [l]describes
the SSR as the mode couphng between an electncal mode in series compensated network and
a torsional mode m a turblne generator feedng the network The agenvalues that are close
can result in mode couphg (although not always) wlvch m e s from the sirmlanty between
eigenvectors Dobson [37] has studed subsynchronous resonance instabihty uslng concepts
of strong and weak resonances Normal form analysls to quantify nodnear interactions near
strong resonance 1s carned out The results suggest that subsynchronous resonance u caused
by a p a r of strong resonances whch are a perturbation of a weak resonance
Allen et d [38]investigated the performance of a feedbacklmearizmg control for excitation control of a synchronous generator wlth respect to unmodelled dynarmcs of both
the turbine generator umt and the transrmssion network The control acts to decouple the
dynarmcs associated w t h the madune from the dynarmcs of the transrmssion gnd, thus
pre~entmgSSR between the two subsystems when a series capautor is used to compensate
the transmssion h e
When Hopf bifurcation occurs, the system may expenence hmted oscillations whch may
be analyzed by applylng the appropnate bifurcations theory Analysls of Hbpf bifurcations
for a SMIB power system experlenclng SSR is presented by Zhu et a1 [39]
The analysls of transient SSR cannot be carned out using hneamed models Thls requres
the the system to be modelled m detal lncorporatmg all the nonhneanties Since the model
ls n o h e a r , the transient slmulatlon of the system to be camed out (mvolves numerical
integration of Merentla1 equations) The vvldely used Electromagnetic Transient Program
( E m )is well swted for t h s purpose Although t h s program was ongnally developed for
the study of Zlghtnq and switching transients [40], the program has been extended subsequently to incorporate detded model of synchronous generator for the study of SSR m
references [41,42,431 The s~mulationcan be performed convemently by EMTP [42] The
synchronous m h e equations are, in general, nonhear and tune vaqwg The solution
of synchronous madme equations along wth network equations reqlure a slutable mterface t e h q u e Several ~nterfaangt e b q u e s have been reported m the literature 141,421
Ramshaw and Padiyar [44] presented a novel approach where synchronous machine is represented by an eqtuvalent clrcmt whch simplify considerably the problem of interfacing the
machine and network Here, the stator of synchronous generator is represented by constant
(subtransient) inductances [L:]in parallel mth current sources I, wh~chare dependent on
rotor flux linkages Simulation of SSR usrng comprehensive simulation program NETOMAC
is reported in [45]
Maguire and Gole [46]outhne some of the considerations m the detaled simulation
algonthms for FACTS controllers especially the problem of numerical osclllatlon in EMTP
and have proposed algorithmic improvements to avoid the same It is to be noted that,
the transient simulation can also be performed using MATLABSIMULINK [47] Here the
differential equations describing the system can be represented by baslc blocks of SIMULINK
and the nonlinearities can also be modelled easily
The design, installation and basic control models of the Slatt TCSC is described in
[48, 491 An EMTP study of SSR mtigation of the Slatt TCSC is presented m [50] It is
alamed by Plwko et a1 [51] that, TCSC is SSR neutral and can reduce SSR effects due to
nearby fixed series capacitors
The computation of damping of subsynclironousoscillations due to a TCSC is reported by
hjararnan et a1 [52] Pahyar and Geetha [53] carried out analysis of torsional lnteractions
mth controlled series compensation Padlym et al [54] presented a novel constant angle
controller for controlled series compensation to affect transient stability and SSR characteristics Padiyar and Chaurasia [55] present a systematic approach for elgenvalue analysis,
damping torque analysis and transient simulation of the system with TCSC to investigate
the torsional lnteractions It is shown that vernier control of TCSC 1s effective in damplng
subsynchronous oscillations Hingorm [56], suggest the NGH SSR damping scheme to (a)
reduce transient machine oscillations d u n g system dsturbances (b) suppress steadystate
SSR (c) suppress DC offset of the series capacitors and (d) protect the series capacitors
Mattavelli et al [57, 581 present dynamc phasor model of the TCSC in studies of SSR The
model developed by them is slmple to incorporate m the studles and gves accurate estlmate
of SSR damplng K h m o t o and Phongphanphanee [59] present a method of analytically
calculating electncal damping of TCSC with a h n g angle control They investigated the
influence of modulation of firing angle on SSR
Rostomkolm et a1 I601 have c m e d out a detded study of TI mth SVC The result of the
study indcated that torsional interactions are pnrnmly due to voltage regulat~onfunctlon
of SVC The evaluation of torsional interactions mth the voltage regulator of SVC is studied
Chapter 1 Introdvctzon
14
by Geetha [61] The use of a d a r y signals to damp SSR have been proposed for SVCs in
references [62, 63, 64, 651 The control signal used s denved from generator rotor velocity
However, SVC IS used at the generator t e m a l s and dedrcated to damp SSR and is not
used for any other ob~ectivehke improving power transfer capabibty P d y a r and Varma
[66], used SVC simulteneously for mdpomt compensation of transmsion bne (to improve
power transfer capability) as well as to damp torsional oscdlations The signals used are
sinthesued uslng local measurements and are designated as Computed Internal Frequency
(CIF) and Computed Rotor Frequency (CRF) Khaparde et a1 [67] present simultaneous
PSS and SVC scheme for damplng SSR
15 2
The basic concept of uslng VSC based FACTS controllers for power control was described
by Gyugyl [68] In subsequent papers, Gyugyl [12, 131 descnbed in detal the concepts of
UPFC and SSSC [ll] and compared ~t wth thyristor based equipment and fixed compensation Nelson et a1 [69]have drscussed the detaded operation of SSSC and compared its
performance wlth UPFC, TCSC and TCPAR uslng cucle hagrams in the PQplane
An analysis of &pulse and 1Zpulse STATCOM has been presented by Tramer et al
[70] whle the operation and design of control descnbed in [71, 721 A vector control based
scheme for control of reactive current of STATCOM was proposed by Schauder and Mehta
[71] They descnbe two controller structures for the STATCOM one of whch lnvolves both
maptude and phase control of the converter output voltage (Type1 control) and other
structure controls only phase angle for the control of reactive current Schauder et a1 1731
present the development and prototype installation of a f100 MVAR STATCOM at the
Sdhvan substation of the TVA power system
Multilevel topologes have been suggested as an alternative to multipulse topologes for
VSCs The study of multdevd topologes for STATCOM have been presented m [74,75,76]
In [75] expenmental study is m e d out on a laboratory model of a three level STATCOM
whch uses selective harmomc ehmation t e h q u e to rrrrmrrrme harmomcs
Analyss of TI mth STATCOM is c m e d out by Pdyar [I] The stud@ show that the
voltage regulatar a d o n of STATCOM mxgnally mcreases the negative dampmg of mode1
of IEEE FBM Patd et a.l [77] presented the apphcation of STATCOM for damp~ngof
torsional oscdlations In ther study, the STATCOM IS connected at the generator ttmrurds
and a a
slgnd derived from generator speed dewation IS used to suppress the unstable
15
Lztemture Revzew
15
torsional osc~llations
SSSC have d~ffcrcntdynarmc characteristics as compared to vanable or fixed impedances
Consequently they can be Immune to clrcult resonances [ll] The torsional interactions
w t h a SSSC are studied by K u l h and Padiyar [78] A damp~ngcontroller which takes
generator shp as Input is suggested to modulate the reactive voltage reference for damp~ng
of SSR Sunil Kumar and Arindam Ghosh [79] developed an SSSC model with 48 step
VSI configuration and studied the torsional Interaction Pill= et a1 [80] report the study of
torsional interact~onswith combination of SSSC and fixed capacitor The damping controller
with the Input from the generator speed is used for damping critical tors~onalmodes
15 3
Chapter 1 Intmductzon
16
16
SSR 1s an important aspect to be considered m the apphcation of FACTS controllers particularly m lmes with fixed series compensation The fast control feature of FACTS controllers
can be used effectively for the mitigation of SSR However, some of the operating modes
of FACTS controllers may cause adverse rnteractions The mvestigation of SSR characte~.
istics with wious VSC based FACTS controllers is relatively a new top~cof research and
there is hardly any work reported It is well known that, the HVDC converter controls with
conventional thyristor based converters can also cause adverse torsional interactions [86]
However, there is little work reported on the SSR studies of VSC based HVDC converters
T h s thesis is concerned unth the analysis of torsional mteractions in systems with voltage
source converter based FACTS and HVDC controllers The aim of the thesis is hrected
at develop~ngmodels and analytical tedmques for the prediction of SSR in systems unth
FACTS controllers hke STATCOM, SSSC, UPFC, IPFC and VSC based HVDC
The objectives of the thesis are
1 Development of accurate models of VSC based FACTS controllers for SSR stuhes based
on damping torque malysis, eigendue analysis and detded transient simulation
3 Investigation of SSR mth SSSC and the deslgn of SSDC for the darnplng of SSR
4 Investigation of SSR characteristics of UPFC for various operating modes of series and
shunt converters
HVDC
6 Mode%,
control design and mvestlgatlon of SSR mth VSC based HVDC system
The analytical methods developed for the study of SSR characteristics are illustrated USmg the examples of IEEE hrst Benchmark Model (FBM)1881 and IEEE Second Benchmark
Model (SBM) [89]systems The mvestigation is caned out on the apphcatlon of FACTS
controllers to supplement fixed sene compensation and act as countermeasure for SSR The
17
models of converters are derived from first principles using switching functions Neglecting
harmonics in the switchmg functions, models are derived based on DQ vanables These
models can be interfaced with models of other system components includmg generator and
transmssion network The converter controls are also modelled in detail The hnearized
models using DQ variables are utdlzed for damping torque analysis for the fast assessment
of torsional interactions Here, the generator is represented by the classical model whereas, it
is represented by the detaled (2 2) model [19] for the eigenvalue analysis However, the transient simulation is based on detaled three phase models of the system including switching
action m t h n the converters Since this thesis deals with the transmssion systems, PIVM
converters are not considered whereas, 12 pulse 3 level converters are considered for the
Independent control of active and reactive power (Type1 control) [71]
17
The chaptermse summary of the work reported in the them is gven below
Chapter 2
Thls chapter reviews the various methods of analysis of SSR The modelhng of generator,
multimass mechanical system, excitation system, PSS and the external electr~calnetwork
with fixed series compensation are presented in detad The vanous analytical tools for SSR
study such as dirnpnpmg torque analysis [28], eigenvalue analysls and transient simulation
are described and Illustrated usmg case studies adapted from IEEE FBM and SBM The
damping torque analysis is a frequency domain method used to screen the system conditions
that gve rise to potential SSR problems It is computationally simple and allows planners
to decide upon a smtable countermeasure for the rmtigat~onof SSR Wlule hnearized models
enable the prediction of selfexcitation at a gven operating point, the transient simulation of
the nodnear system is used to validate the models in addition to study the transient torque
effects
Chapter 3
n s chapter deals with the modelhng of two level converter and three l e ~ econverter
l
based
STATCOM The detaded threephase model of the convelters ~sdeveloped by modelling
the smtchmg action of converters by switchmg functions Neglecting the harmorllcs in the
s m t h n g functions, the converter quantities are transformed to DQ frame of reference
o
of the
for the development of model of STATCOM in DQ vanables The t ~ structures
18
Chapter 1 Intmdzlctaon
controller namely Type2 (for two level converter) and Type1 controller (for three level converter) are dscussed m detrul The analys~sof SSR with Type2 and Type1 STATCOM 1s
carried out on a serles compensated system (adapted from IEEE FBM) by damping torque
analysls, eigenvalue analysis and transient simulation The transient simulation is performed
with both DQ based ( n o h e a r ) model and three phase (considering swltchmg functions)
nonlmear models and the d d t y of DQ models is demonstrated The decrement factor
of the shaft section torque oscillations is computed from FFT analysis and found to be in
agreement with the results of eigenvalue analysis when nodnear system slmulatlon is carrled
out wth small bturbances The results of case studies revealed the need of SSDC on the
STATCOM for damplng of SSR The SSDC takes Thevemn voltage signal [go, 911 whch is
syntheslzled from the locally a d a b l e bus voltage and STATCOM current signals and modulates the reactive current reference of STATCOM A systematic approach for the design
of SSDC ~sdeveloped based on the damping torque method Here, the transfer funct~on
parameters are optirmzed to obtaln the desired damplng charactenstics of the network in
the critical torsional mode frequency range The results from the case study demonstrate
the effectivenessof the SSDC m stabillzlng the critical torsional mode
Chapter 4
In t h s chapter, analysis of SSR mth SSSC is descnbed in detall The modekng of two level
and three level VSC based SSSC using swtclung functions and DQ variables is presented
The controller structures of Type2 controller and Type1 controller for SSSC are &scussed
The analysls of SSR mth Type2 and Type1 SSSC is carrled out on a systep adapted from
IEEE FBM by darnplng torque analysis, eigenvalue analysis and transient simulation The
SSR charactemtics of SSSC when operated with constant reactive voltage control and constant reactance control are compared When hybnd compensation is used, SSR can result for
a particular combmation of fixed capaator and compensation by SSSC The design of SSDC
(=ported m Chapter 3) is also apphed here for the modulation of reactive voltage iqected
by SSSC The effectivenessof SSDC m damping of SSR is demonstrated uslng the case study
Chapter 5
The modellurg detals of UPFC are d~scussedin t h s chapter The reactive current lnjectlon
of shunt VSC can be mantamed constant or controlled to regulate port1 bus voltage constant The lqlection of senes reactwe voltage can be kept constant whereas, the qection of
serles real voltage IScontrolled for constant resistance emulation or eonstant port2 voltage
19
control A study of the SSR characteristics of UPFC for various operating combinations of
shunt and series converters is presented with the help of a case study based on IEEE FBM
It is observed that, while the operat~ngmode of shunt VSC has no significant effect on the
damping and resonance frequency, the constant resistance emulation control of senes VSC
is significantly better than fast control of port2 voltage control The series injection of real
voltage (to emulate a positive resistance) as a SSR countermeasure is found very effective
m stabihzing the critical torsional mode The transient simulation IS carried out for a small
and a large disturbance (In the form of threephase fault)
Chapter 6
T h s chapter is devoted for the modellmg, control design and performance evaluation of
VSC based HVDC system When there are a large number of controller parameters to be
tuned to achieve satisfactory system performance, it is necessary to optlmlze the parameters A systematic approach [92] for parameter optimization is presented in t h ~ schapter
The effectiveness of the approach is validated by considering a case study It is shown that,
incorporation of optimal controller parameters has significantly improved the step response
of various controllers on a test system The reactive current injected by the individual VSCs
can be mantaned constant or controlled to regulate converter bus voltage constant For
active power balance, one VSC operates on DC voltage control while the other controls the
active power Power reversal is also corlsidered so that a particular VSC can operate as a
rectifier or inverter This leads to vailous operating modes of VSC based HVDC, which are
considered for the control deslgn The case study demonstrates the importance of adaptive
select~onof the controller gans based on the operating mode
Chapter 7
The analysis of SSR with VSC based HVDC for different operating modes are investigated
m this chapter The effects of various factors such as, AC system strength and DC voltage
settmg termlnal are investigated It is observed that, VSC based HVDC contributes positive
darnplng m the torsional kequency range for DC voltage control mode of operation of converter connected to the turbogenerator In general, the VSC based HVDC does not cause
SSR problems The results obtaned from the hnear analysis are validated uslng nonhnear
simulation
20
Chapter 1 Introducteon
Chapter 8
T h s chapter mvestigates the SSR analysis ~ t IPFC
h with the help of a case study based
on IEEE SBM The two VSCs are lmked through a common DC h k and m~ectvoltage m
serles with the he1 and h e  2 respectively In addtion to the Independent control of series
reactive compensation, IPFC is capable of effectinghrect transfer of real power between the
compensated hnes by injecting senes real voltage The positive series real voltage qection in
one llne causes the negative senes real voltage mjection in the other in order that power balance at DC Lnk is satisfied The VSC whch controls real and reactive power independently
m a hne is called 'pnme' and the other is called as 'support' VSC The controllers for prime
VSC are assumed to be either active and reactive power controllers or constant resistance
and constant reactive voltage controller The support VSC controls the DC voltage and
mjects constant reactive voltage for series compensation The combinations of controllers
lead to various operatlug modes of IPFC, whch are considered for the analysls It is obsened that, the constant resistance emulation mode is sigmficantly better than constant
reactive power control In parallel transmssion lmes, the dampmg of critical torsional mode
s increased if the effective net loop resistance comprising the parallel hnks is increased by
mutant resistance emulation mode of operation The pre&ctions based on dampmg torque
and eigenvalue analysis are vahdated by transient simulation
Chapter 9
T h s chapter summarues the conclusions drawn from the work reported in the thesis and
presents suggestions for further work
Chapter 2
22
22
AX,
AX =
[ A ] AX. + [ B , ] A U .
[ C, ] AX. + [ D,] AU,
where
\
X,is the vector of state wiables of the mdlvldual subsystem
U,is the vector of mput mnables of the mdlvidual subsystem and
Y, is the vector of output variables of the mhwdual subsystem
The input to each subsystem IS a function of the output variables of the other subsystems
The equations for various subsystem Inputs can be combmed to gve the overall system input
vector whtch can be expressed in terms of the overd system output vector of the form
The entnes of the [F]matrur can be obtamed &om the knowledge of the interconnectloh
pattern of the vanous subsystems
The m o d e m of w1ous subsystems of the electromechmcd system are described m
the sectlons to follow
2 2 1 Synchronous generator
'I'he study of fxmmal mteractions demands a detaded model of the synchronous generator
The spchronous machme model 2 2 considered is s h o w m Fg 2 1 The stator 3 phse
m b g s are =placed by fictlt101.1~'d', 'q' and '0' cads &om Park's transformation Out of
these, the '0'
(in whxh zero sequence m e t t,, flows) has no couphg with the rotor
and may be neglected if = O The fict~tious'd' and 'q' 0118 rotate at the same speed
23
of rotor The four rotor wlndlngs include field winding 'f', daxis damper wlnding 'h' and
qaxis damper windings 'g' and 'k'
24
2,
where vgo and ugg are the components of generator terrmnal voltage along Kron's reference
frame, 5, is the angle by which daxls leads Daxls
222
A simphfied block clagram of the slngle time constant static exciter [I]is shown in Fig 2 2
Here Vg E the terrmnd voltage of the generator and the signal V,, is the output of Power
System Stabher (PSS) The equations for the excitation system am gven below
223
25
Modern power systems are affected by the problern of spontaneous low frequency osallations particularly when operating under stressed system conditions associated rmth increased
l o d n g on transrmssion hnes A cost effective and satisfactory solut~onto the problem of
undamped low frequency osc~llationsis to provide Power System Stabihzers (PSS) wh~chare
supplementary controllers in excitation systems [I] PSS is represented by the block d~agram
as shown in Fig 2 3 The equ~valentof Fig 2 3 is depicted in Fig 2 4
Washout C m i t
Dynarmc Compensator
Tors~onalElltcr
PSS conslsts of a washout circmt, dynamc compensator, a torsional filter The input
signal to the PSS ~sgenerator skp S
, The transfer function of PSS IS taken as,
26
The state equations for the PSS (ignoring the brmter) are gven below
224
Transrmssion Network
For power system dynarmc performance studies involving frequencies below fundamental
(synchronous frequency) a slngle n equvalent of the transmssion ~sadequate When the
hne charglng is not considered, the transmission hne 1s modelled by a lumped resistance(RL)
and reactance(XL) The transformers are modelled by resistance (Rt) and leakage reactance
(Xi)
between two busses A slngle machme infinite bus system is shown m Fig 2 5
where,
[z:
I:",: I:[{
[ : ] ~ b }
27
In equations (2 22) and (2 23), armature currents zd, z, are to be substituted from equations (2 6) and (2 9) The derivatives of armature currents 9, are expressed in terms of
, $ J ~ $d
, and $.J*from equations (2 4),
state variables representing flux linkages ( qh,$ J ~ qg,
(2 5), (2 7), (2 8), (2 lo), (2 11) respectively) to obta~nthe final expression for v,d and v,,
225
The mechanical system consisting of rotors of generator, exciter and turbine shafts can be
viewed as a massspiingdamper system (see Fig 2 6)
J wa
Ja is the moment of inertia, SB is
where H, is the inertia constant defined as H, =
the base MVA and D,is the per unit damping coefficient, ws is the base speed in rad/sec
28
The mechacal system equations can also be mitten from analogy to an electrical (RLC)
network [I] Definng the per u t slip of a mass (Ma) as
dSa
2H*dt + R(Sa  Sd)
(St 
where T, ,,I is the torque in the shaft section connecting mass z and z  1 It is not dfficult
to see that inertia (2H) 1s analogous to capacitance, slip analogous to voltage and torque
analogous to current The spnng constant m p u (KwB) 1s andogous to the reciprocal of
mductance The p u damping coefficient (D) is analogous to conductance For the s ~ mass
x
system shown m Flg 2 6, the electrical analogy is shown in Fig 2 7 There is no loss of
generahty m assumng Sa (skp at the operating pomt) as zero
x,n = Is, %
s
3 s4 8 5
236
Ti2 Ta Ta Ta Tadt
(2 32)
29
The additional state variable (reqmred when writing equations for the electrical system)
is 6, (rotor angle correspondng to the generator The equation for 6, is gven by
y,
where S
, =
andoS
, =
wm is the speed of the generator rotor (in rad/sec)
Substituting in equation (2 33) we get
Normally, the operating speed u~ is considered to be same as the nomlnal or rated speed
whch IS taken as base speed W B and Smo = 0
23
The steady state SSR can be studied by damping torque analysis and eigenvalue analysls
for whch the system is hneanzed about an operating polnt The transient SSR (translent
torques) requres the system to be modelled in detal whch takes care about all the non
hnemties The transient simulation can be done by EMTP or using MATLABSIMULINK
[47]The vanous methods of SSR analysis are descnbed in the sections to follow
231
Frequency doman methods (based on the hnemlzed system model) are used to screen the
system con&tions that give rise to potential SSR problems and identlfy those slstem conditions that do not influence the SSR phenomenon Fkquency domain studies are widely used
for p l m n g because of thelr computational advantage The sipficance of thls approach is
that it allows planners to decide upon a smtable countermeasure for the mtigation of detnmental effects of SSR and to establish acceptable senes compensation levels for a specified
stage of system development The damping torque analysis is a frequency doman method,
whch gives quck check to deterrmne the torsional mode stabihty The system is assumed
to be stable if the net damping torque at any of the torsional mode frequency is pos1tive[28]
However, damping torque method does not give an idea about the stabihty of the entlre
system
In the method of damping torque analysis, the torsional interaction phenomenon between
the electncal and mechanical system, is explaned wlth the ad of complex torque coefficients
At any gven oscillation frequency of the generator rotor, the developed electma?
30
be divided m to two components, one in phase m t h the machme rotor angle 6, and the
other 1n phase with the m d n e rotor speed w The former is termed as synchronlwng
torque and the latter as dampmg torque An inadequate level of either of these two torque
components may lead to the instability of the rotor oscdlation modes Synchromzmg torque
fi a measure of the internally generated force to restore the madune rotor angle followmg
an arbitrary small displacement of thls angle Instabihty is also indicated by the negative
value of damplng torque at a frequency of oscillation
For performrng an analysls of the dampmg and synchronizmg torques, the overall electromechamcal system can be v~suahzedas shown in Flg 2 8 where AT,, Aw and Ad, are
the incremental maptudes of electrical torque, generator rotor speed and rotor angle respectively The output of electncal system comprising of generator and AC network, is the
Figure 2 8 Block dagram showlng interaction between electncal and mechmcal systems
change m the electncal torque AT, being lnput to the mecha~llcalsystem The output of
the mechmcal system ~sthe change m generator shp whch 1s the input to the electncal
system The effect of the electncal system on the rotor torsional dynamcs can be expressed
m terms of the openloop transfer function from generator shp S,, to electncal torque Tc
wbch is defined m the frequency domrun as,
where
T&Dampmg torque due to electncal system
T,,Synchrommg torque due to electrical system
w Frequency in radlsec
The mechamcal system d y n w s can be ,pen as below [28]
31
where, Km = (::=(w)~+ K*)and H,, K, and D, are the modal mnertla constant and modal
spring constant and modal damping for the zth torsional mode of frequency w, respect~kely
For the electncal system, the electrical spnng constant K, and damping constant D, can
be calculated as,
ATebw)
Jw
= (Kc D,)
WB
A 4 (Jw)
When both mecharucal and electrical systems are interconnected, the entire system dynamics are governed by the equation as below [28]
(2 39)
Slnce K, ~srelatively small, the condition of equation (2 39) is satisfied at a point close
to w, which ~sthe modal frequencies In the case of a resultant damplng (D, D, # 0),
the oscillation frequency d l devlate only msigmficantly from the undamped case If the
resultant damping is positive, then the oscillations will decay Therefore an interaction
between the electncal and mechanical systems occurs only ~f the resultant damping for the
kequencies satisffnng the equation (2 39) is negative [28] and the criterion is gven by
Km+K,="O
and Da+Dc<O
(2 40)
Without the contnbution from electrical system, a torsional system has associated 1~1th
it positive damping due to steam flows, friction, and windage losses which can be lumped
together and termed mechmcal damplng Td, A torsional mode will become unstable
when the electncal damping contribution Td,is negative and exceeds in magnitude Th(the
Inherent mechanical damplng associated w t h the turbmegenerator), leading to net damping
torque (To)becomlng negative The ~nstabihtyof the zth torsional mode at frequency w, can
be detemned from the cr~tenon
The derivation of equation (2 44) is gven in AppenhA which correlates darnping torque
and real part of eigen~dueof zth torsional mode The equation (2 44) is approximate and
assumes that the oscillation frequency and the sensitivity of the decrement factor is assumed
to be unaffected by the electrical system
Although it is possible to consider the detaded model (2 2) of the generator m the corn
putation of damping torque, it is convement to model the generator with classical model
if the objective is to study
(constant voltage source (E') behlnd a transient reactance (x'))
d y the torsional interactions Ths assumption is equvalent to neglecting Induction Generator Effect (IGE)and does not have a sgnificant effect on the predictlon'of torsional mode
stabihty The stabihty of mode 0 (correspondmg to low frequency oscillations) 1s obviously
dependent on the generator model considered Here, detaded generator model ~sreqwd
1931
The impedance functions of the network as mewed from the generator Internal bus are
of significance and can be expressed with respect to Kron's (DQ)synchronously rotatlng
frame of reference The electrical torque (AT,) as a funct~onof the change m per mt rotor
speed (AS,) can be derived from the knowledge of the impedance functions
At the generator internal bus, the follomng equation applies (see AppendurB)
I
33
where ZdL4& and ZwpL+,, are impedance (on slngle phase basis) of network seen at the
generator internal bus for subsynchronous and supersynchronous frequencies respectively
ZsrrbL+,&and Z,,L+,,
are computed as
~ S d L 4 b=
~ bZb(w0
 w)]
= Zb(w0
+ w)]
~,,L$,,
where Z(s) is the impedance function (per phase) viewed from generator internal bus
It should be noted that, the equation (2 50) is apphcable and the equivalence between
equatlon (2 46) and equat~on(2 50) 1s valid when Y D ~ ( J W=) YQQ(jw)and Yog(3w) =
YQD(3u)when'network contans only passive elements In general, when aetlve FACTS
controllers are also used In the network, YDD(jw)# YQg(3w)and YDQ(jw)# YQD( 3 ~ and
)
Z(s) is not defined However, an approximate expression for Z(gw) can be obtalned as [I],
2311
The effect of IGE due to detaled (2 2) generator model on torsional mode stabhty is considered for the system of Fig 2 11 with $ ratio 12 5 The senes capacitor compensation
IS set to 60% of the transrmsslon l~nereactance The variation of damplng torque with the
detaded and classlcd model of generator (whch neglects IGE) as a function of frequency is
shown in Flg 2 9
10
With 2 2 model
With dasslcal model
  With class~calmodel corrected for IGE
=I
a,
3
I
Figure 2 9 Comparison of damping torques with detaled and classical model of generator
As mentioned earher, the damping torque at low frequencies (w, < 50) is affected by the
generator model However, the peak negative damplng torque occur at the same resonant
frequency (w, = 126 82) for both models The peak value of the negative damping torque
E shghtly hlgher for the detaded generator model due to the negative resistance introduced
by IGE The correction for IGE is possible by a d h g a small negative resistance to the
total resistance of the electncal system T h s value of negatlve resistance c& be accurately
computed by the impedance offered by the generator
The phase impedance (encountered by armature currents) at a frequency w can be corn
puted as [I],
where,
35
36
accurate Although the peak negative damping torque with classical model 1s lesser,
the results are shghtly pessirmstic in the vicmity of the resonance frequency
2 The use of the classical model simpbfies considerably the computation of the darnplng
torque as all the passive elements of the electrical network can be represented by scalar
(smglephase) impedances The computation of DQ admttances at the generator
lnternal bus can also be simplfied uslng network properties For example see Appen&F when UPFC is included as part of the network
Eigenvalue techlvque is based on the mathematical model of the system using a set of
Merentid equations whch are hnearned about an operating point Ths techruque was
used by Fouad et a1 [31] and Bowler et al [32] to study the torsional interactions and to
determme the vanous condtlons whch lead to lnstabllity The elgenvalues are computed by
formulating the hearued state and output equations of the subsystems wblch compnse the
system as given by equations (2 1) and (2 2) The state and output equations of the entlre
system are now represented as
where
[Ad]=Blockchagond [A,]
[Bd]=Block dagonal [B,]
[Cd]=Block chagond [C,]and
[Dd]=Block dagonal [D,]
'1' denotes the subsystem index
X  State vector of the overall system
U  Input vector of the overall system
Y Output vector of the overd system
2 3 Analytecal
37
and we obtan,
and are of the form A, = a, f 3ws, where the red part a, is the decrement factor and
imaginary part w, gives the oscillation frequency If any g, > 0, then the system is unstable
The system is stable with us< 0 for all 'a'
Since eigenvalues are dependent on the operating point, this analysis IS useful for stud3ing
the steady state SSR and used to exanllne the effect of Merent series compensation levels and
system configurations on the damping of torsional modes In addition, eigenvalue analysis
can be used to deslgn controllers for damping torsional modes
2 33
Translent slmulatlon
aansient simulation programs are used to analyze a broad range of problems These programs use a stepbystep numerical integration method to solve the set of differential equations representing the overall system under study The differential equations can be both
h e a r and nodnear T h s techque allows dettllled modelhng of generators, system controllers, smtchmg devlces and vmous types of faults This IS advantageous to use when it is
necessary to accurately model nonhnear devices Since simulation allows detaled modelling
of system tak~nginto account the nonhnearlties which cannot be neglected in the prescnce
of a large disturbance, it IS helpful in studying the translent torque problem d~scussedin
Chapter1
The Electro Magnetic Banslent Program (EMTP) is one of the mdely used programs for
transient simulation stu&es In EMTP, full three phase model of the system with detaled
models of generator, transm~ssionlines and cables can be represented Smtches and thyristor
smtchings and controls mth complex logc circuitry can also be handled by EMTP EhITP
I
also p e m t s nonlinear modelling of complex system components This can be used to study
the effect of both small dlsturbances as well as large dlsturbances
The transient simulation can also be done by using the MATLABSIMULINK [47] Here,
the dfferential equations descnbrng the system can be represented either in statespace form
or in the transfer function form or by representing each lfferential equation as a comblnat~on
of the basic blocks of SIMULINIC such as summer, g a n block and Integrator Nonhnear~ties
can also be modelled and the system response to vmous lnputs can be stuhed
38
2 4 Case Studies
The system considered 1s adapted from IEEE First Benchmark Model(FBM) [88] and Second
Benchmark model(SBM) [89] The generator, mechanical system and the transrmssion hne
parameters for both the systems under study are gven m AppendurC
24 1
IEEE FBM
The system is represented schematically m Fig 2 11, the data for whch 1s gven in AppenkC It consists of a generator, turbine and series compensated long transmission line The
magmtude of 10 p u
2 The lnput mechmcd power to the turbine
turblne governor 1s neglected)
1s
24
Case Studzes
39
40
frequency (f,) and decrease m the frequency ( j o f,) at whch resonance occurs The
synchroming torque 1s mcreased with increased level of compensation It 1s to be noted
that, the frequencies of torslonal modes are practically unaffected by the electncal system
The elgenvalues of the system with classical model of generator, neglecting mechmcal
damping, are evaluated to correlate vvlth the results of damplng torque gven in Flg 2 12
The decrement factor for rth torsional mode 1s computed as CT,=
Where Tdsl
IS the
numerlcd value of damplug torque coefficient computed at the zth torslonal mode frequency
as obtaned mth agenvalue analysls and 'H,'
is the modal Inertia constant for zth mode
The negative dampme; measured 1n terms of the decrement factor (u,)due to the electrical
system also dependent on the modal mertla H , Higher the modal mnertla, lesser d be
the decrement factor for a gwen value of electncal damping torque The cornpanson of
and real part of elgenvalue for 60% mmpensatlon level are gven m Table 2 1
%
It s observed that, the slmphfied model gves a fsrrly accurate value of the negative
damplng lntmducecl by the network correspondng to the frequency f = fo  f,, where b
~sthe
24
41
Case Studzes
Table 2 1 Damping torque with admittance function in DQ axes for Xc=O 60
I Sl I Torsional I
I No I
2412
mode
Td.
I
1
0, =
*I
Real part of
I Eigenvalue (
Elgenvalue analysis
3 The damping of higher torsional modes 3 and 4 is marginally mcreased with increase
of compensation
4 Mode5 is not affected with change in series compensation as its modal inertia is very
hgh
42
With
Mode
12528fj
4
5
Network mode
(subsynchronous, w~  w,)
Network mode
(supersynchronous, wo w,)
Exciter mode
0ther modes
Voltage Measurement
PSS
PSS
Torsional filter
Gen
Gen
Gen
With X, = 060
X, = 0 50
81336 17367fj
1 2 9688f
89280
I
j6050300
1 2 9806f3 62679001
24
43
Case Studtes
The transient slmulation of the comblned electromechanical system has been carr~edout
using MATLABSIMULINK [47] The simulation results for 10% decrease in the input
mechmcal torque apphed at 0 5 sec and removed at 1 sec mth Xc = 0 50 are s h o ~ nIn
Figs 2 14 and 2 15 and with Xc = 0 60 are shown in Figs 2 16 and 2 17
90
75
0
10
Time (sec)
I
Time (sec)
Figure 2 14 Vaxiation of rotor angle and LPALPB sect~ontorque for pulse change in ~nput
mechmcal torque (Xc= 0 50)
It is clear from the Figs 2 14  2 17 that, the system is stable mth Xc = 0 50 and
unstable m t h Xc = 0 60 The FFT andysrs of the LPALPB section torque IS performed
between 37 sec wlth the time spread of 1 sec mth Xc = 0 60 The results of FFT analysis
IS shown m Flg 2 18 M e m g to Fig 2 18, it 1s obsenred that in the time span of 34 sec,
the mode1 component is higher compared to mode2 component As the time progresses,
mode2 component Increases whlle all other tors~onalmode components decay
44
Time (sec)
105
42"
0950
10
T~me(see)
Figure 2 15 Vanation of electncal torque and generator terrmnal voltagd for pulse change
m lllput mechwcal torque(Xc = 0 50)
hgure 2 16 Vmatlon of rotor angle and LPALPB section torque for pulse change in input
mechazvcal torque (Xe= 0 60)
24
45
Case Studzes
Figure 2 17 Variation of electrical torque and generator terrmnal voltage for pulse change
m Input mechmcal torque(Xc = 0 60)
50
100
150
200
Frequency ( W s e c )
Freqwncy (radlsrc)
250
300
50
Fefh?
300
(ma)
46
The decrement factor r~ of mode2 calculated from FF'T andysls is found to be 0 6561
and is comparable to the real part of eigenvalue (06658) mrres~ondlngto mode2
a
Table 2 2 and in agreement wrth eigenvalue results
242
The system considered here is adopted from IEEE SBM (the data for whch is ~ v e n
AppendxC) and represented schematlcdy in Flg 2 19
'28
@k
E,
L!?
7
%s
24
47
Case Studzes
2421
Damping torque analysis is carried out with Xc = 0 1920 and Xc = 0 2496 The variation
of damping torque and synchronizing torques for these compensation levels are sho~vnin
Fig 2 20 and Fig 2 21 respectively
It is to be noted that, %hen Xc = 0 1920, the peak negatlve damping occurs at about
182 rad/sec and since this subsynchronous network mode is not coinciding mth anv of
the torsional modes, the system is expected to be stable However, with Xc = 0 2496, peak
negative damping occurs at 155 rad/sec whch matches with mode1 of the SBM and adverse
torsional interactions are expected
The eigenvalues of the system with classical model of generator, neglecting mechanical
damping, are evaluated to correlate with the results of damprng torque and are grven in
Where
Fig 2 20 The decrement factor for zth torsional mode is computed as a, =
Tder
is the numencal value of damping torque coefficient computed at the zth torsional mode
is the modal inertia constant for
frequency as obtained mth eigenvalue analysis and 'H,'
&
zth mode The comparison of a, and real part of eigenvalue for Xc = 0 2496 are gven in
Table 2 3
Refmng to Table 2 3, ~t should be noted that there is a good correlation between the
damping torque coefficient and real part of eigenvalue
48
a, (rad/s=)
Table 2 3 Damplug torque with adrmttance functlon m DQ axes for Xc=O 2496
(ST~
Torsloq
I No I mode I
Eigenvalue
24
Case Stuclzes
49
With X , = 0 1920
2 3144 f 3 7 0020
0 0471 f3 155 2000
Network mode
(subsynchronous, wo  w,)
Network mode
(supersynchrox~ous,wo we)
Exclter mode
0t her modes
Nct~vork
Voltage measurement
PSS
PSS
Torsional filter
Gen
Gen
Gen
2 6816 f3 28 4000
Mode
0
499 1400
104 2600
104 2900
0 1004
0 1004
31 5190
31 5080
13 8220
13 8350
4 3219
4 3381
one of the torsional modes, the correspondingtorsional mode (mode1 wlth Xc=O 2496)
~sdestablhzed
2 The damping of torsional mode 2 is margnally increased mth increase of compensation
50
3 Mode4
high
~snot
4 The damplng of the swlng mode (mode0) increases mth the level of series compensa,
~sreduced
The transient simulation of the combined electromechanical system has been carned out
using MATLABSIMULINK [473 The simulation results for 10% decrease in the input
mechucal torque apphed at 0 5 sec and removed at 1 sec with Xc = 0 1920 are shown m
Figs 2 22 and 2 23 and with Xc = 0 2496 are shown m Figs 2 24 and 2 25
5
6
Tlme (sec)
10
Feure 2 22 Vanation of rotor angle and LPGEN section torque for pulse change m m p p t
mecharucal torque (XC= 0 1920)
2#
Case Studzes
51
l i m e (sac)
Time (sec)
10
Figure 2 23 Variation of electncal torque and generator terrmnal voltage for pulse change
in input mechan~caltorque(Sc = 0 1920)
:
650
Time5 (sac) 6
10
lime (sec)
52
a
a 095
I='
gos7
L
: .O:
075
Time (sec)
5
6
Time (see)
10
I
i0
Figure 2 25 Variation of electrical torque and generator termnal voltage for pulse change
m ~nputmechmcal torque(Xc = 0 2496)
It is observed that, the system is unstable with Xc = 0 2496 The FFT analysis of the
LPGEN section torque is performed between 37 sec with the time spread of 1 sec wth
Xc = 0 2496 The results of FFT analysis is shown m Fig 2 26 Referring to Fig 2 26, it 11
observed that as the time progresses, mode1 component increases whle all other torsional
mode components decay The decrement factor a of mode1 calculated from ,FFT analysls ~s
found to be 0 1975 and is comparable to the real part of eigenvalue (0 1933) correspondmg
to mode1 given m Table 2 4 and in agreement with eigenvalue results
Frequency (radlsec)
Frequency (radlsec)
0
$015.
43
56 8ec
0,.
$015
'58
005
0  .
50
02
.
67
.
S%
01.
200s.
"
50
"
100 150 200 250 300 350
Frequency (radlsec)
3 Transient simulation studies of the overall system for a pulse change In Input mechanical
torque
The prehctions about the torsional mode stability by all the three methods show good
agreement The damping torque analysis 1s computatlonally fast and accurately predict
the torsional mode stabihty but ~t does not give the idea of stability of the entire system
The e~genvalueanalysls gves the stabihty information of the entire system The translent
simulation of the nonlinear system for a small disturbance IS used to d i d a t e the results
obtained by eigenvalue analysls
Chapter 3
56Chapter 8 Analvszs of SSR and Destgn of SzlbSpnchronous Dampang Controller vzth STATCO~
32
A 6 pulse 2level STATCOM is shown in Fig 3 1 R, and X, are the resistance and leakage
reactance of the converter transformer respectively
turned offand vlceversa In practice a small delay is pronded to prevent both smth
of a leg belug on at the same time
57
where v:,, vib,v,: are the converter output phase voltages with respect to neutral and W B
is the base frequency v,,, vsb, v,, are the STATCOM b ~ phase
s
voltages with respect to
neutral The line to IIne converter output voltages are gnen by the following equation
where v&, viN and vtN are the converter output phase voltages with respect to the DC side
rmdpomt ua = +1 If devlce 1 is on and u, = 1 ~f devlce 4 is on ub and u, are defined
slmlarly The swltchng functions u,, ub and uc along with the fundamental components of
are shown in Fig 3 3 w, is the
the phase voltages a t the STATCOM bus (vml,v,bl, vSC1)
operatmg frequency 8, is the angle of the STATCOM bus voltage neglecting harmon~cs ar
is the angle by whch the fundamentd component of the converter output voltage leads the
fundamental component of STATCOM bus voltage The converter output phase voltages
56Cl~apter
3 A n a l p s of SSR and Dengn of SubSwchmnom Dam~rnpCo~hollerunth STATCO~
2 The bottom dence of the converter leg turns on imme&ately after the top devm
turned offand nceversa In practice a small delay is provlded to prevent both smtche8
of a leg bemg on at the same time
57
are the converter output phase voltages with respect to neutral and w~
where via, viblv : ~
is the base frequency us,, us*,us, are the STATCOM b ~ phase
s
voltages wth respect to
neutral The llne to hne converter output voltages are gven by the following equat~on
where v h , viN and v b are the converter output phase voltages with respect to the DC side
mdpomt u, = +1 If devlce 1 is on and u, = 1 if device 4 is on ub and uc are defined
simlarly The switchmg functions u,, ub and u, along with the fundamental components of
the phase voltages at the STATCOM bus (vSaljvsbl, vscl)are shown in Fig 3 3 w, is the
operating frequency 13, is the angle of the STATCOM bus voltage neglecting harmonics a
Is the angle by whch the fundamental component of the ~on\~crter
output voltage leads the
fundamental component of STATCOM bus volt age The converter output phase volt ages
59
where Sa2, S b 2 and Sd are switching functions for a 2level 6pulse VSC as shown in F I 3~ 4
Since the smtches are assumed to be ideal,
The smtchmng instants are obtained by phase locked loop (PLL) shown in Fig 3 5 [95]
The phase locked loop generates 6 sawtooth waveforms sl to se for the six switches as shown
m Fig 3 6 The firing pulses for device 1 (to turn on) are generated at instants Tsl when sl
is increasmg and sl t a! = 0 while device 4 is turned off The firing pulses for device 4 (to
turn on) are generated at instants Ts4when s4 is increasing and sq + a = 0 while devlce 1is
turned off The firing pulses for the other swltches are generated similarly
The sw~tchngfunctions for 6 pulse converter have odd harmonics excluding tnplen harmomcs Harmolvcs of the order 12k  7 and 12k  5, k=l, 2,3, can be ehmnated by usmg
a 12 pulse converter whch combines the output of two 6 pulse converters uslng transformers
as shown m Fig 3 7 The switching functions for a 12 pulse converter are gven by
are the smtchmg functions for the two 6 pulse convertwhere Sd, Saz,Seaand sA2
si2,
,
ers These are related (in steady state) by the relation
where x = a, b and c
q (deg
F~lgue3 4 Switbng funetlons Sa,Sm,So for a 2level 6pulse VSC
61
'0
,o A

e
le
I
I
,
.1
b*
>*
ah
t t t
>8
a*
P,
62Chnpter
3 Analysts of SSR and Desyn of SubSynchmnous Damptng controller wth STATCOU
@,t
(deg
Rgure 3 6 Generation of h n g pulses for a two level VSC
63
322
where,
V, 1s the hne to hne RMS voltage and
8, is the angle of the STATCOM bus voltage
If the smtching functions are approximated by thelr fundamental components (neglectmg
hmonlcs) for a 12pulse two level converters, we get
The converter output voltages in DQ Irame (viD and viQ) are obtruned by Kron's t r a
formation [19] gven below
The zero sequence component vlo is neglected as lt is zero for balanced operation The
currents z,, 2&, 2, and the voltages v,,, v8b and v,,are transformed to ZSD,,OSQ and V ~ D ,U,Q
m a sirmlar manner
The follomg equations m the DQvariables can be gven for describing STATCOM
i
where
viQ = k
COS(O! OB)
k=
for 12 pulse converter
8, = tan1 a=angle of STATCOM bus voltage,
"4
V.=
maptude of STATCOM bus voltage
U&
421=
J 3
65
The h a 1 state equations in the D& variables for a Zlevel VSC based STATCOM are given
by the follomng equations
33
COM
A 6 pulse &level STATCOM is shown in Fig 3 8 R, and X, are the resistance and leakage
reactance of the converter trasformer respectively
The differential equations (3 13 4) given for the 2level STATCOM are also vahd for the
%level STATCOM
In three level bridge, there are 4 devlces per each phaseleg Let us consider phase leg
for phase 'a' Each half of the phaseleg 'a' is split lnto two series connected valves (for
example, 1  1' of two level converter is split m to 1  I' and 1 A  1 ~ 'and so on) The
mdpomt of the spht valves is connected by diodes Dland D4 to mdpoint 'N' on the DC
66Chapter 3 Analysts of SSR and Dengn of SubSynchmnow Damprng Contrdler wth STATCO~
side When the devlces 1 and 1A are conductq the phase 'a' wltage with respect to DC
rmdpolnt (N' 1s whle dences 4 and 4A are not conducting When the devlces 4 and 4 .
are conducting the phase 'a' voltage with respect to DC mdpo~nt'N' is
whde donees
1 and 1A are not conductlng Sirmlar sequence of conduction of devlces is apphcable to
other two phaselegs The DC voltage a zero when lA, 4A, are conducting along mth
clamping &odes D l and D4 With three level VSC configuration, the phase potentids
be modulated between three levels instead of two 1 e ,each phase leg can be connected to the
positive dc termal, the midpoint on the dc side or the negative dc t e m n a l by s m t m
various devices appropnately
The converter terrmnd voltages w r t DC rmdpolnt 'N' can be expressed as
&+)'(a'[
kPc
where, Sa(&)=
E0
(
Sa(t)1s the mtchvng function for phase 'a' of a 6pulse blevel VSC and v h is the dc side
capacitor voltage Sirmh1y for phase 'b', Sb(t) and for phase 'c', Sc(t)can be denved The
)I
67
Where, h=1,5,7,11,13 and P is the dead angle ( s e Flg 3 9) The time penod m a cycle
during whlch the converter pole output voltage is zero, 1s
Since the switches are assumed to be ideal,
The swithng functions for 6 pulse converter have odd harmonics wcludmg tnplen har
moms Harmoncs of the order 12k  7 and 12k  5, k=l, 2,3, can be ehrcunated by uslug
a 12 pulse converter whlch combines the output of two 6 pulse converters using transformers
as shown m Fig 3 7
The switching functions for a 3level 12pulse converter are gven by,
where S,, Sb,S, and S',, 6,S: are the swlthng functions for the two 6 pulse converters
These are related (m steady state) by the reIation
where x = a, b and c
If the switchmg functions are apprmmated by thew fundamental components (neglect%
harmomcs) for a lapulse three level converters, we get
180" to 180' with negative slope) sa,SQ, and so shfted 120 m t h respect to each other
69
71
These sawtooth waveforms are used to generate switching instants for vanous devices of 3
level
converter as shown in Fig 3 11 and described below
Consider the phaseleg of phase 'a' and the devlce 1A and 4A are conducting (instant
T ~ The
~ ) firingpulses for turning on device 1 and turning off device 4A are generated u hen
In 1s increasing and ~ 1 3 (a  8 ) = 0 (instant Tai) The devlce 1 is turned off and 44 is
turned 'on' when 543 1s decreasing and ~ 4 3 ( a 8) = 0 (instant Ta2,where clamping diodes
~1 and D4 clamp the co~lverteroutput voltage to zero) The firing pulses for turnlng on
demce 4 and turning off device 1A are generated when s43 is decreasing and s43  (a P ) = 0
(rnstmt Td) The devlce 4 is turned off while devlce 1A is turned on when s13 1s increasing
and s13+ (a+ P ) = 0 (instant Tko) This sequence 1s repeated cyclically The firing pulses
for the devlces of other phaseleg a e generated similarly The Table 3 1 summarizes the
s.tmt&ng lustants and sequence of conduction of devlces for various phaselegs In drawing
Fig 3 11, it is assumed that ,f3 > cu
v:,
4
v&
7r
4
v : ~ =  V& cos(P)sin
7r
v:,
+ + 0,)
wot + a + 0,  wot + a + 0, + 
cos(p) sin(wot a
(3 38)
(3 39)
(3 40)
+ + + isban + + 6.  2)
sin wot + u + 8. + 7
(
2T)1
4 c o s l ~,z[)
7r
+z,
sm(wot a 0.)
(WJ
(3 41)
The converter output voltages in DQ frame (viD and vlQ) are obtamed by Kron's transfor
mat on [I91 given by equation 3 20
The followmg equations in the DQvanables can be gven for describing STATCOM
where
viD= k$ v k sm(a ds)
v,: = Kha cos(a 8.)
k$ = kms@) and k =
for 12 pulse converter
8, = b1
= a q l e of STATCOM bus voltage,
K=
+ vs4 maptude of STATCOM bus voltage
==
=
magrutude of converter output voltage
In terms of DQ components, the equation (3 32) can be expressed as,
+
+
,/+
The final state equatlons in the DQ vanables for a three level STATCOM are gven by
the following equatlons
73
The harmonics in the current ln~ectedby LY'I'ATCOM can bc minimized by increasing the
number(by suitable comblnatlons of the transformers) with two level converters However, ~11th3 level converters, the dead angle P can be selected (m steady state) to eliminate
my particular harmoilic
1 51
0 385
0 39
0 395
04
0 405
0 41
0 415
Time (see)
The Total Harmonlc Distortion (THD) in current with Zlevel, 12pube ~'IATCOM1s
found to be 19 79% whereas w ~ t h3level, 12pulse STATCOM (P = 7 5O) it 1s only 5 Cl94%
It a possible to reduce the harmonics further w t h a combination of two 12p&e 3level
mn~rtersto a h e v e nearly 48 pulse operation
'
1
1 5
0 385
0 39
0 395
04
0 405
0 41
0415
lime (sec)
Flogre 3 13 Converter voltage and currents with 3level 12pulse STATCOM (0 = 7 5")
3 4 1 Type1 controller
It is des~rableto vary the magmtude of ac output voltage of the converter mthout c h w
the magmtude of the dc voltage When dc voltage is regulated at a predetemed value,
the control of ac voltage ~spossible by pulse mdth modulation (PWM) The three level
~onvertertopology can aclueve the goal by varylng the dead angle fl [96] In t h controller,
both magmtude and angle of the converter output voltage are vaned to control real a d
reactrve current [71] The real current drawn by the VSC is controlled by phase angle ff and
the reactwe current by controbg the converter output voltage magmtude as a function ofb'
(c= k
&dc)
m
s type of controller ISrequved when actwe power exchange is de~lred
The real nurent 1s controlled to rnmuntrun the capacitor voltage constant The reh1E
current rderenm can be ather set constant or controlled to regulate the bus voltage The
75
,,troller
z p = V S D ~ S D V S Q ~ ~=QZ S D sin 0,
V,
Z R=
+ zag cos 0,
V s ~ Z s ~
VWQZSD
= zS0 cos 0,
vs
(3 50)
+ zag sin 8,
The reactive current Z R 1s positlve when S7'ATCOM is operating in the inductive region and
negative when STATCOM 1s operating in the capacitive regon The active current t p is
positive when STATCOM draws active power from the system
For control of shunt current, we proceed in a way simlar to the one outhned in references [71, 941 as described below
The denvatlve of zn can be expressed as
dos dzsQ
~ Z S D
~ Z R Z,Q cos OSsin 8, z , sin
~ 8,   cos 9,
dt
dt
dt
dt
dt
dOs
RSWB
= Ip+ 5111 0, xs %sQ t W o z s ~ +  Wx( vsBs Q  u l Q ) ]
dt
xs
xs
As
As
dt
Z,D
2,
&WB
+ cOs0s [%a
xs
RSWB
= Z P  W'ZR
xr,
W0Z.D
+WB
xs
WB
+ (us*
xs
sin 0, +
Q ) ]
VsQ cos 8,
Substituting these in equations (3 52) and (3 53), the Merentla1 equations g o v e w zR and
zp
UR
where
~b
3 4 2 Type:! controller
Wlth a 2level VSC, Type1 control reqmes PWM When the PWM techniques are to
be avolded m the mterest of reducing smtchmg losses, the reactlve current control
be
achleved by ~asylnga! alone In t h ~ scontroller, the modulation Index k ~sconstant and
depends on the converter suntchrng pattern The reactwe current control IS a h w e d
phase ~b control
The capacitor voltage is not regulated but depends upon the P
77
78Chapter 3 A~alyacof SSR and Desagn of SrrbSyrehmnous Dampzng Contmller unth STATCOM
Merence between the converter output voltage and the bus voltage (very small, about 1
degree) The capacitor voltage vanes over a small range w t h change m operatlng pant
The controller block hagram is shown m Flg 3 15 XC, ~=1,2,3and 4, are the Type2
controller state variables
35
The system considered is a modified IECE FBM 1881 The complete electromechamcal system
is represented schematically in Fig 3 16, whlch consists of a generator, turbme, and series
compensated long transmission llne and STATCOM connected at the electrical center of the
transrmssion h e The data of the system are given in AppendurC
"*
.
I
1
STATCOM
2 The dparmcs of the turb~negovernorsystems are neglected and the lnput rnechmd
79
4 The dynarmc voltage support at the mid point of the transmission hne is provldetl by
STATCOM In order to effectively utilize the full rating of STATCOM in both inductlve as well as capacitive range, a fixed shunt capacitor is also used at the STATCOM
bus The rating of STKt"I'OM 1s selected as f 150 MVAR At the operating point
considered,the STATCOM supplies 99MVAR and the remzllning reactive power is sup*bed by fixed capacitor to mzllntaln bus voltage 1 015 p u Under dynamic conditions
sTATCOM supphes/absorbs the reactive power to mantain the bus voltage at the
specified value The type2 controller (refer Fig 3 15) is adopted for the control of
reactive power output of STATCOM
The modelhng aspects of the electromechanical system comprising the generator, the massspring mechanical system, the excitation system, power system stabilizer (PSS)wlth torsional filter, the transmission line containing the conventional series capacitor are discussed
m section 2 4
COM
Slrnplrfted model of STATCOM
The simphfied model for the STATCOM and voltage controller 1s adequate for dam~ing
torque analysis (refer Fig 3 17)
8OChapter
3 AnaIys0s of SSR and Desrgn of SubSgncIironow Damptng Controller wUh STATCO~
Azs(s)
&,
where, Kn =
TR = and Ks1s the slope of the voltage controller charactenstla
The SSDC LS represented by a transfer function Tz(s) and modulates the reactive current
reference The Thevemn voltage slgnal (Kh= Vs 4 Xtht,) derived from the STATCOM bus
voltage (K) and current (zs) IS used for damping of power s m g s m refe5ences [go, 911 In
the present study, &/th 1s used to modulate rextive current reference to Introduce adcbtional
damping to the system The transfer function of SSDC (T2(s)) (refer Fig 3 17) can be
designed by darnprng torque analysis uslng slmpbfied model of STATCOM
The overall transfer function relatlng Az, and AV, can be obtamed
When SSDC is not considered, the overall transfer function between Azh and AV, slm
phfies to
It should be noted that for reactive current control, Tl(s) = 0 (as Az, = 0)
The damping torque analysis can be performed based on impedance functions m DQ
axes The admittance funct~on[YJ
seen at the generator mternal bus in DQaxes is computed
and damping torque is evaluated as gven by equat~on(2 46) In obtauung equation (2 461, lt
n necessary to express the admttmce funct~onof STATCOM m the form (see ~~pendurD)
@
35
81
The Damping torque is evaluated in the range of frequency of 0300 rad/sec for the
follomng cases
1 with STATCOM reactive current control
2 with STATCOM reactive current reference obtained from voltage controller
with the damping torque results without STATCOM (Here the fixed shunt
and
,paator value is selected such that the midpoint voltage is 1015 p u ) The v ~ l a t l o nof
damping torque with frequency 1s plotted using equat~on(2 46) and shown in rig 3 18
4 0
11
11
W~thoutSTATCOM
I1
AOti
50
100
150
wm (radlsec)
250
300
c c 
20
30
P
40
1
C
50
'
60.
120
122
124
Without STATCOM
128
126
132
134
136
a,,,(radlsec)
Figure 3 19 Vanation of damping torque with detaled DQ model of two:level VSC based
STATCOM
0
20
a
P
40
50
I
\
Without STATCOM
122
124
126
128
132
134
136
a,,,(radlsec)
J5
83
The system is unstable since the pesk negative damping occurs near about 127 rad/sec
with the mode2 of IEEE FBM It 1s to be noted that, with STATCOM on
,hi&
Mltae rnntrol, there is a good match between the results of damping torque obtained ~ l t h
8 1 m p ~ emodel
d
and detailed DQ model The voltage control reduces the peak negative
dampingand mwgnally increases the ~~SOmnCe
frequency It is interesting to note that, the
mctlve current control marginally increases the undamping compared to the case without
STATCOM This is not surprising as the contribution of positive supersynchronous damping
torque due to shunt capacitor has reduced with the lesser value of shunt capacitor used ~t
IS seen that, simplified model gves skghtly optimstlc results with reactive current control
rt 1s also observed that, the voltage control increases the negative damping of the torsional
modes particularly m the range of frequencies greater than 130 rad/sec
3 5 2 Elgenvalue analysis
In this analysis, the turbmegenerator mechanical damping is considered and generator is
modelled mth 2 2 model (as indicated in section 2 3 2) The overall system with STATCOM
IS hneamed about an operating point and the eigenvalues of the system matruc [A] are glven
m Table 3 2
Table 3 2 Torsional mode eigenvalues of the system with two level VSC based STATCOM
Mode
Without STATCOM
W ~ t hSTATCOM
Voltage control
Reactive current control
2 0619 f 3 9 3784 2 4301f g 9 5310
0 2074 f 3 99 4100
0 2290 f J 99 4410
0 6300 f g 127 2500
0 3310 f g 127 3000
0 6440 3 160 4400
0 6470 f3 160 4400
0 3648 fJ 202 8400
0 3654 fJ 202 8400
1 8504 f3 298 1700
1 8504 f J 298 1700
0
1
2
3
2 0489f g 9 3762
0 2293 3 99 4370
0 5523 f 3 127 2900
0 6450 =t g 160 4400
4
0 3643 f3 202 8400
5
1 8504 f3 298 1700
Network mode subsynchronous, (wo  w,)
I  1 7 9 2 6 f ~ 1276900 1
1 6 9 2 0 f J 1275100
Network mode supersynchronous, (wo w,)
2 9801 z t J 625 7700
3 0868 k J 625 4400
1 2
1636zk~1284100
1 3
Table 3 2 shows that, mode 2 is unstable at the operatmg point considered The fie
3 5 3 Transient simulation
The modehng of VSC is based on
(a) DQvariables
(b) In phase variables by modelling the converter s w t h n g action by generating the switchmg functions
The eigenvalue analysis uses equations in DQ variables where the swtchmg functions are
approxnnated by their fundamental frequency components (neglecting harmomcs m the out
put voltages of the converters) To validate the results obtamed from darnplng torque and
agenvalue analysis, transient simulation of the overall nodnear system B m e d out uslng
the detded 3 phase model of STATCOM where the s w l t b g of the converter 1s modelled
by s w i t h g functions (The harmonics generated by VSC are considered) '
The transient simulation of the overall system includmg STATCOM (mth voltage control)
has been w e d out uslng both DQ and 3 phase model using MATLABSIMULINK [47]
The simulation results for 10% decrease m the input mecharvcal torque apphed at 0 5 sec
and removed at 1 sec with DQmodel of STATCOM are shown m Fig 3 21 The simulat~on
results wzth 3 phase model of STATCOM are shown m Fig 3 22 It is clear &om the Fig 3 21
and 3 22 that, the system u unstable as the oscillations m rotor angle and LPALPB section
torque grow wlth t ~ m e
The Fl?T analysls of the LPALPB sect~ontorque (vanation are obtained mth 3 phase
model of STATCDM) ISperformed between 610 sec anth the time spread of 1 sec The
results of FFT analysa is shown in Fig 3 23 It is observed that as the time progressf%
mode2 component Increases whle all other torsional mode components (partlculwly
1) decay The decrement factor u of mode2 calculated from FFT
found to be
85
c.
8 5 7
3
a
80
750
Time (sec)
10
15
F w e 3 21 Variation of rotor angle and LPALPB section torque for pulse change in input
mechmcal torque (DQ model of two level VSC based STATCOM (with voltage control))
""I
I
I
Time (sec)
1
rI!
3
F
15
I ! !I
10
 0
0
0


Time (sec)
10
15
~ 3 22e Vanation of rotor angle and LPALPB section torque for pulse change in input
mabud
torque (3 phase model of two level VSC based STATCOM (mth volt age control))
;ow
<
0 01
0
50
300
Frequency (radlsec)
Frequency (ru)
Figue 3 23 FFT analysis of LPALPB section torque (3 phase model ~f two level VSC
based STATCOM (with voltage control))
0 3326 and 1s comparable to the real part of eigenvalue (03310) correspondng to mode2
p e n m Table 3 2 and in agreement with eigenvalue results Hence the DQ model is qute
accurate m prehctmg the system performance
COM
3.6 1 Dampmg torque analysis
The damping torque with detarled DQmodel of three level VSC based STATCOM (Type1
contzoller E used for reactive power control) is shown m Fig 3 24 C o r n p a . the dampmg
torque results wlth two level converter based STATCOM (see ljlg 3 19), lt is observed that,
the peak negative damping has margnally reduced mth three level STATCOM The other
characfer~tlcsare armlar and prevlous observations on the cornpanson of the readive current
and voltage controllers hold
87
Figure 3 24 Variation of damping torque with detailed DQ model of three level VSC based
STATCOM
88Chdpter 3 Analysw of SSR and Deszgn of SubSynchronow Dampzng ControlCer vnth STATCO~
Table 3 3 Torsional mode e~genvaluesof the system wlth three level VSC based STATCOM
Mode With reactlve current control Wrth voltage control
2 4291 fJ 9 5301
2 0638 f3 9 3779
0
0 2037 z!z 3 99 4080
0 2279 fj 99 4390
1
0 2826 f J 127 2700
0 5760 It j 127 2800
2
0 6420 rt: 3 160 4300
0 6459 fj 160 4400
3
0 3641 fJ 202 8300
0 3648 fj 202 8400
4
1 8504 fg 298 1700
 18504 fj 298 1700
5
Network mode subsynchronous, (wo  we,)
36 3
Transient simulation
The transient simulation of the overall system includmg STATCOM ( w ~ t hvoltage control)
has been cmied out uslng both DQ and 3 phase model using MATLABSIMULINK [47]
The sinlulation results for 10% decrease m the input mechwcal torque apphed at 0 5 sec
and removed at 1sec with DQmodel of STATCOM are shown m Fg 3 25 The sunulation
results w ~ t h3 phase model of STATCOM are shown 1n Fig 3 26 It is clear from Figs 3 25
and 3 26 that, the system unstable as the osclllatlons m rotor angle and LPALPBsectlon
torque grow w t h time
The FFT analysls of the LPALPB section torque ( m a t l o n are obtaned with 3 phase
model of STATCOM) is performed between 610 sec with the time spread of 1 sec The
results of FFT analysis is shown In Flg 3 27
ReEerrug to Fig 3 27, it is observed that as the time progresses, mode3 component increases
while all other torsional mode components (particularly model) decsy The decrement factor
a of mode2 calculated from FFT analysis ~sfound to be 0 2787 and is comparable to the
real part of e~envalue(0 2826) correspondng to mode2 given m Table 3 3 and m agreemat
mth eeenvalue results Accuracy of DQ model 1s also obvlous h m comparing Rgs 3 25
and 3 26
It
LS
18
desrgoed b a d
89
15
b
3
1
I
UUH)

50
=a%
'I
0
0
Time (sec)
'0
15
F~gure3 25 Vanation of rotor angle and LPALPB section torque for pulse change m input
mechamcal torque (DQmodel of three level VSC based STATCOM (mth voltage control))
 
4I
I
1
g
I0
0
0

Time (set)
10
15
F w ~ 3 26 Vmatlon of rotor angle and LPALPB section torque for pulse change in mPut mechmcal torque (3 phase model of three level VSC based STATCOM (with voltage
control))
$10
E ~
unth STATCO~
 Chapter 3 Analysrs of SSR and Destgn of SubSynchronow D ~ ~ z PController
006005.
ow,
3
S
002,
006
.
6 7 sec
om.
005.
78 =C
O M ,
0 03.
50
Frequency (radlwc)
e l 0 coo
Frequency (radlsec)
Figure 3 27 FFT analysis of LPALPB section torque (3 phase model of three level VSC
based STATCOM (wth voltage control))
on s~mpUiedmodel of STATCOM and the design procedure is &scussed m section 3 7
The insertion of STATCOM m the transrmssion line does not change the SSR character~tics
of the network si&cantiy
If the level of series compensation leads to a network mode
whch matches with the torsional mode, ~tis observed that the voltage control 1s better than
reactrve current current control m damping of the cntlcal unstable torsional mode It 1s
reported in references 11, 601 that, SVC and STATCOM can destabihze the torsional mode
~ t voltage
h
control Such a behav~oris also observed m the present analysis The reduction
of damplng of torsional modes anth voltage control in the frequency range of 130300 rad/s@
can be observed in Fig 3 18, Fig 3 19 and 3 24
The type of STATCOM (two level or three level) does not effect the damping of torslond
modes s~gxuficaatly
Cornparson of damp~ngtorques with adrmttance function m DQ axes and adrmttance rn smgle phase
The representation of aihttance funct~onof STATCOM in slngle phase baas phase awt
91
r/.(lphl)h
The damping torques with admittance function in DQ axes and adm~ttanceIn slngle
phase basis can be evaluated using equations (2 46) and (2 50) respectively and shown in
~g 3 28 Refemng Fig 3 28, it is noted that, the representation of STATCOM as single
60
"920
124
126
128
130
132
134
136
ro, (radlsec)
60
80
120
124
126
128
130
132
134
136
am(radlsec)
FW
phase admttance is farly accurate m predicting the network charactenstics for the examples
consldered
The damping torque wlth admittance function in single phase basis has two components
(der section 2 3 1)(1) Subsynchronous damplng torque (Tde(dubl)
and (n) Su~ers~nchronous
damping torque (T&,,*))whch are gven for constant reactive voltage control and constant
AC voltage control of STATCOM m Fig 3 29 It 1s observed that, the supers~nchronous
component of damp~ngtorque is small negative m t h voltage control of STATCOM whereas,
lt

4080
120
0 06
004r
122
124
126
128
om(radsec)
I
 Voltage control
130
132
134
136

React~vecunent control
 Voltage
control
3.7
hprovement of the damp~ngof SSR m o d s can be acheved by SSDC For the design of
SSDC,slmphfied model of STATCOM (refer Fig 3 17) ~s adopted The Thevenm voltage
9 7 DW
120
04
122
124
126
128
ID, (radsec)
130

132
134
136
 Voltage control
03
n4

 Voltage control
03
0 11
93
02
___________
0
01
0
120
144
126
128
ID, (radsec)
130
132
134
136
The initial design of SSDC was based on the transfer functlon fitting from the desired
frequency response of the SSDC for which the details are outhned as below
The external network can be represented as shown m Fig 3 31 where, Yz 1s the equivalent
dmttance m a t r of
~ the network right side of the STATCOM, Y,1s the adrmttance matrix of
the STATCOM and Z1is the impedance matrix of the network(includ~ngtransient reactance
of generator) left side of the STATCOM
We can write the expression for the equivalent impedance matrix of the SIITCOM and
the network right hand side of the STATCOM as,
94Chapter 3 Analysra of SSR and Destgn of SubSynchronoru Damprng Controller with STATcoM
Generator
Internal Bus
Y,
STATCOM
Fmally, the expression for damp~ngand synchronizing torque can be simphfied as,
where Tde(des)
and TZ(&,)are the desired values of damping and synchrommng torques respectively
It is observed from the damping torque analysis with STATCOM voltage control (as
shown in Fig 3 18) that, the negative dampmg is more slgmficant in the range of frequency
of 110135 rad/sec It order that, the SSDC contributes to the posltive damping the
IS taken to be posltive However, ~t was observed that, wlth large positive value for Tdc(dcs)
causes the network mode unstable Hence, Tde(des)
is taken to be small positive m the non
crit~calfrequency range of 10110 and 135300 rad/sec In the frequency r w of 110135
raqsec, maximum posslble posltive value for T&(&)is selected without causing the network
mode to became unstable
= 1 (p U) for 110 5 w 135 and for other frequency
The final selected value of Tde(des1
<
rmge (10.110 and 135300 rad/sec) ~t is set to 0 l(p u ) The TS(&) is set to the same
value as obtained with voltage control of STATCOM to ensure that, the damplng controller
95
The equation (3 76), 1s solved for the frequency ranging from 10 5 w < 300 with the desired d u e s of damping and synchronlzlng torques It 1s to be noted that, the equation (3 76)
h a 2 solutions for T(j'w) As Ti ( P ) , T3(3w) and X t h are known, we obtaln 2 solotlons for
the desired frequency response T2(Jw) by solving equation (3 72) in the frequency range of
10 <
J,, < 300 From the desired frequency response data, we evaluate the transfer function
T ! ( ~by) Linvfreqs'command of MATLAB which 1s based on the least square fit From the
two sol~tlonsof the designed transfer function Tz(s), an appropriate solutlon can be selected
based on the relative stablllty of the poles of the transfer functions The Xth IS thevenin
reactance (a tunable parameter) and selected so as to maximlze the damping torque of the
overall system computed with the designed transfer funct~onTz(s)) The initla1 dcs~gnof
the SSDC based on transfer function fitting has Improved the damplng of torsional modes
however, the performance was not found satisfactory
The structure of T2(s) is same as that obtaned from the transfer function fittlng described
i
above The objective function for optimizing of the parameters 'r' (a, b, c and d) of the
transfer function Tz(s) is taken as,
Minlmze f (r) =
subjected to,
2(T',e(ks)  T
~ ) ~
>::d
<0
The first constrant ensures that ;he poles of the transfer fundlon T2(s) have negative real
parts The second constrant ensures the poles are complex
Here the desired damplng torque Tde,des)i~ taken as 1 (p u) for wfian i w Iwmaz %,n
and w are taken t o be 110 rad/sec and 135 rad/sec (the critical frequency range) The
mtlal values of the parameters ([r+]])of the transfer function T2(s) are obtained from the
curve fittlng method described earher and are given as,
%(M)]
(5) Compute the update for the parameters Ar(k) by hne search
(v)
38
The at~dlysisw ~ t hSSDC (designed in section 3 7) is carried out based on damping torque
at~alj$15, eigenvalue analysis and translent simulation While damping torque and eigendw
arld!ySls considers DQ madel of STATCOM,the transient simulation considers both the
d e t ~ l e dDQ and 3 phase nonhnear models of STATCOM
1s
Im
Figure 3 32 Variation of damping torque with detaled DQmodel of two level VSC based
STATCOW and SSDC
10
___O
10
,,
,1
I I
I I
I I
I I
5 20I
1 I
30
II
It
II
II
k
40
50
FW
50
100
I50
200
250
300
3 33 Vmatlon of darnplng torque wlth detaled DQ model of three level VSC based
and SSDC
of S u b S ~ n c h ~ o nDampano
o~
Contmlkr ~
t STATcok
h
dan ping torque s posltne with SSDC in the range of t~rslonalmode frequencies and am
the dampmg of SSR companng Flgs 3 32 and 3 33 lt 1s observed that, the peak
dm ping with SbDC is reduced margnallj u lth three level STATCOM
negative
Tlie elgenvdues of the olerall sjstem for tao level and three level VSC based STATCOV
on \oltage control and SSDC are shown in Table 3 4
TWO&
I \lode I Txo le5el VSC based STATCOM I Three level VSC based STATCOM I
with voltage control and SSDC
2 4405 f3
9 5267
. ~ e ~ )
A ~
+ d,)
Comparing the eigenvalue results mthout SSDC (refer Table 3 2 and Table 3 3) and ~ t b
SSDC (Table 3 41, the following obser\ations can be made
1 The damping of criticat mode:! has signrficantly improved mth SSDC
J8
99
3 8 3 nansient simulation
~h~ translent simulation of the overall system including STATCOM with SSDC hm been
avrled out uslng both DQ and 3 phase mode! using MATLABSIMULINk 1471 The slpunuon results for 10% decrease in the input mechanical torque applled at 0 5 sec and remo\ ed
a 1 set ltith two lev4 VSC h ~ c STATCOM
d
along wlth SSDC is sllown In F ~ P 3 34 to
9 39
0 5 ~
0
10
Time (sec)
Flgure 3 34 Variation of rotor angle and LPALPB section torque for pulse change 1n input
mechanical torque (with DQ model of two level VSC based STATCOM with SSDC)
The simulation results for 10% decrease In the input mechanical torque applied at 0 5 set
and removed at 1 sec with three level VSC based STATCOM along w t h SSDC are shown
m Fig 3 36
The variation of reactive current of STATCOM (with voltage control) and armature
~ w mwithout
t
and with SSDC2 are shown m Figs 3 37 and 3 38 respectively The FFT
mdysls of hne current magmiu.de with SSDC is shown in Rg 3 39
It is clear from the Figs 3 37 and 3 35 that, the system is stable w t h SSDC The FFT
mal~slsof ltne current when SSDC 1s used (refer Fig 3 39) shows that$ contans a predom21 HZ component corresponding to torsional mode2 which decays with time
The damping torque a n a l y s ~ cigenvalue
,
analysis and transient simulations show that,
SSDC is effecttve in stabihing the critical torsional modes
100Ci.qter J
40 
B
S
75
0
10
10
Tme (sac)
,
2
lime (sec)
Flg~re3 35 Variat~onof rotor angle and LPALPB section torque for pulse change m Input
mec lama1 torque (with 3 phase model of two level VSC based STATCOM wth SSDC)
mln@
b u n 3 36 Vanaton of mtor angle and LPALPBsection torque for pulse
metbarucal torque (w~th3 phatx model of three level VSC based STATCOM w~tbs S ~
*1
0 14;
10
Time (sec)
1
ea 0 8 s 
095
E 09
08075
O 7~
10
lime (sec)
F~gure3 37 Variation of reactive current and armature current for pulse change m Input
mechmcal torque (with DQmodel of three level VSC based STATCOM without SSDC)
10
10
Time (see)
Time (sec)
FW
3 38 Vanation of reactive current, and armature current for pulse change 1n input
~ torque
d (wlth DQmodel of three level VSC based STATCOM mth SSDC)
101Zc/,~pter3 A t i n l y s ~of SSR and Design of SubSynchronous Dampzng Controller unth STATCOJ~
I
Figure 3 39 FFT analysis of hne current magnitude(w1th DQ model of,three level VSC
based STATCOM wth SSDC)
3 9 Conclusions
In t h s chapter we have stuhed the character~sticsof a transrmssion h e compensated bj
senes capacitor with the STATCOll provlded at the electrical center of the transrmsslon
kne The models of two and three level 12 pulse Voltage Source Converters along with thm
controllers are presented in detal using switching fumctions Neglecting harmom m the
s w t h n g functions, enables the derivation of time invanant models based on DQ variables
Instablhty of torsional modes 1s possible if the complement of the network resonant
frequency matches with any of the torsional mode of the mechmcal system The tools
for the study are,
1 Damping torque analys~suslng simplified and detalled DQ models of two level
three level STATCOMs
2 Rgenvalue analysis with detrslled DQmodels of two level and three level STATCO&
The pn&ct101m about the torsional mode stabhty uslng the three methods ~
d
W
~ m e n The
t
9,.formmce
Chapter 4
Analysis of SSR with SSSC
LC
bll~tclhl~
~0111ljlllc~t1011 of p c ~ s b ~
C ~iL~I I I L I I ~r Sl l ~ ( l
1ic FACTS controllers S t a t ~ cSjnchrouous Serles Colnpensator (SSSC) IS a rzen ge lcr
~lon
serles FACTS controller based on \/SC and has seieral ad~artagesoier TCSC b + e d
TI
S C ~ ~ LC SO I ~ ~ C I ~ S ~~ ~ cI O ~I d~ c
l l i ~ c \ ~b\
d
on t hi r~storcontrollers
SSSC as 7s pa1 t of tlie total compellsat~on Tlle objective IS to ~nxestlgatcthe Subsj nchro~lous
Resonance (SSR) cha~acter~stic
of the colnblned system The IEEE first benchmark model
(FBM) IS cons~deredfor the analysls The act~veseries compensation 1s provided b3 a
Ictcl (01 three level) tuclve pulse SSSC Tlic t h ~ c clcicl comlertcr topolog) glrCitlIrerllices
the harrnonlc d~stortlonon the ac s ~ d e[3, 74, 971 The modelling and control details of a ti50
letel and three lwel Voltage Source Convel ter(VSC) based SSSC are discussed m detail
The analysis of SSR w ~ t hSSSC is carried out based on frequencv domain method elgelld u e analysis and translent slmulat ion The fiequency dolnaln met hod considers D Q model
dSSSC for the cornputatlon of damping torque for quick cllech 111 dete~mmtngt o ~ s ~ o nmode
al
stabil~ty
Chapter 4
106
42
The system considered is adapted from IEEE FBM model [88] The study system 1s repre
421
Basic equations
The converter output phase voltages which are injected in series with the line are given by
the follo\ving equation
I
wllere Sa2, Sb2 and Sd are switching functions for a 2level &pulse VSC as shown in Fig 4
generated in the same manner as Gven in section 3 2 1 (replacmg a! by y for comparison
with saw tooth wave forms) p,, is the transformation ratio of the interfacing transformer
V& IS the DC side capaator voltage
The hne current 1s given by
o and 2.
are phase shifted successively by 120 7 is the mgle by whlch the fundament4
42
107
Chapter 4
108
frequency component of the converter output voltage leads the line current It should be
noted that, y 1s nearly equal to
depending upon whether the SSSC injects inductlveor
+;
~f
the
422
4 = tan'
I=
\/==
magnitude of transmission line current
Q am
109
+ Y ) Z D + k~se.cos(6+ y ) Q ]
The converter output phase voltages whlch are ~njectedIn serles wlth the line are give11 by
the following equatlon
Now
S,(t)=
y
[P.(t)+Pb(t)+P'(t
6
I1
where, ,& a the dead angle The time period in a cycle during whlcll the convertcl pole
output voltage s zero, is
ui,u: are phase shlfted successivelv by 120'
Neglecting converter losses we can get the expression for dc capacitor culrcnt as,
110
Chapter 4
Figure 4 3 Switching function for SSSC operation with blevel 6pulse VSC
44
Neturo~ksolutzon
111
432
The converter output voltages In DQ frame (vb and vb) are obtained by Kron's transformation 1191 (refer equation 3 20) as,
vb = km U ~ sln(y
C
+ 4)
vb = k, vdc COS(Y
+ #)
where,
= k ~ s cOS
e Pse
k=
for 12 pulse converter
4 = tan' Q=
angle of line current,
29
I = z + zD magnitude of transmission llne current
Lm
,/r
IS
ZQ
4 4 Network solution
Defining Xe= Xt + XL+ XaYS,
& = Rt + RL and Xc representing the compensating series
capacitor, the equations governing the transmission llne are given as,
where,
[;I
[ 4
"n"]
sinSg cos 6,
[;I
Chapter 4
112
The expression for the generator terminal voltage call bc givoii as,
, ,
&
45
Froin control point of view it is convenient to define the active voltage (Vp(,,)) and reactive
(VR(se))voltage lnjected by SSSC in terms of varlables in DQframe (vb and vb) as follows
Here, positive VR(se)implies that SSSC injects inductive voltage and positlve Vp(,) imph~
that it draws real power to meet losses There can be two controller st~uctures(Type 1and
Type2) used for SSSC [I, 98, 991
45 1
Type1 controller
In this type of controller both magrutude (modulation index &) and phase angle of convefier
output voltage (y) are controlled The capacitor voltage is maintained at a constant volt*
by controlling the active component of the injected voltage Vp(,) The real voltage referenB
V p ( s e ) ( 1s
~ obtaned as the output of DC voltage controller The reactive voltage referaB
V~(se)(ord)
may be kept constant or obtmned from a power scheduling controller
'
It should be noted that harmonic content of the SSSC injected voltage would
pending upon the operating point since magnitude control will also govern the swtcu
The capsator voltage reference can be vaned (dependlng on reactive voltage reference)
to give optimum harmonic performance [loo] In three level 12pulse converter, dc vO1w
113
The structure of tfle1 contr0llcr for SSSC 1s gven in Fig 4 4 XC5 and xCs are the
controllerstate varltthles
i
5.
Vpcl
,

,,OW~,
Y and Pse
Calculator
u
F~gure4 4 Type 1 controller for SSSC
In Fig 4 4, y and P,, are calculated as
45 2
Type2 controller
In this controller reactive voltage control is achieved by phase angle ol converter voltage (7)
while modulation index is kept constant [98, 991 The capacitor voltage is not regulated but
varies over a wide range due to the fact that the magnitude of the converter output voltage
1s directly proportional to the capacitor voltage This controller is used on the two level
VSC
Viable operation is possible only for y slightly smaller than 90" and greater than 90"
For 90" < 7 < 270, the voltage across the capacitor is negative (such a atuatlon 1s
not pemtted for two quadrant VSC) The angle y can be controlled to be close to k90"
d e ~ e n h gon whether reactive voltage reference VR(SCl(ad)
IS P O S I ~ ~ or
V ~negative Since the
losses are very small in steady state, y rr; f90
The type2 controller structure used for reactive voltage control 1s shown 1x1 r ~ g4 5
XCr and XCs are the controller state vanables
Chapter 4
114
Vm(
,,d
kP
Abs
lul
"&
46
The analysis is carried out on the IEEE FBM based on the following initial operating con
dition and assumptions The data for the studied system is given in A p p ~ d x  C
1 The generator dehvers 0 9 p u power to the transmission system
reactance)
4 For transient simulation, a pulse decrease of 10% mechanicd input totque apphed at
0 5 sec and removed at 1 sec is considered in all case studies
461
The expression for damping torque with SSSC (see AppendixE) is given as
\
The damping torque due to electrical network is evaluated in the range of frequency of 1300
rad/sec for the following cases using equation (4 21)
Casol Without SSSC (Xc = 0 60)
Case2 With type:! SSSC (Constant reactive 6oltage control, Xc= 0 45 and Xsssc=0 15)
C a b 3 With type2 SSSC (Constant reactive voltage control, Xc= 0 40 and Xsssc=0 2O)
115
om (radlsec)
~naxilriumllcgdtlve at a frequency
of around 127 radjsec which matches with the frequency of torslonal mode2 and adverse
torsional interactions are expected In case2, maxlmum undamplng is decreased and occurs
15
at a frequency of about 150 rad/sec Since thls fiequency is not coinciding with anv of the
torsional modes, the system 1s expected to be stable However with case3, peak negntlve
dmplng 1s further decreased but it occurs a t about 158 5 radjsec which is close to the
torsional mode3 of IEEE FBM and adverse torslonal ~nteractionsare expected Thus, with
Chapter 4
116
hybrid compensation, the fixed capacitor should be selected so as to ensure the stablllty ofthe
system When the series compensation is met completely by SSSC (Case5), the complement
of the network resonance frequency (WOwe,) 1s about 280 rad/sec and the peak negative
dainping is significantly decreased This indicates that, the constant reactive voltage mode
of operation of SSSC remains reasonably SSR neutral
The SSSC can be controlled in two modes as given below
(1) Constant reactance emulation control
(1i)Constant reactive voltage control
Foi coilstant reactance emulation, the reactive voltage reference is obtmned as shown
Fig 4 7 t~here Xsssc is measured as
wheie I is the magnitude of the line current The comparison of damping torque wlth
constant reactance emulation and constant reactive voltage control is shown in Fig 4 8
~q,~iTTt
0
VRAeMord)
xssc
ref
K ,xsc

xsssc
= Rse 3 XSQ
The resistance RSeand reactance Xseof SSSC on single phase basis as a function of frequency
we, 1s shown In Fig 4 9 for case 2 (Xssse=O
15) with constant reactive voltage control It'
to be noted that, the resistance is negligible while the reactance Xses practicdly constat
with frequency
/6
117
60

W~thoutSSSC
Wtth SSSC (X, = 0 45 =,X
,
Wlth SSSC (X, = 0 45 =X
,,,
am(radlsec)
Chapter 4
118
Tile damping torques with admittance function in DQ axes and admittance in slnde
phase basis can be evaluated uslng equations (2 46) and (2 50) respectlvely and shown m
Fig 4 10 Referring Flg 4 10, it is noted that, the representation of SSSC as single phase
[   W~th~mpedanceIn DQ
50
50
100
150
250
300
Figure 4 10 Comparison of damping torques with SSSC impedance function in DQ axes
and admittance function in single phase basis
impedance is fairly accurate in predicting the network characteristics
The effect of inclusion of SSSC on the resonance frequency is shown in Fig '4 11for case2
When the fixed capacitor provides 45% compensation (Xc = 0 45), the resonance occurs at
we, = 216 rad/sec where & = XL Wlieil tlic tuld~tionulcoinpcilstttioil of 15% is povlded
by SSSC, the effective capacitive reactance (Xc + X,,)is obtained by adding the constant
reactance offered by SSSC (refer Fig 4 9) to that offered by fixed capacitor The variation of
effective capacitive reactance (Xc X,,)with frequency is also shown in Fig 4 11 Now the
resonance occurs at a higher frequency of we, = 227 rad/sec where (Xc+Xse) = Xr, and t b
1s consistent with the subsynchronous network mode frequency (wo  wer = 377  227 = 150)
of about 150 rad/sec as obtaned with damping torque analysis for case2
The effect of providing additional series compensation by SSSC to supplement the exlstlng
fixed capacitor is to increase the electrical resonance frequency of the network However!
this Increase m frequency IS not significant as compared t o that obtaned with the eqadent
fixed capacitor offering additional compensation (case1) we, = 250 rad/sec in this case
119
Chapter 4
120
Without SSSC
Eigenvalue
w i t h SSSC (Case2)
463
Transient simulation
The eigenvalue analysis uses linearized equatiolls in DQ variables where the switching
functions are approximated by their fundamental components (converter switchings are ne
glected) To validate the results obtained froin damping torque and eigenvalue analysis,
the transient simulation should be carried out for small disturbance using detuled model of
SSSC which considers the switching of three phase converter The transient simulation of
the combined system with detmled three phase model of SSSC has been carried out using
hlATLABSIMULINI<[47] The system response for pulse change in iuput mechanical torque
applied at 0 5 sec and removed at 1 sec a shown in h g 4 12 for the case without SSSC It
1s observed that, the LPALPB shaft torque oscillations increase with time indicating the
system is unstable The simulation results with DQ model of type2 SSSC for c a w 2 Is
shown in Fig 4 13 The simulation results of combined system with detmled three phase
model of SSSC for case2 is shown in Fig s 4 14 to 4 16
It is observed that, there is good match between the simulation results o b t ~ e wth
d
DQand 3 phase models of type2 SSSC Here the LPALPB shaft torque oscillation decay
46
121
5
6
T~me(sec)
5
6
T ~ m e(sec)
10
I
0
Figure 4 12 Variation of rotor angle and LPALPB sectlon torque for pulse change In input
mechanical torque(w1thout SSSC, Xc=O 60 p u )
Time (see)
Figure 4 13 Variation of rotor angle and LPALPB sectloll torque for pulse cllange ln lllPut
mecharucal torque (with detailed DQmodel of type2 SSSC Combination of Xsssc = 15%,
md xc = 45% )
Chapter 4
T~me(sec)
Figure 4 14 Variation of rotor angle and LPALPB section torque for pulse change in input
mechanical torque (with detmled three phase model of type2 SSSC ~ o m b i h t i o nof Xsssc=
15%, and Xc = 45% )
Time (sec)
'
(
1
1
1
1
.
.
.
.
.
1
0 950
Tlme (sec)
4 6
123
with time lndlcnt~ngthe syste~n1s stable The lcsults of transient simulation of the nonllneJr
system ~ ~ n f i r m
the
s results of elgenvalue analysis as the nonlinear system behaves l~ke],near
system for small disturbances around the operating point
Chapter 4
124
Figure 4 17 Variation of rotor angle and LPALPB section torque for pulse\ change in input
mechanical torque (with detailed three phase model of type2 SSSC Combination of Xsssc =
20%, and Xc = 40% )
Frequency (radlsec)
Figure 4 18 FFT analysis of LPALPB sectlon torque for case3 (Xc= 0 40,&SSC = O 20)
4 '/
125
The var~atlonof damplng torque with frequency for all three cases are shown 1n Fig 4 19
Chapter 4
126
and type2 (case5) are comparable in terms of the peak llegatlve damping and frequeneyd
its occurrence
472
Eigenvalue analysis
controller and the equations representing electromechanical system are llnearlzed at the
operating point The mechanical damping is coilsidered The eigenvalues of systein matrcc
are computed and are given in Table 4 2 It is to be noted that, inclus~onof SSSC leads to
a stable system with case6 and reduces the potential risk of SSR problem I11 case7, the
mode3 becomes unstable and in agreement with the damping torque analysis
Table 4 2 Eigenvalues of the system wit11 type1 SSSC
E~genvalue
Torsional With SSSC (Case6) With SSSC (Case7),
Mode
I 1 4918 f
Comparing the eigenvalue results of case3 with type2 SSSC (refer Table 4 1) andd
case7 with type1 SSSC (refer Table 4 2), it is noted that, the damping of critical mod&jE
better wlth type2 SSSC Thls 1s because with type1 SSSC network mode (sub) frequency
1s closer to that of torsional mode3 This is in agreement with damping torque @dyS
The damplng of other modes are not significantly affected by the type of SSSC
127
Translent slmulatlon
For transient simulst~on,a step decrease of 10% mechanical lnput torque applred at o 5 sec
and removed at 1 sec is considered The s~mulatlonresults wlth DQ model of type1 SSSC
in Fig 4 20 The simulation results of combined system with detailed three phase
model of Type1 SSSC for case6 are shown In Fig 4 21 to Fig 4 23
Figure 4 20 Vanation of rotor angle and LPALPB section torque for pulsc change in input
mechanical torque (with detailed DQmodel of type1 SSSC Combinat~onof Xsssc = 15%,
and Xc = 45% )
It is observed that, there 1s good match betueen the simulatlon results obtained wltll DQ
and 3 phase models of type1 SSSC It 1s clear from the Frgs 4 21 4 23 that, the sjstem is
stable with the line compensation conlbinatlon of Xc= 0 45 and Xsssc = 0 15 Compari~lg
these wlth the simulatlon results of Type2 SSSC (refer Fig s 4 14 4 16) it is noted that v&
1s qu~cklyregulated by DC voltage controller and the DC voltage 1s pract~callyconstant nlth
Type1 SSSC VR(se)
also remalns constant
The FFT analysis of the LPALPB sectlon torque IS performed between 15 sec wlth the
time spread of 1sec The results of FFT analysis IS shown m Flg 4 24 Referring to Fig 4 24,
it 1s observed that m the t ~ m espan of 15 sec, the mode1 component 1s predom~nant As the
time progresses, all torsional modes decay The decrement factor a of model calculated from
FFT analysis IS found to be 0 2219 and 1s comparable to the real part of eigenvalue (0 2132)
Chapter 4
128
701
0
5
T~rne(sac)
10
Figure 4 21 Variation of rotor angle and LPALPB section torque for pulse change in lnput
mechanical torque (with detaled three phase model of type1 SSSC Combiliation of Xsssc=
15%, and Xc = 45% )
1.
r m o s7
o:
95
BO 85
3
g 08C
g07507
0
I
I
105
5
Time (sec)
10
10
2"
I
r
5
Time (sec)
Figure 4 22 Vanation of electrical torque and generator termma1 voltage for pulse cbW
m input mechanical torque (with detmled three phase model of type1 SSSC Combm&tlT
of XSSSC= 15%, and Xc = 45% )
4 7 Case study
129
Figure 4 23 Variat~onof reactive voltage 'I/R(,,) and DC voltage vd, for pulse change m
input mechanical torque (with detailed three phase model of type1 SSSC Combination of
Xsssc = 15%, and Xc = 45% )
Frequency (rad/sec)
O
0 025
Frequency (nd/~ec)
7
34 sec
002
I
6
:0:
h
50
100
200 250
Frequency (radlsec)
150
300
Fnquency (radsec)
Figure 4 24 FFT analysis of LPALPB sect~ontorque for case4 (Xc= 0 45, Xsssc
Chapter 4
130
ryyl
'O
5
6
T~ma(sac)
10
5
6
T~me(sac)
Figure 4 25 Variation of rotor angle and LPALPB section torque for pulse change m input
mechanical torque (with detailed three phase model of type1 SSSC Combmation of Xsssc =
20010, and Xc = 40% )
The results of FFT analysis of LPALPB shaft torque is given in Fig 4 28 It is observed
that as the time progresses, all torsional modes decay except mode3 The decrement factor
a of mode3 calculated from FFT analysls IS found to be 0 3942 and IS comparable to the
leal part of eigenvalue (0 3561) corresponding to mode3 given in Table 4 2 and in agreement
with eigenvalue results
Comparing the simulation results of Type2 and Type1 SSSCs it is noted that, the
ripples in dc voltage and generator voltage is significantly reduced with Type1 SSSC
1s because at the operating point considered, the dead angle 8. = 7 5O and l2pulhe $levd
converter behaves nearly like a 24pulse converter It is also observed that the controua
regulates the dc capacitor voltage at 0 72 p u (for case6) and at 0 96 p u (for c@e7)
inhcating that the SSSC is operating as an energy neutral device
The instability of the system is possible if the resonance frequency matches with my of
the torslonal mode for a certain cornb~nationof fixed capsotor and SSSC m wluch case tb!
'
47
131
@a
l 06
m04
Time (sec)
, 0 9 5 :
b C
Time (sec)
Figure 4 26 Var~ationof electrical torque and generator term~nalvoltage for pulse change
in input mechanical torque (with detalled three phase model of type1 SSSC Combination
of Xsssc = 20%, and Xc = 40% )
01z0
9
1
9
0
lime (sec)
Time (sec)
Chapter 4
132
Frequency (radsec)
003
81 O o 2 = '
0 03
34 sec
002.
0 025,
45 sac
002.
50
Frequency (radsec)
300
Figure 4 28 FFT allalysls of LPALPB section torque for case7 (Xc= 0 40, Xsssc = 0 20)
t
SSSC iequires a SSDC for damping of critical torsional mode The details of SSDC whichls
designed based on the design procedure discussed in section 3 7 for STATCOM is given m
the next section
48
It is shown in the previous sections that the occurrence of SSR can be avoided by varylug
the reactive voltage compeilsatioil introduced by SSSC However, tlus may not always be
feasible In such cases, the damping of torsional modes can be achieved by SSDC Here, the
SSDC 1s assumed to take line current signal (locally available) as input and modulates the
reactlve voltage reference to damp the unstable torsional mode (see Fig 4 29)
133
The structure of the transfel function of SSDC is taken as (as considered in Chapter3),
011
transfer function adopted for STATCOhl whtle the algorithm for pardmeter optimization 1s
discussed in detail (refer section 3 7 1)
The ob~ectlvefunction for optimizing of the paramete~s'r (a, b, c and d) of the transfer
function Tz(s) 1s taken m,
Minimize f (r) =
C ('de(de6)
 Tde)2
Wman
The analysis with SSDC is carrled out based on damping torque analysis, elgenvalue analysis
and transient simulation While damping torque and elgenvalue analysis cons~dersDQ
model of the SSSC, the transient simulation considers 3 phase nonlinear models The SSDC
transfer function is assumed to be same for type1 and type2 SSSC
4 8 1 1 Damplng torque analysis with
SSDC
The damping torque with detailed DQ model of type2 and type1 SSSCs and SSDC are
Chapter 4
134
  Case3
500
50
100
,
SSSC w~thSSDC (XC=O40
150
200
250
300
w, (radlsec)
I
Figure 4 30 Damping torque with and without SSDC for type2 SSSC
40 X
d)20)
0 20)
0
50
100
150
200
250
Figure 4 31 Damping torque with and wlthout SSDC for typo1 SSSC
48
SSDC
135
The eigenenvalue1ues of the overall system with DQ model of type2 and type1 SSSCs and SSDC
shown in Table 4 3
Table 4 3 Eigenvalues of the system with SSSC and SSDC
Eigenvalue
Torsional
With type2 SSSC and SSDC CVith type1 SSSC and SSDC
Mode
1 1 8504 zk
298 1700
1 8504 & j 298 1700
Network mode subsynchronous, (wo  we,)
j
(wo
+ we,)
Comparing the eigenvalue results without SSDC (refer Table 4 1 and Table 4 2) and with
SSDC (Table 4 3), the following observations can be made
1 The damping of critical mode3 has significantly improved with SSDC
2 The damplng of swing mode and all torsional modes is increased with SSDC evcept
mode4 The damping of mode4 is marginally reduced Mode5 is not affected as its
The trusient simulat10n of the overall system including SSSC wlth SSDC has been carried
Out using 3 phase model using MATLABSIMULINK [47] The simulatlon results for 10%
Chapter 4
136
decrease 111 the input mechanical torque applied a t 0 5 set and removed at 1sec with typb2
and type1 SSSC along with SSDC is shown in Figs 4 32 to 4 33 respectively
Time (sec)
Figure 4 32 Variation of rotor angle and LPALPB section torque for puls'e change in input
mechanical torque (with detailed three phase model of type2 SSSC Combination of Xsssc =
20%, and Xc = 40% with SSDC )
Figure 4 33 Variation of rotor angle and LPALPB sectlon torque for pulse chmge 1nlnput
mechanical torque (with detlwled three phase model of type1 SSSC Combination of X~ssc'
20%, and Xc = 40% with SSDC )
4 32
In this chapter, we have studied the SSR chdracteristics of a series compensated transm~sslon
line with SSSC The inodels of t ~ level
o and three lebel 12 pulse SSSC are developed uslng
switching functions The colltrollcr stiuctures for SSSCs are presented in deta~l The time
lnvarlazlt models in DQ reference frame are developed for damping torque and elgen~alue
malys~sby neglecting harmonics In the switching funct~ons A properly des~gnedSSDC is
required for damplng the critical torsional mode A simple yet effective method of design of
SSDC to provide positlve damping In the range of critical tors~onalfrequency is presented
The following conclusions emerge based on the results of the case study
1 Active series compensation is better than fixed compensation as not only the negatlve
ssscs
Chapter 5
SSR Characteristics of Unified Power
Flow Controller
5 1 Introduction
The Unified ~ d w e Flow
r
Controller (UPFC) IS the most versatile Flexlble AC Transmlsslon
System (FACTS) controller whlch can be used to control actlve and rcactlve power flows In a
transmlss~onllne In addltlon to the bus voltage The actlve serles compensatlon IS provlded
by lnjectlng serles reactive voltage The voltage at the two ports of UPFC are regulated by
control of shunt current and series real voltage It also has several operatlng control modes
such as voltage and power regulation, line Impedance compensatlon etc
llnes connected to turbogunerators can result in
The serles compensated transm~ss~on
\
SSR due to the negatlve damplng ~ntroducedby the electrical network Thls can cause
self excltatlon due to torsional interaction and induction generator effect The reduction of
damplng at torsional frequencies can also result in magnlficatlon of shaft torque osclllatlons
caused by translent d~sturbances[I]
This chapter presents the analysls and study of Subsynchronous Resonance (SSR) characterlst~csof UPFC The objective is to investigate the detailed SSR character~sticsof UPFC
at different operating modes and examlne the role of an UPFC as a SSR countermeasure
The effectof injection of series reactwe voltage, serles real voltage and shunt reactire current
on SSR damplng are investigated The various combination of operatlng modes of shunt and
series converters are considered for investlgatlng thelr effect on SSR characterlstlcs
140
52
Converters
The UPFC is the most versat~leof FACTS controller capable of control of three system
parameters, voltage, power angle and transfer Impedance The schematic of the UPFC Is
shown in Fig 5 1
I h
'
Id 2
'd l
/
VSC 1
vsc2
+fb
4
I
I
Control
I1
I
141
In the potver circuit of a UPFC, the conveitcr is usually either a multipulse and/or a.
multilevel configuration
voltage of the conkerter without changing the maglutude of the dc coltage Thls can be
possible by Pulse Width Modulation (PWhf) with two level topology which demvlds
hgher switchmg frequency and leads to increased losses The three level comerter topology
c;lnachieve the goal by varying dead mgle P 111th fundamental switching frequency [96]
The conierters that allow the variation of both rnagnltude and the phase angle of converter
output voltage are classified as TYPE1 converters [71] Here the UPFC is reallzed by t n o
three level, t!%elve pulse Voltage Source Conveiters (VSC)
As there is no published work on the analysis of SSR wlth UPFC, it becomes essential to
establish the validity of the models used Thls is performed by uslng a detailed nonlinear 3
phase system model (including the switching action within the VSC) for transient simulation
which is also used to validate the DQmodels employcd for the linear analysis While eigenvalue analysis is accurate and gives comprehensive information about the system stability at
an operating pomnt, slmpler frequency domain techniques such as damplng torque analys~s
can be used for a fast determination of stability of torsional modes
5 2 1 Basic equations
Both the shunt qnd serles branches of the UPFC conslsts of 12pulse converters with 3level
poles The deta~ledthree phase model of UPFC is developed by niodelling the comerter
operation by switching functions as described in sections 3 3 1 and 4 3 1
The jth converter tcrmlnal voltagcs with respect to the neutral of the transfo~mercan be
expressed as,
where,
P3 1s the transformat~onratios of the iilterfac~ngtransformer of jth conterter
Saw(t) =
pab)(t)
P a ( j ) ( t ) + p b ( ~ )(t)+Pc(,)(t)
Sab)(t)a the sw~tchingfunction for phase 'a' of a 6pulse 3level VSC Similarly evpressions
be derived for Sbb)(t) and ScD)(t) It should be noted that, for shunt convertel the
abbreviation (3) is replaced by (sh) and for series converter it is replaced by (se) subsequently
142
(neglecting harmonics) for a 12pulse, three level converters, we get for shunt converter
and v~n(se),v~(sel
are phase slufted successively by 120
The port2 current 22. of UPFC s Oven by 12. = fi12szn(w,t
4) and ira, zlc are ghae
shifted successively by 120 Note that y is the angle by which the fundamental frequency
colnponent of serles converter output voltage leads the port2 current
Neglectiilg converter losses, we can get the expression for dc capacitor Current as,
where,
where psh and ps, are the transformation ratios of the interfacing transformers of shunt and
series VSC respectively
143
In Fig 5 2, Rsh,Xsh and Rsb,Xsc are the resistance and reactance of the interfacing
transformer of shunt and series VSC respectively The magnitude control of shunt and scrlcs
converter output voltages
and Vi,,) is achlcved by modulating the conduction period
affected by dead angle Pahand P,, of indimdual concerters while dc voltage is mamtalned
constant
The shunt converter output ~oltngecan bc represented in DQframe of lcfcrencc as
1
144
the po~t2current I2
The dc side capacitor is described by the dynamlcal equation as,
523
The real current drawn by the shunt VSC is controlled by phase angle a and reactive current
by modulating the converter output voltage magnitude as a function of Psh In section 3 4 1,
the dynmical equations of the shunt current control are dealt with in dqail [14, 941 The
Fig 6 3 shows the schematic representation of type1 controller for shunt current control The
reactive current reference of shunt converter can be kept constant or regulated to mutam
port1 voltage magnitude at the specified value
In Fig 6 3, real and reactive currents are defined as
I~(sh)
=  2 s h ~ cos(61) + ZshQ sln(e1)
and a and fish are calculated as
V P ( ~=
~ )V D ( ~ sln(el)
~)
+ V Q ( C~O~S)( ~ I )
VR(=
~~
V )D ( cos(e1)
~ ~ )  V Q ( Ssin(el)
~)
(5 19)
(5 20)
5 2 m e l h n g of
145
5 2 4 Ser~esvoltage control
The type1 contrhler structure for serles convcrtcr IS shown in R g 5 4 The mdepcndmt 111jection of real and reactive voltage give rise to two operating combinations of serles convtrter
as described below
1 Constant renctir e voltage arid port:! voltage coritrol
2 Constant react~vevoltage and coilstant resistance emulatioil
The active power can be regulated and/or modulated by controlling the series reactlr e voltage
reference ( V R ( ~ [101],[102]
~ ) ~ ~ ~ )The reactive power in the line can be regulated by controlling
Series real voltage (V'(,,)) injection and this 1s equivalent to port2 voltage control[l4)
The voltage at port 2 of the UPFC is algebra~callyrelated to that at port1 and the
mlt&3e Injected by senes VSC (For slmpllcltj the ser~estransformer reactance is clubbed
with the line impedance)
146
YH
YD
Y*
t
4
%XY
7
hn2
voltage
Conuoller
$ 
r' and B
Cdcul~lor
"Pi
dl
IJe
I +AT,
e
Flgure 5 4 Series voltage controller
The voltage relat~onis glven by
where Vpl and VRI.are the inphase and quadrature components of port1 voltage Vi mth
respect to port2 current and expressed as,
VP(S.Z)
and V~(r.1 are the inphase and quadrature components of 5,)
w t h respect to port 2
current and are expressed as,
147
The various operating modes of UPFC considered are summarized in Table 5 1 These
are not exhaustive as the reactive voltage reference for the controller can be set by an outer
controller regulating power flow in the line
I
1

I
(
UPFC
531
IS
The damping torque method iilvolves less computational burden and is a convenient tool for
analyzing the SSR characteristics of the electrical network Damping torque analysls can be
used to predict the potential SSR problems under varlous system operating condtions For
the computation of damplng torque with UPFC, it is necessary to express the admlttm
function [ Y ( j w ) ]=
YDD YDQ
YQD YQQ
derived m AppendixF
5311
The total series compensation of 60% is met by hybrid compensation wherein 40% of camp*
sation is met by fixed capacitor and the remanlng 20% is reallzed by injected series rmt1'
voltage by UPFC, at the operating p a n t The imtlal operating value of VP(W)
= 0 0 'nI
149
caes, the shunt reactive current 1s ad~ustedto a value to obtain the mamltude of p0~t1
&age 1 015(p u ) In steady state, the operat~ngvalue of IRsh = 0 0856
Table 5 1)
It is to be noted that in all the cases, maximum negative damplng occurs at around 160
rad/sec whlch matches with torsional mode 3 of IEEE FBM and adverse tors~onal~ntcractloils
are expected
It 1s to be noted that peak negative damping with cases1 and 3 is nearly about 86
P u assoc~atedwith a sharp dip W ~ t hcase2 and 4 the peak negative damping 1s about
37 5 P u lnd~cat~ng
that res~stanceemulation gives better SSR characteristics compared to
Port 2 voltage control It is observed that, constant reactive current control mode of shunt
converter (cases 3 and 4), Increases the damping at low frcquenc~esand the peak ne,oatlve
dam~lng1s mar~nallyreduced
5 3 1 2 Semntrvlty of damping torque for serles real voltage(V~(,))
ln~ectlon
The peak negative damping associated with vanous operat~ngcases depends also on the
mWtude of series real voltage ~n~ectionThe vanation of damping torque with frequency
for Cue 1 is shown in Fig 5 8 Referring to R g 5 8, peak negative damping 1s ~ d ~ c e d
150
1 00
0
50
100
150
250
300
Vp(,e)
151
substantldlyw t h positive real voltage injection Vp(,)= O 065, wllich emulates posltlve restance in series with the line However, negative real voltage injection I/P(se)=0 015, whlcll
emdatesnegative resistance, can destabilize the network mode and the elgenvalue 1s found
to be 18973 f 3159 21 The damping torque remains practically unchanged In the regions
0130and 180300 rad/sec (not shown in Fig 5 8)
A comparison of cases 1 and 2 with VP(,,)=O065 is shown in Fig 5 9 This again shorns
Figure 5 9 Variation of damping torque with frequency for cases 1 and 2 for V,(,,) = 0 065
that constant resistance emulation mode gives better torsional damping compared to constant port2 voltage control mode
5 3 1 3 Sensitivity of damping torque for series reactlve voltage(V~(,,))injection
The effectof increase in series uyected capacit~vereactive voltage (hence Xa) and keeping
total compensation at GO%, is sllown 111 Fig 5 10 11 is observed that, liweased lllJcLtlon
~fcapacltivereactive voltage causes sigmficant increase m the frequency at which ~SOnance
occurs Whlle the peak negative damping increases with increase in V~(ee)for ~ase1(collstmt
mltage control), it decreases for case3 (constant reactive current control) indicating constant
reactive current control 1s better than port1 voltage control at the operating point The
torque remans practically unchanged in the regions 0120 and E@300 rad/sec
a d hence not shown in Figs
152
20
_
0.
20
'
 
__     _
>
\
The effect of injection of slluilt reactive current is shown In Fig 5 11 The injection of
increased capacitive reactive current by shunt converter increases the resonance frequency
marginally and decreases the damping of torsional modes As mentioned eqlier, the results
for case2 indicates better damping with resistance emulation The damping torque remans
practically unchanged in the regions 0130 and 180300 rad/sec and hence not shown in the
Figure
5315
In this analysis, with cases1 and 2 constant reactive voltage is replaced by constant rew
tance emulation operation The effect of constant reactance emulation operation 1s shown
in Fig 5 12 Referring to Fig 5 12, lt can be seen that the constant reactive voltage mode
of operation reduces the peak negative damping and increases the resonance frequency corn
pared to constant reactance emulation T h s suggests that constant reactive voltage control
1s better than the constant reactance emulation (as in SSSC)
153
10
.
= 0 0 Xse = 0 20 1
corn (radlsec)
Figur
 case1
l820
22
 Case2
Port1 voltage constant reactance emulation and port;!
voltage control
Port1 voltage constant reactance and constant r e s l s t a n a fmulatton
50
100
150
200
250
300
om(radlsec)
154
532
0.f
un~fiedPower F h Contmlb
Eigenvalue analysis
Q variables), are linearized at the operating point and elgenvalues of system matrx ae
elgenvalues of system matrix are computed for cases 1, 3, 2 and 4 are given in Table 5 2 and
Table 5 3 Comparing the eigenvalue results of Table 5 2 and Table 5 3, it is to be noted
that, the mode of control of shunt VSC has no significant effect on the torsional modes,
whereas damping of mode 0 has improved with port1 voltage control The latter fact a
not in agreement with the results of damping torque analysis (shown in F g s 6 and 7) wh&
assume classical model of the generator However, eigenvalues corresponding to mode zero
with classical model of the generator are (2) 0 0221 fJ 7 8242 and (22)  0 4191 fJ 74542
for cases 1 and 3 respect~vely Thus the modelling of the generator affects the stability of
mode zero The negative damping associated with mode 3 is maximum with case1 and
minlmum with case4 are in agreement with the conclusions of damping torque analysls
Table 5 4 gives the eigenvalues of the combined system when series real voltage is set to
0 065 p u and the controller emulates (positive) resistance in series with t,he line All the
torsional modes are stable in this case
533
Transient simulation
The elgenvalue analysis uses equations in DQ variables where the switching functions are aP
proxlmated by their fundamental frequency components (converter switchings are neglected)
To validate the results obtaned from damping torque and eigenvalue analysis,the translent
simulation should be carried out using detailed nonlinear three phase model of UPFC whxh
considers the s w i t h n g in the three phase converters Hence the
three level 12pulse converters by generating switching functions The transient slmulatKo
of the combined nonlinear system wlth detailed three phase model of
using MATLABSIMULINK [47]
The transient simulation of the combined system with DQ model and detded three
155
'I
1 2 7931 f
156
1 6
phase model of UPFC have been carried out for case1 using MATLABSIMULINK [47]
The simulation results with DQ model for case1 with Vp(,,)
= 0 and Vp(,,)
= 0 065 for a
10% decrease in input mechanical torque applied at 0 5 sec and removed at 1 sec are shown
in Fig 5 13 and Fig 5 14 respectively The simulation results with detailed three phase
model are shown in Figs 5 15 and Fig 5 16 respectively The results are m agreement with
what 1s predicted by eigenvalue analysis
A large disturbance IS inltlated at 0 5 sec in the form of three phase fiult at port 1 of
UPFC wlth a fault reactance of 0 04 (p u ) and cleared at 4 5 cycles The s~mulationresults
with detaled three phase model of UPFC for case1 with Vp(,,)
= 0 065 is shown in Figs 5 17
and 5 18 for DQ and three phase model of UPFC respectively It is observed that, there
a good match between the simulation results of DQ and three phase model of UPFC The
shaft torque oscillations decay fast
54
Discussion
Although, the damping torque method accurately predicts the torsional mode stablhty, the
stabllty of the entire system can be studied by eigenvalue analysis The ~ntroductlonof
UPFC m the transmission network, m general, has the effect of reducing the electricalr*
nance frequency due to the series reactive voltage injection and reducing the peak negative
UPFC w~thCase1
Ttme (sec)
F~gure5 13 Simulation with DQmodel of UPFC fol step c h ~ n g e111 T,, Vp(,,)= O
95
750
me (sec)
09
0 5l
0
= 0 0651
4
Time (sec)
Rgure 5 14 Simulation 1~1thDQ model of UPFC for step change in T,, VP(,) = 0 065
158
as,
Figure 5 15 Simulatlon with three phase model of UPFC for step change in T,, Vpb) = 0
95
UPFC w~thCase1
[IV,I = 1 015
xW= 0 20
v ~ (= 0
~ 0651
)
08
a1 0 6 
o 50
3
4
Time (sec)
Flgure 5 16 Simulatlon wlth three phase model of UPFC for step change in T m ,Vp(a.4 =
0 065
140
120
UPFC w~thCase1
= 0 0651
6
h
4
a,
I
21
6l
0
""'I'
'
'
3
4
Time (sec)
I
7
Flgure 5 17 Simulatlon wlth DQ model of UPFC for three phase fault
."
120
[IV,I
UPFC w~thCase1
Xse 0 20 Vp(w) = 0 0651
= 1 015
3
4
T~me(sec)
4
Time (sec)
6
4
5I 20 <
4
6.
0
Flwre 5 18 Simulatlon with three phase model of UPFC for three phase fault
160
damping due to the series real voltage tn~ection This 1s shown in Fig 5 19 where the damping
torque with two operating modes of the UPFC are compared with the case without UPFC
60% series compensation is provided by fixed sales capacitor done) Note that
the resonailt frequencies shown in Fig 5 19 are the complements of the electrical resonant
frequency
Without UPFC
161
5 5 Concluszons
Zth
It is to be noted that, the active power control mode of UPFC is not considered here as
~tis not possible (in the IEEE FBM) The damping controllers also not considered as PSS
is provided at the generator
In this chapter, the annlys~sand simulation of series compensated system ivith UPFC is
presented which is reported for the first time The model of UPFC based on twelvepulse
three level VSCs is developed from the first pxinciples taking in to consideration the switching
action in three phase VSC For the linearized study rf hich includes eigenvalue and damping
torque analysis, the DQ model is developed bv neglecting the harmonics in the output
voltage of VSCs The method of damping torque analysis with UPFC is de~elopedfor the
first time for the fast prediction of torsional mode stability The appllcatlon of the D2 n~odel
1s validated by the transient simulation of three phase model of UPFC The effectiveness of
various combinations of operating modes of shunt and series converters in damping of SSR
has been investigated
The following points emerge based on the results of the case study
1 The operating mode of the shunt converter has no significant effect on the torsional
modes
3 The injectlon of series reactive voltage for line compensation reduces the risk of SSR
as not only the negative damping is reduced, the resonance frequency is increased
This indicates the possibility of detuning SSR by adlusting the series reactive voltage,
whenever feasible In addition, a significant increase in the damping of torsional modes
1s achieved by emulating a positive resistance wlth the injection of series real voltage
I
I
Chapter 6
" the output voltages of the converten) and (b) pilase variables aith the modelling of
5mtdlng action in the VSC The eigenvalue anitlysis and the controller des~gn1s based on
the DQ model while the transient simulation considers both models of VSC
Each VSC has basically two controllers which determine active and reactive current
outputs of the individual VSC The active current reference can be obtaned either from
power controller or dc voltage controller The reactive current reference call be kept constant
or obtained from ac bus voltage controller lf ac bus voltage 1s also to be regulated Thus,there
are a large number of controller parameters to be tuned for different operating modes A
systcinatic approclcli [92], for pardrnctc~optllrll/rltl0111s clppllcd f0l tlie sc~lcctlonof colltrollcr
guns The method is illustrated with a case study
62
The VSC based HVDC transmission system mainly consists of two converter stations con
nected by a dc cable (see Fig 6 1)
'1
C Cable+
'2
v2
BUS 1
Rs2 Xs2
Usually, the magnitude of ac output voltage of the converter is controlled by Pulse Width
Modulation (PWM) wlthout changing the magnitude of the dc voltage However, the three
level converter topology considered here can also achieve the goal by varying the dead angle
0 with fundamental switdung frequency [3, 961 Here, a combination of multipulse and
three level configuration is considered for both VSCs to have 12pulse converter w ~ t h%level
poles The amphtude and phase angle of the converter AC output voltage can be controlled
simultaneously to achieve rapid, illdependent control of active and reactlre power 1x1 four
quadrants
The detaled three phase model of converters 1s developed by modelling the wnverter
operation by switching functions (see section 3 3 1)
6 2 Modelhng of
165
6 2 1 Basic equatlons
The differential equations for the current drawn by jt%onverter are given as
where v:, , vi,, v; are the con1 erter output phase voltages and w~ 1s the base frequency
uaJ, us,, v, are the phase voltages of jth conherter bus The bus voltage ua, is given by
ual =
sm(w.t 8,) and vb, ,vc, are phase shifted successively by 120
The jth converter output phase voltages in p u are expressed as,
f i ~ +
where, Si2(t), x = a, b and c are the switching functions for a 12pulse 3level VSC (defined
in section 3 3 1) and vdy is the dc slde capacitor voltage of jth converter in p u p, is the
and Vacb
are the base voltages
transformation ratlo of the lnterfaclng transformer and Vdcb
of dc and ac sides respectively a, is the angle by which the fundamental component of jth
converter output voltage leads the jthac bus voltage V, With the two convertei VSC blued
HVDC system, J = I , 2
If the switching functions are approvimated by their fundamental components (neglecting
harmonics) for a 12pulse three level converters, we get
111 the
1G6Chapter 6 Modelhng and Selectzon of Opttmal Contmiler Pmameters for VSC baed HVDC SRSirn
622
BUS
v,/el
6 2 Modellzng of VSC
 based HVDC
167
The following equations in the D& variables can be given for descr~bingthe converter
currents
where,
tkl =
Jci = YCZ = SC
623
Converter control
The Fig 6 3 shows the schematic representation for corlverter contlol In Chapter3, the
dynarnical equations of the current control are glven in detail
The real and reactibe current controller forms inner loop control for all the converters At
jthconverter, the reactwe current reference (IR(J)rel) of j t h converter can be kept constant
or regulated to mantam the respective AC bus voltage rnagnltude at the specified
The active current reference (Ipb) can be either obtalned from DC voltage controller or
Power controller as one collverter controls DC voltage and other controls porver The AC
bus voltage controller and DC voltage/Power controller forms an outer loop control Hence,
b u l ~at
d any
~ converter
S1 no
1
3
4
Referring Fig 6 3, active and reactive currents for J t h converter are defined as
169
4 are calculated as
a, = tan'
[2;;;::)
I
+ Ub(,)
cos(oJ)
(6 20)
(6 21)
y3)with respect to J t h
bus voltt~gc Tlie cy~icltlolls (G 20) ~11d(6 21), 1esults 111 posititc ralucs W ~ ~ C Ij tI h VSC 1s
drawing red current and inductive reactlve cune~it
The varlous operating combinations of VSC based HVDC are summarized in Table G 2
Table 6 2 Operating combiiiatlons of VSC based HVDC
VSCl (Rectifier)
Case
Controller1
Power
Power
VSC2 (Inverter)
Controller:!
Controller1
Controller2
DC voltage
Rea,ctive current
Power
Reactive culrenit
DC voltage
AC Bus voltage
Power
AC Bus voltage
VSCl (Inverter)
Power
(
8
Power
DC voltage
Reactive current
Bus voltage
Bus voltage
VSC2 (Rectifier)
DC voltage
DC voltage
Power
Reactive current
Bus voltage
Bus voltage
Additional 4 cases (cases 58) arc obtai~lcdn hen VSCl ope~ntcsas an invcrtel and VSC2
operates as a rectifier
Y = [C]X
where matrix [A(r)]involves one or more adjustable parameters [r] is the vector of
co~it~oller
gains to be optimized The optiinizatioi~problem is based on the standard infinite
time quadratic performance Index which is to be minimized by adjustllig the controller
parameters and can be stated as,
J =X ~ P X
where P is a positive definite matrix and solved from the Liapunov equation
PA + A ~ P
= Q
where Q = CtC
For t = 0,
6 4 A case stud3
632
171
2 Assume
= [ro]
[r(k)]
4 Calculate 7 = tr[P]
5 Compute the update for the parameters
by l ~ n esrarch
6 Update
I)]
= [ ~ ( k ) ] Ark
(w)
8 k=k+l go do step 3
64
A case study
The system dagram 1s shown In Fig 6 4, which conslsts of a generator and AC transmission
system on either side of VSC HVDC cable transmsslon The data for generator, HVDC
cable and AC transmsslon hne parameters are glven in AppendurC
The modelling aspects of the electromechan~calsystem comprising the generator modelled
with 2 2 model, mechanical system, the excltatlon system, power system s t a b h e r (PSS),
torsional filter and the transmsslon hne are gven m detal in Chapter2
al
The analysis is carrled out on the test system based on the follomng ~ n l t ~operat~ng
condltlon and assumptions
1 The generator dehvers 0 125 p u power to the transmlsslon system
172Chapter 6 Modelling and Selectton of Optimd Controller Parameters for VSC based H V D C ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
3 The magnitude of both the converter bus voltages are set at 1 01 p u The magnitudes
of both the lnfinite bus voltages are set at 10 p u
t
4 The VSCl draws 0 9 p u power from busl to feed to HVDC cable for rectifier operation
and draws 0 9 p u power from busl with inverter operation The base MVA is 300
MVA, AC voltage base is taken to be 500kV and DC voltage base is 150kV
6 4 1 Parameter Optlmlzation
For slmphcity, the generator dynam~csare neglected for parameter optimnation The pa
rameters are optirmzed withln the range of upper and lower bounds The upper and lower
bounds for parameters are determined by e~genvalueanalysis to ensure a stable system It
1s found that, the parameters of power controller are critical in ensuring the stabihty ofthe
system It should be noted that, the the system r n a t r ~[A(r)]is unlque for each of the OPeratlng modes of VSCs The optirmultion dgor~thmpresented 1n section 6 3 rs implemented
using the optinmation routine 'fmncon' of MATLAB [47] The initial values of c0ntroUm
psrameters are suboptimal and are obtslned by tnal and error The Table6 3 gw the
s u b o p t l d and optimum parameters for the/vanous operating modes of VSC HVDc In
l a b e k g controller parameters gven m Table 6 3, the first two letters are a t h e 'bI 9 ib'
5, 4 A case study
173
Parameter
Controller
v a lable
~
Subopt~mal
Optlmal
kpir 1, kiir 1
0 OG, 0 60
0 025, 0 750
hpipl, kiipl
0 06, 0 60
0 051, 1200
kflir2, k11r2
0 06, 0 60
0 035, 0 375
kp1p2, k1ip2
0 06, 0 60
0 075, 0 375
kppl, k ~ p lkdpl
,
0 05, 40, 0
7 5, 175, 0 010
kpvdc2, kivdc2
2, 20
2, 20
kplrl, kiirl
0 06, 0 60
0 025, 0 750
kplpl, kilpl
0 06, 0 60
0 054, 1 204
kplr?, kiir2
0 06, 0 60
0 037, 0 375
kpip2, knp2
0 06, 0 60
0 075, 0 375
0 05, 40, 0
kpvdc2, kivdc2
2, 20
2, 20
kpvl, klvl
0, 100
0, 99 998
kpv2, k1v2
0, 100
0, 99 995
kpirl, kiirl
0 03, 0 15
0 055, 0 750
kpipl, k11p1
0 03, 0 15
0 007, 0 040
kpir2, k11r2
0 03, 0 15
0 04, 0 SO0
kp1p2, knp2
0 03, 0 15
0 007, 0 040
0 5, 4, 0
2 5, 25, 0 20
kpvdcl, klvdcl
2, 20
7 5, 10
aopt)
22
0 2864
12
0 3078
12
2 4676
174Chapter 6 Modelltng and Seiectzon of Optlmal Contmlier Pammeters for VSC based HVDC ,yyalr
Parameter
Controller
Case
variable
Suboptimal
Optimal
bpir 1, kiir 1
0 015, 1 5
0 030, 0 300
kpipl, kiipl
I 0 03, 0 045 1
0 028, 0 040
kpir2, kiir2
0 015, 1 5
0 030, 0 400
kpip2, kiip2
0 03, 0 045
0 035, 0 040
0 6, 8, 0 03
kpvdc2, kivdc2
2 1, 20
2, 10
kpir 1, kiir 1
0 015, 1 5
0 030, 0 6
hpipl, kiipl
0 03, 0 045
0 028, 0 075
kpir2, kiir2
0 015, 1 5
0 02, 0 6
kpip2, kiip2
0 03, 0 045
0 035, 0 075
10, 100, 0
13 863, 99 774, 0 01
kpvdcl , kivdcl
5, 50
5, 4 9 303
I(oP~)
12
1 8996
11
0 3405
',
Referring to Table 6 3, it is observed that, the optimal parameters obtained for AC bus
voltage control (case2) are not significantly different from the optimum parameters obtaned
with reactive reactive current control (case1) Hence, the parameters obtained with constant
reactive current control for cases1, 3, 5 and 7 call be used for cases2, 4, 6 and 8 respectively
with additional parameters corresponding to the PI control of the bus voltages
is minimum for case1 compared to case3 A
The function value at convergence
simmlar comparison for case5 and 7 indicate that
is less for case7 This indicates that,
the fast response of the system with quick settling to steady state 1s expected for case1 and
7 in comparison with cases 3 and 5 respectively
(G,)
642
Simulation results
6 4 A case study
0 7s0
05
15
25
T~me(sec)
L
Flgure 6 5 S~mulationresults for step change with suboptimal controller parameters (case1)
The simulation results for step change in reactive current and power reference of VSCl
nth case1 (when the co~ltrollcrparameters ale optimal) are shown In Flg 6 6 It is obse~ved
that, the system response to step changes IS sign~ficantlyimproved with optimal controller
parameters
The variation of act~vepower and dc voltage of ind~vidualconverters for a pulse change
active power reference (PI) 1s show11 m Fig 6 7 w ~ t hcase1 and optiinum controller parameters It IS observed that, the performance of the system under transient changes ls
satisfactory
176Chapter6 Modelltng and Selectzon of Ophmal Contmller Pa?umetec* for VSC based HVDC surim
0 06;
05
15
25
25
Time (sec)
0 75'
0
05
15
Time (sec)
::pi1
Figure 6 6 Simulation results for step change with optimal controller parameters (case 1)
*;
085
L
08
0 8
0 750
05
Time (rec)
''0
075
25
0 85
0
05
15
25
Time (sec)
I
 8 0 0
05
1 1 5
2
25
05
1 1 5
2
25
Time (sec)
Time (sec)
Figure 6 7 Variation of converter power and dc voltages for step change in power reference
(case1)
The optimal parameters obtaned for case1 can be used with case2 as mentioned earher
The slmulatlon results for step change in bus voltage and power reference of VSClwlth case2 (when the controller parameters are suboptlrnal) are shown in Fig 6 8 W ~ t hthe optimal
controller parameters, the improved response with case2 is shown in Fig 6 9
177
6 4 A we study
0 94;
05
15
25
T ~ m e(sec)
0 951
0 75;
05
15
25
Time (sec)
Figure 6 8 Simulation results for step change wlth suboptimal controller parameters (casc2)
05
15
1
Tlrne (sec)
25
Figure 6 9 Simulation results for step change with optimal controller parameters (case2)
The simulation results with case3 for step changes in reactlve current of VSCl and powTer
reference using the optimal parameters obtained for case1 are s h o w in Fig 6 10 It 1s to
be noted that, the system 1s unstable Thus the optimal parameters for case1 operatloll arc
found to be unsuitable for case3 The simulation results for step change m reactive current
0fvSC1and power reference with case3 (when the controller parameters are optimal) are
shown in Fig 6 11
Figure 6 10 Simulation results for step change with case3 using the qptimal controller
parameters of case 1
Time (sec)
Figure 6 11 Simulation results for step change with optimal controller parameten (cse3)
The optimal parameters of case3 can be used for case4 as mentioned earlier The
simulation results wlth case4 for step change m bus voltage of VSCl and power referencc
64 A
179
case study
respectively
1 02
a
1(15
098096
0 940
0
 9
0
05
15
05
15
25
d
25
Time (sec)
Figure 6 12 Simulation results for step change with suboptimal controller parameters (cnse
4)
0 94'
05
15
25
Time (sec)
0 65
0 9l
1
05
15
25
Time (sec)
Figure 6 13 Simulation results {or step change nnth opti~nalcontroller parameters (case4)
The slmulatlon results for step changes m rertctlve current of VSCl and power refer
180Chapter 6 Modelhng and Selectton of O ~ t l m a lContmller Parameters for VSC baed HVDC brtsnI
ence with case5 are shown in Flg 6 14 and Fig 6 15 when the controller parameters are
suboptimal and optimal respectively
Figure 6 14 Simulation results for step change with suboptimal controller parameters (case
5)
Figure 6 15 Simulation results for step change with optimal controller parameters (c~e5)
The simulat~onresults for step changes in bus voltatage of VScl and power reference with
~ase6are shorn in Flg 6 16 and Fig 6 17 when the controller parameters are s u b o ~ t l d
6 4 A case study
0 92;
05
15
25
15
25
Time (sec)
0 9s1
05
Time (6%)
Figure 6 16 Simulation results for step change with suboptimal controller parameters (case
6)
U
L
05
1
15
2
25
0 920
Time (sec)
0 95;
05
1
Time (sec)
15
25
Figure 6 17 Simulation results for step change wwlth optimal controller parameters (case6)
The simulation results for step change m reactlve current of VSCl and power reference
Mh case7 are shown in Fig 6 18 and Flg 6 19 when the controller parameters are suboptimal and optimal reqpectivrly The improvement of the system response s evident with
Of
Optzmal C ~ ? ~ t m l lPammeters
er
for VSC based HVDC
Fig 6 19 The vanation of active power and dc voltage of lndlvldual converters for step
change in power reference (P2) with case'7 and o ~ t l m u mParameters 1s shown in Rg 6 20
The perforlnance of the system under transient changes is found satlsfactor~
Figure 6 18 Simulation results for step change with suboptimal controller parameters (case
7)
85
o0 80
05
15
25
Time (sec)
Figure 6 19 Simulation results for step change with optimal controller parameters (cae7)
6 4 A case study
183
Time (see)
Time (sec)
Trine (see)
Figure 6 20 Var~ationof converter p o i w and dc voltages for step change in poirer iefer~nce
(case7)
The optlrnal parameters of case7 can be used for case8 as mentioned earlier The
simulatiol~results for step change 111 reactive current of VSCl and poiter reference nith
case 8 ale shown in Frg 6 21 and Fig 6 22 when the controller pararncte~sare subopt~mal
and optimal respectikely The improvement of the system response is evident from Fig 6 22
It is observed'that, the response to step change in power is slow with rectlfier on loltage
control and inverter on power control (cases3 and 4) compared with cases1 and 2 Thls IS
observed even when VSCl is operating as an inverter and VSC2 as rectlfier (the response to
step change in power reference is slow with cases5 and 6 in comparison with cases7 and 8)
The transient simulation of the system with DQ and detaled three phase model of the
system is carried out using MATLABSIMULINK 1471 A large disturbance is initiated at 0 5
sec in the form of three phase fault at converter1 bus of VSC HVDC with a fault reactance
of 0 04(p u ) and cleared at 4 0 cycles The limits on type1 controllel outputs P, and cr,
are selected to minimize the over shoot m power flow through the converter under transient
conditions The simulation results for case1 with DQ model of VSC HVDC are shonn m
Fig 6 23 The simulation results for case1 with three phase model of VSC KVDC are shown
in Fig 6 24
It 1s to be noted that, there is a good match between the sllnulatlon results (vanation of
rotor angle (6,) and power of converter l(Pl)) obtmned with D Q and three phase models of
VSC HVDC Also, the power flow in the HVDC link is brought back to the reference value
in a short time The high frequency oscillations in the power dunng steady state dueto
harmonics in the converter output AC voltage
I
05
15
25
T~me(sac)
Figure 6 21 Simulation results for step change with suboptimal controller parameters (case8)
0 81
05
T~me(sec)
15
25
Figure 6 22 Simulation results for step change 1~1thoptimal controller parameters (case8)
6 4 A case study
185
Time (see)
Figure 6 23 Variation of rotor angle and power at converter 1 for three phase fault (DQ
model)
1
,
1
Time (sec)
Figure 6 24 Variation of rotor angle and power at converter 1 for three phase fault (Three
phase model)
In this chapter, we have presented the analysis and simulation of VSC based HVDC
The modelling details of HVDC system wlth twelvep~lsethree level VSC are discussed A
systematic approach for the selection of controller parameters based on parameter optlrmza
tion is presented
The following points emerge based on the results of case study
1 he optimal controller gains depend significantly on the location of the dc
IS
Chapter 7

The HVDC converter control can destabilize torsional modes of nearby turbogenerators
The first experience of HVDCturbine generator torsional interaction was obselved in 1977
dumg field tests a t Square Butte project [81] in North Dakota The test shoned that the
relatively high gmn pouer modulation coiltrol did indeed destabilize the fi~sttorsional mode
at 115 Hz A detmled study [83,84] based on the concept of damping torque identified some
of the factors colitributlng to t h ~ s~nteractlo~ipower level, the delay angle at the operating
point, the strength of adjacent ac transmission, etc Interestingly, the interaction .cr as rnost
unfavourable if dc link is operated radially Also, the equidistant pulse control (EPC) used in
modern dc links is more unfavourable than the individual phase control (IPC) The operation
at low short circuit ratios (SCR) can aggravate the problem
has been discussed in the previous chapter In this chapter, possible torsional lnteroctions
~11thVSC based HVDC are investigated It is shown that, with the proper selection of
operating mode of VSC, the VSC HVDC can contribute posltne damping in the torsional
mode frequency range
188
SCR =
If the SCR is less than 3, the AC system is said to be weak (the net reactance of the
AC network seen at the converter bus is large and hence short clrcuit level is small) The
conventional constant extinction angle control may not be satisfactory with weak AC system
The recovery of inverters following the clearing of fault in the connected AC system can also
be problematic Constant reactlve current control or AC voltage control have been suggested
to overcome some of the problems of weak AC systems The voltage instabivty and dynmc
over voltages are other two problems when HVDC is operated with weak AC systems The
coordination of converter control with fast reactive power control a t the converter bus by
applying static var systems is practiced in modern HVDC converter stations to overcome
these problems
The VSC based HVDC installations are very attractive in view of their superior tech&
qualities as compared to conventional HVDC (based on CSC) [16,17, 18,871
In general, The VSC based HVDC has following advantages
terminal dc systems)
6 No requirement of fast communication between the two converter stations
rDC
Cable'2
C
vsc2
3 The magnitude of both the converter bus voltages are set at 101 p u The xnagnitudes
of both the infinite bus voltages are set at 1 0 p u
190
4 The VSCl draws 0 9 p u power from bus1 to feed to HVDC cable for rectifier operation
dlaws 0 9 p u power froiii bus1 with illvcrter ogerdtioil Tiic base MVA 300
MVA, AC voltage base is taken to be 500kV and DC voltage base 1s 150kV
5 The generator rating is taken as 300 MVA
6 ?lechanical damping is neglected for damping torque analysis
The various operating coinbinations (as given in section 6 2) of VSC based HVDC are
summarized 111 Table 7 1
Table 7 1 Operating combinations of VSC based HVDC
Case
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
(
VSCl (Rectifier)
Controller2
Controller1
Reactive current
Power
power
Bus voltage
DC voltage Reactive current
DC voltage
Bus voltage
VSCl (Inverter)
1
I
Power
Power
DC voltage
DC voltage
VSC2 (Inverter)
Controller1
Controller2
DC voltage
Reactive current
DC voltage
Bus voltage
Power
Reactive current
Power
BUS voltage
VSC2 (Rectifier)
I Reactive current I
Power
I Reactive current I
Bus voltage
Power
Bus voltage
191
When fixed capacitors are used at the convei tei bus for reactive power support
d u e of Qc = 0 30 p u 1, the effective strength of AC system is calculated as effective short
clrcult ratio (ESCR) defined as,
ESCR =
Chapter 7
192
3
 ESCR = 4 5
1,
2

'
21
0
1
ESCR=25
50
100
150
om (radlsec)
200
250
300
50
100
150
200
250
300
.'
2
0
om (radlsec)
20
15
 ESCR  4 5
  ESCR 2 5
1
10
t
5
\
\
\ %
0
I
5

 
\ J
I
1 0
50
100
150
200
250
300
om (radlsec)
20
15
h
11
II
10
II
'
Case6 PI = 0 9
Q,= 0 0
 ESCR = 4 5
  ESCR = 2 5
,
193
voltage control (case8) reduces the damping m the low frequency (below 60 rad/sec) n h~le
damping at torsional frequencies is increased
of torsional modes 1s small and with the lntrlnslc mechanical damp~ngof the systcnl the
system 1s expected t o be stable
Rectifier o n DC voltage control and lnverter on power control
T ~ operating
s
mode contributes positive damplng ~n the rmge of torstonal frequency (30
194
300 iad/sec) when the generator is at the rectifier (cases 3 and 4) However, the ma*1tude
of positive damplng is small The damping at lower frequencies 1s m h c e d and 1s ind1cped
by a dip in the damping torque below 30 rad/sec The AC voltage control (case4) reduces
the peak negative damping compared to constant reactive current control (case3) whenthe
AC system is strong (ESCR.4 5)
The reduction in damping at low frequencies (below 30 rad/sec) is also true when the
crenelator is at the inverter (cases 5 and 6) However, III cases 5 & 6, there are mnor
0
negatlve excursions of the damping torque in the frequency range of 70120 rad/sec (not
clea~lyvisible in figures for strong AC system) which causes reduction of damping of first
torslonal inode (of frequency 99 rad/sec) and are more pronounced with the reduction of
AC system strength The AC voltage control (case6) further reduces damping of model
cornpazed to case5 whereas the damping of higher torsional modes (mode 2, 3 and 4) 1s
increased
The effect of reduction of AC system strength (ESCR=2 5) is to increase the magutude
of the dip in da~nplngtorque below w, = 50 radlsec (cases 3 and 5) The AC voltage control
reduces the magnitude of this dip (negative damping) when the generator is at rectifier (case
4) herea as it illcreases and is more pronounced when the generator is at inverter (case6)
Since these frequencies at which dip occurs do not match with any of the torslonal mode
frequencies of IEEE FBM, the system is expected to be stable
It 1s interesting to note that except for cases 1 and 2 where VSCl (connected close to
the generator), is operating as a rectifier in the power control mode, the reduction in ESCR
imploves damping of torsional modes at higher frequencies (w, > 120 radlsec)
7 3 2 Eigenvalue analysis
In this analysis, generator model(2 2) [19] 1s considered The electromechanical system
conslsts the multimass mechanical system, the generator, the excitation system, Power
system stabilizer (PSS),torsional filter and two AC transmission systems hnked by VSC
based HVDC The equations representing the VSC HVDC system (see sectlon 6 2) 810%
with the equations representing electromechanical system (m DQ variables), are lmearld
at the operating point and eigenvalues of system matrut are computed The stablhtty ofthe
system is determined by the location of the elgenvalues of system matrix The system Is
stable if the eigenvalues have negatlve real parts
195
Torsional
Eigcnvalue
case 1
Mode
case3
 1 0 5 1 2 f ~ 74987 10520f:j
0
75383
Table 7 3 Eigenvalues of the detailed system with VSC baed HVDC foi cases 2 and 4 with
ESCR=4 5
Referring Tables 7 2 and 7 3, it 1s observed that, the DC voltage control (cases 3 and
4) margnally improves the damplng of torsional modes compared to power control (cnses 1
and 2)
19G
Chapter 7
rectifier (case1)
When rectifier on DC voltage control, the effect of AC voltage control (case 4) to
malglnally reduce the damping of mode1 and inarglnally increase the damping of other
torsional modes These results are in agreement with the damping torque analysis
The AC voltage control results In improving the damping of mode 0 compared to the
constant ieactive current control
Generator at t h e inverter
The eigenvalue results with strong AC system (ESCR=4 5) when the generator is at the
inverter (for cases 58) are given in Tables 7 4 to 7 5
Table 7 4 Eigenvalues of the detailed system with VSC based HVDC for cases 5 and 7 w~th
ESCR=4 5
197
ESCR=~5
It 1s observed that, in general, the DC voltage control a t the rectifier is better t11a11 power
control as the damping of torsional modes IS increased However, the tors~onalmodes are
better damped when the generator is close to inverter than rectlfier
The Inverter operation of the VSCl (located close to the generator) (cases 5 to 8) Improves
sllghtly the damplng of swing mode compared to the rectifier operation (cases 1 to 4)
732 2
The eigenvalue results wlth weak AC system (ESCR=2 5) when the generator 1s at the
rectifier (for cases 1 t o 4) are given in Tables 7 6 to 7 7
Generator at the r c c t ~ f i e r
Comparing Table 7 2 wlth 7 6 and Table 7 3 with 7 7, it is observed that, wlth the reduction
ln AC system strength (ESCR=2 5), the frequency and damping of swing mode (mode 0) 1s
reduced This is expected The effect of reduction of AC system strength is to reduce the
IS lllcreaqed
for DC voltage control mode of operation of rectlfier (case3) compared m t h the respectlTre
cases when AC system IS strong (ESCR=4 5)
The trends of the effects of DC voltage control v/s power control and AC voltage control
v/s constant reactwe current control on damplng of swing and torsional modes m~~alns
similar to the cases m t h ESCR=4 5
Generator at the inverter
The elgenvalue results with weak AC system (ESCR=2 5) when the generator 1s at the
198
Table 7 6 Elgenvalues of the detailed system ~11thVSC based HVDC for cases 1and 3 mth
ESCR=2 5
I Torsional

Eigenvalue
Table 7 7 Eigenvalues of the detaled system w ~ t hVSC based HVDC for cases 2 and 4 wlth
ESCR=2 5
f
Torsional
Mode
0
0
0
0
, 0
Eigenvalue
case2
case4
6637 z t g 6 2293 0 6535 f3 6 2413
2019 fg 98 9380 0 2309 =t J 98 9220
0704 fg 127 0100 0 0744 fg 127 0100
6281 fg 160 5600 0 6456 J 160 5600
199
Table 7 8 Elgcnvdues of the detailed system with VSC based HVDC for cascs 5 and 7 with
ESCR=2 5
Table 7 9 ~ i ~ ~ n v a lof
u ethe
s detailed system with VSC based HVDC for cases 6 and 8 wlth
Torsional
Mode
Eigenvalue
case6
case8
The eigeilvalucs for thc case6 wlth ESCIt=2 5 and for 3 different ratlrlgs of generato1
are shown in Table 7 10
It IS observed that, the damping and frequency of mode0 1s increased wlth reduction
m generator ratlng Although the damp~ngof first torslonal mode 1s reduced wlth reduced
generator rating, the damping of higher torslonal modes (2,3 and 411s increased The mode
5 1s unaffected as its modal inertia is very high
The effect of actlve and reactive power loading on the damping of torsiond modes 1s also
studled for cases 18 (wth ESCR = 4 5 for which the results are not reported here) and ~t
15 observed that, the vanation in the damping IS only lnarglnal
Chapter 7
200
Table 7 10 Sensitivity of damping with generator rating for case 6 with ESCR=2 5
Torsional
Mode
0
1
2
3
4
5
7 3 3 Translent simulation
The transient simulation is carried out using detailed nonlinear DQ and three phase model
of VSC HVDC which considers the switching in the three phase converters Here, VSCs
are modelled by generating switching functions determined by the controllers The transient
simulation of the combined nonlinear system with detailed DQ as well as three phase model
of VSC HVDC is carried out using MATLABSIMULINK [47]
The disturbance considered is a step increase in ~ n p u tmechanical torque of 0 25 p u
applied at 0 5 sec and removed at 1 sec The simulation results for case1 with DQ and
3ph model are shown in Flgs 7 6 and 7 7 respectively for strong AC system (ESCR=4 5)
It is seen that, the disturbance in generator mechanical power, has not affected the power
transfer in DC link (PIis practically constant) There exists a good match 1h the simulation
results with DQand 3phase models
It is observed from the eigenvalue analysis that, the damping of first torsional mode
(model) IS least for case6 with ESCR 2 5 The simulation results for case6 with D Q
model is shown m Fig 7 8 for the weak AC system The oscillations are effectivelydamped
as well The peak overshoot in the generator rotor angle is increased compared to case1
simulation with ESCR=4 5 (refer Fig 7 6) also rotor swings damp relatively slowly
201
Figure 7 6 Variation of rotor angle, LPALPB section torque and power at converter 1 for
pulse change in T, (DQ model) for case1 with ESCR=4 5
a 06
T~me(sec)
I
Time (sec)
Oo
1
I
Time (sec)
Figure 7' 7 Variation of rotor angle, LPALPB section torque and power at converter 1 for
pulse change in T, (Three phase model) for case1 with ESCR=4 5
Chapter 7
202
Figule 7 8 Variation of rotor angle, LPALPB section torque and power At converter 1 for
pulse cha~lgein T, (DQ model) for case6 with ESCR=2 5
0
05
Time (arc)
(7
F~gore7 9 Variation of rotor angle, LPALPJ3 section torque and power at converter
three phase fault (DQmode1)for case1 with ESCR=4 5
7 4 Concluszons
203
a:
05;
1I
2[
3I
43
Time (sec)
Figure 7 10 Variation of rotor angle, LPALPB sectlon torque and pomer at converter 1 for
three phase fault (Three phase model) for case1 with ESCR=4 5
phase model of VSCs,the high frequency osclllat~onsin power of DC llnk is due to har~nonics
injected by VSCs
1
74
Conclusions
In this chapter, the analysis and simulation of SSR with VSC based HVDC system 1s presented The various operating modes of HVDC system are considered for the investig~tlon
of possible SSR conditions
The follow~ngpoints emerge based on the case study of the test system
1 Although the power controller at the rectifier contributes negative damping, the magnitude of the negative damp~ngis small and the system is stable a s the net damplng
is positive
2 The DC voltage control at the converter stat~onVSCl (close to the generator) IS
better than power control as it induce positive damping in the torsional frequency
range However with inverter operation of VSCl In power control 1s better than DC
voltage control at higher torsiollal frequencies
204
3 Except for the rectifier operation with power control at VSC1, the damping oftorslO1lal
modes is increased with the reductloll of AC system strength
4 Although, the inverter operation of
darnping of swing mode than rectifier opelatlon, the mode of operation of VSC bared
HVDC system has no slgnlficant effect on the damplng of generator swing mode
Chapter 8
Analysis of SSR Interactions with
Interline Power Flow Controller
8 1 Introduction
The Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC) is a Voltage Source Con~erter(VSC) bnsed
FACTS controller for series compensation with the unique capability of power flow manage
ment among the multiline transm~ssionsystems of a substat~on
IPFC consists of two or more serles connected Voltage Source Converters linked through
a common dc llnk as shown in Fig 8 1 (which shows two converters) VSCl and VSC2 can
generate/absorb reactlve power Independently and the tuo bran~hescan exchange active
power and hence capable of affecting direct transfer of real power between the compensated
hnes
4
The component of serics Injected voltage m phase and quadrature wit11 the line cnrrent
are termed as active voltage and reactlve voltage respectnely The lnjectlon of series reactive
voltage provides a c h e serles cornpensat~on(to control active power in the hne) while the
wectlon of series active voltage controls the reactive power in the llne
One or more VSCs in IPFC (excludmg one VSC) i11ject controlIable serles voltages and
1s regarded as 'pnme' system where independent control of both actlve and reactive voltage
(and hence control of reactive and active power) is deslred The remalnlng VSC is designated
as the 'support' system which injects reactrve voltage mdependently 13, 151 The dc capacitor
two collvcrtcrs
206
VSC 1
VSC2
The IPFC is assumed to be realized by two three level, twelve pulse Voltage Source
Converters (VSC) The IEEE Second Benchmark Model (SBM) [89] is considered for the
analysis of SSR The objective is to i~lvestigatethe effect of the IPFC controller on SSR
damping The study is carried out based on damping torque analysis, eigenvalue analysis
I
and transient simulation
The modelling of the transmission system is detailed (including network transients) and
can be expressed in DQ variables or (three) phase variables The modelling of VSC 1s based
on (a) DQ variables (neglecting harmonics in the output voltages of the converters) and
(b) phase variables and the modelling of switching action m the VSC which also generates
harlnonics The damping torque analysis, eigenvalue analysis and the controller design is
b a s ~ d011 the DQmodel while the transient simulation considers both models of VSC
82
Modelling of IPFC
In the power circult of an IPFC, the converter is usually a t h e r a. multipulse and/or amu1
tilevel configuration The control of injected voltage m a ~ t u d by
e Pulse Width Modulation
(PWM) with two level topology demands higher swltcbng frequency and leads to increased
8 8 Modellzng of IPFC
207
losses The three level converter topolol5Y can achieve the goal by varying dead angle P n lth
fundamentalswitching frequency [96] Here, a combination of multipulse and three level
configuration is considered Both the series branches of IPFC conslsts of 12pulse converter
blevel poles The detailed three phase model of IPFC is developed by modelling the
converter operation by switching functions (see section 4 3 1)
The converter output (phme) toltages which are lnjected in series with lmeJ are g l e n by
the following equation
where S:2, Si2 and S:2 are switching functions for a 3level 12pulse VSC (which are defined
in sect~on3 3 1 and 4 3 1) generated in the same manner as glven m section 3 3 l(rep1aang
a by y for comparison with saw tooth wave forms) p, is the transformation ~ a t i oof the
lnterfaclng transformer T, vdc is the dc side capacitor voltage
The jthline current neglecting harmonics, is even by
( )
where, P, is the dead angle and the fraction of time perlod 111 a cycle durlng uhich the
converter pole output voltage is zeio is given as $ vi,, v:, are phase shifted successlvety
by 120'
is the angle by which the fundamental component of the J" converter output
voltage leads the jthline current, Ib)
Neglecting converter losses, we can get the expression for dc side current of J~~con\ertel
z&,
4
= p,
7r
822
cos ,L$
sin(w,t
+ y, +  
+ y, + 4,) + z b , s m
$3
%(,)
= km(~)vdc
sln(@3+ 73)
(8 8)
(8 9)
8 2 Modellzng of IPFC
209
where,
ldcl
=[km~
~ l n ( 4 i +Y ~ ) I D
+Ik n l C O S ( ~ I ? l ) I Q ~ ]
ldc2
=  [Lasln(42
ID^ + km2 cos(42 y2)IQ2]
lD1
and IQl are DQ components of line1 current Il
ID2and IQ2are DQ components of line2 current I2
+
+
82 3
Converter control
The Fig 8 3 shows the schematic representation for converter control In thls controller,
both magn~tudewhich is a function of cos P, (for a constant vc) and phase angle y, of the
converter voltage are used to control reactive and real voltage P, and Q, are the activt and
reactwe powers in the jth line measured at the output port of IPFC
VRD) ref
1jd
I
Calculator
ord
210
We can define injected reactive and real voltages in terms of variables in DQ frame (VAand
as follows
VR(3) = VL;(J)COS 4J  V&) sin 4,
(813)
Here, positive VR implies that VSC injects ~nductivevoltage and positive Vp impliesthat
draus real power from the line
The 'support' VSC regulates the capacitor voltage at a constant value The real voltage
refe~enceof 'support' VSC is obtained froin DC voltdge controller while for 'pnme' VScs
it 1s obtaned from reactive power controller or constant resistance emulation The reactive
voltage reference of 'support' VSC can be kept constant However, the reactive voltage
refelence of 'prime' VSCs can be kept constant or obtained from active power controller
The operating colnbinations of two VSCs of IPFC considered for the analysis are sum
ma1 l ~ e din Table 8 1
Case
1
Controller2
Controller 1
Constant
Constant
DC voltage
voltage VR(i)
Reactive power Q2
Constant
Collstailt icactivc
DC voltage
volatge VR(l)
+
RSezelnulation
Controller1
Controller2
Controller 1
Controller 2
Constant
Constant
Constant
Constant Reactive
Q1
Active power Pl
DC voltage
Constant resistance
Constant reactive
Constant
Reactive power
4
Active power p2
RBel
emulation
voltage
v ~ ( ~ ) DC voltage
voltage V R ~ )
Constant reactive
volatge VR(~)
8 3 A Case Study
A Case Study
diagram 1s shown in Fig 8 4, which consists of a generator and parallel AC transmssl~nline one of which 1s series compensated by the fixed capacitor The IPFC provides
series compensation for both of the parallel lines The generator and transmlsslon line
data [I, 891 are adapted from IEEE SBM and given in AppendixC
T,~
", Le 1
Generator
./
R, X ,
BUS1
VSC 1
v2&2
L~nel
h1
&$+~

.I,
R~
... Line2X ,
Z. h
R2
Xc
I/
rY?
Fbh
X,
tf$j?h
BUS2
vsc2
2 The magnitude of the generator and infinite bus bus voltages are set at 1 0 0 p u
4 The turbinegenerator mechanical damping 1s neglected for the dmplng torque analys1s
212
W i t h o u t IPFC
Here only line1 is compensated by fixed capacitor The variatlon of damping torque with
frequency hen Xc = 0 2496 is ~ndicatedin F I 5~ 6 It is to be noted that, the peak negative
damping torque occurs at about 155 rad/sec which matches with mode1 of the SBM and
adverse torsional interact~onsare expected
8 3 12
W i t h IPFC
For the cornputatloll of damping torque with IPFC, it is iiecessary to expres the admittance
function seen at the generator internal bus [Y] in DQ reference frame (see AppenducG)
Here the reactance of lines are increased by a factor 1 25 and the increased reactance of
lines are compensated by capacitive reactive voltage injection of IPFC The operating values
of compensated reactance (Xseb)= ?)
and XSe2= 0 11085 respectively Now in line1 we have hybrid compensation and line2 is
compensated by VSC2 of IPFC If the real voltage (Vp),injection of 'prime' VSC is set to zero
and IPFC behaves like two independent SSSCs in steady state The variatlon of damplng
torque with frequency for cases 1 and 2 (as given in Table 8 1) are shown in Fig 8 5 The
enlatged view of Fig 8 5 in the frequency range of 120180 rad/sec is shown in Fig 8 6
It IS clear from Fig 8 6 that, although the peak negative damping torque with case 2 1s
less, the damping at cr~ticalmode1 torsional frequency of 155 rad/sec is better with case1
It is observed that, IPFC operat~ngwith case1 increases the peak negatlve damplng while
the damping at low frequencies is increased compared to the case without IPFC Comparing
cases 1 Qc 2 it is seen that change in the control strategy of 'prime' VSC results in reduction
of peak negative damping and increase in the frequency at which resonance occurs
The optimal controller gans obtaned for case1 & 2 are found unsuitable ~ t h
& 4 as the system becomes unstable Hence for cases 3 & 4, optimal controller gans are
determined separately The variat~onof damping torque with frequency for cases 3 and
are shown in Fig 8 7
8 3 A Case Study
2
4x
'\
\
\
\
0
9 1
B
I2
3
4
I I
I I
I '
I'
I'
I
50
100

150
200
lPFC Case1
 W~th
W~thIPFC Case2
W~thoutIPFC
250
300
350
It 1s seen that, the trend of damping torque varlatlon w ~ t hcases 3 & 4 remalns slrn~lar
to that of cases 1 & 2 Agan comparing cases 3 & 4 it IS seen that, change in the control
214
I
I
0
'.
2 

IPFC Case3
 With
W~thIPFC Case4
4
Without lPFC
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
The eigenvalues for the torsional mode1 with classical model of generator, for case1
and 2 are (1) 0 3799 f j 154 85 (11) 0 3896 k j 155 25 respectively The R H S of the
equation (8 15) for the above cases (obtmned from damping torque) are (1) 0 3877 and (11)
0 3982 respectively This shows that, there is a good correlation with damping torque and
elgenvalue results indicating the importance of damping torque analysis as a quck check on
the torsional mode stability
83 1 3
The peak negative damptng associated with various operating cases depends also on the
magnitude of series real voltage injection The variation of damp~ngtorque with frequency
8 3 A Case Study
215
dc hnk
The variation of Rsel with Rsez for the study system is shown in Fig 8 9
It 1s to be noted that, for a given change in R.e2 change in Rse1 1s small as PQmr
ca~abllltyof line1 1s higher compared to line2 Hence increase in positive %,z @ves small
'"crease in negative Rse, and the net loop resistance comprising hne1 and 2 a increased It
observed that, the network mode becomes unstable when the net loop resistance becolnes
large negative due to negative real voltage Vp? lqection
216
832
Eigenvalue analysis
8 3 A Case Study
Table 8 2 Elgenvalues of the detmled system with IPFC(Vp2 = 0) for cases 1 and 2
Torsional
Eigenvalue
case 1
Mode
case2
2 0944 f3
5 7455
 2 3503 fJ
5 9558
13 3260 =t J
156 2200
+ we,)
Table 8 3 Elgenvalues of the detailed system w ~ t hIPFC (VP2= 0) for cases 3 and 4
noted that, the dainping of mode1 1s increased with the injection of positive Vp2 The
damping of mode2 1s decreased wlth the lll~ectionof posltlve Vp2 Also, w ~ t hthe in~ection
1s
of Positive VP2for case2, the frequency of network subsynchronous mode 1s Increased (1101~
at about 181 rad/sec) v,hlch is far from torsional mode1 and close to mode2 These results
are in agreement with damping torque analysis All the torsional modes are stable ~ w t h
Posltlve real voltage lnject~on
C2 18
s ~12th
Interltne Power Flow contmlln
Torsio~lal
Mode
(VPI= 0 060)
case2
case1
5 9389
2 1133 fJ
2 3012 f J
5 9468
+ we,)
833
Transient simulation
The translent simulation of the comblned nonlinear system wlth DQ and detaled three
phase model of the system IS carrled out using MATLABSIMULINK [47]
The simulation results for case2 with DQ model and three phase model of IPFC for a
10% step reduction In T, applied at 0 5 sec and removed a t 1 sec (for Vp2=0) are shown m
Fig 8 10 and Fig 8 11 respectively It 1s observed that, the shaft section t o r ~ u eoscillations
grow with tlme It is to be noted that, there 1s a good match between the simulation results
obtaned wlth DQ and three phase models of IPFC
When Vp2 = 0 06 simulation results are shown in Figs 8 12 and Fig 8 13 It is observed
that, the system is stable wlth series injection of real voltage VpZ= 0 06
8 3 A Case Study
F~gure8 10 Slmulat~onw ~ t hdetailed DQ model of IPFC for pulse change in T, (15, =
0 00)
lime (sec)
Fuzure 8 11 Slmulatlon with detmled 3 phase model of IPFC for pulse change in T, (VPZ
=
0 00)
4
I
5
T ~ m e(sec)
10
in T,
Figure 8 12 Simulation with detailed DQ model of IPFC for pulse ch*e
0 06)
80
(VpZ=
"0
5
6
Time (sec)
10
T~me(sec)
Figure 8 13 Simulation with detmled 3 phase model of IPFC for pulse change in Tm (VPZ=
0 06)
8 4 Conclusions
this chapter, we have presented the allalysis and simulation of SSR wlth IPFC compensated system T h e ~nodelllllgdetails of IPFC 1~1thtwelvepulse three lekel VSC we discussed
The folloa lng points elnerge based on damping torque analysis, eigenvalue analysis and
translent s~mulationfrom the case study on IEEE SBM
1 Injection of series real voltage to emulate a posit~veresistance m the transmlsslon loop
DQmodtl
IS quite
accurntc
111
Chapter 9
Conclusions
9 1 General
SSR 1s an important aspect to be considered in the application of FACTS contxollers particularly m the lines with fixed series compensation The fast control feature of FACTS
controllers can be used effectikely for the mitigation of SSR However, some of the operating
modes of FACTS controllers can cause adverse interactions The investigation of SSR characteristics of varlous VSC based FACTS and HVDC controllers is relativelj a new top~cof
s
presents the analysis of torslonal
research and there is hardly any work reported T h ~ thesls
interactions In systenis with VSC based FACTS and IIVDC controllers
The major contributions of the thesis are llsted belour
i
1 The development and validation of the models for various VSC based FACTS and
HVDC controllers for SSR studies
2 The detailed investigation of SSR cllaractenstics of UPFC, IPFC and VSC based
HVDC links is reported for the first tlme
3 Fast and accurate prediction of the stability of torslonal modes using damplng to~que
analysis based on accurate network and FACTS models in DQ variables
4 An effective, yet simple method for the design of SSDC wlth STATCOM and SSSC
5 The role of FACTS controllers in mitigating SSR 1s investigated with particular refer
A review of the work done and suggestions for further research in this area are Wen in
the sections to follow
Chapter 9
224
92
Conclzlseons
SSR
921
In the analysis of SSR, the network transients are to be considered The transmission kne
is modelled by a lumped resistance(R~),inductive reactance(X~)andcompensating series
capacitor (Xc) The transformers are modelled by resistance (Rt)and leakage reactance
( X t ) between two busses The detmled generator model 2 2 is considered where the stator
and iotor are represented by six differential equations The modelling of transmission line,
geneiator, static exciter and PSS with torsional filter are described in chapter 2 The turbule
genelator mechanical system is modelled as masssprlngdamper system which is represented
from analogy to an electrical (RLC) network
92 2
Since this thesis deals with the transmission systems, PWM converters are not considered
wheieas, 12 pulse, 2 or 3 level converters are considered for the studies with STATCOM
and SSSC However, 12 pulse, 3 level converters are used with UPFC and IPFC where i dependent control of active and reactive power is desired The modelling of various FACTS
contiollers are developed from first principles taking in to consideration thk switchmg ac
tion in three phase VSC The switching actlon of two and three level three phase VSCs are
modelled by generating switching functions as described in detml in chapter 3 Neglect
mg harmonics in the switching functions, time invarlant models are derived based on DQ
variables The developed models can be easlly interfaced with models of other system cornponents including generator and transmission network The modelling of converter controls
is also dealt with in d e t d The two structures of the controller namely Type2 (for two
level VSC) and Type1 controller (for three level VSC) are discussed in chapters 3 and 4 for
STATCOM and SSSC respectively In Type1 controller, the DC capacitor voltage 1s regulated by a PI controller In Type2 controller, the control of injected reactive current/voltage
1s achieved by phase angle control of the converter output voltage and the capacitor voltage
1s not regulated The capacitor voltage varies over a small range with change in operatng
polllt
923
225
The small signal stability analysis 1s performed by developing the llnear state sprtce models
wbch are obtmned by linesrizlllg the system equations m DQ bariables about a quiescent
operating point The state space model of the generator and ~ t ind~vidual
s
subsystems are
combined to represent the entire sjstem lllcluding FACTS controllers in state space form
The eigenvalue andjsls of SSR 1s lllustiated using the examples of IEEE FBM and/or IEEE
SBM systems
A fast evaluation of torsional lnteractiolls can be carr~edout using darnplng torque analysis Here, the stability of torsional modes is predicted by the nonnegativeness of the net
damping torque a t the torsional mode frequency Although it 1s possible to consider the
detaled model (2 2) of the generator in the computation of damping torque, ~t is conven~ent
to model the generator with classical model (constant voltage source ( E ' ) behind transient
~fthe low frequency behaviour is not important This assumption is equivreactance (xi),)
alent to neglecting IGE and does not have a sigriificant effect on the prediction of torsional
mode stablllty The damping torque analysis is computationally fast Howevel, it does not
gve information about the stability of the entire system
The agenvalue malysu gives the stability information of the entire system whereas, it is
time consuming for a large system Whlle the validat~onof eigenvalue results is doilc bj the
transient simulation of detmled nonlinear model of the system wlth small disturbance, tl.e
transient SSR is~studiedby the large disturbance The transient simulations aith DQ and
three phase models of FACTS controllers she\\ that, the DQ model is accurate III predicting
the system performance
93
9 3 1 STATCOM
The study reported in chapter 3 sllows that, the inclusion of STATCOM in the transi~llssion
hne does not change the SSR characteristics of the network sigmficantly The differcnces
in the SSR characteristics of 2 level (with Type2 control) and 3 level (with Qpe1 control) STATCOMs me marginal It is observed from the case study on the system adapted
from IEEE FBM that, the voltage control introduces less undamping than reactwe current
control for thc cr~tlcaltorsional mode However, the voltage control reduces the damping
of torsional modes in the lugher frequency range A properly designed SSDC 1s req~llred
for damping of crlt~caltorslonalmode The SSDC takes Thevenln wltage signal, whlcll 1s
Chapter 9 Conchszons
226
syntlleslzed from the locally available bus voltage and STATCOM current signals as its input
and lnodulates reactlve current reference to Improve the damping of the unstable torsional
mode A technique for tuning the parameters of the SSDC to provide positive damplng
the range of critical torsional frequencies is presented The technique 1s novel and found to
be satisfactory in damplng the subsynchronous oscillations (SSO)
932
SSSC
The SSR characteristics of a series compensated transmission line wlth 2 level (with Type2
control) and 3 level (with Type1 control) SSSC are investigated in chapter 4 based on the
case study on the system adapted from IEEE FBM The SSR characteristics with 2 level
(with Type2 control) and 3 level (with Type1 control) SSSCs closely match It is observed
that, the constant reactive voltage control is better than constant reactance emulation as not
only the negative damping is reduced, the resonance frequency is increased The occurrence
of SSR can be avoided by varylng the reactive voltage compensation introduced by SSSC
However, this may not always be feasible In such cases, the damping of torsional modes can
t
be achleved by SSDC The SSDC is assumed to take line current signal (locally amlable)
as illput and modulates the reactive voltage reference to damp the unstable torsional mode
The effectiveness of SSDC in damping of SSO is demonstrated using the case study
9 3 3 UPFC
The UPFC is the most versatile of the FACTS controllers capable of control of three system
parameters The reactive current injection of shunt VSC can be maiilta~riedconstant or
cont~olledto regulate port1 voltage constant The injection of series reactive voltage IS kept
constant as active power control mode of UPFC is not possible in the IEEE FBM system
considered The Injection of serles real voltage is controlled for constant resistance emulation
or constant port2 voltage control (which is equivalent to the constant reactive power flow
control m the hne) The DC voltage controller of shunt VSC maintains real power balance
between the two converters
SSR charactenstics of UPFC for various operating cornbinat~onsof shunt and series
are investgated w t h the help of a case study based on IEEE FBM in chapter 5 It 1s
observed that, the operating mode of shunt VSC has no significant effect on the damping
and resonant frequency of torsional modes as with a STATCOM As in SSSC, the occurrence
of SSR can be avoided by varymg the series reactive voltage injection The rnjectlon of
positive series real voltage improves the damplng of the crltlcal torsional mode The constmt
g4
227
9 3 4 IPFC
The IPFC is a VSC based FACTS controller for series compensation for multlple lines with
a common DC bus The SSR characterlstlcs of a IPFC with two series connected
VSC IS
mnvestlgatedby a case study on the system adapted from IEEE SBM T h t prime' VSC inlects
controllable serres voltages In one of the parallcl line where Independent control of actlve and
reactlve power IS desired whereas, the 'support' VSC Injects reactlve voltage lndependcntly
94
9 4 1 Design of Controllers
In a two converter VSC based HVDC system, each VSC has haslcally two controllers n hlch
determine act~veand reactwe current outputs of the individual VSC The active current
reference can be obtmned either from power controller or DC voltage controller The reactlve
current reference can be kept constant or obtalned from AC bus voltage controller ~f ac
bus voltage is also t o be regulated For actlve power balance, one VSC operates on DC
voltage control while the other controls the actlve power Thus there are a large number
of controller parameters to be optimized t o achleve satisfactory system performance
systematic approach for parameter optlrnlzatlon 1s presented in chapter 6 The effectlvrness
of the approach 1s validated by considering a case study It IS s h o w that, lncorporatlon
of optimal controller parameters has slgn~ficantly~mprovedthe step responses of ~ l ~ l o ~ s
controllers on a test system
Chapter 9 Concizlszons
228
94 2
Analysis of SSR
The analysis of SSR with VSC based HVDC 1s presented m chapter 7 It is observed from
the case study that, power controller at the rectifier contributes negative darnping However
the magnitude of the negative damping is small and the system is stable as the net damping
1s positive The DC voltage control at the rectifier station VSCl (close to the generator)
~s
better than power control as it induce positive damping in the entire torsional frequency
range While DC voltage control is better for inverter operation of VSCl at low tors~onal
frequencies, power control is better at higher frequencies It is observed that, except for
rectifier operation with power control at VSC1, the reduction of AC system strength increases
the damping of torsional modes in the higher frequency range
95
In the context of the work carried out in the thesis, the following are some of the problems
~vhichneed further investigation
1 The analysis of SSR with multiple generators and FACTS controllers can be investi
Appendix A
to zth tors~onalmode

"'~IX1l~pJ :
Electrical system
Figure A 1 Block dlagram showing interaction between electrical and mechanical system
The internctions between electrical and mechanical system can be studied by tak~ngelectncal system in the feed back The output of electrical system comprlslng of generato1 and
AC network, is the change in the electr~caltorque ATe which is the Input to the mechanical
system The output of the mechanical system is the change in modal angle A& which 1s the
Input to the electrical system The electrical system dynamrcs can be expressed in tcrms
of the openloop transfer functlon between electrical torque Te and modal angle 6, which a
defined in the frequency domain as,
The transfer functlon of the mechanical system between the input and the output(for%th
mode dynarnlcs) can be expressed in terms of residues
and system eigenvalues A, as
a3
The resldue associated with an eigenvalue A, and the feedback transfer functlon ( K H ( s ) )
are related by [104],
Equatlon A 3 glves the relation between the sensitlvlty of an elgenvalue A, to feedback loop
galn K and the open loop resldue associated with the same elgenvalue [I051
Assuming the gain K is small, we have
= =t
2~ d X K 1
* 2J
1
M,W,
When K=O, we have no feedback path (no lnteractlon due t o electrlcal system) and the
elgellvalues of the system are due to only mechanical system and unaffected by electrical
system To study the effect of electrical system lnteractlon on system elgenvalues, the feedback galn K = 1 is used and hence AK = K = 1 Therefore addlng the electrlcal system as
feedback results m a change m the 3th eigenvalue as,
We know that,
Assuming that the sens~tlvityof eigenvalue A, is unaffected by ' K ' , the change 111 eigenvalue due to the electrical system interaction is gnen as (putting K = 1In equatlon (A LO)),
Appendix B
''I
and C =
w e kc
R, X ,
234

For the slrnphfied generator model, the change in electrical torque can be expressed as,
AT, = E'AZ,
(B 4)
we can derive
where
AeD and AeQ are der~vedfrom the fact that the generator voltage (at the internal bus) has
only a qaxis component(eg) glven by
e~ = e, szn 6
eg = e, ws 6
Assurnl~lg60 = 0
(ah
before), ue get
and Z " ( s )
Since,
1s the
AzQ(s)
= [YQD(s)
+~
~ ( E'
s AS,
) ]
(B 17)
Appendix C
System Data
C1
fEEE FBM
The ~ l c t c mdatn ih rllr rnod~fiedI f CE filst benchmark model Data are glven on 892 4
UVA, 500hI tsnsr I f t c a t ~ ~ frrqucilct
~sc
1% tnkcn as 60 Hz
Gencrnt or Data
xd
2,
Go= 4 J
I/,
= 0 lo00 1,  0 025o T, = 0 107,) T;'= 0 0463
M t i l t t m a ~n~i~rI~trx~~cnl
qystcin
IF"turt,r;kr
LPA turbine
LPD turhne
Gcncrstor
Exciter
0 155589
0 8581370
0 884215
0 868495
0 0342165
IPLPA
LPALPB
LPBGEN
GENEXC
34 929
52 038
70 858
2 822
The self damping of O 20 1s considered for HP, IP, LPA and LPB turblnes The mutual
damping between HPIP, IPLPA,LPALPB and LPBGEN are taken as 0 30 n h e r e ~ sfor
GENEXC 1t is taken as O 005
Appendtx
238
C System Data
The fractions of total torque for HP, IP, LPA and LPB turbines are takes as 0 30, 0 26,
0 22 and 0 22 respectively
Trailsformer and transmission line d a t a for Chapter 2
Rt = 0 00, Xt = 0 14, RL = 0 02, XL = 1, XSYS = 0 06
Excitation System
K A = 200, TA= 0 025, Ejdmaz= 6, EfdmZn= 6
Power System Stabilizer
Tw = 10, KPS = 6, TI = 0 10, T2 = 0 01, wn = 22 rad/sec, C = 0 5, VPsmnz= 0 10,
V p S man = 0 10
C.2
V R ( =
~ 0~ 2017
) ~ ~ ~
Type I1 Controller
ICpxse = 50,I(,xse = 50
C.4
Transfornler a n d transmlss~onllne d a t a
Rt = O 0,Xt = O 14,R1 = O 012,XI = 0 6, Xc = 04
Bc = 0 25213,X a e = 0 2, R2 = 0 008,Xz = 0 4, Xsvs = O 06
UPFC Data
Rating of each VSC 150 MVAR
R, = 00381,Xs= 0 5711, bc = 0 5967,R, = 149 83,gc = 1
RP
Voltage controller
Ks = 0 15,Kp = 0 00,Kt= 100,Znmaz = 0 1681,ZR,,, = 0 1681
Shunt current controller
Kpl= 2,
= 1,
Kp2
= 0 1, I(r2= 0 1,
= 0 2,Kt3 = 4
= 1 0,pse = 51
VSC Data
Rating of each VSC 300 MVAR
Rs = 00064,Xs 0 096,bc = 1 775,R, = 50368,9, =
Voltage controller
KS = 0 15,Kp = 000%K,= 100
Shunt current controller for VSCl and VSC2
240
The measured IR and I p are passed through a band reject filter with the stop band of 165195
Hz
C.6
IEEE SBM
The system data of IEEE second benchmark model are given on 600 MVA, 500kV base The
base frequency is taken as 60 Hz
Generator Data
<,
LP turb~ne 310729
Generator 176204
Exc~ter
1383
966 2
547 9
43
97 97 x lo6
4 39x lo6
LPGEN
GENEXC
The fractions of total torque for HP and LP turbines are takes as 0 40 and 0 60 respectively
Transformer and transmission line data for Chapter 2
T'= 10, l ( P s = 5
VPSm a
=0 6
Type1 controller
Td=006
Case1 and 2
VSCl I(,* = 0 35,
VSC2
Kpp2
= 37
= 1 5, K t p 2 = 59 338, K ,  J =
~0
VSC2
Krwdc
= 0 35,
I\:vdc= 37
All measurements' ( ~ nDQ frame) are passed through a measurement delay block whose
transfer function is 1
Appendix D
Derivation of STATCOM admittance
function in DQ axes
D 1 With simplified model of STATCOM
The equivalent cirttllt lcprrsentatlor~of
r ~ g ~I
~)r1r Equi\ulent crrcu~treprcscntation of
STATCOM
AtdD =
, esZS~es
AtsQ = sin ~ I ~ A+Zcos
244
YsDD
= T(s) cos 8, sin 8, + CK1
+
XQD= T ( s )sin28, + CKS
YaDQ= T(s) C O S es
~
CK2
YsQQ
= T ( s )COS os Sln 8, $ CK4
veQ
CK1= sin 8s~s,
CK2=
K2
U SD
 sln O s Z s ~
VSD
 cOse
s z s ~
[&I,
Here to obtain
the STATCOM equations (including controller) are linearized at the
opeiatlng point and expressed as,
The matrlx elements of (Ast],[B,t],[Cat]and [Dst]for two level STATCOM with Type2
controller can be obtained as below
Type2 STATCOM Equations
The two level VSC based STATCOM equations (3 26 to 3 28) are linearized and expressed
245
where
AX p r = [ A ~ , DAxs,,
,
A&,
= [AvsD AvSQlt
where
CI = 
2 , ~
+ +
COS(Q
Q3)
+ OS)
Z ~ QS ~ I I ( Q
Os = tan'
"4
Type2 controller equations
The l~nearitedequat~onsof STATCOM controllcrs ~~lcludillg
reactl~cand Ioltage corlt~ol
loops can be euprcsqed ns
A a = [Csc]AXsc
246
where
Cquations (D 18) and (D 23) can be colnbined by elimincltillg Acu from equation D 24
and noting that
how we have
Appendix E
where,
The tmpedance functlon [Z] of the network external to the generator (excluding SSSC)
IS calculated in the same way as gven in AppendixR The cqurvalent admittance seen at
the generator ~ n t e r n dbus
1s
gwen as,
[C,,]
E 1 Expressions for matrix elements of [A,,], [Bse],
and [Dse]for Type2 SSSC
The state vector AX,, for Type2 SSSC along with lts controller (refer Fig 4 5) can be
gven as
[AXse]= [Auk AXm AX,]'
(E6)
where
kcl =
kd
=
be
+r ) $ ~ ] }
2 f [bS.
cos(4 + $23
1 'kpSe sm(d + 7) 5%
kd = { k ~ sin($
.
+7)
gDr
) ? ~ ] 'kp,cos(4+
where
The matrices [A,], [Re], [C,,] and [D,,] for Type1 SSSC are obtaned i n a s~rmlarway
Appendix F
Generator
~nternalbus
I
z,
.
A I*
A 1,
CI
/
4%
7
UPFC
111
In damplng torque analysis, the generator a modelled by a constant voltage source (8')
behind a translent reactance ( X I ) The Impedance of the network external to the generator
(refer Fig 5 5) are
x2+xsva
where Rel = Rc + 4, Le1 = X'+X~+XL,
C = &, Le2 = W B '
ws
The impedance fu~ictionsof the network elements external to the generator(exc1udmg
UPFC)are calculated in the same way as given m AppendixB The expression for Impedance
&pen&
250
of
UPFC tn D Q axes
To obtain the admittance function [Y,] seen at port1 of UPFC, in DQ frame of reference,
the UPFC equations (including the controllers) are linearized at the operating po~ntand
exp~essedas,
1 AVID 1
whele,
UPFC
[Kz]
= [Ze2]' is the admittance matrut of the right arde of network seen at port2 of
where,
T&(a)= 3 [ Y ~ ~ (J uJ +
WyQQ(.?W)]
)~
Appendix G

v, Le 1
v;
Le
t1b1h e  1
x,
R,
LL
xc
Rs,
I
BUSI
R2
v;
X2
E~LLJ
,s
BUS2
The ~mped~znce
seen from the generator internal bus of the system shown in Fig G 1 can
be represented as shown in Fig G 2 for the purpose of damping torque anal~sis
f
0
I , z
IPFC
z s ~ ~
iZ2J
Figure G 2 Impedance seen form generator internal bus for SMIB system rvlth IPFC
In damplng torque andyss, the generator IS modelled by a constant voltage source (b)
behind a translent reactance (x')The ~rnpedaneeof the network external to the generator
254
Z2(s) = R2
+ L2s
2,
where Lgt = *,
Ll = L,
C = wsxc
1
L2 =
Lsus=
WB
The impedance functions of the network elements external to the generator (excluding
IPFC) is calculated In the same way as aven AppendixA The expression for Impedance
functiolls in DQaxes are given in reference[l] and can be given as
where z = g, 1,2, S Y S
The elements of [Z,] can be given as
The system shown in Fig G 1 can be reduced to the form as shown in Fig G 3 where
[ZN]represents the equivalent lmpedance of line1 and 2 including IPFC for cases 2 and 4
Equivalent impedance of
transmission network
Figure G 3 Equivalent representation of transmission hne witJ~ IPFC for cases2 and 4
Where,
Where [Zl], [Z2]are the impedance functions of line1 and line2 respectively From eqt1atlon(G 13)
we get,
25 6
Where,
we know that,
[V21= [ILI[Z,SI
[h]= [ZR]
[IL]
where,
[ZR]
= {[YN~]
 [YNI]
}I
{ [I]+ [ Y N[zsys]
~] )
t
Speclal case
For cases 2 and 4, [rn13]=[ma3]=0
and equation (G18) reduces to,
where the impedance of h e  1 and 2 dong with IPFC for cases 2 and 4 is obtaned as,
Appendix H
Derivation of admittance function in
DQ axes with VSC based HVDC
The system d~agramshown In Fig 7 1 can be represented as in Flg H 1
re^
'I
..
A
Port1
and
DC Cable
Port2
Bc2
Generator
Figure H 1 Simphfied system diagram with VSC HVDC represented as two port network
258
The HVDC system can be mewed as two port network, (as shown in Fig H 1)with port
voltages are inputs and port currents are outputs To obtan the parameters of two port
network in DQframe of reference, we linearize equat~ons(6 9) to (6 21) (representing VSC
HVDC along with controller) at the operating point and expressed as,
where,
Now the net admittance seen at the generator Internal bus is computed as,
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List of Publlcatlons
1 k It P a d l ~ n r?nd Lagc sli I'ribltu, ' Allall si5 aiid Si~nulnt~on
of SubSynchlonous Rcsonanct n ~ t hSTATCOII Intc I 11atlon~11
Confei cncc on P ~ e s e ~and
i t Future Trends in
Transmi~sionand Co~l~crgcncc,
hen Dclhl, pp 1x111x23, Dectirlbcr 2002
2 k R Padiyar and \ages11 Prabhu, ' A~lnl~.sis
of SubSynchronous Resonance with 1hrec
rlon Controller ' 4cccptcd for \ationnl Pancr Svstem Conference, Chennal, December
2004