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Analysis of SubSynchronous Resonance

with Voltage Source Converter based


FACTS and HVDC Controllers

A Thes~s

Submitted for the Deglee of

~~Efd
o rv&laeaphy
in the Faculty of Enginecr~ng

BY
NAGESH PRABHU

Department of Electrical Engineering

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE


Bangalore - 560 0 12 INDIA

September 2004

Acknowledgements
I express my deep sense of gratitude to my thesis supervisor Prof K R Padiyar, for his
unbounded patience and kindness I consider myself extremely fortunate to work under his
able supervision and receive invaluable guidance No words will be adequate to quantify his
tolerance, understanding and deep concern both for my academics and personal welfare I
am highly indebted to lum
I am thankful to Sri Girimaji N Rajagopal, Secretary, N E S Shimoga and the authorities of JNNCE for all the encouragement and support
I take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude to Prof H S Y Shastry, Prof

D B Fakrudhn arid Prof P S Shetty who encouraged me to pursue higher studies


I express my sincere gratitude to Prof Lawrence Jerkns, Prof U R Prasad and Dr L
Umanand who taught me during my academic programme at IISc
I sincerely thank my senior research scholars Dr S Krishna and Mr H V Saikumar for
useful discussions
I enjoyed my association with Mr m i l , Mr Ashraf, Mr Ravindra, Mrs Bijuna and
Ms Divya
I thank Mr Channe Gowda, Mr Kini, Mrs Pushpa and Mr Pawar for their cooperation
in the electncal engneering department at IISc
It gves me a great pleasure to place on record the help rendered by my friends Mr S V
Sathyanarayana and Dr S C Desm at JNNCE
I express my gratitude to my in-laws Mr P Suresh Mallya and Mrs Vanitha S Mallya
for their immense affection and constant encouragement to pursue hgher studies
The support and help by the family friends Mr h1 L Prakash and Mr Sudhir Karanth
is gratefully acknowledged
I owe a great deal to my mother Mrs Lalitha Prabhu for having taken all the pains in
bringng me up to this stage My special gratitude goes to my sisters Mrs Gowri and hlrs
Gayathr~for their concern and love
I thank my son Sumanth for h s warmth and unbounded love Firially, I owe the completion of this thesis to my wife, Vandana, who shouldered all the family respons~bilities
and inspired me at cnt~caltimes She has been a constant source of inspiration for all my
achievements and success
Nagesh Prabhu

Abstract
Senes compensation of long transmssion l~nesis an economlc solution to the problem 01 enhancing power transfer and improving system stability However series compensated transmssion llnes connected to the turbo generator can result in Sub Synchronous Resonance
(SSR) leadmg to undamped SubSynchronous Oscillations (SSO)
The advent of FACTS Controllers using lugh power sermconductors has made it possible
to apply these controllers in conjunction wlth fixed senes compensation, not only to improve
system performance, but also to overcome the problem of SSR A notable example is e
application of TCSC
FACTS controllers based on Voltage Sourcl ,onverter (VSC) are emerging controllers
that have several advantages over the conventional ones uslng thyristors The STATCOM is
a shunt FACTS controller suitable for voltage regulation and damping of oscillations SSSC
1s a s e n e controller that can replace TCSC for power flow control UPFC is a combined
(series and shunt) controller that 1s most versatile and can be used for controlhng actlvc
and reactive power m a hne along w t h voltage regulation IPFC consists of multlple SSSC,
wh~chare mterhnked to provlde a h g h degree of control flexlbil~ty
It is well known that, the HVDC converter controls can also cause adverse torsional interactions VSC can also be applied for HVDC power transmission and enables simultaneous
control of active and reactive power at a converter without any problems of commutation
failure
There is hardly any work reported on SSR characteristics of VSC based FACTS and
HVDC controllers This thesis reports the work on modehg, analysis and s~mulationof
VSC based controllers The analysis of SSR is canled out by dampmg torque method, elgend u e analys~sand transient simulat~onwith hfferent FACTS controllers namely, STATCOM,
SSSC, UPFC and IPFC Tlvs them presents the analysis and simulation of SSR on a representative VSC based HVDC system The detaded investigat~onof SSR characteristics of
UPFC, IPFC and VSC based HVDC links is reported for the first time

The models of converters are denved from first pnnclples uslng smtchng functions Neglect~ngh m o m c s in the smtching funct~ons,models are denved based on D-Qvariables
These models can be mterfaced mth models of other system components including generator
and trmsrmssion network The converter controls are also modelled in deta~lThe hnearized
models are uthzed for damplng torque analysis for the fast assessment of tors~onalinteractions Here the generator 1s represented by the class~calmodel whereas, it is represented
by the detaled (2 2) model for the elgenvalue analysls The transient amulation is based

on nodnear 3-phase model of the system inclu&ng switching action in the converters The
analysis of SSR has been illustrated usmg the case studies based on IEEE FBM and IEEE
SBM
The thesis also presents an effective, yet simple method for the design of SubSynchronous
Darnplng Controller (SSDC) on STATCOM and SSSC using control signal based on local
measurements The objective is to provide adequate damping torque in a range of cnt~cal
torsional kequenues The performance of SSDC is evaluated using transient simulation

Contents
Llst of Tables
Llst of Figures
1 Introduction
1 1 General
12 Subsynchronous Resonance in Power Systems
13 Flexlble AC Transmssion Systems (FACTS)
13 1 Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM)
13 2 Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC)
13 3 Urufied Power Flow Controller (UPFC)
13 4 Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC)
14 Voltage Source Converter Based HVDC Tkansmssion Systems
15 Literature %mew
15 1 Analys~sand Control of Subsynchronous Resonance
15 2 Control and Analysis of SSR with VSC based FACTS controllers
15 3 SSR Analysis with HVDC Systems
16 Objectives and Scope of the Thesis
17 O u t h e of the Thesls
2 Modelling and Revlew of Methods for the Analysls of SSR
2 1 Introduction
2 2 Modelbng of Electromechanical System
2 2 1 Synchronous generator
2 2 2 Modelhng of Excitation Control System
2 2 3 Power System Stabihzer(PSS)
2 2 4 Dansrmssion Network
2 2 5 Turbine Generator Mechanical System

Xlll

2 2 5 1 Alternate representation using electrical analogy


2 3 Analytical Tools for SSR Study
2 3 1 Damplng torque analysis
2 3 1 1 Comparison of damping torque vnth classical and detmled

model of generator
Eigenvalue analysis
2 3 3 Tkansient simulation
2 4 Case Studies
2 4 1 Case study with IEEE FBM
2 4 1 1 Results of damplng torque analysis
2 4 1 2 Eigenvalue analysis
2 4 13 Tkansient simulation
2 4 2 Case study with IEEE SBM
2 4 2 1 Results of darnprng torque analysis
2 4 2 2 Eigenvalue analysls
2 4 2 3 Transient s~mulation
232

2 5 Conclusrons
3 Analysls of SSR and Design of SubSynchronous Damping Controller with

STATCOM
3 2 Modehng of two lekel converter based STATCOM
3 2 1 Basic equations [94]
3 2 2 Equations in D-Qreference frame
3 3 Modehng of three level converter based STATCOM
3 3 1 Basic equations

55
55
56
56
63
65
65

Equations m D-Qreference frame


3 3 3 Discussion
3 4 Controller structures for STATCOM
3 4 1 Type-l controller
3 4 2 Type-2 controller

71
73
74
74
76

3 5 Case Study mth Two Level VSC based STATCOM


3 5 1 Dampmg torque analysls
3 5 2 Eigenvalue andysls
3 5 3 Panslent simulation

78
79

3 1 Introduction

332

83

84

3 6 Case Study with Three Level VSC based STATCOM


3 6 1 Damping torque analysis
3 6 2 Eigenvalue analysis
3 6 3 Transient simulation
3 6 4 Discussion
3 7 Design of SubSynchronous Damping Controller
3 7 1 Design of SSDC based on parameter optimization of the Transfer function Tz(s)
3 8 Analysis mth SSDC
3 8 1 Damplng torque analysis with SSDC
3 8 2 Eigenvalue Analysis
3 8 3 Transient simulation
3 9 Conclusions
4 Analysis of SSR cvlth SSSC

4 1 Introduction
4 2 Modelhng of two level converter based SSSC
4 2 1 Basic equations
4 2 2 Equations in D-Q reference frame
4 3 Modelhng of three level converter based SSSC
4 3 1 daslc equations
4 3 2 Equations in D-Qreference frame
4 4 Network solution
4 5 Controller structures for SSSC
4 5 1 Type-1 controller
4 5 2 Type-2 controller
4 6 Case study with Type-2 SSSC
4 6 1 Damping torque analysis
4 6 2 Eigenvalue analysis

4 6 3 Transient simulation
4 7 Case study with Type-1 SSSC
4 7 1 Darnping torque analysis
4 7 2 Eigenvalue malys~s
4 7 3 Transient simulation
4 8 Design and analysis wth SSDC

4 8 1 Analysis of SSR with SSSC and SSDC


4 8 1 1 Damplng torque analysis with SSDC
4 8 1 2 Eigenvalue analysis with SSDC
4 8 1 3 Transient simulation with SSDC
4 9 Conclusions

5 SSR Characteristics of Unlfied Power Flow Controller


5 1 Introduction
5 2 Modelhng of UPFC w t h Three Level Voltage Source Converters

139

139
140
141

5 2 1 Basic equations

5 2 2 Mathematical model in D-Q frame of reference


5 2 3 Shunt current control
5 2 4 Series voltage control
5 3 Analysls of SSR- A case studv
5 3 1 Damplng torque analysis
5 3 1 1 Damping torque analysis with V.(,,) = 0 0
5 3 12

142
144
145

147
148
148

Sensitivity of damping torque for series real voltage(Vp(,))


injection

149

5 3 13

Sensitivlty of damping torque for series reactive voltage(VR(,))


injection
151

5 3 14

Sensitivlty of damping torque for shunt reactlrre current (Ihh)


injection

152
152
154
154
156
161

5 3 1 5 Constant reactance emulation operation of series converter


5 3 2 Eigenvalue analysis
5 3 3 nansient simulation
5 4 Discussion
5 5 Conclusions
6 Modellmg and Selection of Optlmal Controller Parameters for VSC based

HVDC System
6 1 Introduction
6 2 Modelhng of VSC based NVDC
6 2 1 Basic equations
6 2 2 Mathematical model ~nD-Q frame of reference
6 2 3 Converter control

163
163
164
165

166

167

6 3 Optimzation of the controller parameters

6 3 1 Statement of the optimization problem


6 3 2 Algorithm for optimrzation
6 4 A case study
6 4 1 Parameter Optirmzation
6 4 2 Simulation results
6 5 Conclus~ons
7 Tors~onalInteractions with V S C based H V D C

7 1 Introduction
7 2 Conventional and VSC based HVDC

7 3 Analysis of SSR with VSC based HVDC


7 3 1 Damping torque analysis

7 3 2 Eigenvalue analysis
7 3 2 1 Eigenvalue analysis with strong AC system (ESCRi4 5)
7322

Eigenvalue analysis m t h weak AC system (ESCR=2 5)

7 3 3 Transient simulation
7 4 Conclusions
8 Analysis of SSR Interactions w t h h t e r l ~ n ePower Flow Controller

205

8 1 Introduction

205

8 2 Modebng of IPFC
8 2 1 Basic Equations
8 2 2 Mathematical model in D-Q frame of reference

206
207
208

823

Converter control

8 3 A Case Study

8 3 1 Results of damping torque analysis

209
211
212

8 3 1 1 Without IPFC
212
8 3 12 With IPFC
212
8 3 1 3 Sensitivity of damplng torque for senes r e d voltage(Vp) mjection
214
8 3 2 Eigenvalue analysis
8 3 3 Transient simulation
8 4 Conclusions

216
218
221

9 Conclusions
9 1 General
9 2 Modelhng and Revlew of Methods for Analysls of SSR
9 2 1 Modelhng of Generator and Network
9 2 2 Modelhng of FACTS controllers
9 2 3 Methods for the malysis of SSR
9 3 Analysis of SSR with FACTS controllers
9 3 1 STATCOM
9 3 2 SSSC
9 3 3 UPFC
9 3 4 IPFC
9 4 Torsional Interactions with VSC based HVDC
9 4 1 Design of Controllers

9 4 2 Analysls of SSR
9 5 Suggestions for Further Work

A Derivation of equation (2 44)

229

B Derivat~onof expression for damping torque using immittance functions 233

C System D a t a
C 1 IEEE FBM
C 2 Data for Chapter 3
C 3 Data for Chapter 4
C4
C5
C6
C7

Data for Chapter 5


Data for Chapter 6 and 7
IEEE SBM
Data for Chapter 8

D Derivation of STATCOM adrmttance function i n D-Q axes


D 1 With simphfied model of STATCOM
D 2 With detailed D-Qmodel of Type1 and Type-2 STATCOM
E Derivation of SSSC impedance function m D-Q axes
247
E 1 Expressions for matrm elements of [A,,], [B,], [C,,]
and [D.,]for Type-2 SSSC248

F Derivation of adrmttance function of UPFC in D-Q axes

249

CONTENTS
G Derivation of admittance functlon in D-Q axes mth IPFC

XI

253

H Derivation of admittance functlon in D-Q axes with VSC based HVDC 257
References

261

2 1 Damping torque with admittance function in D-Qaxes for Xc=O60


2 2 Eigenvalues of the entire system for IEEE FBM

41

2 3 Damping torque with admittance function in D-Qaxes for Xc=O 2496


2 4 Eigenvalues of the entire system for IEEE SBM

48

42

49

3 1 S m t h n g Instants for various devices


71
3 2 Torsional mode eigenvalues of the system with two level VSC based STATCOM 83
3 3 Torsional mode eigemalues of the system with three level VSC based STATCOM 88

3 4 Torsiond mode eigenvalucs of the systcrn with three level VSC based STATCOM and SSDC

98

4 1 Eigenvalues of the system with and without type-2 SSSC


4 2 Eigenvalues of the system with type-1 SSSC
4 3 ~i~envalues
of the system with SSSC and SSDC

135

5 1 Operating modes for shunt and series VSC


5 2 Eigenvalues of the detalled ~ y s t e r n ( V ~=
( ,0)
~

5 3 Eigenvalues of the detailed system(Vp(,) = 0)


5 4 Eigenvalues of the detailed system (Vp(,) = O 065)
6 1 Inner and outer loop controller combination
6 2 Operating combinations of VSC based HVDC

6 3 Detals of parameter optirmzation


7 1 Operating combinat~onsof VSC based HVDC
190
7 2 Elgenvalues of the detaded system with VSC based HVDC for cases 1and 3
wlth E S C b 4 5
195
7 3 Eigenvalues of the detailed system with VSC based HVDC for cases 2 and 4
mth ESCR=4 5
195

7 4 Eigenvalues of the detded system with VSC based HVDC for cases 5 and 7
with ESCR=4 5
196
7 5 Eigenvalues of the detaled system with VSC based HVDC for cases 6 and 8

with E S C b 4 5
7 6 Eigenvalues of the detded system with VSC based HVDC for cases 1 and 3
with ESCR=2 5
7 7 Eigenvalues of the detaled system with VSC based HVDC for cases 2 and 4
with ESCR=2 5
7 8 Eigenvalues of the detaled system with VSC based HVDC for cases 5 and 7
with ESCR=2 5
7 9 Eigenvalues of the detaded system with VSC based HVDC for cases 6 and 8
with E S C b 2 5
7 10 Sensitivity of damping with generator rating for case 6 with E S C k 2 5

197

200

8 1 Operating combinations of IPFC

210

8 2 Eigenvalues of the detaded system with IPFC(Vp2 = 0) for cases 1,and 2


8 3 Eigenvalues of the detaded system with IPFC (VP2 = 0) for cases 3 and 4
8 4 Eigenvalues of the detded system with IPFC (VP2 = 0 060)

217
217
218

198
198
199
199

List of Figures
1 1 A series compensated system

1 2 Schemat~cdiagram of STATCOM
1 3 Schematic diagram of SSSC

UPFC
1 5 Schematic diagram of IPFC

14 Schematic diagram of

1 6 Schematic lagram of VSC based HVDC System

2 1 Synchronous machine with rotating armature windings


2 2 Excitation system
2 3 Block diagram of Power System Stabibzer

2 4 Equlvalcnt block dlagram of Power System Stabihzer


2 5 Series compensated SMIB system

2 6 Mass-spring-damper system wlth slx masses


2 7 An electrical analogue for the Mass-sprmg-damper system of Fig 2 6
2 8 Block diagram showing interaction between electncal and mechanical systems
2 9 Comparison of damping torques with detaled and classical model of generator
2 10 Resistance and reactance of 2 2 model of generator
2 11 IEEE First Benchmark Model
2 12 Vanation of damping torque with frequency for IEEE FBM

2 13 Vanation of synchrom111g torque with frequency for IEEE FBM


2 14 Vanation of rotor angle and LPA-LPBsectlon torque for pulse change In input
mecharucal torque (Xc = 0 50)
2 15 Vanatlon of electrical torque and generator termnal voltage for pulse change
in input mechacal torque(Xc = 0 50)
2 16 Vanation of rotor angle and LPA-LPBsection torque for pulse change in input
mecharucd torque (Xc = 0 60)

2 17 Variation of electncal torque and generator temnal voltage for pulse change
in lnput mechmcal torque(Xc = 0 60)
2 18 FF'T analysls of LPA-LPB section torque (Xc = 0 60)
2 19 IEEE Second Benchmark Model
2 20 Variation of damping torque wlth frequency for IEEE SBM

2 21 Variation of synchronlzlng torque with frequency for IEEE SBM


2 22 Variation of rotor angle and LP-GEN section torque for pulse change in mput
mechmcal torque (Xc = 0 1920)
2 23 Variation of electrical torque and generator terrmnd voltage for pulse change
in input mechamcal torque(Xc = 0 1920)
2 24 Variation of rotor angle and LP-GEN section torque for pulse change in mput

mechamcal torque ( X c = 0 2496)


2 25 Variation of electr~cdtorque and generator termnal voltage for pulse change
in input mechamcal torque(Xc = 0 2496)
2 26 FFT analysis of LP-GEN section torque (Xc= 0 2496)
3 1 6 pulse 2-level STATCOM

3 2 Phasor dagrarn and steady state representation


3 3 Swithng functions u,, ub,u, for %level 6-pulse STATCOM
3 4 Swlthng functions Sa2,SM,Sc2for a 2-level 6-pulse VSC
3 5 Phase locked loop for a two level VSC
3 6 Generation of h n g pulses for a two level VSC
3 7 Arrangement of transformers for a 12 pulse STATCOM

3 8 6 pulse 3-level STATCOM


3 9 Swlthng function for a three level converter
3 10 Phase locked loop for a three level VSC
3 11 Generation of finng pulses for a three level VSC
3 12 Converter voltage and currents mth %level 12-pulse STATCOM

3 13 Converter voltage and currents mth 3-level 12-pulse STATCOM (P = 7 5")


3 14 Type-1 Controller for 3-level VSC based STATCOM
3 15 Type-2 Controller for 2-level VSC based STATCOM
3 16 Moddied IEEE Flrst Benchmark Model mth STATCOM

3 17 Simphfied model of STATCOM


3 18 Vaiation of damping torque wth smpldied model of STATCOM

LISTOF FIGURES
3 19 Vanation of damping torque wlth detaled D-Q model of two level VSC based
STATCOM
3 20 Vanation of damping torque mth simphfied model of STATCOM considering
voltage measurement delay
3 21 Vanation of rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulse change in
input mechanical torque (D-Qmodel of two level VSC based STATCOM (with
voltage control))
3 22 Var~ationof rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulse change in input
mechanical torque (3 phase model of tuo level VSC based STATCOM (mth
voltage control))
3 23 FFT analysis of LPA-LPB section torque (3 phase model of two level VSC
based STATCOM (with voltage control))
3 24 Variation of damping torque with detailed D-Q model of three level VSC based
STATCOM
3 25 Vanation of rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulse change in
input mechanical torque (D-Q model of three level VSC based STATCOM
(vnth volt age control))
3 26 Variation of rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulse change in input
mechanical torque (3 phase model of three level VSC based STATCOM (with
voltage control))

3 27 FFT analysis of LPA-LPB section torque (3 phase model of three level VSC
based STATCOM (wth voltage control))
3 28 Comparison of damping torques with admttance function m D-Q axes and
admttance function m single phase basis m t h type-2 STATCOM
3 29 Subsynchronous and supersynchronous components of damplng torque with

Type-2 STATCOM
3 30 Conductance and susceptance of Type-2 STATCOM

3 31 Representation of external network


3 32 Vanation of damp~ngtorque m t h detaled D-Q model of two level VSC based
STATCOM and SSDC
3 33 Vanation of damping torque with detarled D-Qmodel of three level VSC based
STATCOM and SSDC

xvli

LISTOF FIGURES

xvlil

3 34 Varlatlon of rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulse change m mput
mechmcal torque (with D-Qmodel of two level VSC based STATCOM w t h
SSDC)

3 35 Varlation of rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulse change m mput
mechmcal torque (with 3 phase model of two level VSC based STATCOM
wlth SSDC)
3 36 Variatlon of rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulse change m mput
mechmcal torque (wth 3 phase model of three level VSC based STATCOM
wlth SSDC)

3 37 Variatlon of reactive current and armature current for pulse change m mput
mechamcal torque (with D-Q model of three level VSC based STATCOM
without SSDC)
3 38 Variation of reactive current and armature current for pulse change m lnput
mechamcal torque (with D-Q model of three level VSC based STATCOM with
SSDC)
1
3 39 FFT analysis of hne current magmtude(unth D-Q model of three level VSC

based STATCOM mth SSDC)


4 1 The Electrical System of IEEE FBM vvlth SSSC

4 2 S w t h n g functions Sa2,Sb2, Sc2for SSSC operation wlth Zlevel 6-pulse VSC


4 3 Swlthng function for SSSC operation unth 3-level 6-pulse VSC
4 4 Type-1 controller for SSSC

4 5 Type-2 controller for SSSC


4 6 Damplng torque w t h and unthout type-2 SSSC

4 7 SSSC reactance controller


4 8 Cornparson of damprng torque with constant reactance emulation and reactlve voltage control of Type-2 SSSC

4 9 Resistance and reactance of Type-2 SSSC

4 10 Comparuon of damprng torques w t h SSSC impedance function in D-Qaxes


and adrmttan~efunction m smgle phase basls
4 11 Graphcal representation of resonance condrtions with and crnthout SSSC
4 12 Variatlon of rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulse change m lnput

mechmcal torque(without SSSC, &=O

60 p u )

4 13 Vanation of rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulse change in input
mechmcal torque (with detaled D-Qmodel of type-2 SSSC Combination of
Xsssc = 15%, and Xc = 45% )
121
4 14 Vanation of rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulse change m
input mechanical torque (with detaled three phase model of type-2 SSSC
Combination of Xsssc= 15%, and XC = 45% )

122

4 15 Vanation of electrical torque and generator terrmnal voltage for pulse change
in input mechanical torque (with detaled three phase model of type-2 SSSC
122
Combination of Xsssc= 15%, and Xc = 45% )

4 16 Variation of reactive voltage VR(se)


and DC voltage v& for pulse change m
input mechanical torque (mth detailed three phase model of type2 SSSC
Combination of Xsssc= 15%, and Xc = 45% )

123

4 17 Vanation of rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulse change in
input mechanical torque (mth detaled three phase model of type-2 SSSC
Combination of Xsssc= 20%, and Xc = 40% )
124
4 18 FFT analysis of LPA-LPB section torque for case3 (Xc= 0 40, Xsssc= 0 20) 124
4 19 Damping torque with and without Type-1 SSSC

125

4 20 Variation of rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulse change m input
mechmcal torque (wlth detaled D-Qmodel of type-1 SSSC Combination of
127
Xsssc = 15%, and Xc = 45% )
4 21 Vanation of rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulse change m
input mechanical torque (mth detaled three phase model of type1 SSSC
Combination of Xsssc= 15%, and Xc = 45% )

128

4 22 Vanation of electrical torque and generator t e m n a l voltage for pulse change


in input mechanical torque (wlth detaled three phase model of type-1 SSSC
128
Combination of Xsssc= 15%, and Xc = 45% )

4 23 Vmiation of reactive voltage VR(se)


and DC voltage vh for pulse change m
input mechanical torque (wth detaled three phase model of type1 SSSC
129
Combination of Xsssc= 15%, and Xc = 45% )
4 24 FFT analysis of LPA-LPB section torque for case-4 (Xc= 0 45, Xsssc= 0 15)129

4 25 Vanation of rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulse change in
input mechanical torque (mth detaled three phase model of type1 SSSC
130
Comb~nationof Xsssc= 20%, and Xc = 40% )

4 26 Variation of electrical torque and generator terminal voltage for pulse change
in input mecharucal torque (wth detaled three phase model of type1 SSSC
131
Combination of Xsssc
= 20%, and Xc = 40% )
4 27 Variation of reactive voltage VR(Se)and DC voltage V& for pulse change m
input mechanical torque (unth detaled three phase model of type1 SSSC
Combination of Xsssc = 20%, and Xc = 40% )

131

4 28 FFT analysis of LPA-LPB section torque for case-7 (XC= 0 40, Xsssc
= 0 20) 132
132
4 29 schematic of SSDC for SSSC
134
4 30 Damping torque with and without SSDC for type-2 SSSC
134
4 31 Damping torque with and mthout SSDC for type-1 SSSC

4 32 Variation of rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulse change m
input mechanical torque (with detaled three phase model of type-2 SSSC
136
Combination of Xsssc
= 20%, and Xc = 40% with SSDC )
4 33 Variation of rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulse change m
input mechanical torque (with detaled three phase model of type-1 SSSC
1
136
Combinat~onof Xsssc
= 20%, and Xc = 40% "0th SSDC )

Schematic representation of UPFC


140
UPFC as a two port FACTS controller
143
Shunt current controller
145
Series voltage controller
146
Electrical system of IEEE FBM with UPFC
148
Plot of damping torque wth frequency for cases 1 and 3
149
Plot of damping torque w t h frequency for cases 2 and 4
150
5 8 Sensitivity of damping torque for variation in Vp(,)
150
5 9 Variation of damping torque with frequency for cases 1and 2 for V,(,,) = 0 065151
5 10 Sensitivity of damping torque for wiation in X(,)
152
5 11 Sensitivrty of damping torque for m a t i o n in IRsh
153
5 12 Damping torque mth constant reactance emulation
153
5 13 Simulation with D-Q model of UPFC for step change in T,, Vp(,.) = 0
157
157
5 14 Simulation with D-Q model of UPFC for step change in Tm,Vp(,$ = 0 065
5 15 Simulation with three phase model of UPFC for step change in Tm,Vp(,) = 0 158
5 16 Simulation mth three phase model of UPFC for step change in T,, Vp(ael = 0 065158

51
52
53
54
55
56
57

5 17 Simulation with D-Q model of

UPFC for three phase fault

5 18 Simulation with three phase model of UPFC for three phase fault

159
159

5 19 Comparison of damping torque mth and without UPFC

160

6 1 Schematic representation of VSC based HVDC


6 2 Equivalent circmt of a VSC viewed from the AC side

6 3 Converter controller
6 4 System diagram

6 5 Simulation results for step change w t h suboptimal controller parameters (case1)


175
6 6 Simulation iesults for step change with optimal controller parameters (case-1) 176
6 7 Variation of converter power and dc voltages for step change in power reference
(case-1)
176
6 8 Simulation results for step change with suboptimal controller parameters (case2)
177
6 9 Simulation results for step change w ~ t hoptimal controller parameters (case-2) 177
6 10 Simulation results for step change with case-3 using the optimal controller
parameters of case-1
178
6 11 Simulatlon results for step change with optimal controller parameters (case31 178
6 12 Simulatlon results for step change with suboptimal controller parameters (case-

4)
179
6 13 Simulatron results for step change with optimal controller parameters (case-4) 179
6 14 Simulation results for step change with suboptimal controller parameters (case5)
180
6 15 Simulation results for step change with optimal controller parameters (cased) 180

6 16 Simulation results for step change mth suboptimal controller parameters (case6)
181
6 17 Simulation results for step change with optimal controller parameters (cased) 181

6 18 Simulatlon results for step change unth suboptimal controller parameters (case7)
182
6 19 Simulation results for step change with optimal controller parameters (we-7) 182

6 20 Vanation of converter power and dc voltages for step change m power reference
(case-7)
183
6 21 Simulation results for step change mth suboptimal controller parameters (case8)
184
6 22 Simulatlon results for step change with optimal controller parameters (case-8) 184

6 23 Variation of rotor angle and power at converter 1 for three phase fault (D-Q
model)
6 24 Variation of rotor angle and power at converter 1 for three phase fault (Three
phase model)
7 1 System diagram
7 2 Plot of damping torque with frequency for cases 1 and 2

7 3 Plot of damping torque w~thfrequency for cases 3 and 4


7 4 Plot of damping torque w ~ t hfrequency for cases 5 and 6
7 5 Plot of damping torque w t h frequency for cases 7 and 8
7 6 Variation of rotor angle, LPA-LPB section torque and power at converter 1
for pulse change m T, (D-Q model) for case-1 w t h ESCR=4 5

7 7 Vanation of rotor angle, LPA-LPB section torque and power at converter 1


for pulse change m T, (Three phase model) for case1 m t h ESCR=4 5
7 8 Variation of rotor angle, LPA-LPB section torque and power at converter 1
f

for pulse change m T, (D-Q model) for case-6 wth ESCR=2 5


7 9 Variation of rotor angle, LPA-LPB section torque and power at converter 1
for three phase fault (D-Q mode1)for case-1 m t h ESCR=4 5
7 10 Variation of rotor angle, LPA-LPB section torque and power at converter 1

for three phase fault (Three phase model) for case-1 w t h ESCR=4 5

8 1 Schematic representation of IPFC


2 Equivalent clrcut of a VSC mewed from the AC side

8 3 IPFC controller
8 4 System dagram

8 5 Plot of damping torque with frequency for case 1 and 2


8 6 Plot of damping torque mth frequency for case 1 and 2 (zoomed)

8 7 Plot of damping torque w t h frequency for case 3 and 4

8 8 Sensitivity of damping torque for vanation in Vpa


8 9 Vaxiation of R,l

with R4

8 10 Simulation with detaled D-Q model of IPFC for pulse change III

T, (VP~=

0 00)

8 11 Simulation with detded 3 phase model of IPFC for pulse change m T, (VP~=
0 00)

8 12 Simulation with detaled D-Q model of IPFC for pulse change in T, (Vp2
=

0 06)
220
8 13 Simulation with detaded 3 phase model of IPFC for pulse change in T, (Vpa=
0 06)
220
A 1 Block diagram showlng interact~onbetween electrical and mechanical systems 229
B 1 SMIB system with series compensation

233

D 1 Eqmvalent circuit representation of STATCOM

243

F 1 Linearized electrical system for damping torque calculations

249

G 1 IEEE SBM SMIB system with IPFC


G 2 Impedance seen form generator internal bus for SMIB system w t h IPFC
G 3 Equivalent representation of transmission line with IPFC for cases-2 and 4

253
253
254

H 1 Simphfied system diagram with VSC HVDC represented as two port network 257

Chapter 1

Introduction
1 1 General
The contmuous increase for the demand of electrical energy and construnts on additional
Rght Of Way (ROW) for transmission lines has caused the power systems to operate under
more stressed conditions Hence the electrical utihties are forced to expand the generation
and transmissions facilities In view of difficulties involved in the addition of new transrmssion lines, it is challengng for power system engneers to efficiently utilize the existing
transmssion facihties m a secure matmer
The long transmission hnes are used for utihzation of remotely located resources The reasons for limtation of transm~ssioncapability of long transmssion hnes extend from thermal
considerations to transient and dynamc stability of the networks The power flow pattern in
the transmssion system is unfavourable if some of the transmission lines may be veq close
to the= thermal hrmts whle other lmes have large thermal margrns The Increase in pou er
flow over a given transmission network can be achieved by compensating the AC network by
(1) senes compensation to partly compensate for the transmssion hne reactances by series
capacitors (11) shunt compensation to m m t a m voltage dynarmcally at appropnate buses
m the network by reactive power compensators
Series capacitive compensation is an econormcal and drect approach for increasing the
transmssion capabihty of long distance transmission l~nes The serles capacitor decreases
electrical length of compensated transmssion line They also help in voltage regulation and
reactive power control among parallel transmssion paths However, introduction of Senes
capacitors m a transmssion system can gve nse to SubSysnchronous Resonance (SSR) by
interacting with the turbo-generators [l,21 The SSR phenomenon was discovered when it
resulted in the destruction of two generator shafts at the MOHAVE power station (m USA)
on December 9, 1970 and agam on October 26, 1971 This has prompted the research in
findmg remedies and countermeasures for the possible SSR problem

Chapter 1 Introdzlctzon

The problem of under-utlllzation of AC transmission network and increasing the transmission loadmgs close to thar thermal l i n t s can be alleviated by the use of emergmg Flexlble
AC Transmssion System (FACTS) controllers [3] The Voltage Source Converter (VSC)
based FACTS controllers make use of Gate Turn Off(GTO)deuces for fast and rehable
control The VSC based FACTS controllers lnclude STATIC synchronous COMpensator
(STATCOM),Static Synchronous Series Compensators (SSSC), Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) and Interlme Power Flow Controller (IPFC) As the use of FACTS controllers
is increasingly considered by system planners, it becomes essential to investigate the SSR
characteristics of various FACTS controllers

12

Subsynchronous Resonance in Power Systems

Subsynchronous resonance is a major concern for the stabhty of turbine-generators connected to transmssion systems whch employ series capacitors A dsturbance m the power
system can cause excitation of turbine-generator natural torsional modes When the generator is connected to a series capacitor compensated transmssion system) these osclllations
can be amphfied and sustamed due to interaction between the electrical and the multi-mass
mechmcal system The osclllations of the shaft at natural modes may bmld up to dangerously hgh value resulting m shaft falure SSR has been defined by the IEEE SSR workmg
group [4] as follows
'Subsynchronous Elesonance' is an electncal power system condition where the electnc
network exchanges energy with the turbine-generator at one or more of the natural fiequencies of the combined system below the synchronous frequency of the system
During the lncldents of generator shaft damage at Mohave [5], ~t was found that the
frequency of one of the torsional modes was close to the complementary frequency of subsynchronous currents present in the electncd system T h s resulted m large torque m the
shaft section between the generator and exciter whch subsequently damaged the shaft
The physical basls for the detnmentd effects of SSR phenomenon can be explamed by
tak~ngup a basic series compensated system as shown in Fig 1 1 The osclllations of the
generator rotor at subsynchronous frequency '',f result in voltages lnduced m the armature
havmg components of (1) subsynchronous frequency (f, - f,) and (11) supersynchronous fieS U ~ ~ C(&+A))
Y
where 'f.' ~9 the operatmg system kequency These voltages set up currents

m the armature (and network) whose magmtudes and phase angles depend on the network
lm~edances Both current components (sub and supersynchronus) set up electromagnetic
torques of the same frequency 'f
,' In general, supersynchronous frequency currents result

1 2 Subsynchmnous Resonance zn Power Systems


Generator

RL

3
Infinite Bus

Figure 1 1 A series compensated system


m positive damping torque while the subsynchronous kequency currents result in negative
damping torque [I] The net torque can result in negative damping if magn~tudesof the subsynchronous frequency currents are high and in phase with the voltages (of subsynchronous
frequency) This situation can arise when the electrical network connected to the gcncrator armature a in resonance around the frequency of (fo - f,)
A senes compensated
transmission line has a resonance frequency of '',f gven by

where x" is the subtransient reactance of the generator Xt is the leakage reactance of the
transformer, XL and Xc are the transmssion llne mductive and capacitive reactances respectively Since Xc < XL,f,, < f, Thus for a particular level of serles compensation, it
is possible that f, N- f, - f,,,
There are two aspects of thc SSR problcrri[l] Thcsc arc
1 Self excitation (also called as steady state SSR)
2 Transient torques (also c d e d as transient SSR)

Self excltat~on
Subsynchronous frequency currents entering the generator temnals produce subsynchronous
frequency terminal voltage components These voltage components may sustmn the currents
to produce the effect that is termed as self excitation There are two types of self excitation,
one involving only rotor electncal dynarmcs and the other involving both rotor electncal and
mcchamcal dynamcs The first one is termed as mduction generator effect whle the second
one is called as torsional interaction
Induction generator effect
Induction generator effect (IGE) results from the fact that subsynchronous frequency(f,,)
currents m the armature set up a rotatrng magnetic field whch Induce currents m the rotor
of frequency f, < fo As the rotating mmf produced by the subsynchronous frequency

Chapter 1

Intmductton

armature currents is moving slower than the speed of the rotor, the resistance of the rotor
(at the subsynchronous frequency viewed from the armature t e r m a l s ) 1s negatlve as the shp
of the maclvne vlewed as an induction generator is negative When the magnitude of t h s
negative resistance exceeds the sum of the armature and network resistances at a resonant
frequency, there wdl be self excitation However, t h s problem can be tackled by suitable
deslgn of amortisseuer m h g s of the generator rotor
Torsional I n t eractlon
Generator rotor osc~llationsat a torsional mode frequency f,, induce armature voltage
components at frequencies (f,,) glven by

f""

= fo f fm

When the subsynchronous component off,, 1s close to f,, (electrical resonant frequency
defined in equation (1 I)), the subsynchronous torques produced by subs~chronousvoltage
component can be sustaned T h s interplay between electrical and mechwcal systems u
termed as torsional interaction (TI) The torsional interaction cazl also be vlewed as the
lnscrtion of negative resistance m the generator armature viewed from the terrmnals Ths
effect is much more sigmficant compared to the induction generator effect
The self excitation aspect of SSR can be considered as a stabihty problem under small
disturbances and can be analyzed using h e a r models
Transient Torques
System dsturbances result~ngfrom surltclvng m the network can excite oscdlatory torques
on the generator rotor The transient electrical torque, in general has many components
m c l u b g u&rectional, exponentially decayrng and oscdlatory torques from sabsynchronous
to multiples (typically second harmonic) of network frequency Due to SSR phenomenon,
the subsynchronous frequency components of torque can have large amphtudes ~mmecbately
following the bturbance, although they may decay eventually Each occurrence of these
h g h amphtude transient torques can result m expendture of the shaft Me due to fatigue
damage
Since the system 1s nodmear, the effect of transient torque can be studed by numencal
mtegration of system Werential equations by incorporating all nonhnearities The EMTP
perrmts nodnear modellug of complex system components and 1s well suted for analyzmg
transient torque SSR problems [2]

18

13

Flmzble AC %nsmzsszon Systems (FACTS)

Flexlble AC Transmission Systems (FACTS)

Power flow in parallel AC networks is determined according to the impedance of individual


hnes and can not be restricted to desired transmiss~oncorridors as it is governed by Kirchoff's
laws Power flow is also hmted due to stability co~lsiderations As a consequence, some of the
hnes are overloaded n hile the others left witli large margins The concept of FACTS which is
orignated by Hingorani [6, 71 can overcome the bottlenecks of XC power transmlss~on The
problem of under-utihzation of AC transmission network and increaslng the transmission
loadings close to thelr thermal limits can be alleviated by the use of FACTS controllers The
deregulation or restructuring in electric utihties pose challenges m secure system operation
which can be met by the introduction of FACTS controllers In appropriate locations to
control power flow in the network while mmntmnmg stability
FACTS is defined as "Alternating current transmission systems incorporating power electromc based a i d other static controllers to enhance controllabihty and increase power transfer capabihty" [8] FACTS do not indlcate a particular controller but a host of controllers
whch can be apphed lndivldually or in coordination with others to control one or more of
the parameters (voltage magnitude, effective impedance and power angle) associated with
power transrmssion [3]
The advent of Flexlble AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers using high power
sermconductors has made it possible to apply these controllers in conjunction with fixed senes
compensation, not only to improve system performance, but also to overcome the problem of
SSR A notable example IS the application of Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC)
TCSC and Static Var Compensator (SVC) are of variable impedance type and regarded as
the first generation of FACTS controllers
In the present scenario, there IS an increaslng tendency towards the use of FACTS controllers in the transrmssion network The adtanced high power semiconductor devices hke
IGBT and Gate Turn-Off (GTO) thyristor oFfer fast and reliable switchng, leadlng to the
applicatiorl of Voltage Source Converter (VSC) based FACTS controllers at the transrnlsslon
level FACTS controllers based on Voltage Source Converter (VSC) are emergmg controllers
that have se~eraladvantages over the conventional ones usmg thynstors such as the ehmination of bulky passive elements (reactors), compact and modular construction, better control
characteristics and fast response [3] The STATic synchronous COMpensator (STATCOM)
IS a shunt FACTS controller used for voltage regulation and dampmg of osc~llations Static
Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) is a senes controller that can replace TCSC for
power flow control Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) is a combined (senes and shunt)

controller that s most versatile and can be used for controlling active and reactive power
m a hne along with regulating the voltage Interhne Power Flow Controller (IPFC) conslst~
of multlple SSSC, whch are interhnked to provide a hgh degree of control flexlbhty In
adhtion to power flow control and voltage regulation, FACTS controllers can be used for
transient stabihty improvement, damping of power swlngs and mtigation of SSR
VSC can also be apphed for HVDC power transmssion and enable simultaneous and
rndependent control of active and reactive power at a converter wthout any problems of
commutation fdure

1 3 1 Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM)


STATCOM IS a shunt reactive power controller whch consists of a voltage source converter
whch is connected to the hgh voltage transmssion llne through a step up transformer as
shown m Fig 12 The principle of operation ~ssimlar to that of a synchronous condenser

VSC

Figure 12 Schematic dagram of STATCOM


The VSC ISconnected to the system through a small reactance whch IS the leakage reactance
of the couplmg transformer The VSC produces a set of three phase voltages whch are in
phase wlth the correspondmg bus voltages A small phase dffference m s t s m steady state
(dependmg on reactive power output) for compensating the losses m VSC In steady state,
no real power a drawn by VSC (except for losses), and the D C voltage can be mutamed by
a capacitor The provision of an energy source at the DC t m a l s enables the STATCOM

to =&mge red power w t h the AC system by controlhg the phase of the inverter output
voltages with respect to correspondmg bus voltages

1 3 Flmble AC 'hnsmzsszon S?/stems O?ACTS)

The major advantages of the STATCOM over SVC are [9, 101
1 The STATCOM can supply required reactive current even at low bus voltage, whereas

the reactive current capablhty of SVC at its capacitive susceptance hrmt decreases
hnearly with decrease in the bus voltage
2 With proper choice of device rating and thermal design, STATCOM can have a short

tlme overload capacity This is not possible with SVC as it has Inherent susceptance
hmlt
3 Signficant sue reduction can be achieved as reduced number of passive components
wlth smaller size are involved
4 STATCOM can allow real power modulation with energy source at its DC terminals

13 2

S t a t ~ cSynchronous Serles Compensator (SSSC)

The voltage source converter based series compensator is called Static Synchronous Series
Compensator (SSSC) SSSC injects a series voltage In the transmission hne for series compensation whch can be effectively used for active power control [ll] The schematic of SSSC
injecting a series voltage in the transmission line is shown m Flg 13 For normal capac~tive

VSC

Figure 13 Schematic diagram of SSSC


compensation, qected voltage lags the hne current by 90 degrees and it leads by 90 degrees
for inductive compensation T h s makes the SSSC a bi-drectional compensatxng controller
The SSSC 1s supenor compared to senes capacitor as ~njectedvoltage by SSSC is mdependent of network ~mpedancechanges and cannot tune itself w ~ t hany finite line Inductance to

Chapter 1 Intmductzon

have a classical series resonance at the fundamental frequency The SSSC therefore appears
m series with the hne as an 'energy neutral' device and thus lt is expected that, lt ~1.11
not
contribute to the occurrence of SSR Due to losses in VSC, the angle of injected voltage is
not exactly 90 degrees with respect to the line current but close to f 90 degrees

1 3 3 Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC)


The Umfied Power Flow Controller (UPFC) is the most versatile FACTS controller whch
can be used to control active and reactive power flows in the transrmssion kne m addtion
to the bus voltages The UPFC ~scapable of controbg the three system parameters,
voltage, power angle and transfer impedance whch affect the power flow in a transmssion
bne [3, 12, 131 The UPFC conslsts of a shunt converter and a series converter whch have
a common DC capacitor as shown in Fig 14 The UPFC lqects a senes voltage (V,)

Flgure 14 Schematic dagram of UPFC


and a shunt current (Ish) The series and shunt branches of UPFC can generatelabsorb
reactive power independently and the two branches can exchange active power The active
and reactlve power flow control in the h e can be acheved by iqecting a senes voltage
of appropriate magmtude and phase The component of q e d e d senes voltage m phase
with the h e current IS termed as 'Real voltage' and the other in quadrature with the hne
current can be called as 'Reactive voltage' The actlve power can be controlled by the
lqlectlon of reactive voltage and the reactive power by the real voltage lnject~on A shunt
branch is reqwed to compensate for any real power drawn/suppbed by the series branch
and the losses The real current drawn by the shunt branch IS set by DC voltage control to
ensure proper power balance between shunt and senes branches [14] Thus the UPFC has

1 9 Flexzble AC lhnsrnzsszon Susterns (FACTS)

three controllable parameters vlz , the series injected real voltage, the series injected reactive
voltage and the shunt reactlve current

134

Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC)

The Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC), was proposed by Gyugyi et a1 [15] The
schematic of IPFC with two VSCs is shown in Fig 1 5 The IPFC employs a number of VSCs
Line - 2

T'-

Figure 15 Schematic diagram of IPFC


each providing series compensation for a d~fferenthne The converters are linked through a
common dc h k In addtion to Independent control of serles reactive compensation, IPFC
is capable of affect~ngdirect transfer of real power between the compensated hnes This
capabihty makes ~t possible to equalize both real and reactlve power flow between the lines
The spcclal features of IPFC c a i be surnrnarlzed as [3]
1 Equallze real and reactive power flow between the llnes

2 Reduces the burden of overloaded hnes by real power transfer


3 Cornpensatlon agmnst resistive voltage drop and the reactwe power demand in the
critical llne

Chapter 1 Inimduclchon

10

1 4 Voltage Source Converter Based HVDC Transmission Systems


The development of power sermconductors, specially IGBT's has led to the small power
HVDC transrmsslon based on Voltage Source Converters (VSCs) The VSC based HVDC
~nstallatlonsare turned out to be very attractive in mew of thelr t e c h c a l qualities as
compared to conventional HVDC such as, fast, independent control of active and reactive
power, dynamc voltage support at the converter bus for enhancing stabihty, possibihty to
feed to weak AC systems or even passive loads, reversal of power wlthout changmg the
polanty of dc voltage (advantageous m multiterrmnal dc systems) and no requirement of
n
the two converter statlons [16, 17, 181
fast c o m m ~ c a t ~ obetween
The VSC based HVDC transmssion system mamly consists of two converter stations
connected by a dc cable The schematic of a pomt to point, VSC based HVDC system is
shown in Fig 16 Each converter station is composed of a VSC The amplitude and phase

DC Cable

VSC Stabon 1

VSC Stahon 2

Figure 16 Schematic dlagram of VSC based HVDC System


angle of the converter AC output voltage can be controlled simultaneously to &eve rapld,
Independent control of active and reactive power in all four quadrants The control of both
actlve and reactive power 1s bi-drectional and cont~nuousacross the operating range For
actlve power balance, one of the converter operates on dc voltage control and other converter
on active power control When dc line power E zero, the two converters can function as
rndependent STATCOMs in steady state

15

Literature Revlew

1 5 1 Analysls and Control of Subsynchronous Resonance


The analysis of SSR phenomena reqwes a detded m o d e b g of the overall electrical system
and the rotatlng mechazllcal system of the turbnegenerator SSR stuhes requre the mod&g of network transients whch are Ignored m the stab&ty stuhes lnvolvlng low frequency
osc~llatlons For SSR studes, the mechmcd system represented by either (I) coupled

1 5 Lztemture Revzew

1'1

multimass model or (11) decoupled modal model [l] In model (11) the mechanical system
equatlons are decoupled by a sultable transformation The generator IS modelled by detarled
2 2 model [I, 191
The phenomenon of subsynchronous resonance has been studied in depth and the list of
large number of hteratures are available in [20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 251 The analysis of steady
state SSR can be conveniently performed by heanzing the system at the operating point
The frequency scanning technique [26, 271 is used as a preliminary tool for the analysis
of SSR and is effective in studylng IGE Agarwal and Farmer [27] described a frequency
scanmng technique (a frequency domain analysis) which can detect the possible IGE and
TI The method involves the determlnatlon of driving point impedance at the operat~ng
point over the subsynchronous frequency range, as mewed from the neutral of the generator
under study When used in conjunction with approxlmate formula developed by Kllgore et
al [26], quantitative results are provided for the assessment of self excitation due to SSR
whch is helpful in identifying the system conditions that are potentially hazardous Self
excitation due to IGE is indcated ~f there are one or more frequencies where the equivalent
reactance is zero and the eqtuvalent resistance is negative
Torsional Interaction (TI) can occur when the complehent of electrical resonant frequency (f,) is close to or coincides with one of the natural frequencies of the turbinegenerator shaft system Under these conditions shaft torque oscillations can build up to
extremely h g h levels and cause shaft falure Canay 1281 suggested a frequency domam analysls based on the concept of synchronizing and damplng torques The concept of damping
torque is useful m the analysis of the contribution of the electrical system In the damping of
the torsional modes
The frequency doman methods are simpler and approxlmate but are still useful techniques for screening the system conditions that give rise to potential SSR problems
The small signal analysis of SSR can be performed based on eigenvalue analysis [29, 303
The eigenvalue techmque uses the mathematical model of the system using a set of differential
equatlons which are linearized about an operating polnt This technique was used by Fouad
et a1 [31] and Bowler et a1 [32] to study the torsional interactions and to detemne the
w o u s con&tions which lead to mstablhty Eigendue analysis is an exact method and can
employ detded system models as described m references 11, 21
Edns [33] describes a novel concept for mtigatlon of SSR based on asyrnmetncal senes
compensation for SSR frequencies Iravam and Edns [34] provlde quantitative evaluation a
the concept of asymmetric compensation using a novel elgenvalue approach The eigenvalue

12

Chapter 1 Intmductzon

analysis approach represents the mathematical models of power system components in the
three phase basls The phase unbalance concept [33] is extended to TCSC with dscrete
control strategy to mtigate SSR is suggested by Sujatha Subhash et al [35]
In a classlc paper, Bowler et al [32] analyze elgenvalue movements in a p a r of coupled
RLC oscdlators to give physical might m to subsynchronous resonance Mugwanya and Van
Ness [36] descnbe the concept of mode couphg which implies that a mode of response ln
one part of the system may also appear in another part of the system Padiyar [l]describes
the SSR as the mode couphng between an electncal mode in series compensated network and
a torsional mode m a turblne generator feedng the network The agenvalues that are close
can result in mode couphg (although not always) wlvch m e s from the sirmlanty between
eigenvectors Dobson [37] has studed subsynchronous resonance instabihty uslng concepts
of strong and weak resonances Normal form analysls to quantify nodnear interactions near
strong resonance 1s carned out The results suggest that subsynchronous resonance u caused
by a p a r of strong resonances whch are a perturbation of a weak resonance
Allen et d [38]investigated the performance of a feedback-lmearizmg control for excitation control of a synchronous generator wlth respect to unmodelled dynarmcs of both
the turbine generator umt and the transrmssion network The control acts to decouple the
dynarmcs associated w t h the madune from the dynarmcs of the transrmssion gnd, thus
pre~entmgSSR between the two subsystems when a series capautor is used to compensate
the transmssion h e
When Hopf bifurcation occurs, the system may expenence hmted oscillations whch may
be analyzed by applylng the appropnate bifurcations theory Analysls of Hbpf bifurcations
for a SMIB power system experlenclng SSR is presented by Zhu et a1 [39]
The analysls of transient SSR cannot be carned out using hneamed models Thls requres
the the system to be modelled m detal lncorporatmg all the non-hneanties Since the model
ls n o h e a r , the transient slmulatlon of the system to be camed out (mvolves numerical
integration of Merentla1 equations) The vvldely used Electromagnetic Transient Program
( E m )is well swted for t h s purpose Although t h s program was ongnally developed for
the study of Zlghtnq and switching transients [40], the program has been extended subsequently to incorporate detded model of synchronous generator for the study of SSR m
references [41,42,431 The s~mulationcan be performed convemently by EMTP [42] The
synchronous m h e equations are, in general, non-hear and tune vaqwg The solution
of synchronous madme equations along wth network equations reqlure a slutable mterface t e h q u e Several ~nterfaangt e b q u e s have been reported m the literature 141,421

Ramshaw and Padiyar [44] presented a novel approach where synchronous machine is represented by an eqtuvalent clrcmt whch simplify considerably the problem of interfacing the
machine and network Here, the stator of synchronous generator is represented by constant
(subtransient) inductances [L:]in parallel mth current sources I, wh~chare dependent on
rotor flux linkages Simulation of SSR usrng comprehensive simulation program NETOMAC
is reported in [45]
Maguire and Gole [46]outhne some of the considerations m the detaled simulation
algonthms for FACTS controllers especially the problem of numerical osclllatlon in EMTP
and have proposed algorithmic improvements to avoid the same It is to be noted that,
the transient simulation can also be performed using MATLAB-SIMULINK [47] Here the
differential equations describing the system can be represented by baslc blocks of SIMULINK
and the nonlinearities can also be modelled easily
The design, installation and basic control models of the Slatt TCSC is described in
[48, 491 An EMTP study of SSR mtigation of the Slatt TCSC is presented m [50] It is
alamed by Plwko et a1 [51] that, TCSC is SSR neutral and can reduce SSR effects due to
nearby fixed series capacitors
The computation of damping of subsynclironousoscillations due to a TCSC is reported by
hjararnan et a1 [52] Pahyar and Geetha [53] carried out analysis of torsional lnteractions
mth controlled series compensation Padlym et al [54] presented a novel constant angle
controller for controlled series compensation to affect transient stability and SSR characteristics Padiyar and Chaurasia [55] present a systematic approach for elgenvalue analysis,
damping torque analysis and transient simulation of the system with TCSC to investigate
the torsional lnteractions It is shown that vernier control of TCSC 1s effective in damplng
subsynchronous oscillations Hingorm [56], suggest the NGH SSR damping scheme to (a)
reduce transient machine oscillations d u n g system dsturbances (b) suppress steady-state
SSR (c) suppress DC offset of the series capacitors and (d) protect the series capacitors
Mattavelli et al [57, 581 present dynamc phasor model of the TCSC in studies of SSR The
model developed by them is slmple to incorporate m the studles and gves accurate estlmate
of SSR damplng K h m o t o and Phongphanphanee [59] present a method of analytically
calculating electncal damping of TCSC with a h n g angle control They investigated the
influence of modulation of firing angle on SSR
Rostomkolm et a1 I601 have c m e d out a detded study of TI mth SVC The result of the
study indcated that torsional interactions are pnrnmly due to voltage regulat~onfunctlon
of SVC The evaluation of torsional interactions mth the voltage regulator of SVC is studied

Chapter 1 Introdvctzon

14

by Geetha [61] The use of a d a r y signals to damp SSR have been proposed for SVCs in
references [62, 63, 64, 651 The control signal used s denved from generator rotor velocity
However, SVC IS used at the generator t e m a l s and dedrcated to damp SSR and is not
used for any other ob~ectivehke improving power transfer capabibty P d y a r and Varma
[66], used SVC simulteneously for mdpomt compensation of transmsion bne (to improve
power transfer capability) as well as to damp torsional oscdlations The signals used are
sinthesued uslng local measurements and are designated as Computed Internal Frequency
(CIF) and Computed Rotor Frequency (CRF) Khaparde et a1 [67] present simultaneous
PSS and SVC scheme for damplng SSR

15 2

Control and Analysls of SSR with VSC based FACTS controllers

The basic concept of uslng VSC based FACTS controllers for power control was described
by Gyugyl [68] In subsequent papers, Gyugyl [12, 131 descnbed in detal the concepts of
UPFC and SSSC [ll] and compared ~t wth thyristor based equipment and fixed compensation Nelson et a1 [69]have drscussed the detaded operation of SSSC and compared its
performance wlth UPFC, TCSC and TCPAR uslng cucle hagrams in the P-Qplane
An analysis of &pulse and 1Zpulse STATCOM has been presented by Tramer et al
[70] whle the operation and design of control descnbed in [71, 721 A vector control based
scheme for control of reactive current of STATCOM was proposed by Schauder and Mehta
[71] They descnbe two controller structures for the STATCOM one of whch lnvolves both
maptude and phase control of the converter output voltage (Type-1 control) and other
structure controls only phase angle for the control of reactive current Schauder et a1 1731
present the development and prototype installation of a f100 MVAR STATCOM at the
Sdhvan substation of the TVA power system
Multilevel topologes have been suggested as an alternative to multipulse topologes for
VSCs The study of multdevd topologes for STATCOM have been presented m [74,75,76]
In [75] expenmental study is m e d out on a laboratory model of a three level STATCOM
whch uses selective harmomc ehmation t e h q u e to rrrrmrrrme harmomcs
Analyss of TI mth STATCOM is c m e d out by Pdyar [I] The stud@ show that the
voltage regulatar a d o n of STATCOM mxgnally mcreases the negative dampmg of mode-1
of IEEE FBM Patd et a.l [77] presented the apphcation of STATCOM for damp~ngof
torsional oscdlations In ther study, the STATCOM IS connected at the generator ttmrurds

and a a-

slgnd derived from generator speed dewation IS used to suppress the unstable

15

Lztemture Revzew

15

torsional osc~llations
SSSC have d~ffcrcntdynarmc characteristics as compared to vanable or fixed impedances
Consequently they can be Immune to clrcult resonances [ll] The torsional interactions
w t h a SSSC are studied by K u l h and Padiyar [78] A damp~ngcontroller which takes
generator shp as Input is suggested to modulate the reactive voltage reference for damp~ng
of SSR Sunil Kumar and Arindam Ghosh [79] developed an SSSC model with 48 step
VSI configuration and studied the torsional Interaction Pill= et a1 [80] report the study of
torsional interact~onswith combination of SSSC and fixed capacitor The damping controller
with the Input from the generator speed is used for damping critical tors~onalmodes

15 3

SSR Analysis with HVDC Systems

The first experience of HVDC interaction w ~ t hturbme-generator tolsional modes occurred at


the Square Butte Project, U S A in 1977 [81] Thls pheno~enon,is simillar to that caused
by series capac~tors Yacamini [82] explains the excitation of torsional osc~llatlonsby HVDC
schemes mth simple methemat~calmodels Followng the d~scoveryof the TI phenomenon
at the Square Butte, studies haw been carried out by P~wkoand Larsen [83] They have
identrfied the factors which have a major impact on TI with HVDC system Padiyar and
Kothari [MI, presented a detalled hnearized state space model of AC/DC system to study
the effect of varlous system parameters, such as, dc line loading, converter firing angle,
the firing scheme employed on torsional interaction Padiyar and Geetha [85] conducted a
detded study of subsynchronous frequency tors~onalinteract~onsin a MTDC system based
on s m d signal stab~htyanalysis The effects of the selection of voltage setting termnal
(VST), the controller galns and the locat~onof the generator are also studed by them
through the eigenvalue analys~sof a two term~naland a three terminal system However, the
problem of torsional interactions w t h HVDC system is much less severe and can be tackled
easily by modfication of the current controller or by addlng m auxlllary control to damp
subsynchronous osc~llations[I,861
Subsynchronous torsional damping charactenstics mth VSC based HVDC a reported
by Hafner et d [87] The studes show that VSC based HVDC can improve the electrical
damplng in the subsynchronous frequency range

Chapter 1 Intmductzon

16

16

Objectives and Scope of the Thesis

SSR 1s an important aspect to be considered m the apphcation of FACTS controllers particularly m lmes with fixed series compensation The fast control feature of FACTS controllers
can be used effectively for the mitigation of SSR However, some of the operating modes
of FACTS controllers may cause adverse rnteractions The mvestigation of SSR characte~.
istics with wious VSC based FACTS controllers is relatively a new top~cof research and
there is hardly any work reported It is well known that, the HVDC converter controls with
conventional thyristor based converters can also cause adverse torsional interactions [86]
However, there is little work reported on the SSR studies of VSC based HVDC converters
T h s thesis is concerned unth the analysis of torsional mteractions in systems with voltage
source converter based FACTS and HVDC controllers The aim of the thesis is hrected
at develop~ngmodels and analytical tedmques for the prediction of SSR in systems unth
FACTS controllers hke STATCOM, SSSC, UPFC, IPFC and VSC based HVDC
The objectives of the thesis are
1 Development of accurate models of VSC based FACTS controllers for SSR stuhes based
on damping torque malysis, eigendue analysis and detded transient simulation

2 Analysis of SSR mth STATCOM and to design a Subsynchronous Damping Controller


(SSDC) for the mtigation of SSR

3 Investigation of SSR mth SSSC and the deslgn of SSDC for the darnplng of SSR
4 Investigation of SSR characteristics of UPFC for various operating modes of series and
shunt converters

5 Development of a systematic approach for the selection of optimal controller parameters


wlth multiple controllers for complex FACTS controllers such as IPFC and VSC based

HVDC
6 Mode%,

control design and mvestlgatlon of SSR mth VSC based HVDC system

7 Analysls of SSR charactellstlcs wlth IPFC

The analytical methods developed for the study of SSR characteristics are illustrated USmg the examples of IEEE hrst Benchmark Model (FBM)1881 and IEEE Second Benchmark
Model (SBM) [89]systems The mvestigation is caned out on the apphcatlon of FACTS
controllers to supplement fixed sene compensation and act as countermeasure for SSR The

1 7 Outltne of the Theszs

17

models of converters are derived from first principles using switching functions Neglecting
harmonics in the switchmg functions, models are derived based on D-Q vanables These
models can be interfaced with models of other system components includmg generator and
transmssion network The converter controls are also modelled in detail The hnearized
models using D-Q variables are utdlzed for damping torque analysis for the fast assessment
of torsional interactions Here, the generator is represented by the classical model whereas, it
is represented by the detaled (2 2) model [19] for the eigenvalue analysis However, the transient simulation is based on detaled three phase models of the system including switching
action m t h n the converters Since this thesis deals with the transmssion systems, PIVM
converters are not considered whereas, 12 pulse 3 level converters are considered for the
Independent control of active and reactive power (Type-1 control) [71]

17

Outline of the Thesls

The chapter-mse summary of the work reported in the them is gven below
Chapter 2
Thls chapter reviews the various methods of analysis of SSR The modelhng of generator,
multi-mass mechanical system, excitation system, PSS and the external electr~calnetwork
with fixed series compensation are presented in detad The vanous analytical tools for SSR
study such as dirnpnpmg torque analysis [28], eigenvalue analysls and transient simulation
are described and Illustrated usmg case studies adapted from IEEE FBM and SBM The
damping torque analysis is a frequency domain method used to screen the system conditions
that gve rise to potential SSR problems It is computationally simple and allows planners
to decide upon a smtable countermeasure for the rmtigat~onof SSR Wlule hnearized models
enable the prediction of self-excitation at a gven operating point, the transient simulation of
the nodnear system is used to validate the models in addition to study the transient torque
effects

Chapter 3
n s chapter deals with the modelhng of two level converter and three l e ~ econverter
l
based
STATCOM The detaded three-phase model of the convel-ters ~sdeveloped by modelling
the smtchmg action of converters by switchmg functions Neglecting the harmorllcs in the
s m t h n g functions, the converter quantities are transformed to D-Q frame of reference
o
of the
for the development of model of STATCOM in D-Q vanables The t ~ structures

18

Chapter 1 Intmdzlctaon

controller namely Type-2 (for two level converter) and Type-1 controller (for three level converter) are dscussed m detrul The analys~sof SSR with Type-2 and Type-1 STATCOM 1s
carried out on a serles compensated system (adapted from IEEE FBM) by damping torque
analysls, eigenvalue analysis and transient simulation The transient simulation is performed
with both D-Q based ( n o h e a r ) model and three phase (considering swltchmg functions)
nonlmear models and the d d t y of D-Q models is demonstrated The decrement factor
of the shaft section torque oscillations is computed from FFT analysis and found to be in
agreement with the results of eigenvalue analysis when nodnear system slmulatlon is carrled
out wth small bturbances The results of case studies revealed the need of SSDC on the
STATCOM for damplng of SSR The SSDC takes Thevemn voltage signal [go, 911 whch is
syntheslzled from the locally a d a b l e bus voltage and STATCOM current signals and modulates the reactive current reference of STATCOM A systematic approach for the design
of SSDC ~sdeveloped based on the damping torque method Here, the transfer funct~on
parameters are optirmzed to obtaln the desired damplng charactenstics of the network in
the critical torsional mode frequency range The results from the case study demonstrate
the effectivenessof the SSDC m stabillzlng the critical torsional mode

Chapter 4
In t h s chapter, analysis of SSR mth SSSC is descnbed in detall The modekng of two level
and three level VSC based SSSC using swtclung functions and D-Q variables is presented
The controller structures of Type-2 controller and Type-1 controller for SSSC are &scussed
The analysls of SSR mth Type2 and Type1 SSSC is carrled out on a systep adapted from
IEEE FBM by darnplng torque analysis, eigenvalue analysis and transient simulation The
SSR charactemtics of SSSC when operated with constant reactive voltage control and constant reactance control are compared When hybnd compensation is used, SSR can result for
a particular combmation of fixed capaator and compensation by SSSC The design of SSDC
(=ported m Chapter 3) is also apphed here for the modulation of reactive voltage iqected
by SSSC The effectivenessof SSDC m damping of SSR is demonstrated uslng the case study

Chapter 5
The modellurg detals of UPFC are d~scussedin t h s chapter The reactive current lnjectlon
of shunt VSC can be mantamed constant or controlled to regulate port-1 bus voltage constant The lqlection of senes reactwe voltage can be kept constant whereas, the qection of
serles real voltage IScontrolled for constant resistance emulation or eonstant port-2 voltage

1 7 Outltne of the Theszs

19

control A study of the SSR characteristics of UPFC for various operating combinations of
shunt and series converters is presented with the help of a case study based on IEEE FBM
It is observed that, while the operat~ngmode of shunt VSC has no significant effect on the
damping and resonance frequency, the constant resistance emulation control of senes VSC
is significantly better than fast control of port-2 voltage control The series injection of real
voltage (to emulate a positive resistance) as a SSR countermeasure is found very effective
m stabihzing the critical torsional mode The transient simulation IS carried out for a small
and a large disturbance (In the form of three-phase fault)

Chapter 6
T h s chapter is devoted for the modellmg, control design and performance evaluation of
VSC based HVDC system When there are a large number of controller parameters to be
tuned to achieve satisfactory system performance, it is necessary to optlmlze the parameters A systematic approach [92] for parameter optimization is presented in t h ~ schapter
The effectiveness of the approach is validated by considering a case study It is shown that,
incorporation of optimal controller parameters has significantly improved the step response
of various controllers on a test system The reactive current injected by the individual VSCs
can be mantaned constant or controlled to regulate converter bus voltage constant For
active power balance, one VSC operates on DC voltage control while the other controls the
active power Power reversal is also corlsidered so that a particular VSC can operate as a
rectifier or inverter This leads to vailous operating modes of VSC based HVDC, which are
considered for the control deslgn The case study demonstrates the importance of adaptive
select~onof the controller gans based on the operating mode

Chapter 7
The analysis of SSR with VSC based HVDC for different operating modes are investigated
m this chapter The effects of various factors such as, AC system strength and DC voltage
settmg termlnal are investigated It is observed that, VSC based HVDC contributes positive
darnplng m the torsional kequency range for DC voltage control mode of operation of converter connected to the turbogenerator In general, the VSC based HVDC does not cause
SSR problems The results obtaned from the hnear analysis are validated uslng nonhnear
simulation

20

Chapter 1 Introducteon

Chapter 8
T h s chapter mvestigates the SSR analysis ~ t IPFC
h with the help of a case study based
on IEEE SBM The two VSCs are lmked through a common DC h k and m~ectvoltage m
serles with the he-1 and h e - 2 respectively In addtion to the Independent control of series
reactive compensation, IPFC is capable of effectinghrect transfer of real power between the
compensated hnes by injecting senes real voltage The positive series real voltage qection in
one llne causes the negative senes real voltage mjection in the other in order that power balance at DC Lnk is satisfied The VSC whch controls real and reactive power independently
m a hne is called 'pnme' and the other is called as 'support' VSC The controllers for prime
VSC are assumed to be either active and reactive power controllers or constant resistance
and constant reactive voltage controller The support VSC controls the DC voltage and
mjects constant reactive voltage for series compensation The combinations of controllers
lead to various operatlug modes of IPFC, whch are considered for the analysls It is obsened that, the constant resistance emulation mode is sigmficantly better than constant
reactive power control In parallel transmssion lmes, the dampmg of critical torsional mode
s increased if the effective net loop resistance comprising the parallel hnks is increased by
mutant resistance emulation mode of operation The pre&ctions based on dampmg torque
and eigenvalue analysis are vahdated by transient simulation
Chapter 9
T h s chapter summarues the conclusions drawn from the work reported in the thesis and
presents suggestions for further work

Chapter 2

Modelling and Review of Methods for


the Analysis of SSR
2 1 Introduction
In this chapter, a revlew of various methods for the analysis of SSR is presented As defined
m Chapter 1, there are two aspects of the SSR problem steady-state and transient The
steady-state SSR relates to the stabihty of the operating point whereas the transient SSR
problem refers to the possibihty of high values of oscillatory shaft torques caused by a major
bturbance, even though such torsional oscdlations may eventually be damped out
The mathematical models that are considered for the SSR analys~sare invariably nonhnear and in general, the solution is obtmned by transient simulation However, for operating
polnt stabihty (small signal stability), it is adequate to linearize the system equations around
the operating point to simplify the analysis Major Merences in the modelling for SSR
analysis compared to conventional stabihty analysis are a) Inclusion of network transients
and b) The detaled modelhng of the mechanical system made up of turbme, generator
and exciter rotors and shafts as multimass-spring-damper system While the translent SSR
problem requres the use of transient simulation (as the nonlinearities cannot be neglected
whlle considermg large disturbances), following methods have been used for the analysis of
steady-state SSR based on linemed models 1 Damplng torque analysis (Frequency domain
method) 2 E~genvalueanalysis The various methods of analysis are dustrated based on
case stuhes on IEEE first benchmark model (FBM)[88]and IEEE second benchmark model
(SBM)[89] where a single m a h e is connected to ifimte bus through a series compensated
h e The overall system model is denved &om the component models of the synchronous
generator, excitation system, PSS,mechmcal system and the AC network

22

22

Chapter 2 Modellzng and Revzew of Methods for the Araalgszs of SSR

Modelling of Electromechanical System

The power system comprises of turbine-generator and electrical network The


system 1s represented by multi-mass spnng damper system For SSR studies, it 1s necessary to
model generator in detlul Generator model 2 2 [I, 191 is usually considered where the stator
and rotors are represented by SIX dfferential equations It IS reqwred to model the wcitation
system and power system stabher also The electrical network consists of tranmssion lmes,
transformers, series capacitors and shunt reactance If any
For the steady state SSR analysis, the entire system is descllbed by a set of first order
Merentid equations, whlch are hnearized about an operating point For each subsystem,
the hnearized state and output equations are developed and can be represented as,

AX,

AX =

[ A ] AX. + [ B , ] A U .
[ C, ] AX. + [ D,] AU,

where
\
X,is the vector of state wiables of the mdlvldual subsystem
U,is the vector of mput mnables of the mdlvidual subsystem and
Y, is the vector of output variables of the mhwdual subsystem
The input to each subsystem IS a function of the output variables of the other subsystems
The equations for various subsystem Inputs can be combmed to gve the overall system input
vector whtch can be expressed in terms of the overd system output vector of the form

The entnes of the [F]matrur can be obtamed &om the knowledge of the interconnectloh
pattern of the vanous subsystems
The m o d e m of w1ous subsystems of the electromechmcd system are described m
the sectlons to follow

2 2 1 Synchronous generator
'I'he study of fxmmal mteractions demands a detaded model of the synchronous generator
The spchronous machme model 2 2 considered is s h o w m Fg 2 1 The stator 3 phse
m b g s are =placed by fictlt101.1~'d', 'q' and '0' cads &om Park's transformation Out of
these, the '0'
(in whxh zero sequence m e t t,, flows) has no couphg with the rotor
and may be neglected if = O The fict~tious'd' and 'q' 0118 rotate at the same speed

2 2 Modellzng of Electromechanzcal System

23

of rotor The four rotor wlndlngs include field winding 'f', d-axis damper wlnding 'h' and
q-axis damper windings 'g' and 'k'

Figure 2 1 Synchronous machine with rotating armature wind~ngs


The equat~onsgovemng the 2 2 generator model are gven as[l, 191,
The d-axis eqmvhent circmt equations

The q-axis eqmvalent circuit equations

24

Chapter 2 Modellzng and Revzew of M e t h d for the Analyszs of SSR

The stator equations can be expressed as,

where, w is the generator rotor speed


The armature current components zd and

2,

are not independent, but can be expressed

m terms of the flux b g e s from equations (2 6) and (2 9)


To have a common ams of reference with the network, the voltages v g d and vgq are
transformed to Kron's (D-Q) reference frame using the following transformation

where vgo and ugg are the components of generator terrmnal voltage along Kron's reference
frame, 5, is the angle by which d-axls leads D-axls

222

Modelhng of Excltatlon Control System

A simphfied block clagram of the slngle time constant static exciter [I]is shown in Fig 2 2
Here Vg E the terrmnd voltage of the generator and the signal V,, is the output of Power
System Stabher (PSS) The equations for the excitation system am gven below

Figure 2 2 Excitation system

2 2 Modellzng of Electromechanzcal System

223

25

Power System Stabilizer (PSS)

Modern power systems are affected by the problern of spontaneous low frequency osallations particularly when operating under stressed system conditions associated rmth increased
l o d n g on transrmssion hnes A cost effective and satisfactory solut~onto the problem of
undamped low frequency osc~llationsis to provide Power System Stabihzers (PSS) wh~chare
supplementary controllers in excitation systems [I] PSS is represented by the block d~agram
as shown in Fig 2 3 The equ~valentof Fig 2 3 is depicted in Fig 2 4

Washout C m i t

Dynarmc Compensator

Tors~onalElltcr

Figure 2 3 Block diagram of Power System Stabihzer

Figure 2 4 Eqmvalent block diagram of Power System Stabilizer

PSS conslsts of a washout circmt, dynamc compensator, a torsional filter The input
signal to the PSS ~sgenerator skp S
, The transfer function of PSS IS taken as,

Chapter 8 Modelkng and Reuzew of Methods for the Andyszs of $ 8 ~

26

The state equations for the PSS (ignoring the brmter) are gven below

224

Transrmssion Network

For power system dynarmc performance studies involving frequencies below fundamental
(synchronous frequency) a slngle n equvalent of the transmssion ~sadequate When the
hne charglng is not considered, the transmission hne 1s modelled by a lumped resistance(RL)
and reactance(XL) The transformers are modelled by resistance (Rt) and leakage reactance
(Xi)
between two busses A slngle machme infinite bus system is shown m Fig 2 5

Figure 2 5 Series compensated SMIB system

Xe = Xt XL + X,,, Re = Rt RL and Xc representug the cornpensatlug


series capacitor, the equations governing the transrmssion llne are gven as,

where,

[z:
I:",: I:[{

[ : ] ~ b }

2 2 Modellzng of Electromechanzcal System

27

In equations (2 22) and (2 23), armature currents zd, z, are to be substituted from equations (2 6) and (2 9) The derivatives of armature currents 9, are expressed in terms of
, $ J ~ $d
, and $.J*from equations (2 4),
state variables representing flux linkages ( qh,$ J ~ qg,
(2 5), (2 7), (2 8), (2 lo), (2 11) respectively) to obta~nthe final expression for v,d and v,,

225

Turblne Generator Mechanical System

The mechanical system consisting of rotors of generator, exciter and turbine shafts can be
viewed as a mass-spiing-damper system (see Fig 2 6)

Figure 2 6 Mass-spring-damper system with slx masses


The equations for the zth mass (connected by elastic shaft sections to mass (2-1) and mass
(%+I)
is gven by

Combining all the equations, for a 'N' mass system,

where [MI is a diagonal matrx, [D']


and [ K ]are tridiagonal symmetnc matrices [T,]and
[T,]are the N vectors of mechanical and electrical torques [T,]has only one non zero
element corresponding to the generator rotor Also, the mechanical torque directly acting
on the generator rotor (T,,) is zero The inertia M, is gven by

J wa
Ja is the moment of inertia, SB is
where H, is the inertia constant defined as H, =
the base MVA and D,is the per unit damping coefficient, ws is the base speed in rad/sec

28

Chapter 2 Modellzng and Revzew of Methods for the Analyszs of $88

2 2 5 1 Alternate representation using electrical analogy

The mechacal system equations can also be mitten from analogy to an electrical (RLC)
network [I] Definng the per u t slip of a mass (Ma) as

where wa is the speed of rotor z


We can express

dSa
2H*-dt + R(Sa - Sd)

+ Da,,-I (St - Sa-i)+ D,,

(St -

where T, ,,I is the torque in the shaft section connecting mass z and z - 1 It is not dfficult
to see that inertia (2H) 1s analogous to capacitance, slip analogous to voltage and torque
analogous to current The spnng constant m p u (KwB) 1s andogous to the reciprocal of
mductance The p u damping coefficient (D) is analogous to conductance For the s ~ mass
x
system shown m Flg 2 6, the electrical analogy is shown in Fig 2 7 There is no loss of
generahty m assumng Sa (skp at the operating pomt) as zero

Figure 2 7 An electrical analogue for the Mass-sprmg-dampa system of hg 2 6


The state vanable for the network shown m Flg 2 7 7 only 11 gven by

x,n = Is, %

s
3 s4 8 5

236

Ti2 Ta Ta Ta Tadt

(2 32)

2 3 Analyttcal Tools for SSR Study

29

The additional state variable (reqmred when writing equations for the electrical system)
is 6, (rotor angle correspondng to the generator The equation for 6, is gven by

y,

where S
, =
andoS
, =
wm is the speed of the generator rotor (in rad/sec)
Substituting in equation (2 33) we get

Normally, the operating speed u~ is considered to be same as the nomlnal or rated speed
whch IS taken as base speed W B and Smo = 0

23

Analytical Tools for SSR Study

The steady state SSR can be studied by damping torque analysis and eigenvalue analysls
for whch the system is hneanzed about an operating polnt The transient SSR (translent
torques) requres the system to be modelled in detal whch takes care about all the non
hnemties The transient simulation can be done by EMTP or using MATLAB-SIMULINK
[47]The vanous methods of SSR analysis are descnbed in the sections to follow

231

Damping torque analysls

Frequency doman methods (based on the hnemlzed system model) are used to screen the
system con&tions that give rise to potential SSR problems and identlfy those slstem conditions that do not influence the SSR phenomenon Fkquency domain studies are widely used
for p l m n g because of thelr computational advantage The sipficance of thls approach is
that it allows planners to decide upon a smtable countermeasure for the mtigation of detnmental effects of SSR and to establish acceptable senes compensation levels for a specified
stage of system development The damping torque analysis is a frequency doman method,
whch gives quck check to deterrmne the torsional mode stabihty The system is assumed
to be stable if the net damping torque at any of the torsional mode frequency is pos1tive[28]
However, damping torque method does not give an idea about the stabihty of the entlre
system
In the method of damping torque analysis, the torsional interaction phenomenon between
the electncal and mechanical system, is explaned wlth the ad of complex torque coefficients
At any gven oscillation frequency of the generator rotor, the developed electma-?

30

Chapter 2 Modellzng and Revzew of Methods for the Analym of^^^

be divided m to two components, one in phase m t h the machme rotor angle 6, and the
other 1n phase with the m d n e rotor speed w The former is termed as synchronlwng
torque and the latter as dampmg torque An inadequate level of either of these two torque
components may lead to the instability of the rotor oscdlation modes Synchromzmg torque
fi a measure of the internally generated force to restore the madune rotor angle followmg
an arbitrary small displacement of thls angle Instabihty is also indicated by the negative
value of damplng torque at a frequency of oscillation
For performrng an analysls of the dampmg and synchronizmg torques, the overall electromechamcal system can be v~suahzedas shown in Flg 2 8 where AT,, Aw and Ad, are
the incremental maptudes of electrical torque, generator rotor speed and rotor angle respectively The output of electncal system comprising of generator and AC network, is the

Figure 2 8 Block dagram showlng interaction between electncal and mechmcal systems
change m the electncal torque AT, being lnput to the mecha~llcalsystem The output of
the mechmcal system ~sthe change m generator shp whch 1s the input to the electncal
system The effect of the electncal system on the rotor torsional dynamcs can be expressed
m terms of the open-loop transfer function from generator shp S,, to electncal torque Tc
wbch is defined m the frequency domrun as,

where
T&-Dampmg torque due to electncal system
T,,-Synchrommg torque due to electrical system
w- Frequency in radlsec
The mechamcal system d y n w s can be ,pen as below [28]

2 3 Analytzcal Tools for SSR Study

31

where, Km = (-::=(w)~+ K*)and H,, K, and D, are the modal mnertla constant and modal
spring constant and modal damping for the zth torsional mode of frequency w, respect~kely
For the electncal system, the electrical spnng constant K, and damping constant D, can
be calculated as,

ATebw)
Jw
= (Kc -D,)
WB
A 4 (Jw)
When both mecharucal and electrical systems are interconnected, the entire system dynamics are governed by the equation as below [28]

when there 1s no damping (D,


only the following criterion

+ De= O), the frequencies of shaft oscillations must satisfy

Km+ Ke= 0 when w = w,

(2 39)

Slnce K, ~srelatively small, the condition of equation (2 39) is satisfied at a point close
to w, which ~sthe modal frequencies In the case of a resultant damplng (D, D, # 0),
the oscillation frequency d l devlate only msigmficantly from the undamped case If the
resultant damping is positive, then the oscillations will decay Therefore an interaction
between the electncal and mechanical systems occurs only ~f the resultant damping for the
kequencies satisffnng the equation (2 39) is negative [28] and the criterion is gven by

Km+K,="O

and Da+Dc<O

(2 40)

Without the contnbution from electrical system, a torsional system has associated 1~1th
it positive damping due to steam flows, friction, and windage losses which can be lumped
together and termed mechmcal damplng Td, A torsional mode will become unstable
when the electncal damping contribution Td,is negative and exceeds in magnitude Th(the
Inherent mechanical damplng associated w t h the turbme-generator), leading to net damping
torque (To)becomlng negative The ~nstabihtyof the zth torsional mode at frequency w, can
be detemned from the cr~tenon

The above criterion is equvalent to the net decrement factor (a,)satisfymg

where c, an be expressed (with some assumptions) as

When mechanical damplng is zero, equation (2 43) becomes,

The derivation of equation (2 44) is gven in Appenh-A which correlates darnping torque
and real part of eigen~dueof zth torsional mode The equation (2 44) is approximate and
assumes that the oscillation frequency and the sensitivity of the decrement factor is assumed
to be unaffected by the electrical system
Although it is possible to consider the detaded model (2 2) of the generator m the corn
putation of damping torque, it is convement to model the generator with classical model
if the objective is to study
(constant voltage source (E') behlnd a transient reactance (x'))
d y the torsional interactions Ths assumption is equvalent to neglecting Induction Generator Effect (IGE)and does not have a sgnificant effect on the predictlon'of torsional mode
stabihty The stabihty of mode 0 (correspondmg to low frequency oscillations) 1s obviously
dependent on the generator model considered Here, detaded generator model ~sreqwd
1931
The impedance functions of the network as mewed from the generator Internal bus are
of significance and can be expressed with respect to Kron's (D-Q)synchronously rotatlng
frame of reference The electrical torque (AT,) as a funct~onof the change m per mt rotor
speed (AS,) can be derived from the knowledge of the impedance functions
At the generator internal bus, the follomng equation applies (see Appendur-B)
I

The exprewon for d e t e r m u g contribution of dampmg torque coefficient (Tb) by the


external trmmssion network is derived m Appenh-B The expression for damplng torque
sy~chron~mg
torque can be wntten as,

2 9 Analytzcal Tools for SSR Study

33

The damplng torque coefficient Th evaluattd for a particular tors~onalmode frequency


wm can be obtaned by substituting w = wm m equat~on(2 46)
The alternate expression for damping torque in terms of impedance functions on single
phase basis [l]is gwen as,

where ZdL4& and ZwpL+,, are impedance (on slngle phase basis) of network seen at the
generator internal bus for subsynchronous and supersynchronous frequencies respectively
ZsrrbL+,&and Z,,L+,,
are computed as
~ S d L 4 b=
~ bZb(w0

- w)]

= Zb(w0

+ w)]

~,,L$,,

where Z(s) is the impedance function (per phase) viewed from generator internal bus
It should be noted that, the equation (2 50) is apphcable and the equivalence between
equatlon (2 46) and equat~on(2 50) 1s valid when Y D ~ ( J W=) YQQ(jw)and Yog(3w) =
-YQD(3u)when'network contans only passive elements In general, when aetlve FACTS
controllers are also used In the network, YDD(jw)# YQg(3w)and YDQ(jw)# -YQD( 3 ~ and
)
Z(s) is not defined However, an approximate expression for Z(gw) can be obtalned as [I],

2311

Comparison of damping torque with class~cala n d detailed model of


generator

The effect of IGE due to detaled (2 2) generator model on torsional mode stabhty is considered for the system of Fig 2 11 with $ ratio 12 5 The senes capacitor compensation
IS set to 60% of the transrmsslon l~nereactance The variation of damplng torque with the
detaded and classlcd model of generator (whch neglects IGE) as a function of frequency is
shown in Flg 2 9

Chapter z Modellzng and Revzew of M e t h d f o r the Anlrlyszs of SSR


15

10

With 2 2 model
With dasslcal model
- - With class~calmodel corrected for IGE

=I

a-,
3
I-

Figure 2 9 Comparison of damping torques with detaled and classical model of generator
As mentioned earher, the damping torque at low frequencies (w, < 50) is affected by the
generator model However, the peak negative damplng torque occur at the same resonant
frequency (w, = 126 82) for both models The peak value of the negative damping torque
E shghtly hlgher for the detaded generator model due to the negative resistance introduced
by IGE The correction for IGE is possible by a d h g a small negative resistance to the
total resistance of the electncal system T h s value of negatlve resistance c& be accurately
computed by the impedance offered by the generator
The phase impedance (encountered by armature currents) at a frequency w can be corn
puted as [I],

where,

2 3 Analytzcal Tools for SSR Study

35

The resistance Rg and reactance Xg of generator are shown in Fig 2 10 as funct~onsof


frequency (w)

Figure 2 10 Resistance and reactance of 2 2 model of generator


It is seen that, Rg is negative for w < wo Also, X, is a linear function of w ,based on
constant p u reactance ( X I )
For considermg the effect of IGE in classical model, the negative resistance calculated at
the critical frequency is added to the transmssion line resistance as a correction factor At
the operatmg point considered, the torsional mode-2 is unstable and the negative resistance
(due to IGE) is -0 0083 (computed at w, = wo - w, = 377-126 82 = 250 18 rad/sec) The
damping torque analysis with classical model after correcting for IGE (see Fig 2 9) shows
that, the peak negative damping torque is nearly same as that obtaned with 2 2 generator
model Hence the classical model is adequate for fast prediction of the torsional mode
stability as the effect of IGE is not very significant m practical cases
Remarks
1 Although the classical model gves inaccurate results at lower frequencies, at torsional
mode frequencies (lowest in this example 1s 100 rad/sec), the results are reasonably

Chapter 8 Modellzng and Revzew of Methods for the Analysts of $88

36

accurate Although the peak negative damping torque with classical model 1s lesser,
the results are shghtly pessirmstic in the vicmity of the resonance frequency
2 The use of the classical model simpbfies considerably the computation of the darnplng
torque as all the passive elements of the electrical network can be represented by scalar
(smgle-phase) impedances The computation of D-Q admttances at the generator
lnternal bus can also be simplfied uslng network properties For example see Appen&F when UPFC is included as part of the network

Eigenvalue techlvque is based on the mathematical model of the system using a set of
Merentid equations whch are hnearned about an operating point Ths techruque was
used by Fouad et a1 [31] and Bowler et al [32] to study the torsional interactions and to
determme the vanous condtlons whch lead to lnstabllity The elgenvalues are computed by
formulating the hearued state and output equations of the subsystems wblch compnse the
system as given by equations (2 1) and (2 2) The state and output equations of the entlre
system are now represented as

where
[Ad]=Blockchagond [A,]
[Bd]=Block dagonal [B,]
[Cd]=Block chagond [C,]and
[Dd]=Block dagonal [D,]
'1' denotes the subsystem index
X - State vector of the overall system
U - Input vector of the overall system
Y Output vector of the overd system

The equations are then Interfaced through ~nterfacevariables as gven by equation (2 3)


Conbung equations (2 3), (2 55) and (2 56), the total system matnx [A] can be o b t d
85

2 3 Analytecal

Tools for SSR Study

37

and we obtan,

The elgenvalues are the solution of the matrlx equation

and are of the form A, = a, f 3ws, where the red part a, is the decrement factor and
imaginary part w, gives the oscillation frequency If any g, > 0, then the system is unstable
The system is stable with us< 0 for all 'a'
Since eigenvalues are dependent on the operating point, this analysis IS useful for stud3ing
the steady state SSR and used to exanllne the effect of Merent series compensation levels and
system configurations on the damping of torsional modes In addition, eigenvalue analysis
can be used to deslgn controllers for damping torsional modes

2 33

Translent slmulatlon

aansient simulation programs are used to analyze a broad range of problems These programs use a step-by-step numerical integration method to solve the set of differential equations representing the overall system under study The differential equations can be both
h e a r and nodnear T h s techque allows dettllled modelhng of generators, system controllers, smtchmg devlces and vmous types of faults This IS advantageous to use when it is
necessary to accurately model nonhnear devices Since simulation allows detaled modelling
of system tak~nginto account the nonhnearlties which cannot be neglected in the prescnce
of a large disturbance, it IS helpful in studying the translent torque problem d~scussedin
Chapter-1
The Electro Magnetic Banslent Program (EMTP) is one of the mdely used programs for
transient simulation stu&es In EMTP, full three phase model of the system with detaled
models of generator, transm~ssionlines and cables can be represented Smtches and thyristor
smtchings and controls mth complex logc circuitry can also be handled by EMTP EhITP
I

also p e m t s nonlinear modelling of complex system components This can be used to study
the effect of both small dlsturbances as well as large dlsturbances
The transient simulation can also be done by using the MATLAB-SIMULINK [47] Here,
the dfferential equations descnbrng the system can be represented either in state-space form
or in the transfer function form or by representing each lfferential equation as a comblnat~on
of the basic blocks of SIMULINIC such as summer, g a n block and Integrator Nonhnear~ties
can also be modelled and the system response to vmous lnputs can be stuhed

Chapter 2 Modellzng and Revzew of Methods for the Anala,m of $ 8 ~

38

2 4 Case Studies
The system considered 1s adapted from IEEE First Benchmark Model(FBM) [88] and Second
Benchmark model(SBM) [89] The generator, mechanical system and the transrmssion hne
parameters for both the systems under study are gven m Appendur-C

24 1

Case study with

IEEE FBM

The system is represented schematically m Fig 2 11, the data for whch 1s gven in AppenkC It consists of a generator, turbine and series compensated long transmission line The

Figure 2 11 IEEE First Benchmark Model


mecharucal system consists of 6 masses includng hgh pressure (HP), intermehate pressure (IP),low pressureA (LPA),low pressure-B (LPB),generator (GEN), and exclter(EXC)
The modehng aspects of the electromechmcal system comprising the generator modelled
wth 2 2 model, mechmcal system, the excitation system, PSS with torsional filter and the
transrmssion h e are gven m section 2 2
The andym IS camed out on the IEEE FBM based on the follomng lllltial operating
conbtlon and assumptions
1 The generator d&vers 0 9 p u power to the transrmssion system vnth terrmnal voltage

magmtude of 10 p u
2 The lnput mechmcd power to the turbine
turblne governor 1s neglected)

1s

assumed constant ( d y n m c s of the

24

Case Studzes

39

3 The turbine-generator mechan~caldamping is neglected for damping torque anal3 31s


4 Infinite bus voltage is taken as 1LO
2411

Results of damping torque analysis

The damping torque analysis is carr~edout with Xc = 0 50 and Xc = 0 60 The variation


of damplng torque and synchronizing torques for these compensation levels are shown in
Fig 2 12 and Flg 2 13 respectively where the resonant frequencies shown are the cornplements (fo- f,) of the electrical resonant ftequency (f,,)If the complement of electrical resonant frequency (fo - f,,) matches w ~ t hany of the mechanical system natur a1 frequency(f,),
adverse torsional interactions are expected due to electromechanical resonance condition

Flgure 2 12 Variation of damplng torque wth frequency for IEEE FBM


It ISto be noted that, when Xc = 0 60 (here fe,=250 rad/sec), the peak negative damping
occurs at about 127 rad/sec (fo- f,, = 377 - 250 rad/sec) which matches mth mode-2 of
the FBM and adverse torsional interactions are expected However, m t h XC = 0 50 (here
f,=228 rad/sec), peak negative damping occurs at 149 rad/sec (fo -f, = 377-228 radlsec)
and since this network mode is not colncidmg w t h any of the torsional modes, the system is
expected to be stable It is observed that, unth the Increased level of senes compensation, the
peak negative damping increases and causes significant increase in the electncal resonance

Chapter 2 Mdellzng and Revtew of Methods for the Analysis O ~ S ~ R

40

Figure 2 13 Vmation of synchromzing torque with frequency for IEEE FBM

frequency (f,) and decrease m the frequency ( j o- f,) at whch resonance occurs The
synchroming torque 1s mcreased with increased level of compensation It 1s to be noted
that, the frequencies of torslonal modes are practically unaffected by the electncal system
The elgenvalues of the system with classical model of generator, neglecting mechmcal
damping, are evaluated to correlate vvlth the results of damplng torque gven in Flg 2 12
The decrement factor for rth torsional mode 1s computed as CT,=
Where Tdsl
IS the
numerlcd value of damplug torque coefficient computed at the zth torslonal mode frequency
as obtaned mth agenvalue analysls and 'H,'
is the modal Inertia constant for zth mode
The negative dampme; measured 1n terms of the decrement factor (u,)due to the electrical
system also dependent on the modal mertla H , Higher the modal mnertla, lesser d be
the decrement factor for a gwen value of electncal damping torque The cornpanson of
and real part of elgenvalue for 60% mmpensatlon level are gven m Table 2 1

-%

It s observed that, the slmphfied model gves a fsrrly accurate value of the negative
damplng lntmducecl by the network correspondng to the frequency f = fo - f,, where b
~sthe

s e m resonance frequency RRfernng to Table 2 1, it should be noted that there a


good correlhon lxtween the damping torque coefficient and real part of eqpi!nvalue

24

41

Case Studzes

Table 2 1 Damping torque with admittance function in D-Q axes for Xc=O 60

I Sl I Torsional I
I No I

2412

mode

Td.

I
1

0, =

-*I

Real part of
I Eigenvalue (

Elgenvalue analysis

In this analysis, the turbinegenerator mechanical damping 1s considered and gcnerator is


modelled with 2 2 model (as indicated in section 2 3 2) The entire electromechanical system
is hnearued about an operating point and the eigenvalues of the system matrur [A] are given
in Table 2 2 It should be noted that, when Xc = 0 60, the subsynchronous netnork mode
((wo - w), is the complement of the network series resonance frequency) coincides with the
torsional frequency of mode-2 and adverse torsional interactions are expected Thus the
results obtained by eigenvalue analysis are in agreement with that obtamed by the damping
torque method
The followmg observations can be made with reference to Table 2 2
1 The frequency and damping of the smng mode (mode-0) increases mth the level of
series compensation
2 As the complement of network resonance frequency reduces, m t h hgher compensation
levels, it can be s a d that the lower torsional modes are most effected as the senes compensation is increased The damping of mode-1 is reduced and mode-2 is destabilized
with Increase of compensation from Xc = 0 50 to Xc = 0 60

3 The damping of higher torsional modes 3 and 4 is marginally mcreased with increase
of compensation
4 Mode-5 is not affected with change in series compensation as its modal inertia is very

hgh

5 It is observed that, the damping of subsynchronous network mode is increased with


Xc = 0 60 than Xc = 0 50 However, this fact may not be always true as the eigenvalue

Chapter 2 Modelhng and Reflew of itlethods for the Analysts of $88-

42

Table 22 Eigenvalues of the entire system for IEEE FBM

With

Mode

-12528fj

4
5

-0 3637f j202 7900


-1 8504fj298 1700
-1 6108fJ 149 1200

Network mode
(subsynchronous, w~ - w,)
Network mode
(supersynchronous, wo w,)

Exciter mode
0ther modes
Voltage Measurement
PSS
PSS
Torsional filter
Gen
Gen
Gen

With X, = 060

X, = 0 50

81336 -17367fj

1 -2 9688f

89280

-0 3646 f 3 202 8200


-1 8504f 3 298 1700
-1 9029f'j 126 9500

I
j6050300

1 -2 9806f3 62679001

-21 0700fj 25 8080 -21 7900f3 25 0460

24

43

Case Studtes

of subsynchronous network mode with Xc = 0 45 is found to be -3 2364 I f glGO 57


and with Xc = 0 65 it is computed as -0 92295 f 3116 53 In general, the damping of
subsynchronous mode can decrease with the higher level of senes compensation The
damping of supersyncl~ronousnetwork mode is margnally Increased with higher level
of series compensation
2 4 1 3 Transient slmulation

The transient slmulation of the comblned electromechanical system has been carr~edout
using MATLAB-SIMULINK [47] The simulation results for 10% decrease in the input
mechmcal torque apphed at 0 5 sec and removed at 1 sec mth Xc = 0 50 are s h o ~ nIn
Figs 2 14 and 2 15 and with Xc = 0 60 are shown in Figs 2 16 and 2 17
90

75
0

10

Time (sec)
I

Time (sec)

Figure 2 14 Vaxiation of rotor angle and LPA-LPB sect~ontorque for pulse change in ~nput
mechmcal torque (Xc= 0 50)
It is clear from the Figs 2 14 - 2 17 that, the system is stable mth Xc = 0 50 and
unstable m t h Xc = 0 60 The FFT andysrs of the LPA-LPB section torque IS performed
between 3-7 sec wlth the time spread of 1 sec mth Xc = 0 60 The results of FFT analysis
IS shown m Flg 2 18 M e m g to Fig 2 18, it 1s obsenred that in the time span of 3-4 sec,
the mode-1 component is higher compared to mode-2 component As the time progresses,
mode-2 component Increases whlle all other tors~onalmode components decay

Chapter 2 Modellzng and Revtew of Methods for the A n a l y s ~of

44

Time (sec)
105

-42"

0950

10

T~me(see)

Figure 2 15 Vanation of electncal torque and generator terrmnal voltagd for pulse change
m lllput mechwcal torque(Xc = 0 50)

hgure 2 16 Vmatlon of rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulse change in input
mechazvcal torque (Xe= 0 60)

24

45

Case Studzes

Figure 2 17 Variation of electrical torque and generator terrmnal voltage for pulse change
m Input mechmcal torque(Xc = 0 60)

50

100

150

200

Frequency ( W s e c )

Freqwncy (radlsrc)

250

300

50

100 150 200 250


Frequency (radlsec)

F-efh?

300

(ma-)

Figure 2 18 FFT analysis of LPA-LPB section torque (Xc= 0 60)

chapter 2 Modellrng and Remew of Methods for the Analyw of ~ S A

46

The decrement factor r~ of mode2 calculated from FF'T andysls is found to be 0 6561
and is comparable to the real part of eigenvalue (06658) mrres~ondlngto mode2
a
Table 2 2 and in agreement wrth eigenvalue results

242

Case study with IEEE SBM

The system considered here is adopted from IEEE SBM (the data for whch is ~ v e n
Appendx-C) and represented schematlcdy in Flg 2 19

'28

@k

E,

L!?

7
%s

(b)Fom mass m c W d ryllrm

Figure 2 19 IEEE Second Benchmark Model


It conslsts of a generator, turblne and parallel trmsmssion hnes one of whch is com
pensated The mechmcal system consists of 4 masses including hwh pressure (HP), low
pressure (LP), generator(GEN), and exciter(EXC)
The analysis is carried out based on the follomng i m t d operating con&tion and assump
t1ons

1 The generator dehvers 0 9 p u power to the trmsmssion system anth t m n a l voltage


maptude of 10 p u
2 The ~nputmechazllcal power to the turbine is assumed constant (dynams of the
turblne governor E neglected)

3 The twblne-generator mechamcal damping is neglected for damplng torque a n a l p


4 Tnfinlte bus voltage ~staken as 1fO

24

47

Case Studzes

2421

Results of damping torque analys~s

Damping torque analysis is carried out with Xc = 0 1920 and Xc = 0 2496 The variation
of damping torque and synchronizing torques for these compensation levels are sho~vnin
Fig 2 20 and Fig 2 21 respectively

Figure 2 20 Vanation of damping torque with frequency for IEEE SBM

It is to be noted that, %hen Xc = 0 1920, the peak negatlve damping occurs at about
182 rad/sec and since this subsynchronous network mode is not coinciding mth anv of
the torsional modes, the system is expected to be stable However, with Xc = 0 2496, peak
negative damping occurs at 155 rad/sec whch matches with mode-1 of the SBM and adverse
torsional interactions are expected
The eigenvalues of the system with classical model of generator, neglecting mechanical
damping, are evaluated to correlate with the results of damprng torque and are grven in
Where
Fig 2 20 The decrement factor for zth torsional mode is computed as a, =
Tder
is the numencal value of damping torque coefficient computed at the zth torsional mode
is the modal inertia constant for
frequency as obtained mth eigenvalue analysis and 'H,'

-&

zth mode The comparison of a, and real part of eigenvalue for Xc = 0 2496 are gven in
Table 2 3
Refmng to Table 2 3, ~t should be noted that there is a good correlation between the
damping torque coefficient and real part of eigenvalue

48

Chapter 2 Modellzng and Revtew of Methods for the AnaZgw of SSR

a, (rad/s=)

Figure 2 21 Vanation of synchron~mgtorque w t h frequency for IEEE SBM

Table 2 3 Damplug torque with adrmttance functlon m D-Q axes for Xc=O 2496

I = -& I Real part of]


--

(ST~
Torsloq
I No I mode I

Eigenvalue

24

Case Stuclzes

49

In this analysis, the turbine-generator mechanical dampiilg is considered and generator is


modelled with 2 2 model (as indicated 111 section 2 3 2) The entire electromechanical system
is hnearized about an operati~~g
poltit and the eigenvalues of the system matrur [A] are g vcn
in Table 2 4 The follomng observdtions can be made with reference to Table 2 4
Table 2 4 Eigerivalues of the entire system for IEEC SBM
With X , = 0 2496
-2 4433 f 3 6 9784

With X , = 0 1920
-2 3144 f 3 7 0020
-0 0471 f3 155 2000

-0 0423 f3 203 4300

-0 0532 f3 203 4400

-0 0496 f 3 321 1800

-0 0496 f3 321 1800

Network mode
(subsynchronous, wo - w,)
Network mode
(supersynchrox~ous,wo we)
Exclter mode
0t her modes
Nct~vork
Voltage measurement
PSS
PSS
Torsional filter
Gen
Gen
Gen

-15 1840 fJ 182 2400

-15 2440 f3 154 9300

-15 5950 fJ 571 6200

-15 6070 fJ 599 1000

-2 6816 f3 28 4000

-2 4288 & 3 28 4930

Mode
0

0 1933 f3 155 0200

-21 7510 k J 376 8700 -21 7440 f J 376 8700


-499 1800

-499 1400

-104 2600

-104 2900

-0 1004

-0 1004

-38 7700 f3 42 2920

-39 0350 f3 42 3120

-31 5190

-31 5080

-13 8220

-13 8350

-4 3219

-4 3381

1 As mentioned earher, whenever the subsynchronous network mode frequency is close to

one of the torsional modes, the correspondingtorsional mode (mode-1 wlth Xc=O 2496)
~sdestablhzed
2 The damping of torsional mode 2 is margnally increased mth increase of compensation

Chapter 2 Modelkng and Revlew of Me*ods for Wnaluscs


of $8

50
3 Mode4
high

~snot

affected with change in series compensation as its modal ~nertiais very

4 The damplng of the swlng mode (mode-0) increases mth the level of series compensa,

tion whereas m t h ~ scase the frequency of mode-0 is margindy reduced


5 The frequency of subsynchronous network mode

~sreduced

with increase m serres


compensation The damping of both subsynchronous and supersynchronous modes
is marglndy Increased with the series compensation level Whereas, the darnplng
of subsynchronous network mode w t h Xc=O 036 is obtaned as -15 286 f 9320 84
T b s urhcates that, m general, the dampmg of subsynchronous network mode changes
~nargdly
mth hgher level of serles compensation for SBM model

The transient simulation of the combined electromechanical system has been carned out
using MATLAB-SIMULINK [473 The simulation results for 10% decrease in the input
mechucal torque apphed at 0 5 sec and removed at 1 sec with Xc = 0 1920 are shown m
Figs 2 22 and 2 23 and with Xc = 0 2496 are shown m Figs 2 24 and 2 25

5
6
Tlme (sec)

10

Feure 2 22 Vanation of rotor angle and LP-GEN section torque for pulse change m m p p t
mecharucal torque (XC= 0 1920)

2#

Case Studzes

51

l i m e (sac)

Time (sec)

10

Figure 2 23 Variation of electncal torque and generator terrmnal voltage for pulse change
in input mechan~caltorque(Sc = 0 1920)

:
650

Time5 (sac) 6

10

lime (sec)

Figure 2 24 Variation of rotor angle and


mechmcal torque (Xc= 0 2496)

LP-GENsection torque for pulse change in input

Chapter 2 Modellzng and Revaew of M e t h d for the Analyszs of SSR

52

a
a 095-

I-='

gos7

L-

: .O:

075

Time (sec)

5
6
Time (see)

10

I
i0

Figure 2 25 Variation of electrical torque and generator termnal voltage for pulse change
m ~nputmechmcal torque(Xc = 0 2496)
It is observed that, the system is unstable with Xc = 0 2496 The FFT analysis of the
LP-GEN section torque is performed between 3-7 sec with the time spread of 1 sec wth
Xc = 0 2496 The results of FFT analysis is shown m Fig 2 26 Referring to Fig 2 26, it 11
observed that as the time progresses, mode-1 component increases whle all other torsional
mode components decay The decrement factor a of mode-1 calculated from ,FFT analysls ~s
found to be 0 1975 and is comparable to the real part of eigenvalue (0 1933) correspondmg
to mode-1 given m Table 2 4 and in agreement with eigenvalue results

In t h s chapter, the modelling of w o u s power system components are descnbed m detail


The vmous methods for the analysis of SSR phenomenon in series compensated systems
are outhned The analysis of SSR is investigated with the test systems adapted from IEEE
FBM and SBM
The tools used to study the character~sticsof transrmssion line compensated by sene4
capac~torare,
1 Damplng and synchrolllvng torque analysis with classical model of generator

Frequency (radlsec)

Frequency (radlsec)
0

$015.

43

5-6 8ec

0,.

$015-

-'58

005

0 - .
50

02

.
6-7

.
S%

01.

200s.

100 150 2M) 250 300 350


Frequency (radlsec)

"
50

"
100 150 200 250 300 350
Frequency (radlsec)

F~gure2 26 FFT analysis of LP-GEN sect~ontorque (Xc= 0 2496)


2 Elgenvalue analysis of the overall system with 2 2 model of generator

3 Transient simulation studies of the overall system for a pulse change In Input mechanical
torque

The prehctions about the torsional mode stability by all the three methods show good
agreement The damping torque analysis 1s computatlonally fast and accurately predict
the torsional mode stabihty but ~t does not give the idea of stability of the entire system
The e~genvalueanalysls gves the stabihty information of the entire system The translent
simulation of the nonlinear system for a small disturbance IS used to d i d a t e the results
obtained by eigenvalue analysls

Chapter 3

Analysis of SSR and Design of


SubSynchronous Damping Controller
with STATCOM
3 1 Introduction
A long transmission line needs senes as well as shunt cornpensation This can be achleved
by suitable combination of passlve elements and act~veFACTS controllers Here we cons~der
senes passive compensat~onand shunt active compensation provided by STATCOM
STATCOM [73] is a second generation FACTS controller used for reactwe power compensatlon It is based on Voltage Source Converters (VSCs) and uses self commutatlng
power semiconductor devices such as GTOs and IGBTs A 6 pulse 2- level STATCOM 1s
shown in Fig 3 1 The six pulse STATCOM has substantial harmonics in the output voltage
The h m o m c s can be reduced by various PWM switching strateges Alternatively, the 12pulse operation of 2-level STATCOM eliminates 5th and Fh harmonics When STATCOM
is reahzed by 12-pulse 3-level converter, lt is possible to obtan a operating cond~tioni s here
the 12-pulse thrce level converter uorks nearly like a 24 pulse converter and the harrnon~c
components are reduced substantially
The steady state representation of STATCOM 1s shown in Flg 3 2 The primary control
UI the STATCOM is reactive current control Since the reactlve current In a STATCOM
depends on the system parameters also, a closed loop control 1s essential The reactive current
reference of the STATCOM can be kept constant or regulated to control the bus voltage
magrutude constant m which case a voltage controller sets the rcclctlve current reference and
forms an outer loop
The man work carried In t h s chapter is the analysis and simulation of a selies wmpcnsated system with STATCOM connected at the elcctr~calcenter of the transmssion llne
The objective IS to ~nvestigatethe SSR characteristic of the combined system and suggest

56Chapter 8 Analvszs of SSR and Destgn of SzlbSpnchronous Dampang Controller vzth STATCO~

a possible SSR countermeasure by provlmng a subsynehronous damping controller (SSDC)


whlch uses local signals
In this chapter, we investigate,
1 Mathematical m o d e h g of

STATCOM for transient simulation and analysis based on

two and three level VSCs


2 Investigation of SSR charactenstics of the combined system uslng damping torque
method, eigendue analysis and transient simulation
3 Design of subsynchronous damping controller (SSDC) for damping SSR

32

Modelling of two level converter based STATCOM

A 6 pulse 2-level STATCOM is shown in Fig 3 1 R, and X, are the resistance and leakage
reactance of the converter transformer respectively

Figure 3 1 6 pulse Zlevel STATCOM

3 2 1 Baslc equations [94]


The followmg assumpt~onsare made
1 The devices are assumed to be ideal santches (lossless)
2 The bottom devlce of the converter leg turns on irnme&ately after the top device.

turned offand vlce-versa In practice a small delay is pronded to prevent both smth
of a leg belug on at the same time

3 2 Modellzng of two level converter based STATCOM

57

Figure 3 2 Phasor diagram and steady state representation


The differential equations for the STATCOM are

where v:,, vib,v,: are the converter output phase voltages with respect to neutral and W B
is the base frequency v,,, vsb, v,, are the STATCOM b ~ phase
s
voltages with respect to
neutral The line to IIne converter output voltages are gnen by the following equation

where v&, viN and vtN are the converter output phase voltages with respect to the DC side
rmdpomt ua = +1 If devlce 1 is on and u, = -1 ~f devlce 4 is on ub and u, are defined
slmlarly The swltchng functions u,, ub and uc along with the fundamental components of
are shown in Fig 3 3 w, is the
the phase voltages a t the STATCOM bus (vml,v,bl, vSC1)
operatmg frequency 8, is the angle of the STATCOM bus voltage neglecting harmon~cs ar
is the angle by whch the fundamentd component of the converter output voltage leads the
fundamental component of STATCOM bus voltage The converter output phase voltages

56Cl~apter
3 A n a l p s of SSR and Dengn of SubSwchmnom Dam~rnpCo~hollerunth STATCO~

a possible SSR countermeasure by providing a subsynchronous damping controller (SSDC)


whlch uses local signals
In thrs chapter, we investgate,
1 Mathematical modelling of

STATCOM for transient simulation and analysis based on

two and three level VSCs


2 Investigation of

SSR chanrcteristlcs of the combined system uslng damping torqu

method, agenvalue analysis and transient simulation


3 Design of subsynchronous damping eontroller (SSDC) for damping SSR

3 2 Modelhng of two level converter based STATCOM


A 6 pulse 2-level STATCOM is shown in Fig 3 1 R8 and X, are the resistance and leakage
reactance of the converter transformer respectively

figure 3 1 6 pulse 2-level STATCOM

The followulg assumptions are made


1 The dences are assumed to be ideal santches (lossless)

2 The bottom dence of the converter leg turns on imme&ately after the top devm
turned offand nce-versa In practice a small delay is provlded to prevent both smtche8
of a leg bemg on at the same time

8 2 Modellzng of two level converter based STATCOM

57

Figure 3 2 Phasor diagram and steady state representation


The differential equations for the STATCOM are

are the converter output phase voltages with respect to neutral and w~
where via, viblv : ~
is the base frequency us,, us*,us, are the STATCOM b ~ phase
s
voltages wth respect to
neutral The llne to hne converter output voltages are gven by the following equat~on

where v h , viN and v b are the converter output phase voltages with respect to the DC side
mdpomt u, = +1 If devlce 1 is on and u, = -1 if device 4 is on ub and uc are defined
simlarly The switchmg functions u,, ub and u, along with the fundamental components of
the phase voltages at the STATCOM bus (vSaljvsbl, vscl)are shown in Fig 3 3 w, is the
operating frequency 13, is the angle of the STATCOM bus voltage neglecting harmonics a
Is the angle by whch the fundamental component of the ~on\~crter
output voltage leads the
fundamental component of STATCOM bus volt age The converter output phase volt ages

58ChDpfer3 Annlprs oJ SSR and Deszgn of SubSynchmno~Dampan9 Controller unth STATQOU

Figure 3 3 S m t b g functions u., ub,uc for 2-level &pulse STATCOM

3 2 Modellzng of two level concerter based STATCOM

59

wlth respect to neutral are gven by the following equation

where Sa2, S b 2 and Sd are switching functions for a 2-level 6-pulse VSC as shown in F I 3~ 4
Since the smtches are assumed to be ideal,

From equations (3 6) and (3 7), the following equation is obtained

The smtchmng instants are obtained by phase locked loop (PLL) shown in Fig 3 5 [95]
The phase locked loop generates 6 sawtooth waveforms sl to se for the six switches as shown
m Fig 3 6 The firing pulses for device 1 (to turn on) are generated at instants Tsl when sl
is increasmg and sl -t a! = 0 while device 4 is turned off The firing pulses for device 4 (to
turn on) are generated at instants Ts4when s4 is increasing and sq + a = 0 while devlce 1is
turned off The firing pulses for the other swltches are generated similarly
The sw~tchngfunctions for 6 pulse converter have odd harmonics excluding tnplen harmomcs Harmolvcs of the order 12k - 7 and 12k - 5, k=l, 2,3, can be ehmnated by usmg
a 12 pulse converter whch combines the output of two 6 pulse converters uslng transformers
as shown m Fig 3 7 The switching functions for a 12 pulse converter are gven by

are the smtchmg functions for the two 6 pulse convertwhere Sd, Saz,Seaand sA2
si2,
,
ers These are related (in steady state) by the relation

where x = a, b and c

q (deg
F~lgue3 4 Switbng funetlons Sa,Sm,So for a 2-level 6-pulse VSC

3 2 Modellzng of two level converter based STATCOM

61

'0

,o A

--

e
le

-I-

--I-

-,

.1

b*

>*

ah

t t t

>8

a*

P,

Figure 3 5 Phase locked loop for a two level VSC

62Chnpter
3 Analysts of SSR and Desyn of SubSynchmnous Damptng controller wth STATCOU

@,t
(deg
Rgure 3 6 Generation of h n g pulses for a two level VSC

3 2 Modellzng of two level converter based STATGIOM

63

Figure 3 7 Arrangement of transformers for a 12 pulse STATCOM

322

Equations m D-Qreference frame

Neglecting harmomcs, the STATCOM bus phase voltages are gven by

where,
V, 1s the hne to hne RMS voltage and
8, is the angle of the STATCOM bus voltage
If the smtching functions are approximated by thelr fundamental components (neglectmg
hmonlcs) for a 12-pulse two level converters, we get

6jChapter 8 Analgsu of SSR and Deszgn ofSubSpch~nowDampang C'onmllfr unth flTATc04

The dc current is given by

The converter output voltages in D-Q Irame (viD and viQ) are obtruned by Kron's t r a
formation [19] gven below

The zero sequence component vlo is neglected as lt is zero for balanced operation The
currents z,, 2&, 2, and the voltages v,,, v8b and v,,are transformed to ZSD,,OSQ and V ~ D ,U,Q
m a sirmlar manner
The follomg equations m the D-Qvariables can be gven for describing STATCOM
i

where
viQ = k

COS(O! OB)
k=
for 12 pulse converter
8, = tan1 a=angle of STATCOM bus voltage,
"4
V.=
maptude of STATCOM bus voltage
U&

421-=

In terms of DQ components, the equation (3 7) can be expressed as,

substltutmg for qD and gD we get,

J 3

Modellzng of three level converter based STATCOM

65

The h a 1 state equations in the D-& variables for a Zlevel VSC based STATCOM are given
by the follomng equations

33

Modell~ngof three level converter based STAT-

COM
A 6 pulse &level STATCOM is shown in Fig 3 8 R, and X, are the resistance and leakage
reactance of the converter trasformer respectively

Figure 3 8 6 pulse 3-level STATCOM

The differential equations (3 1-3 4) given for the 2-level STATCOM are also vahd for the
%level STATCOM
In three level bridge, there are 4 devlces per each phase-leg Let us consider phase leg
for phase 'a' Each half of the phase-leg 'a' is split lnto two series connected valves (for
example, 1 - 1' of two level converter is split m to 1 - I' and 1 A - 1 ~ 'and so on) The
mdpomt of the spht valves is connected by diodes Dland D4 to mdpoint 'N' on the DC

66Chapter 3 Analysts of SSR and Dengn of SubSynchmnow Damprng Contrdler wth STATCO~

side When the devlces 1 and 1A are conductq the phase 'a' wltage with respect to DC
rmdpolnt (N' 1s whle dences 4 and 4A are not conducting When the devlces 4 and 4 .
are conducting the phase 'a' voltage with respect to DC mdpo~nt'N' is
whde donees
1 and 1A are not conductlng Sirmlar sequence of conduction of devlces is apphcable to
other two phase-legs The DC voltage a zero when lA, 4A, are conducting along mth
clamping &odes D l and D4 With three level VSC configuration, the phase potentids
be modulated between three levels instead of two 1 e ,each phase leg can be connected to the
positive dc termal, the midpoint on the dc side or the negative dc t e m n a l by s m t m
various devices appropnately
The converter terrmnd voltages w r t DC rmdpolnt 'N' can be expressed as

The s m t h g function Pa(t)


for phase 'a' is shown m Fig 3 9 Pa= +1 lf devlce 1 & 1A
are conductlng (whlle 4 & 4A are not conducting) Pa = 0 when 1A & 4A are conductlng
along mth the clamping &odes Dland Dqwhlle 1 & 4 are not conductlng Pa = -1 If
devlce 4 & 4A are conducting (whle devlces 1 & 1A are not conductmg) The smtchmg
functionsof phase b and c are simrlar but phase shfted successively by 120" m terms of the
fundamental iiequency
The converter terminal voltages with respect to the neutral of transformer can be ex
pressed as,

&+)'(a'[
-kPc
where, Sa(&)=
E0
(
Sa(t)1s the mtchvng function for phase 'a' of a 6-pulse blevel VSC and v h is the dc side
capacitor voltage Sirmh1y for phase 'b', Sb(t) and for phase 'c', Sc(t)can be denved The

)I

peak value of the f u n h t d and hmomrs m the phase voltage


Fhmr ~ Y S on
B the phase voltage and arn be expressed as,

are found by applyrng

3 9 Modelkng of three level converter based STATCOM

Flgure 3 9 S m t h g function for a three level converter

67

6BChapter 9 Analyw of SSR and Design of s u b s p c h m ~


Dam~mg~ ~ n Munth
e rSTATCOU

Where, h=1,5,7,11,13 and P is the dead angle ( s e Flg 3 9) The time penod m a cycle
during whlch the converter pole output voltage is zero, 1s
Since the switches are assumed to be ideal,

Rom equations (3 29) and (3 31), the following equation 1s obtslned

The swithng functions for 6 pulse converter have odd harmonics wcludmg tnplen har
moms Harmoncs of the order 12k - 7 and 12k - 5, k=l, 2,3, can be ehrcunated by uslug
a 12 pulse converter whlch combines the output of two 6 pulse converters using transformers
as shown m Fig 3 7
The switching functions for a 3-level 12-pulse converter are gven by,

where S,, Sb,S, and S',, 6,S: are the swlthng functions for the two 6 pulse converters
These are related (m steady state) by the reIation

where x = a, b and c
If the switchmg functions are apprmmated by thew fundamental components (neglect%
harmomcs) for a lapulse three level converters, we get

and vh, 21:, are phase shfted successively by 120


For a three level converter, the santdung mtants are obtaned by phase locked IMP
whch a a m o M d version of that gven m section 3 2 and shown m Fig 3 10 Here the
phase locked loop generates 3 sawtooth waveforms (hom -180 to 180 m t h positive slope)
SQ, sa,s
s s u e d 120'' with respect to each other and 3 more sawtooth waveforms (from

180" to -180' with negative slope) sa,SQ, and so shfted 120 m t h respect to each other

8 3 Modellzng of three level converter based STATCOhf

69

'IOChapter 8 Ancrlgsas of SSR and Deszgn of S u b S y l . c h m 0 ~Darnpzn9 Controller vnth STATCOM

F w 3 11 Generat~onof firing pulses for a three level VSC

8 9 Modellrng of three level converter based STATCOM

71

These sawtooth waveforms are used to generate switching instants for vanous devices of 3
level
converter as shown in Fig 3 11 and described below
Consider the phase-leg of phase 'a' and the devlce 1A and 4A are conducting (instant
T ~ The
~ ) firingpulses for turning on device 1 and turning off device 4A are generated u hen
In 1s increasing and ~ 1 3 (a - 8 ) = 0 (instant Tai) The devlce 1 is turned off and 44 is
turned 'on' when 543 1s decreasing and ~ 4 3 ( a 8) = 0 (instant Ta2,where clamping diodes
~1 and D4 clamp the co~lverteroutput voltage to zero) The firing pulses for turnlng on
demce 4 and turning off device 1A are generated when s43 is decreasing and s43 - (a- P ) = 0
(rnstmt Td) The devlce 4 is turned off while devlce 1A is turned on when s13 1s increasing
and s13+ (a+ P ) = 0 (instant Tko) This sequence 1s repeated cyclically The firing pulses
for the devlces of other phase-leg a e generated similarly The Table 3 1 summarizes the
s.tmt&ng lustants and sequence of conduction of devlces for various phase-legs In drawing
Fig 3 11, it is assumed that ,f3 > cu

Table 3 1 Switchina instants for various devlces


Phase-leg 'by
Phase-leg 'c'
Phase-leg 'a'
Instant Devlces Devices Instant Devlces Dences Instant Devlces Devlccs
'OFF'
'ON'
'ON'
'OFF'
'ON'
'OFF'
1A,4A
Td
TbO 3A, 6A
1,4
3, 6
Td 5A,2A 5 , 2
4Aj 4
lA, 1
3A, 3
6A, 6
2A, 2
5A, 5
Tal
Tbl
Tcl
3A, 6A
Ta2 1A, 4A
Tb-2
Tc2 5A, 2A
1, 4
3, 6
5, 2
4,4A
1, 1A
6,6A
3,3A
2,2A
5,5A
Td
Tb3
T&
r

3 3 2 Equations in D-Q reference frame


The STATCOM bus phase voltages are gven by equations (3 13-3 15)
If the smtch~ngfunctions are approxmated by thelr fundamental components (neglecting
harmonics) for a 12-pulse three level converters, we get

v:,

4
v&
7r
4

v : ~ = - V& cos(P)sin
7r

v:,

+ + 0,)
wot + a + 0, - wot + a + 0, + -

cos(p) sin(wot a

-7r4 vh cos(8) sin

(3 38)

(3 39)
(3 40)

The dc current is given


by
,2

+ + + isban + + 6. - 2)
sin wot + u + 8. + 7
(
2T)1

--4 c o s l ~,z[)
7r

+z,

sm(wot a 0.)

(WJ

(3 41)
The converter output voltages in D-Q frame (viD and vlQ) are obtamed by Kron's transfor
mat on [I91 given by equation 3 20
The followmg equations in the D-Qvanables can be gven for describing STATCOM

where
viD= k$ v k sm(a ds)
v,: = Kha cos(a 8.)
k$ = kms@) and k =
for 12 pulse converter
8, = b1
-= a q l e of STATCOM bus voltage,
K=
+ vs4- maptude of STATCOM bus voltage
==
=
magrutude of converter output voltage
In terms of D-Q components, the equation (3 32) can be expressed as,

+
+

,/+-

substituting for v:D and viD we get

The final state equatlons in the D-Q vanables for a three level STATCOM are gven by
the following equatlons

The equations 3 47 to 3 49 are s1rm1a.r to equations 3 26 to 3 28 except that constant k


replaced by the modulat~onindex
It should be noted that, the modulat~onmdda
vanes with fl whch IS a control vaslable

73

g 3 Modellang of three level converter based STATCOM

The harmonics in the current ln~ectedby LY'I'ATCOM can bc minimized by increasing the
number(by suitable comblnatlons of the transformers) with two level converters However, ~11th3 level converters, the dead angle P can be selected (m steady state) to eliminate
my particular harmoilic

A particular harmonic reaches zero, when 28 =


where h 1s the harmonic number
Whei~ = 7 5', l l t hand 13'~hamomcs are negligibly small w t h 12- pulse 3-lwei converters,
and this configuration of converters behaves nearly like a 24-pulse operation The convrrter
voltage and current waveforms with 2-level and 3-level converter based STATCOMs (data
gven in Appendix-C) are shown in Figs 3 12 and 3 13 respectitely

-1 51

0 385

0 39

0 395

04

0 405

0 41

0 415

Time (see)

Figure 3 12 Coriverter voltclgc and currents with 2-level 12-pulse STATCOM

The Total Harmonlc Distortion (THD) in current with Zlevel, 12-pube ~'IATCOM1s
found to be 19 79% whereas w ~ t h3-level, 12-pulse STATCOM (P = 7 5O) it 1s only 5 Cl94%
It a possible to reduce the harmonics further w t h a combination of two 12-p&e 3-level
mn~rtersto a h e v e nearly 48 pulse operation

74Chopter 3 Analysts of SSR and Deszgn of SubSynchmmw D ~ ~ P


Gmtroller
W
~ t STATCOU
h -

'
1

-1 5

0 385

0 39

0 395

04

0 405

0 41

0415

lime (sec)

Flogre 3 13 Converter voltage and currents with 3-level 12-pulse STATCOM (0 = 7 5")

3 4 Controller structures for STATCOM


The pnmary control loop for a STATCOM E the reactive current loop Closed loop control
ISnecessary as the reactive current depends not only on the control parameters(kg and a)
but also on the system voltage magnitude V , and angle 8, Schauder et a1 [71]define two

types of control structures for STATCOM

3 4 1 Type-1 controller
It is des~rableto vary the magmtude of ac output voltage of the converter mthout c h w
the magmtude of the dc voltage When dc voltage is regulated at a predetemed value,
the control of ac voltage ~spossible by pulse mdth modulation (PWM) The three level
~onvertertopology can aclueve the goal by varylng the dead angle fl [96] In t h controller,
both magmtude and angle of the converter output voltage are vaned to control real a d
reactrve current [71] The real current drawn by the VSC is controlled by phase angle ff and
the reactwe current by controbg the converter output voltage magmtude as a function ofb'

(c= k

&dc)

m
s type of controller ISrequved when actwe power exchange is de~lred

The real nurent 1s controlled to rnmuntrun the capacitor voltage constant The reh1E
current rderenm can be ather set constant or controlled to regulate the bus voltage The

9 4 Controller structures for STATCOM

75

,,troller

structure of type-1 controller is shown in Fig 3 14


from cont~olview point, it 1s convenient to define active ( z p ) and react~re(zn) currents

dram from the STATCOM as

z p = V S D ~ S D V S Q ~ ~=QZ S D sin 0,
V,

Z R=

+ zag cos 0,

V s ~ Z s ~
VWQZSD

= -zS0 cos 0,

vs

(3 50)

+ zag sin 8,

The reactive current Z R 1s positlve when S7'ATCOM is operating in the inductive region and
negative when STATCOM 1s operating in the capacitive regon The active current t p is
positive when STATCOM draws active power from the system
For control of shunt current, we proceed in a way simlar to the one outhned in references [71, 941 as described below
The denvatlve of zn can be expressed as
dos dzsQ
~ Z S D
~ Z R- Z,Q cos OSsin 8, z , sin
~ 8, - - -cos 9,
dt
dt
dt
dt
dt
dOs
RSWB
= Ip+ 5111 0, --xs %sQ t W o z s ~ + - Wx( vsBs Q - u l Q ) ]
dt

--R ~ WznB+ W ' Z +~ 2 [ - v : ~sin 0. + viDcos 01.

xs

xs

As

As

The denvatlve of z p can be expressed as


P -

dt

Z,D
-2,-

d o s sin 8, d z s ~dOs dzsg


cos 0, zsg
sin
0,
cos OS
dt
dt
dt
dt
do,
WB
sin 0.
W ~ Z ~ Q (vsD - v:
dt
xs

&WB
+ cOs0s [--%a
xs

RSWB
= -Z P - W'ZR

xr,

W0Z.D

+WB
xs

WB
+ -(us*
xs
sin 0, +

-Q ) ]
VsQ cos 8,

- viDsin 8, - vig cos 0,)

where W' = w. %, V. =-/,


and Vp and VRare the in-phase and quadrature
components of converter output, voltage V,t wlth respect to STATCOM bus voltage N hlch
defined as

7 6 C h a p t ~3 Anolyns of SSR and Desagn of SubSynchmnow Damprno Conholler unth STATCOII

If we control the converter output voltages as,

Substituting these in equations (3 52) and (3 53), the Merentla1 equations g o v e w zR and
zp

are decoupled as follows

UR

and up are chosen as follows

where

Type1 controller 1s shown in Fig 3 14, where Kp2= gK;2, K4 = L


K A , Kfl = &
WB
and Kd = LK:
WB
In Fg 3 14, a and P are calculated as

~b

3 4 2 Type-:! controller
Wlth a 2-level VSC, Type-1 control reqmes PWM When the PWM techniques are to

be avolded m the mterest of reducing smtchmg losses, the reactlve current control
be
achleved by ~asylnga! alone In t h ~ scontroller, the modulation Index k ~sconstant and
depends on the converter suntchrng pattern The reactwe current control IS a h w e d
phase ~b control
The capacitor voltage is not regulated but depends upon the P-

3 4 Controller stnrctures f o r STATCOM

Figure 3 14 Type-1 Controller for 3-level VSC based STATCOM

Figure 3 15 Type-2 Controller for 2-level VSC based STATCOM

77

78Chapter 3 A~alyacof SSR and Desagn of SrrbSyrehmnous Dampzng Contmller unth STATCOM

Merence between the converter output voltage and the bus voltage (very small, about 1
degree) The capacitor voltage vanes over a small range w t h change m operatlng pant
The controller block hagram is shown m Flg 3 15 XC, ~=1,2,3and 4, are the Type-2
controller state variables

35

Case Study with Two Level VSC based STATCOM

The system considered is a modified IECE FBM 1881 The complete electromechamcal system
is represented schematically in Fig 3 16, whlch consists of a generator, turbme, and series
compensated long transmission llne and STATCOM connected at the electrical center of the
transrmssion h e The data of the system are given in Appendur-C

"*
-----------------.
I
1

STATCOM

Figure 3 16 Modified IEEE First Benchmark Model w t h STATCOM


The Analysis 1s m e d out based on the following imtial operatlng con&tion and r
sunnptions
1 The generator dehvers 0 9 p u power to the transrmss~onsystem

2 The dparmcs of the turb~ne-governorsystems are neglected and the lnput rnechmd

power to the turbm is assumed constant


3 The mmpensat~onlevel pronded by the senes capac~tora set at 0 6 p u

3 5 Case Study unth Two Level VSC based STATCOM

79

4 The dynarmc voltage support at the mid point of the transmission hne is provldetl by
STATCOM In order to effectively utilize the full rating of STATCOM in both inductlve as well as capacitive range, a fixed shunt capacitor is also used at the STATCOM
bus The rating of STKt"I'OM 1s selected as f 150 MVAR At the operating point
considered,the STATCOM supplies 99MVAR and the remzllning reactive power is sup*bed by fixed capacitor to mzllntaln bus voltage 1 015 p u Under dynamic conditions
sTATCOM supphes/absorbs the reactive power to mantain the bus voltage at the
specified value The type-2 controller (refer Fig 3 15) is adopted for the control of
reactive power output of STATCOM

The modelhng aspects of the electromechanical system comprising the generator, the massspring mechanical system, the excitation system, power system stabilizer (PSS)wlth torsional filter, the transmission line containing the conventional series capacitor are discussed
m section 2 4

3 5 1 Damping torque analysis


The damping torque analysis is performed with simphfied and detaled D-Qmodel of STAT-

COM
Slrnplrfted model of STATCOM
The simphfied model for the STATCOM and voltage controller 1s adequate for dam~ing
torque analysis (refer Fig 3 17)

Figure 3 17 Simplified model of STATCOM


It 1s reasonable to assume that, the reactive current response of the FTATCOM to a
change reference can be represented by the following transfer function

8OChapter
3 AnaIys0s of SSR and Desrgn of SubSgncIironow Damptng Controller wUh STATCO~

Azs(s)

T3(s)= Azml (s)

where Tp1s of the order of 10 ms


The reactive current reference is set by a voltage controller and/or a SSDC The transfer
function of the voltage controller shown In Fig 3 15 can be simplified by assumng Kp = 0
as

-&,

where, Kn =
TR = and Ks1s the slope of the voltage controller charactenstla
The SSDC LS represented by a transfer function Tz(s) and modulates the reactive current
reference The Thevemn voltage slgnal (Kh= Vs 4- Xtht,) derived from the STATCOM bus
voltage (K) and current (zs) IS used for damping of power s m g s m refe5ences [go, 911 In
the present study, &/th 1s used to modulate rextive current reference to Introduce adcbtional
damping to the system The transfer function of SSDC (T2(s)) (refer Fig 3 17) can be
designed by darnprng torque analysis uslng slmpbfied model of STATCOM
The overall transfer function relatlng Az, and AV, can be obtamed

When SSDC is not considered, the overall transfer function between Azh and AV, slm
phfies to

It should be noted that for reactive current control, Tl(s) = 0 (as Az, = 0)
The damping torque analysis can be performed based on impedance functions m D-Q
axes The admittance funct~on[YJ
seen at the generator mternal bus in D-Qaxes is computed
and damping torque is evaluated as gven by equat~on(2 46) In obtauung equation (2 461, lt
n necessary to express the admttmce funct~onof STATCOM m the form (see ~~pendur-D)
@

35

caseStudy wtI1 Two Level

81

VSC based STATCOM

The Damping torque is evaluated in the range of frequency of 0-300 rad/sec for the
follomng cases
1 with STATCOM reactive current control
2 with STATCOM reactive current reference obtained from voltage controller
with the damping torque results without STATCOM (Here the fixed shunt
and
,paator value is selected such that the midpoint voltage is 1015 p u ) The v ~ l a t l o nof
damping torque with frequency 1s plotted using equat~on(2 46) and shown in rig 3 18

4 0-

11
11

W~thoutSTATCOM

I1

AOti

50

100

150
wm (radlsec)

- - With reactwe cunent control


- With vottage control
200

250

300

Figure 3 18 Variation of damplng torque with simplified model of STATCOM


It should be noted that, the ~nclus~on
of STATCOM w ~ t hreactwe current does not dlnnge
the damping characteristics of the network s~gnificantlyAlthough, the voltage control reduces the peak negative damping at the critical torsional mode frequency, the system 1s
unstable as there is a sharp dlp near about 127 rad/sec whlch matches with mode-2 of ICEE
FBM It is observed that, the voltage control reduces the damping at low frequencies

Detailed D-Q model of Two Level VSC based STATCOM


The computation of [Y.] with detaled state space model of STATCOM along with TypeThe damping torque anth detailed D - 8 xr~odelof
STATCOM 1s shown in Fig 3 19 When the voltage measurement delay 1s considered ln the
~ l m ~ u model
e d of STATCOM, the vanation of damplng torque 1s given in Fig 3 20

2 controller 1s oven in Appendix-D

82Ch~pter3 Analps of SSR and Deszgn of S~tbSpchmnomDampng ~ontroI1erunth STATCO~~


0

c c -

-20

-30-

P
-40

1
C

-50-

-'

-With voltage control

-60.

120

122

124

Without STATCOM

- - With reacbve current control


130

128

126

132

134

136

a,,,(radlsec)

Figure 3 19 Vanation of damping torque with detaled D-Q model of two:level VSC based

STATCOM
0

-20-

a
P

40

-50

I
\

Without STATCOM

- - With readwe cunent control


-60f
120

122

124

126

128

-with vottage coml


130

132

134

136

a,,,(radlsec)

Frgure 3 20 Vanation of damplng torque wth simpldied model of STATCOM c o n ~ l d W


voltage measurement delay

J5

Case Study unth Two Level

83

VSC based STATCOM

The system is unstable since the pesk negative damping occurs near about 127 rad/sec
with the mode-2 of IEEE FBM It 1s to be noted that, with STATCOM on
,hi&
Mltae rnntrol, there is a good match between the results of damping torque obtained ~ l t h
8 1 m p ~ emodel
d
and detailed D-Q model The voltage control reduces the peak negative
dampingand mwgnally increases the ~~SOmnCe
frequency It is interesting to note that, the
mctlve current control marginally increases the undamping compared to the case without
STATCOM This is not surprising as the contribution of positive supersynchronous damping
torque due to shunt capacitor has reduced with the lesser value of shunt capacitor used ~t
IS seen that, simplified model gves skghtly optimstlc results with reactive current control
rt 1s also observed that, the voltage control increases the negative damping of the torsional
modes particularly m the range of frequencies greater than 130 rad/sec

3 5 2 Elgenvalue analysis
In this analysis, the turbme-generator mechanical damping is considered and generator is
modelled mth 2 2 model (as indicated in section 2 3 2) The overall system with STATCOM
IS hneamed about an operating point and the eigenvalues of the system matruc [A] are glven
m Table 3 2
Table 3 2 Torsional mode eigenvalues of the system with two level VSC based STATCOM
Mode

Without STATCOM

W ~ t hSTATCOM
Voltage control
Reactive current control
-2 0619 f 3 9 3784 -2 4301f g 9 5310
-0 2074 f 3 99 4100
-0 2290 f J 99 4410
0 6300 f g 127 2500
0 3310 f g 127 3000
-0 6440 3 160 4400
-0 6470 f3 160 4400
-0 3648 fJ 202 8400
-0 3654 fJ 202 8400
-1 8504 f3 298 1700
-1 8504 f J 298 1700

0
1
2
3

-2 0489f g 9 3762
-0 2293 3 99 4370
0 5523 f 3 127 2900
-0 6450 =t g 160 4400
4
-0 3643 f3 202 8400
5
-1 8504 f3 298 1700
Network mode subsynchronous, (wo - w,)

I - 1 7 9 2 6 f ~ 1276900 1

-1 6 9 2 0 f J 1275100
Network mode supersynchronous, (wo w,)
-2 9801 z t J 625 7700
-3 0868 k J 625 4400

1 -2

1636zk~1284100

1 -3

0734 f3 625 4500

Table 3 2 shows that, mode 2 is unstable at the operatmg point considered The fie-

&IChapter $ A n d ~ s sof SSR and Dwgn of S u b S p c h m ~D ~~ ~ PContfiler


z ~ Q unth STATCOM

quency of the swng mode(mode0) margmdy increases w t h the inclusion of STATCOM


The negative damplng of critical torsional mode2 has margmdy mcreased compared to the
case without STATCOM The voltage control reduces the undampmg of cnticd torslond
mode-2 and Improves the dampmg of swlng mode T h latter fact is not in agreement mth
the results of damping torque analysis shown in Fig 3 18 However, the eigenvalues cone
sponmng to mode zero with classical model of the generator are ( I ) -0 0568 f3 8 5071 and
(a)0 0281 f J 8 7798 for reactive current control and voltage control respectively Thus the
modelling of the generator affectsthe stab~lityof mode zero Mode-5 is not affected with the
inclusion of STATCOM as its modal inertia is very hlgh The damping of subsynchronous
netuork mode mcreases wth voltage control

3 5 3 Transient simulation
The modehng of VSC is based on
(a) D-Qvariables
(b) In phase variables by modelling the converter s w t h n g action by generating the switchmg functions
The eigenvalue analysis uses equations in D-Q variables where the swtchmg functions are
approxnnated by their fundamental frequency components (neglecting harmomcs m the out
put voltages of the converters) To validate the results obtamed from darnplng torque and
agenvalue analysis, transient simulation of the overall nodnear system B m e d out uslng
the detded 3 phase model of STATCOM where the s w l t b g of the converter 1s modelled
by s w i t h g functions (The harmonics generated by VSC are considered) '
The transient simulation of the overall system includmg STATCOM (mth voltage control)
has been w e d out uslng both D-Q and 3 phase model using MATLAB-SIMULINK [47]
The simulation results for 10% decrease m the input mecharvcal torque apphed at 0 5 sec
and removed at 1 sec with D-Qmodel of STATCOM are shown m Fig 3 21 The simulat~on
results wzth 3 phase model of STATCOM are shown m Fig 3 22 It is clear &om the Fig 3 21
and 3 22 that, the system u unstable as the oscillations m rotor angle and LPA-LPB section
torque grow wlth t ~ m e

The Fl?T analysls of the LPA-LPB sect~ontorque (vanation are obtained mth 3 phase
model of STATCDM) ISperformed between 6-10 sec anth the time spread of 1 sec The
results of FFT analysa is shown in Fig 3 23 It is observed that as the time progressf%
mode-2 component Increases whle all other torsional mode components (partlculwly
1) decay The decrement factor u of mode-2 calculated from FFT
found to be

85

$ 5 Case Study mth Two Level VSC based STATCOM


90

c.

8 5 7

3
a

80-

750

Time (sec)

10

15

F w e 3 21 Variation of rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulse change in input
mechmcal torque (D-Q model of two level VSC based STATCOM (with voltage control))
""I

I
I

Time (sec)

1-

rI!

3
F

15

I ! !I

10

- -0

0
0

--

--

Time (sec)

10

15

~ 3 22e Vanation of rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulse change in input

mabud
torque (3 phase model of two level VSC based STATCOM (mth volt age control))

;ow

<

0 01
0

50

100 150 200 250


Frequency (radlsec)

300

Frequency (radlsec)

Frequency (ru-)

Figue 3 23 FFT analysis of LPA-LPB section torque (3 phase model ~f two level VSC
based STATCOM (with voltage control))
0 3326 and 1s comparable to the real part of eigenvalue (03310) correspondng to mode2
p e n m Table 3 2 and in agreement with eigenvalue results Hence the D-Q model is qute
accurate m prehctmg the system performance

3 6 Case Study with Three Level

VSC based STAT-

COM
3.6 1 Dampmg torque analysis
The damping torque with detarled D-Qmodel of three level VSC based STATCOM (Type1
contzoller E used for reactive power control) is shown m Fig 3 24 C o r n p a . the dampmg
torque results wlth two level converter based STATCOM (see ljlg 3 19), lt is observed that,
the peak negative damping has margnally reduced mth three level STATCOM The other
characfer~tlcsare armlar and prevlous observations on the cornpanson of the readive current
and voltage controllers hold

6 case Study wzth Three Level I/SC based STATCOM

87

Figure 3 24 Variation of damping torque with detailed D-Q model of three level VSC based

STATCOM

In thls analysis, the turbine-generator mechanical damplng is considered and generator is


modelled with 2'2 model (as indicated in section 2 3 2) The overall system is anearlzed
about an operating point (same as that considered for type-2 STATCOM in section 3 5) and
the eigenvalues of the system matrix [A] are gven in Table 3 3
Table 3 3 shows that mode 2 is unstable at the operating point considered With STATCOM on reactive current control, the negative damplng of critical torsional mode-2 has
margnally mcreased compared to the case without STATCOM (gven in Table 3 2) It 1s
observed that, the voltage control reduces the undarnplng of cntical torsional mode-2 and
Improves the damping of swing mode IIowever in general, voltage controller reduces the
damping of torsional modes except the critical mode-2 The dampmg of subs~nchronousnetwork mode is increased with marginal lncrease m the frequency for voltage control These

results are in agreement with the damping torque analysis


Compmug the result given in Table 3 3 with Table 3 2 it is observed that, the dampmg
of mtlcal torsional mode2 is unproved with three level VSC based STATCOM wMe lt 1s
m~~gmally
for other torsional modes T h s fact is in agreement with the results of
dam~lngtorque

88Chdpter 3 Analysw of SSR and Deszgn of SubSynchronow Dampzng ControlCer vnth STATCO~

Table 3 3 Torsional mode e~genvaluesof the system wlth three level VSC based STATCOM
Mode With reactlve current control Wrth voltage control
-2 4291 fJ 9 5301
-2 0638 f3 9 3779
0
-0 2037 z!z 3 99 4080
-0 2279 fj 99 4390
1
0 2826 f J 127 2700
0 5760 It j 127 2800
2
-0 6420 rt: 3 160 4300
-0 6459 fj 160 4400
3
-0 3641 fJ 202 8300
-0 3648 fj 202 8400
4
-1 8504 fg 298 1700
- 18504 fj 298 1700
5
Network mode subsynchronous, (wo - we,)

I Network mode supersynchronous, (wo + w,)

36 3

Transient simulation

The transient simulation of the overall system includmg STATCOM ( w ~ t hvoltage control)
has been cmied out uslng both D-Q and 3 phase model using MATLAB-SIMULINK [47]
The sinlulation results for 10% decrease m the input mechwcal torque apphed at 0 5 sec
and removed at 1sec with D-Qmodel of STATCOM are shown m Fg 3 25 The sunulation
results w ~ t h3 phase model of STATCOM are shown 1n Fig 3 26 It is clear from Figs 3 25
and 3 26 that, the system unstable as the osclllatlons m rotor angle and LPA-LPBsectlon
torque grow w t h time
The FFT analysls of the LPA-LPB section torque ( m a t l o n are obtaned with 3 phase
model of STATCOM) is performed between 6-10 sec with the time spread of 1 sec The
results of FFT analysis is shown In Flg 3 27
ReEerrug to Fig 3 27, it is observed that as the time progresses, mode3 component increases
while all other torsional mode components (particularly model) decsy The decrement factor
a of mode-2 calculated from FFT analysis ~sfound to be 0 2787 and is comparable to the
real part of e~envalue(0 2826) correspondng to mode-2 given m Table 3 3 and m agreemat
mth eeenvalue results Accuracy of D-Q model 1s also obvlous h m comparing Rgs 3 25
and 3 26
It

LS

observed that, the STATCOM requires a SubSynchronow Dampmg Conwller

(SSDC)for dampug of the unstable torsional mode Hence a SSDC

18

desrgoed b a d

89

8 6 Cme Study wzth Thre~Levd VSC based STATCOM

15

b
3

1-

I-

UUH)-

--

-50

--=a%
'I

0
0

Time (sec)

'0

15

F~gure3 25 Vanation of rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulse change m input
mechamcal torque (D-Qmodel of three level VSC based STATCOM (mth voltage control))

--- -

4I

-I

1-

g
I0

0
0

-----

Time (set)

10

15

F w ~ 3 26 Vmatlon of rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulse change in mPut mechmcal torque (3 phase model of three level VSC based STATCOM (with voltage

control))

$10
E ~
unth STATCO~
- Chapter 3 Analysrs of SSR and Destgn of SubSynchronow D ~ ~ z PController
006005.

ow,

3
S

002,

006

.
6 7 sec

om.

005.

7-8 =C

O M ,

0 03.

50
Frequency (radlwc)

100 150 200 250 300


Frequency (WSEC)

e l 0 coo

Frequency (radlsec)

Figure 3 27 FFT analysis of LPA-LPB section torque (3 phase model of three level VSC
based STATCOM (wth voltage control))
on s~mpUiedmodel of STATCOM and the design procedure is &scussed m section 3 7

The insertion of STATCOM m the transrmssion line does not change the SSR character~tics
of the network si&cantiy
If the level of series compensation leads to a network mode
whch matches with the torsional mode, ~tis observed that the voltage control 1s better than
reactrve current current control m damping of the cntlcal unstable torsional mode It 1s
reported in references 11, 601 that, SVC and STATCOM can destabihze the torsional mode
~ t voltage
h
control Such a behav~oris also observed m the present analysis The reduction
of damplng of torsional modes anth voltage control in the frequency range of 130-300 rad/s@
can be observed in Fig 3 18, Fig 3 19 and 3 24
The type of STATCOM (two level or three level) does not effect the damping of torslond
modes s~gxuficaatly

Cornparson of damp~ngtorques with adrmttance function m D-Q axes and adrmttance rn smgle phase
The representation of aihttance funct~onof STATCOM in slngle phase baas phase awt

91

8 6 Cae Study unth Three Level V S c based STATCOM


tance,

r/.(lphl)h

m that of D-Q axes

[XI1s approximate (refer Chapter 2, section 2 3 1)

and IS gven below

The damping torques with admittance function in D-Q axes and adm~ttanceIn slngle
phase basis can be evaluated using equations (2 46) and (2 50) respectively and shown in
~g 3 28 Refemng Fig 3 28, it is noted that, the representation of STATCOM as single

-60

"920

- - With adrn~ttancein D-Q axes


- Wlth adrnlttance in single phase
122

124

126

128

130

132

134

136

ro, (radlsec)

-60

-80
120

-- With adrnlttance In D-Q axes


Wrth admlttance In slngle phase
122

124

126

128

130

132

134

136

am(radlsec)

FW

3 28 Comparison of da~nplngtorques with admttance function m D-Q axes and


ahttance function m single phase basis m t h type-2 STATCOM

phase admttance is farly accurate m predicting the network charactenstics for the examples
consldered

The damping torque wlth admittance function in single phase basis has two components
(der section 2 3 1)(1) Subsynchronous damplng torque (Tde(dubl)
and (n) Su~ers~nchronous
damping torque (T&,,*))whch are gven for constant reactive voltage control and constant
AC voltage control of STATCOM m Fig 3 29 It 1s observed that, the supers~nchronous
component of damp~ngtorque is small negative m t h voltage control of STATCOM whereas,
lt

small positive with reactive current control

--

40-80
120

0 06
004r

122

124

126

128

om(radsec)
I

Reactlve current contol

- Voltage control
130

132

134

136

--

React~vecunent control
- Voltage
control

Figure 3 29 Subsynchronous and supersynchronous components of damping torque mth


Type-2 STATCOM
The conductance and susceptance of STATCOM as a function of frequency w, are shown
m Fig 3 30
It is to be noted that, the effective conductance gstat and susceptance bSkt of STATCOM
seen at the PCC are increased wlth AC voltage control The increase m bdat(capacitive)
causes lncrease of the effective network inductive reactance Tbs decreases the frequency at
whch network resonance (w,) can occur and increases the frequency of the subsynchronous
network mode (UO- we) whch is the complement of w, The positive gsht increases the
net resistance of the network and decreases the peak negative damp~ngcompared to reactive
current control where g& is negative The reduction of damplng torque with voltage control
at hgher frequencies 1s because of the fact that, the voltage control offers negative resistance
to supersynchronous ffeguency currents and negative resistance increases with the voltage
controller gasn [I]

3.7

Design of SubSynchronous Damping Controller

hprovement of the damp~ngof SSR m o d s can be acheved by SSDC For the design of
SSDC,slmphfied model of STATCOM (refer Fig 3 17) ~s adopted The Thevenm voltage

9 7 DW

of SubSynchronous Dampzng Controller


04

120

04

122

124

126

128
ID, (radsec)

Reactrve current control

130

--

132

134

136

Readve current control

- Voltage control

03-

n4

--

- Voltage control

03-

-0 11

93

02-

_--_--------------------__-_---______
0-

01

-0

120

144

126

128
ID, (radsec)

130

132

134

136

Figure 3 30 Conductance and susceptance of Type-%STATCOM


signal (Kh = V , $ Xthzs) derived from the STATCOM bus voltage (V,) and the reactlve
current (2,) is used for damping of powel swings in references 190, 911 Here the SSDC
(represented by a transfer f~mctiori&(s)) whlch takes the Thevenin voltage signal as input
~sused to modulate the reactive current reference to Improve the damping of the unstable
torsional mode The overall transfer funct~onrelating Az, and AV, can be obtaned as,

The initial design of SSDC was based on the transfer functlon fitting from the desired
frequency response of the SSDC for which the details are outhned as below
The external network can be represented as shown m Fig 3 31 where, Yz 1s the equivalent
dmttance m a t r of
~ the network right side of the STATCOM, Y,1s the adrmttance matrix of
the STATCOM and Z1is the impedance matrix of the network(includ~ngtransient reactance
of generator) left side of the STATCOM
We can write the expression for the equivalent impedance matrix of the SIITCOM and
the network right hand side of the STATCOM as,

94Chapter 3 Analysra of SSR and Destgn of SubSynchronoru Damprng Controller with STATcoM

-Generator
Internal Bus

Y,

STATCOM

Figure 3 31 Representation of external network


The admttance seen at the generator internal bus m D-Q kame of reference E gven as,

Fmally, the expression for damp~ngand synchronizing torque can be simphfied as,

where Tde(des)
and TZ(&,)are the desired values of damping and synchrommng torques respectively
It is observed from the damping torque analysis with STATCOM voltage control (as
shown in Fig 3 18) that, the negative dampmg is more slgmficant in the range of frequency
of 110-135 rad/sec It order that, the SSDC contributes to the posltive damping the
IS taken to be posltive However, ~t was observed that, wlth large positive value for Tdc(dcs)
causes the network mode unstable Hence, Tde(des)
is taken to be small positive m the non
crit~calfrequency range of 10-110 and 135-300 rad/sec In the frequency r w of 110-135
raqsec, maximum posslble posltive value for T&(&)is selected without causing the network
mode to became unstable
= 1 (p U) for 110 5 w 135 and for other frequency
The final selected value of Tde(des1

<

rmge (10.110 and 135-300 rad/sec) ~t is set to 0 l(p u ) The TS(&) is set to the same
value as obtained with voltage control of STATCOM to ensure that, the damplng controller

creases the d m ~ 1 . without


g
affecting the synchroniwng torque contribution

9 7 Deszgn of SubSpchronous Darnpzng Controller

95

The equation (3 76), 1s solved for the frequency ranging from 10 5 w < 300 with the desired d u e s of damping and synchronlzlng torques It 1s to be noted that, the equation (3 76)
h a 2 solutions for T(j'w) As Ti ( P ) , T3(3w) and X t h are known, we obtaln 2 solotlons for
the desired frequency response T2(Jw) by solving equation (3 72) in the frequency range of
10 <
-J,, -< 300 From the desired frequency response data, we evaluate the transfer function

T ! ( ~by) Linvfreqs'command of MATLAB which 1s based on the least square fit From the
two sol~tlonsof the designed transfer function Tz(s), an appropriate solutlon can be selected
based on the relative stablllty of the poles of the transfer functions The Xth IS thevenin
reactance (a tunable parameter) and selected so as to maximlze the damping torque of the
overall system computed with the designed transfer funct~onTz(s)) The initla1 dcs~gnof
the SSDC based on transfer function fitting has Improved the damplng of torsional modes
however, the performance was not found satisfactory

3 7 1 ~ e s ! & nof SSDC based on parameter optirnlzation of the


aansfer function Tz(s)
In thls method, the structure of the transfer function 1s taken as,

The structure of T2(s) is same as that obtaned from the transfer function fittlng described
i
above The objective function for optimizing of the parameters 'r' (a, b, c and d) of the
transfer function Tz(s) is taken as,
Minlmze f (r) =

subjected to,

2-(T',e(ks) - T

~ ) ~

>::d
<0
The first constrant ensures that ;he poles of the transfer fundlon T2(s) have negative real
parts The second constrant ensures the poles are complex

Here the desired damplng torque Tde,des)i~ taken as 1 (p u) for wfian i w Iwmaz %,n
and w- are taken t o be 110 rad/sec and 135 rad/sec (the critical frequency range) The
mtlal values of the parameters ([r+]])of the transfer function T2(s) are obtained from the
curve fittlng method described earher and are given as,
%(M)]

= [a,6,c, dl(,,.,%)= [-220 87, 41574, 29 964, 240971

The a1;lborithm for the mnlrmzation 1s glven as,


(1) Sct iteration counter k=O

(2) issurne [ ~ ( k=[r(~~l=[r(,,)]


)]
(3) Co~~lpute
Tdrusing equation ( 3 77) and (3 72)
( I ) r ~ t i dthe sum of the square of the error

(5) Compute the update for the parameters Ar(k) by hne search

(G)Lpdate I ~ ( k + l ) ]= [ ~ ( k )$] Ar(k)


( 7 ) rest for convergence
(2) f (rk+i)- f (rk)l < Tolerance, where Tolerance = le'6 and
( ~ t rile
)
magnitude of dlrectlonal derivative
is < 2 * Tolerance
If cull5 erged stop Else
( S ) h=h+l go to step 3
I
rile aboke dgor~thmis implemented using the optirmzation routlne 'frmncon' of MAT
L Ui3 The poles of T2(s)
are complex and he in the left half of s-plane with the converged
fun~tiulld u e / ( r k )=O 58413 indicating the fitting of transfer function is sipficantly ac
curate The designed value of Tz(s)
(SSDC)is obtaned as

(v)

Analysls with SSDC

38

The at~dlysisw ~ t hSSDC (designed in section 3 7) is carried out based on damping torque
at~alj$15, eigenvalue analysis and translent simulation While damping torque and eigendw
arld!ySls considers D-Q madel of STATCOM,the transient simulation considers both the
d e t ~ l e dD-Q and 3 phase nonhnear models of STATCOM

3 8.1 Dampmg torque analysls with SSDC


The da~npingtorque wlth detded D-Q model of two level and three level VSC based STAT
COlIs are shown In Fig 3 32 and Ftg 3 33 respectively
e n that, the peak negative damplng 1s slgn~ficantlyreduced wth S S D C and 0at lower frequency of about 52 rad/sec Since thls frequency does not match mth W
of tlie torsional modes the system is expected to be stabk It should be noted that,
It

1s

I--m

Wrth STATCOM voltage mntrol

I - With STATCOM voltage wntml and SSDC II

Figure 3 32 Variation of damping torque with detaled D-Qmodel of two level VSC based
STATCOW and SSDC
10-

___-------O

-10

,,

,1

I I
I I
I I
I I

5 -20I-

1 I

-30

II
It

II

II

k
-40-

-50

FW

- - With STATCOMvoltage control


- WITH STATCOMvoltage control and SSDC
0

50

100

I50

200

250

300

3 33 Vmatlon of darnplng torque wlth detaled D-Q model of three level VSC based
and SSDC

98fl wtcr 3 . t , i a l y ~ sof SSR and Destgn

of S u b S ~ n c h ~ o nDampano
o~
Contmlkr ~

t STATcok
h

dan ping torque s posltne with SSDC in the range of t~rslonalmode frequencies and am
the dampmg of SSR companng Flgs 3 32 and 3 33 lt 1s observed that, the peak
dm ping with SbDC is reduced margnallj u lth three level STATCOM

negative

Tlie elgenvdues of the olerall sjstem for tao level and three level VSC based STATCOV
on \oltage control and SSDC are shown in Table 3 4
TWO&

Table 3 4 Torzio~lalmode elgeutalues of the s j stem w i t h p e e level VSC based STATCOU


and SSDC

I \lode I Txo le5el VSC based STATCOM I Three level VSC based STATCOM I
with voltage control and SSDC

w~thioltage control and SSDC


-2 4421 f3 9 5275

Xetwork rnode subsynchronous (

-2 4405 f3

9 5267

-. ~ e ~ )

A ~

+ d,)

. hetwork mode supersynchronous (do


-3 1030 f 3 625 4 100

-3 0685 f3 625 5000

Comparing the eigenvalue results mthout SSDC (refer Table 3 2 and Table 3 3) and ~ t b
SSDC (Table 3 41, the following obser\ations can be made
1 The damping of criticat mode-:! has signrficantly improved mth SSDC

2 The damping of all torsional modes is increased m t h SSDC


3 Mode-5 ~snot affected as ~tsmodal inertia is very hlgh

4 The damping of subsynchronous network mode is reduced m t h SSDC


5 There 1s no m p f i u t n t hfferenee in the damp~ngeharadenst~csof two level and

Iewl VSC based STATCONS

J8

99

Analysts wtth SSDC

3 8 3 nansient simulation
~h~ translent simulation of the overall system including STATCOM with SSDC hm been
avrled out uslng both D-Q and 3 phase mode! using MATLAB-SIMULINk 1471 The slpunuon results for 10% decrease in the input mechanical torque applled at 0 5 sec and remo\ ed
a 1 set ltith two lev4 VSC h ~ c STATCOM
d
along wlth SSDC is sllown In F ~ P 3 34 to

9 39

0 5 ~
0

10

Time (sec)

Flgure 3 34 Variation of rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulse change 1n input
mechanical torque (with D-Q model of two level VSC based STATCOM with SSDC)
The simulation results for 10% decrease In the input mechanical torque applied at 0 5 set
and removed at 1 sec with three level VSC based STATCOM along w t h SSDC are shown
m Fig 3 36
The variation of reactive current of STATCOM (with voltage control) and armature
~ w mwithout
t
and with SSDC-2 are shown m Figs 3 37 and 3 38 respectively The FFT
mdysls of hne current magmiu.de with SSDC is shown in Rg 3 39
It is clear from the Figs 3 37 and 3 35 that, the system is stable w t h SSDC The FFT
mal~slsof ltne current when SSDC 1s used (refer Fig 3 39) shows that$ contans a predom21 HZ component corresponding to torsional mode-2 which decays with time
The damping torque a n a l y s ~ cigenvalue
,
analysis and transient simulations show that,
SSDC is effecttve in stabihing the critical torsional modes

4solysr~of SSR and D e ~ t g nof SubS~nch~onous


Damptno Contmller wth STATCO~

100Ci.qter J

40 -

B
S

75
0

10

10

Tme (sac)

,
2

lime (sec)

Flg~re3 35 Variat~onof rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulse change m Input
mec lama1 torque (with 3 phase model of two level VSC based STATCOM wth SSDC)

mln@
b u n 3 36 Vanaton of mtor angle and LPA-LPBsection torque for pulse
metbarucal torque (w~th3 phatx model of three level VSC based STATCOM w~tbs S ~

8 4nalysts wzth SSDC


-0 06

*1

-0 14;

10

Time (sec)
1

ea 0 8 s -

095

E 09-

08075

O 7~

10

lime (sec)

F~gure3 37 Variation of reactive current and armature current for pulse change m Input
mechmcal torque (with D-Qmodel of three level VSC based STATCOM without SSDC)

10

10

Time (see)

Time (sec)

FW

3 38 Vanation of reactive current, and armature current for pulse change 1n input
~ torque
d (wlth D-Qmodel of three level VSC based STATCOM mth SSDC)

101Zc/,~pter3 A t i n l y s ~of SSR and Design of SubSynchronous Dampzng Controller unth STATCOJ~
I

Figure 3 39 FFT analysis of hne current magnitude(w1th D-Q model of,three level VSC
based STATCOM wth SSDC)

3 9 Conclusions
In t h s chapter we have stuhed the character~sticsof a transrmssion h e compensated bj
senes capacitor with the STATCOll provlded at the electrical center of the transrmsslon
kne The models of two and three level 12 pulse Voltage Source Converters along with thm
controllers are presented in detal using switching fumctions Neglecting harmom m the
s w t h n g functions, enables the derivation of time invanant models based on D-Q variables
Instablhty of torsional modes 1s possible if the complement of the network resonant
frequency matches with any of the torsional mode of the mechmcal system The tools
for the study are,
1 Damping torque analys~suslng simplified and detalled D-Q models of two level
three level STATCOMs
2 Rgenvalue analysis with detrslled D-Qmodels of two level and three level STATCO&

3 'I'ransient simulation wth detaied


(considering swtdung action)

D-Qmodel and three phase model of sTATCOM(

The pn&ct101m about the torsional mode stabhty uslng the three methods ~

d
W

~ m e n The
t

D-Qmodel of STATCOX1 IS found qulte accurate m pred~ctlngthe system

A properly deslgncrl SSDC 1s reqwred for damp~ngof the cr~trcaltorslond


a techn~quefor tunlng the parameters of the SSDC to provlde posltne dmnplng
lode
, range of torsional frequencies 1s presented The case study to ~llustratethe technique
ndlcates that the results are sat is facton

9,.formmce

Chapter 4
Analysis of SSR with SSSC

LC

bll~tclhl~
~0111ljlllc~t1011 of p c ~ s b ~
C ~iL~I I I L I I ~r Sl l ~ ( l
1ic FACTS controllers S t a t ~ cSjnchrouous Serles Colnpensator (SSSC) IS a rzen ge lcr
~lon
serles FACTS controller based on \/SC and has seieral ad~artagesoier TCSC b + e d

TI

S C ~ ~ LC SO I ~ ~ C I ~ S ~~ ~ cI O ~I d~ c
l l i ~ c \ ~b\
d

on t hi r~storcontrollers

The ~oltageInjected by SSSC IS pledo~lilnantl~


reactlie (ioltage ~nquadlature n ~ t hthe
tl \x tllc s ~ i t c l n t l ~ c ~
isc<ilia 9 slnc\ll
r 11 I ( l i t ) A\ tllc losscs ln SSSC l l n i c to 11c s~ippl~c
tor~po~lent
of I oltage In phase w~tlltlie line current (I P rse)) [I] This suggests that 110 act11c
poner exchange tahcs place 1~1thSSSC evccpt for the p o ~ ~ dl
e raii n fiolll the si stem to I leet
losses The SSSC has only one degree of fieedo~nI c ~ e a c t i l e~oltagecontrol (unless cln
energt source IS connected on the DC s ~ d of
e VSC iih~chit111 allon for real poiiel e\cl~ar~ge)
This chapter presents the analys~sand s~mulat~on
of a serles compensated sjsteni 111th

SSSC as 7s pa1 t of tlie total compellsat~on Tlle objective IS to ~nxestlgatcthe Subsj nchro~lous
Resonance (SSR) cha~acter~stic
of the colnblned system The IEEE first benchmark model
(FBM) IS cons~deredfor the analysls The act~veseries compensation 1s provided b3 a
Ictcl (01 three level) tuclve pulse SSSC Tlic t h ~ c clcicl comlertcr topolog) glrCitlIrerllices
the harrnonlc d~stortlonon the ac s ~ d e[3, 74, 971 The modelling and control details of a ti50
letel and three lwel Voltage Source Convel ter(VSC) based SSSC are discussed m detail

The analysis of SSR w ~ t hSSSC is carried out based on frequencv domain method elgelld u e analysis and translent slmulat ion The fiequency dolnaln met hod considers D Q model
dSSSC for the cornputatlon of damping torque for quick cllech 111 dete~mmtngt o ~ s ~ o nmode
al
stabil~ty

Chapter 4

106

42

Analyszs of SSR vnth SSSc

Modelling of two level converter based SSSC

The system considered is adapted from IEEE FBM model [88] The study system 1s repre

Figure 4 1 The Electrical System of IEEE FBM with SSSq


sented schematically in Flg 4 1, which consists of a generator and series compensated long
transmission line with SSSC injecting a reactive voltage in series with the line

421

Basic equations

The converter output phase voltages which are injected in series with the line are given by
the follo\ving equation
I

wllere Sa2, Sb2 and Sd are switching functions for a 2-level &pulse VSC as shown in Fig 4
generated in the same manner as Gven in section 3 2 1 (replacmg a! by y for comparison
with saw tooth wave forms) p,, is the transformation ratio of the interfacing transformer
V& IS the DC side capaator voltage
The hne current 1s given by

o and 2.

are phase shifted successively by 120 7 is the mgle by whlch the fundament4

42

Modellzng of t a o level converter based SSSC

107

Figure 4 2 Switching functions Sa2,sb2,


SI? for SSSC opelatloil a it11 2-le~el6-pulse \'SC

Chapter 4

108

Anabszs ofSSR unth $ 8 8 ~

frequency component of the converter output voltage leads the line current It should be
noted that, y 1s nearly equal to
depending upon whether the SSSC injects inductlveor

+;

capacitive volt age


The switching functions for a 12 pulse converter are defined in section 3 2 1

~f

the

switching functions are approximated by their fundamental frequency coinponents (neglect


lng harmonics) for a 12-pulse three level converter,we get

and uin,v& are phase shifted successively by 120'


Neglecting converter losses we can get the expression for dc capacitor current as,

When switching functions are approximated by their fundamental components (neglecting


harmonics) with a 12-pulse converter, the expression for dc side current is given as
t

422

Equations in D-Qreference frame

The converter output voltages in D-Q frame


mation [19] (refer equation (3 20)) as,

(vb and vb) are obtained by Kron's transfor

v b = kpae v& sin(y + 4)


vb = kpse Vdc C O S +
( ~4)
I=
for 12 pulse converter

4 = tan-'
I=

%=angle of line current,

\/==
magnitude of transmission line current

z~ and 20 are the D and

Q am

components of the line current


Since the leakage reactance of the converter transformer s in series with the line, the only
additional differentlal equation is the capacitor dynarnical equation The dc side capacitor
is described by the dynamical equation as,

109

4 3 jdodellmg of three level converter based SSSC


where idc = - [ k ~ a sm(4
e

+ Y ) Z D + k~se.cos(6+ y ) Q ]

Substituting for za,n e get

4 3 Modelling of three level converter based SSSC


In three level bndge, the phase potentials can be modulated between three lecels lllstead of
two Each phase can be connected to the positive dc terminal, the rnidpolnt on the dc slde
or the negative dc terminal (refer Fig 3 8) The ecluations for the converter output voltages
are given m the sections to follow

The converter output phase voltages whlch are ~njectedIn serles wlth the line are give11 by
the following equatlon

Now

S,(t)=

y-

[P.(t)+Pb(t)+P'(t
6

I1

The swltchlng functlolls foi phase 'b', Sb(t)


and f o ~phase 'c , S,(t)can he sin~ilallydenied
The swltd~l~lg'functlons
Pa,Pa and PCfoi J-level 6-pulse VSC arc sllowll m R:, 4 3 llld
are generated In the same manner as giben 111 section 3 3 1 (replacing a bv 7 foi conlpal isoll
with saw tooth wave forms)
The switching functions for a 12 pulse collveite~are defined 111 sectloll 3 3 1 If the
switching functions are approximated by their fuildarneiltal fiequeilcy colnponents (neglecting harmonics) for a 12-pulse three level converter, we get

where, ,& a the dead angle The time period in a cycle during whlcll the convertcl pole
output voltage s zero, is
ui,u: are phase shlfted successivelv by 120'
Neglecting converter losses we can get the expression for dc capacitor culrcnt as,

110

Chapter 4

AnaCrs of SSR unth SSSC

Figure 4 3 Switching function for SSSC operation with blevel 6-pulse VSC

44

Neturo~ksolutzon

111

When switching functions are approximated by their fundamental frequency components


harmonics) with a 3-level, 12-pulse converter, the evpresslon for dc slde current

432

Equations in D-Q reference frame

The converter output voltages In D-Q frame (vb and vb) are obtained by Kron's transformation 1191 (refer equation 3 20) as,

vb = km U ~ sln(y
C
+ 4)
vb = k, vdc COS(Y
+ #)
where,
= k ~ s cOS
e Pse
k=
for 12 pulse converter
4 = tan-' Q=
angle of line current,
29
I = z + zD- magnitude of transmission llne current
Lm

,/r-

The dc side capacitor

IS

described by the dynamical equation as,

where zdc = - [kmsin(4 7)zD + kmcos($ + y)zO], 2 0 and


of the llne current Substituting for z k , we get

ZQ

are the D and Q components

4 4 Network solution
Defining Xe= Xt + XL+ XaYS,
& = Rt + RL and Xc representing the compensating series
capacitor, the equations governing the transmission llne are given as,

where,

[;I

[ --4

"n"]

sinSg cos 6,

[;I

Chapter 4

112

Anabls of SSR wath SSSC

The expression for the generator terminal voltage call bc givoii as,

, ,

&

In ccluatioil (4 16), zd, z, and , CHL to be wb$t it lit( d f i ~C>(PIIII~


i ~ iou\ (2 6) t111(1 (2 1)) ~ 1 , ~
derivatives of armature currents 9, are expressed 111 terms of state varlables representq

fiux linkages ( $h,


$g, $k , $d and ilrq from equatlolls (2 4)) (2 51, (2 71, (2 8), (2 lo), (2 11)
respectively) to obtmn the final expression for vgd and vgq It is to be noted that the leabage
reactance of the converter transformer is merged with Xsys

45

Controller structures for SSSC

Froin control point of view it is convenient to define the active voltage (Vp(,,)) and reactive
(VR(se))voltage lnjected by SSSC in terms of varlables in D-Qframe (vb and vb) as follows

Here, positive VR(se)implies that SSSC injects inductive voltage and positlve Vp(,) imph~
that it draws real power to meet losses There can be two controller st~uctures(Type 1and
Type-2) used for SSSC [I, 98, 991

45 1

Type-1 controller

In this type of controller both magrutude (modulation index &) and phase angle of convefier
output voltage (y) are controlled The capacitor voltage is maintained at a constant volt*
by controlling the active component of the injected voltage Vp(,) The real voltage referenB
V p ( s e ) ( 1s
~ obtaned as the output of DC voltage controller The reactive voltage referaB
V~(se)(ord)
may be kept constant or obtmned from a power scheduling controller

'

It should be noted that harmonic content of the SSSC injected voltage would
pending upon the operating point since magnitude control will also govern the swtcu
The capsator voltage reference can be vaned (dependlng on reactive voltage reference)
to give optimum harmonic performance [loo] In three level 12-pulse converter, dc vO1w

113

4 5 Contmller structures for SSSC

reference may be ad~ustedby a sloiv controller to get opt~nlumharmonic performance at


8%= 7 j0 in steady state

The structure of tfle-1 contr0llcr for SSSC 1s gven in Fig 4 4 XC5 and xCs are the
controllerstate varltthles
i

5.

Vpcl

,
-

,,OW~,

Y and Pse
Calculator

u
F~gure4 4 Type- 1 controller for SSSC
In Fig 4 4, y and P,, are calculated as

45 2

Type-2 controller

In this controller reactive voltage control is achieved by phase angle ol converter voltage (7)
while modulation index is kept constant [98, 991 The capacitor voltage is not regulated but
varies over a wide range due to the fact that the magnitude of the converter output voltage
1s directly proportional to the capacitor voltage This controller is used on the two level
VSC
Viable operation is possible only for y slightly smaller than 90" and greater than -90"
For 90" < 7 < 270, the voltage across the capacitor is negative (such a atuatlon 1s
not pemtted for two quadrant VSC) The angle y can be controlled to be close to k90"
d e ~ e n h gon whether reactive voltage reference VR(SCl(ad)
IS P O S I ~ ~ or
V ~negative Since the
losses are very small in steady state, y rr; f90
The type-2 controller structure used for reactive voltage control 1s shown 1x1 r ~ g4 5
XCr and XCs are the controller state vanables

Chapter 4

114

Vm(

,,d

kP

Anal~lszsof SSR mth SSSC

Abs
lul

"&

Figure 4 5 Type-2 controller for SSSC

Case study with Type-2 SSSC

46

The analysis is carried out on the IEEE FBM based on the following initial operating con
dition and assumptions The data for the studied system is given in A p p ~ d x - C
1 The generator dehvers 0 9 p u power to the transmission system

2 The input mechanical power to the turbine is assumed constant


3 The total series compensation level is set at 0 6 p u (60% of the transrmssion hne

reactance)
4 For transient simulation, a pulse decrease of 10% mechanicd input totque apphed at
0 5 sec and removed at 1 sec is considered in all case studies

461

Damping torque analysls

The expression for damping torque with SSSC (see Appendix-E) is given as
\

The damping torque due to electrical network is evaluated in the range of frequency of 1-300
rad/sec for the following cases using equation (4 21)
Casol Without SSSC (Xc = 0 60)
Case-2 With type-:! SSSC (Constant reactive 6oltage control, Xc= 0 45 and Xsssc=0 15)
C a b 3 With type2 SSSC (Constant reactive voltage control, Xc= 0 40 and Xsssc=0 2O)

115

4 6 Case study with Type-2 SSSC

Case 4 w l t h o ~ tSSSC (XC= 0 40)


Care 5 with type-2 SSSC alone (Constant reactive voltage control, Xsssc= o 60)
case-l,
the senes compensation of 60% 1s completely met b j fixed capacitor In case-2,
1s used wherein, 45% of compensation 1s met by fixed capacitor and the
hybrid
i-em~nlng15% by SSSC In case-3, h ~ b r l dcompensation comprises, 40% of compensation
by fixed capacitor and the remaining 20% by SSSC In case-4, the serles compensation
of 40% 1s completely met by fixed capacitor In case-5, the serles cornpensatlon of 60% 1s
met by SSSC The variation of damping torque with frequency for all five cases
are shown m Flg 4 6

om (radlsec)

Figure 4 6 Damping torque with and without typo2 SSSC


It 1s to be noted that, the increased injection of capacitive reactive voltage by SSSC
causes significant increase m the frequency at which. resonance occurs and decreases the peak

negative danlplilg Wit11 case-1, the dttlylplllg torque

~naxilriumllcgdtlve at a frequency
of around 127 radjsec which matches with the frequency of torslonal mode-2 and adverse
torsional interactions are expected In case-2, maxlmum undamplng is decreased and occurs
15

at a frequency of about 150 rad/sec Since thls fiequency is not coinciding with anv of the
torsional modes, the system 1s expected to be stable However with case-3, peak negntlve
dmplng 1s further decreased but it occurs a t about 158 5 radjsec which is close to the
torsional mode-3 of IEEE FBM and adverse torslonal ~nteractionsare expected Thus, with

Chapter 4

116

Analyszs of SSR wzth SSSC

hybrid compensation, the fixed capacitor should be selected so as to ensure the stablllty ofthe
system When the series compensation is met completely by SSSC (Case-5), the complement
of the network resonance frequency (WO-we,) 1s about 280 rad/sec and the peak negative
dainping is significantly decreased This indicates that, the constant reactive voltage mode
of operation of SSSC remains reasonably SSR neutral
The SSSC can be controlled in two modes as given below
(1) Constant reactance emulation control
(1i)Constant reactive voltage control
Foi coilstant reactance emulation, the reactive voltage reference is obtmned as shown
Fig 4 7 t~here Xsssc is measured as

wheie I is the magnitude of the line current The comparison of damping torque wlth
constant reactance emulation and constant reactive voltage control is shown in Fig 4 8

~q,~iTTt
0

VRAeMord)

xssc

ref

K ,xsc
-

xsssc

Figure 4 7 SSSC reactance controller


It is observed that, constant reactive voltage control is better than constant reactance
emulation as not only negative damping is reduced, the resonance frequency is increased
Discussion
The representation of impedance functlon of SSSC in single phase basis (phase impedance,Zat(lpi
from that of D-Q axes [Z,,]
is approximate (refer Chapter 2, section 2 3 1) and is given below

= Rse 3 XSQ
The resistance RSeand reactance Xseof SSSC on single phase basis as a function of frequency
we, 1s shown In Fig 4 9 for case 2 (Xssse=O
15) with constant reactive voltage control It'
to be noted that, the resistance is negligible while the reactance Xses practicdly constat
with frequency

/6

117

Case study with n~pe-bSSSC

-60

--

W~thoutSSSC
Wtth SSSC (X, = 0 45 =,X
,
Wlth SSSC (X, = 0 45 =X
,,,

0 15 Constant reactance ernulat~on)


0 15 Constant reactlve voltage control)

am(radlsec)

Flgure 4 8 Comparison of danlp~ngtorque with constant reactance elnulation and reactive

voltage control of Type-2 SSSC

Figure 4 9 Resistance and reactance of Type-2 SSSC

Chapter 4

118

Analyszs of SSR vnth SSSc

Tile damping torques with admittance function in D-Q axes and admittance in slnde
phase basis can be evaluated uslng equations (2 46) and (2 50) respectlvely and shown m
Fig 4 10 Referring Flg 4 10, it is noted that, the representation of SSSC as single phase

[ - - W~th~mpedanceIn D-Q
-50

50

100

150

I - W~thimpedance In lph basis


200

250

300

Figure 4 10 Comparison of damping torques with SSSC impedance function in D-Q axes
and admittance function in single phase basis
impedance is fairly accurate in predicting the network characteristics
The effect of inclusion of SSSC on the resonance frequency is shown in Fig '4 11for case2
When the fixed capacitor provides 45% compensation (Xc = 0 45), the resonance occurs at
we, = 216 rad/sec where & = XL Wlieil tlic tuld~tionulcoinpcilstttioil of 15% is povlded
by SSSC, the effective capacitive reactance (Xc + X,,)is obtained by adding the constant
reactance offered by SSSC (refer Fig 4 9) to that offered by fixed capacitor The variation of
effective capacitive reactance (Xc X,,)with frequency is also shown in Fig 4 11 Now the
resonance occurs at a higher frequency of we, = 227 rad/sec where (Xc+Xse) = Xr, and t b
1s consistent with the subsynchronous network mode frequency (wo - wer = 377 - 227 = 150)
of about 150 rad/sec as obtaned with damping torque analysis for case-2

The effect of providing additional series compensation by SSSC to supplement the exlstlng
fixed capacitor is to increase the electrical resonance frequency of the network However!
this Increase m frequency IS not significant as compared t o that obtaned with the eqadent
fixed capacitor offering additional compensation (case-1) we, = 250 rad/sec in this case

4 6 Case study wzth ripe-2 SSSC

119

Figure 4 11 Graphical representation of resonance conditions with and ~bithoutSSSC

In this analysis generator model(2 2) 1s considered The SSSC equations(with controller)


along with the equations representing electromechan~calsystem are li~learizedat the operating point The mechanical damping is considered The eigenmlues of system matrix are
computed and are given in Table 4 1
It is to be noted that, inclusion of SSSC (with case-2) leads to a stable system and reduces
the potential risk of SSR problem In case-3, mode-3 becomes unstable and this result 1s
in agreement with that from the damping torque analysis It is interesting to note that,
the frequency and damping of mode 0 reduces with the reactive voltage injection by SSSC
The reactive voltage injection lowers the network resonant frequency and the frequency of
network mode (sub) is increased which is in agreement with the results of damping torque
analysis There is no significant change in the damping of mode-1 and 4 with reactive voltage
lnJectlon This fact can be inferred from the damping torque analysis as the peak negative
damping m all cases occurs far away from torsional mode 1and 4 frequencies (refer Fig 4 6)
mth no significant change in the magnitude of damping torque is observed corresponding to
model and 4 The damping of mode-5 is not affected as its modal inertia 1s very high

Chapter 4

120

Analysts of SSR wth SSSC

Table 4 1 Eigenvalues of the system with and without type-2 SSSC


Torsional
Mode

Without SSSC

Eigenvalue
w i t h SSSC (Case-2)

1 With SSSC (Case-3)

1 Network mode subsynchronous, (wo - we,)

Network mode supersynchronous, (wo we,)

-2 9806 fJ 626 7900 -2 7943 fj 583 0600

463

-2 7872 z t 3 567 2800

Transient simulation

The eigenvalue analysis uses linearized equatiolls in D-Q variables where the switching
functions are approximated by their fundamental components (converter switchings are ne
glected) To validate the results obtained froin damping torque and eigenvalue analysis,
the transient simulation should be carried out for small disturbance using detuled model of
SSSC which considers the switching of three phase converter The transient simulation of
the combined system with detmled three phase model of SSSC has been carried out using
hlATLAB-SIMULINI<[47] The system response for pulse change in iuput mechanical torque
applied at 0 5 sec and removed at 1 sec a shown in h g 4 12 for the case without SSSC It
1s observed that, the LPA-LPB shaft torque oscillations increase with time indicating the
system is unstable The simulation results with D-Q model of type-2 SSSC for c a w 2 Is
shown in Fig 4 13 The simulation results of combined system with detmled three phase
model of SSSC for case-2 is shown in Fig s 4 14 to 4 16
It is observed that, there is good match between the simulation results o b t ~ e wth
d

D-Qand 3 phase models of type2 SSSC Here the LPA-LPB shaft torque oscillation decay

46

121

Case stud3 wtth Qpe-2 SSSC

5
6
T~me(sec)

5
6
T ~ m e(sec)

10

I
0

Figure 4 12 Variation of rotor angle and LPA-LPB sectlon torque for pulse change In input
mechanical torque(w1thout SSSC, Xc=O 60 p u )

Time (see)

Figure 4 13 Variation of rotor angle and LPA-LPB sectloll torque for pulse cllange ln lllPut
mecharucal torque (with detailed D-Qmodel of type-2 SSSC Combination of Xsssc = 15%,
md xc = 45% )

Chapter 4

Analpsu of SSR unth SSSC

T~me(sec)

Figure 4 14 Variation of rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulse change in input
mechanical torque (with detmled three phase model of type-2 SSSC ~ o m b i h t i o nof Xsssc=
15%, and Xc = 45% )

Time (sec)

'

(
1
1
1
1
.
.
.
.
.
1

0 950

Tlme (sec)

Figure 4 15 Vanation of electrical torque and generator terminal voltage for p h e


ln input rxechamcal torque (with detaled three phase model of type-2 SSSC Comb111abon
of Xsssc = 15%, and Xc = 45% )
t

-4 6

Case study wzth Type-6 SSSC

123

with time lndlcnt~ngthe syste~n1s stable The lcsults of transient simulation of the nonllneJr
system ~ ~ n f i r m
the
s results of elgenvalue analysis as the nonlinear system behaves l~ke],near
system for small disturbances around the operating point

F~gure4 16 Variation of reactive ~ o l t a g eVR(se)


and DC ~ o l t a g evd, for pulse chd~lgein
input mechan~caltorque (wlth detailed three phase model of type2 SSSC Combination of

Xsssc = 15%, apd Xc = 45% )


It should be noted that, In F ~ g s4 15 and 4 16 the high frequency oscillations 111 generator
terminal voltage, reactite voltage and dc capacitor voltage of SSSC are due to harmonics of
the SSSC injected voltage By referring Fig 4 16, it is observed that, ~mmed~atcly
a f t c ~the
inlt~ationof disturbance the dc capac~torvoltage is decreased and accordingly the magnitude
of the injected capacitive reactlve voltage (negative) is reduced The SSSC reactive voltage
and dc voltages reach steady state values quickly
The variation in generator rotor angle and LPA-LPB sect~ontorque with case-3 are shorvn
in Fig 4 17 It is observed that, the system IS unstable due to lnstabllity of torsional mode-3
The results of FFT analysis of LPA-LPB shaft torque is given in Fig 4 18 It is obserked
that as the t ~ m eprogresses, all torsional modes decay except mode-3 The decrement factor
of mode-3 calculated from FFT analysis IS found to be 0 2041 and is comparable to the
Pmt of eigenvalue (0 1839) corresponding to mode-3 glven 1n Table 4 1 and in agreelnent
mth elgenvalue results

Chapter 4

124

Analysts of SSR unth SSSC

Figure 4 17 Variation of rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulse\ change in input
mechanical torque (with detailed three phase model of type-2 SSSC Combination of Xsssc =
20%, and Xc = 40% )

Frequency (radlsec)

Figure 4 18 FFT analysis of LPA-LPB sectlon torque for case-3 (Xc= 0 40,&SSC = O 20)

4 '/

Case W d y wzth Qpe-1 SSSC

125

4 7 Case study w ~ t hType-I SSSC


The operating polnt cons~deredhere IS same as that of sect~on4 6

4 7 1 Damplng torque analysls


The damping torque due to electrical netnork is evaluated in the range of frequency of 10-300
rad/se~for the following cases using equation 4 21
CameWith type1 SSSC (Constant reactive voltage control, Xc= 0 45 and Xsssc= 0 15)
Case7 With type-1 SSSC (Constant reactive voltage control, Xc=0 40 and ,Ysssc=0 20)
Cse-8 With type-1 SSSC alone (Constant reactlve voltage control, Xsssc=
0 60)

The var~atlonof damplng torque with frequency for all three cases are shown 1n Fig 4 19

Figure 4 19 Damplng torque with and without Type-1 SSSC


It 1s observed that, the peak negative damping wlth Type-2 SSSC for case-2 (refer 4 6) 1s
margnally less compared with case-6 of type-1 SSSC Also for case-3 with type-2 SSSC, the
peak negative darnplng occurs at about 158 5 radjsec whereas for case-7 w t h type1 SSSC,
peak negative damping occurs at 159 rad/sec whlch is closer with mode-3 frequency a l e n
the SSSC alone 1s used for compensation, the damp~ngtorque results with type1 (case-8)

Chapter 4

126

Analysts of SSR wath SSSC

and type-2 (case-5) are comparable in terms of the peak llegatlve damping and frequeneyd
its occurrence

472

Eigenvalue analysis

~n thls analysis generator model(2 2) is considered

The SSSC equations along with

controller and the equations representing electromechanical system are llnearlzed at the
operating point The mechanical damping is coilsidered The eigenvalues of systein matrcc
are computed and are given in Table 4 2 It is to be noted that, inclus~onof SSSC leads to
a stable system with case6 and reduces the potential risk of SSR problem I11 case-7, the

mode3 becomes unstable and in agreement with the damping torque analysis
Table 4 2 Eigenvalues of the system wit11 type-1 SSSC
E~genvalue
Torsional With SSSC (Case-6) With SSSC (Case-7),
Mode

Network mode subsynchronous, (wo - we,)

I -1 4918 f

149 9800 -2 5709 fj 159 0200


Network mode supersynchronous, (wo we,)
j

Comparing the eigenvalue results of case-3 with type-2 SSSC (refer Table 4 1) andd
case7 with type1 SSSC (refer Table 4 2), it is noted that, the damping of critical mod&jE
better wlth type-2 SSSC Thls 1s because with type-1 SSSC network mode (sub) frequency
1s closer to that of torsional mode3 This is in agreement with damping torque @dyS
The damplng of other modes are not significantly affected by the type of SSSC

4 7 Case study wzth Type-1 SSSC


473

127

Translent slmulatlon

For transient simulst~on,a step decrease of 10% mechanical lnput torque applred at o 5 sec
and removed at 1 sec is considered The s~mulatlonresults wlth D-Q model of type-1 SSSC
in Fig 4 20 The simulation results of combined system with detailed three phase
model of Type1 SSSC for case6 are shown In Fig 4 21 to Fig 4 23

Figure 4 20 Vanation of rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulsc change in input
mechanical torque (with detailed D-Qmodel of type-1 SSSC Combinat~onof Xsssc = 15%,

and Xc = 45% )
It is observed that, there 1s good match betueen the simulatlon results obtained wltll D-Q
and 3 phase models of type1 SSSC It 1s clear from the Frgs 4 21- 4 23 that, the sjstem is
stable with the line compensation conlbinatlon of Xc= 0 45 and Xsssc = 0 15 Compari~lg
these wlth the simulatlon results of Type-2 SSSC (refer Fig s 4 14- 4 16) it is noted that v&
1s qu~cklyregulated by DC voltage controller and the DC voltage 1s pract~callyconstant nlth
Type1 SSSC VR(se)
also remalns constant
The FFT analysis of the LPA-LPB sectlon torque IS performed between 1-5 sec wlth the
time spread of 1sec The results of FFT analysis IS shown m Flg 4 24 Referring to Fig 4 24,
it 1s observed that m the t ~ m espan of 1-5 sec, the mode-1 component 1s predom~nant As the
time progresses, all torsional modes decay The decrement factor a of model calculated from
FFT analysis IS found to be -0 2219 and 1s comparable to the real part of eigenvalue (-0 2132)

Chapter 4

128

701
0

5
T~rne(sac)

A n a l ~ s uof SSR wth SSSC

10

Figure 4 21 Variation of rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulse change in lnput
mechanical torque (with detaled three phase model of type-1 SSSC Combiliation of Xsssc=
15%, and Xc = 45% )
1.

-r m o s-7

o:

95

BO 85
3
g 08C

g07507
0

I
I

105-

5
Time (sec)

10

10

2"

I
r

5
Time (sec)

Figure 4 22 Vanation of electrical torque and generator termma1 voltage for pulse cbW

m input mechanical torque (with detmled three phase model of type-1 SSSC Combm&tlT
of XSSSC= 15%, and Xc = 45% )

4 7 Case study

129

unlh Qpe-1 SSSC

Figure 4 23 Variat~onof reactive voltage 'I/R(,,) and DC voltage vd, for pulse change m
input mechanical torque (with detailed three phase model of type-1 SSSC Combination of
Xsssc = 15%, and Xc = 45% )

Frequency (rad/sec)
O
0 025

Frequency (nd/~ec)
7

3-4 sec

002-

I
6
:0:

h
50

100

200 250
Frequency (radlsec)
150

300

Fnquency (radsec)

Figure 4 24 FFT analysis of LPA-LPB sect~ontorque for case-4 (Xc= 0 45, Xsssc

Chapter 4

130

Anabsu of SSR unth SSSc

correspolldlng to mode-1 given in Table 4 2 and in agreement with eigenvalue results


he variation in generator rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque with case-7 are
in ~ l g4 25 to Fig 4 27 It is observed that, the system 1s unstable due to instabllltyd
torslonal mode-3
90

ryyl

'O

5
6
T~ma(sac)

10

5
6
T~me(sac)

Figure 4 25 Variation of rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulse change m input
mechanical torque (with detailed three phase model of type-1 SSSC Combmation of Xsssc =
20010, and Xc = 40% )
The results of FFT analysis of LPA-LPB shaft torque is given in Fig 4 28 It is observed
that as the time progresses, all torsional modes decay except mode-3 The decrement factor
a of mode-3 calculated from FFT analysls IS found to be 0 3942 and IS comparable to the
leal part of eigenvalue (0 3561) corresponding to mode-3 given in Table 4 2 and in agreement
with eigenvalue results

Comparing the simulation results of Type-2 and Type-1 SSSCs it is noted that, the
ripples in dc voltage and generator voltage is significantly reduced with Type-1 SSSC
1s because at the operating point considered, the dead angle 8. = 7 5O and l2-pulhe $levd
converter behaves nearly like a 24pulse converter It is also observed that the controua
regulates the dc capacitor voltage at 0 72 p u (for case-6) and at 0 96 p u (for c@e-7)
inhcating that the SSSC is operating as an energy neutral device
The instability of the system is possible if the resonance frequency matches with my of
the torslonal mode for a certain cornb~nationof fixed capsotor and SSSC m wluch case tb!

'

47

131

Case study unth Type-1 SSSC

@a

l 06

m04

Time (sec)

, 0 9 5 :

b C

Time (sec)

Figure 4 26 Var~ationof electrical torque and generator term~nalvoltage for pulse change
in input mechanical torque (with detalled three phase model of type-1 SSSC Combination
of Xsssc = 20%, and Xc = 40% )

-01z0

9
1

9
0

lime (sec)

Time (sec)

Figure 4 27 Vanation of reactive voltage VR(rcland DC voltage vdc for PU~SCchange


input mechanical torque (with detaled three phase model of type-1 SSSC Combination of
xsssc = 20%, and Xc = 40% )

Chapter 4

132

Analysts of 8% wth SSSC

Frequency (radsec)
003-

81 O o 2 = '

0 03
3-4 sec

002.

0 025,

4-5 sac

002.

50

Frequency (radsec)

100 150 200 250


Frequency (radlsec)

300

Figure 4 28 FFT allalysls of LPA-LPB section torque for case-7 (Xc= 0 40, Xsssc = 0 20)
t

SSSC iequires a SSDC for damping of critical torsional mode The details of SSDC whichls
designed based on the design procedure discussed in section 3 7 for STATCOM is given m
the next section

48

Design and analysis with SSDC

It is shown in the previous sections that the occurrence of SSR can be avoided by varylug
the reactive voltage compeilsatioil introduced by SSSC However, tlus may not always be
feasible In such cases, the damping of torsional modes can be achieved by SSDC Here, the
SSDC 1s assumed to take line current signal (locally available) as input and modulates the
reactlve voltage reference to damp the unstable torsional mode (see Fig 4 29)

Figure 4 29 schematic of SSDC for SSSC

4 8 Deszgn and anulysls wzth SSDC

133

The structure of the transfel function of SSDC is taken as (as considered in Chapter-3),

The design of SSDC for SSSC 1s based

011

the method of parameter optilnization of the

transfer function adopted for STATCOhl whtle the algorithm for pardmeter optimization 1s
discussed in detail (refer section 3 7 1)
The ob~ectlvefunction for optimizing of the paramete~s'r (a, b, c and d) of the transfer
function Tz(s) 1s taken m,
Minimize f (r) =

C ('de(de6)

- Tde)2

Wman

The desired darnping torque Tde(des)


is taken as 1 (p u ) for w,,
5 w 5 w,,, w,,,
and w,, are taken to be 120 and 180 rad/ sec where the negative damping due to criticid
torsional mode 3 is substantial The initial values of the transfer function parameters [r(,,,)]
are taken as zero The upper and lower bounds are selectcd so as to ensure the stablllt~.of
the system with SSDC
The algorithm of optimization (refer section 3 7 1) is implemented using the optimiz?tioa
routine 'fmincon' of hfATLAB for type-2 SSSC The initial function value is f (ro) =I021 4 4
The poles of T2(s) are complev and he in the left half of s-plane with the comerged function
value f (rk) =329 056 in 10 iterations, indicating the fitting of transfer function IS significantly
(SSDC) is,
accurate The designed value of T2(h)
i

4 8 1 Analysis of SSR with

SSSC and SSDC

The analysis with SSDC is carrled out based on damping torque analysis, elgenvalue analysis
and transient simulation While damping torque and elgenvalue analysis cons~dersD-Q
model of the SSSC, the transient simulation considers 3 phase nonlinear models The SSDC
transfer function is assumed to be same for type-1 and type-2 SSSC
4 8 1 1 Damplng torque analysis with

SSDC

The damping torque with detailed D-Q model of type-2 and type-1 SSSCs and SSDC are

shown in h g 4 30 and Fig 4 31 rebpe~tlvcly It a seen thnt, tlie dalnping 1s s l g ~ i t f i ~ ~ ~ n t l y

Chapter 4

134

Analwls of SSR unth SSSC

increased with SSDC and causes the damping of SSR

- - Case-3
500

50

100

SSSC wlthout SSDC (XC=O 40 XsSSC 0 20)


XSSSC 0 20)

,
SSSC w~thSSDC (XC=O40

150

200

250

300

w, (radlsec)
I

Figure 4 30 Damping torque with and without SSDC for type2 SSSC

- - Case7 SSSC w~thoutSSDC (X,-0


- SSSC w~thSSDC (Xc=O 40 , X,

40 X-

d)20)

-0 20)

-0

50

100

150

200

250

Figure 4 31 Damping torque with and wlthout SSDC for typo1 SSSC

48

Deszgn and analyszs wzth

SSDC

135

4 8 1 2 Eigcnvalue analysis w i t h SSDC

The eigenenvalue1ues of the overall system with D-Q model of type-2 and type-1 SSSCs and SSDC
shown in Table 4 3
Table 4 3 Eigenvalues of the system with SSSC and SSDC
Eigenvalue
Torsional
With type-2 SSSC and SSDC CVith type-1 SSSC and SSDC
Mode

1 -1 8504 zk

298 1700
-1 8504 & j 298 1700
Network mode subsynchronous, (wo - we,)
j

I Network mode supersynchronous,

(wo

+ we,)

Comparing the eigenvalue results without SSDC (refer Table 4 1 and Table 4 2) and with
SSDC (Table 4 3), the following observations can be made
1 The damping of critical mode-3 has significantly improved with SSDC
2 The damplng of swing mode and all torsional modes is increased with SSDC evcept
mode-4 The damping of mode4 is marginally reduced Mode-5 is not affected as its

mod81 inertia is very h ~ g h


3 Mode 3 is slightly better damped with type-1 SSSC with SSDC while the damping of
other modes is unaffected
4813

Transient simulatlon with SSDC

The trusient simulat10n of the overall system including SSSC wlth SSDC has been carried
Out using 3 phase model using MATLAB-SIMULINK [47] The simulatlon results for 10%

Chapter 4

136

Analysts of SSR unth SSSC

decrease 111 the input mechanical torque applied a t 0 5 set and removed at 1sec with typb2
and type-1 SSSC along with SSDC is shown in Figs 4 32 to 4 33 respectively

Time (sec)

Figure 4 32 Variation of rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for puls'e change in input
mechanical torque (with detailed three phase model of type-2 SSSC Combination of Xsssc =
20%, and Xc = 40% with SSDC )

Figure 4 33 Variation of rotor angle and LPA-LPB sectlon torque for pulse chmge 1nlnput
mechanical torque (with detlwled three phase model of type-1 SSSC Combination of X~ssc'
20%, and Xc = 40% with SSDC )

~t 1s clear from the Figs

4 32

4 33 that, the system is stable with SSDC and the

oscillations decay fast

In this chapter, we have studied the SSR chdracteristics of a series compensated transm~sslon
line with SSSC The inodels of t ~ level
o and three lebel 12 pulse SSSC are developed uslng
switching functions The colltrollcr stiuctures for SSSCs are presented in deta~l The time
lnvarlazlt models in D-Q reference frame are developed for damping torque and elgen~alue
malys~sby neglecting harmonics In the switching funct~ons A properly des~gnedSSDC is
required for damplng the critical torsional mode A simple yet effective method of design of
SSDC to provide positlve damping In the range of critical tors~onalfrequency is presented
The following conclusions emerge based on the results of the case study
1 Active series compensation is better than fixed compensation as not only the negatlve

damping is reduced, the electrical resonance frequency is decreased The constant


reactive voltage is better than the constant reactance emulat~on
2 The D-Qmodel is quite accurate in predicting the system performance

3 There 1s no agnlficant d~fferencebetucen the SSR characteristics of type-1 and tjpe-2

ssscs

4 SSDC is effective in stabilizing the critical tors~onalmode

Chapter 5
SSR Characteristics of Unified Power
Flow Controller
5 1 Introduction
The Unified ~ d w e Flow
r
Controller (UPFC) IS the most versatile Flexlble AC Transmlsslon
System (FACTS) controller whlch can be used to control actlve and rcactlve power flows In a
transmlss~onllne In addltlon to the bus voltage The actlve serles compensatlon IS provlded
by lnjectlng serles reactive voltage The voltage at the two ports of UPFC are regulated by
control of shunt current and series real voltage It also has several operatlng control modes
such as voltage and power regulation, line Impedance compensatlon etc
llnes connected to turbogunerators can result in
The serles compensated transm~ss~on
\
SSR due to the negatlve damplng ~ntroducedby the electrical network Thls can cause
self excltatlon due to torsional interaction and induction generator effect The reduction of
damplng at torsional frequencies can also result in magnlficatlon of shaft torque osclllatlons
caused by translent d~sturbances[I]
This chapter presents the analysls and study of Subsynchronous Resonance (SSR) characterlst~csof UPFC The objective is to investigate the detailed SSR character~sticsof UPFC
at different operating modes and examlne the role of an UPFC as a SSR countermeasure
The effectof injection of series reactwe voltage, serles real voltage and shunt reactire current
on SSR damplng are investigated The various combination of operatlng modes of shunt and
series converters are considered for investlgatlng thelr effect on SSR characterlstlcs

The analysls of SSR with UPFC

carrled out based on frequency domain method,


elgenvalue analysls and translent slmulatlon The frequency doman method considers DQ model of UPFC for the computation of damping torque for quick chech m determlnlng
torsional mode stab~llty The study is performed on a system adopted from IEEE First
Benchmark Model (FBM)
IS

Chapter 5 SSR Chametenstzcs of Unzfied Power Fbur conhlb

140

52

Modelling of UPFC with Three Level Voltage Source

Converters
The UPFC is the most versat~leof FACTS controller capable of control of three system
parameters, voltage, power angle and transfer Impedance The schematic of the UPFC Is
shown in Fig 5 1

I h

'-

Id 2

'd l
-/

VSC 1

vsc2

+fb

4
I
I

Control

I1

--I

Figure 5 1 Schematic representation of UPFC


It co~~sists
of a shunt connected Voltage Source Converter (VSC1) and a series connected
Voltage Source Converter (VSC2) VSC2 injects a series voltage whlle VSCl is controlled to
Inject reactive current The serles and shunt branches of UPFC can generate/absorb reactive
power independently and the two branches can exchange active powel The lnjectlon of sen@
reactive voltage provldes active series cornpensatloll while the injection of the shunt reactwe
current can be controlled to regulate the voltage a t the bus where VSCl is connected The
injection of serles real voltage (~n-phasewlth the line current) can be controlled to regulate
the reactive power m the line or the voltage at the output port of the UPFC (The UPFC
can be viewed as a two port device on a angle phase basis)[l4]
The capacitor voltage 1s regulated at the specified value by dc voltage controuer to
m a n t a n power balance between shunt and series branches
The power balance can be expressed mathematically as

where fi,, is the power loss m the UPFC

5 2 Modellvng of UPFC ~ t Three


h
Level Voltage Source Converters

141

In the potver circuit of a UPFC, the conveitcr is usually either a multi-pulse and/or a.

multilevel configuration

In UPFC, it is desirable to vary the rnagnltude of the ac output

voltage of the conkerter without changing the maglutude of the dc coltage Thls can be
possible by Pulse Width Modulation (PWhf) with two level topology which demvlds
hgher switchmg frequency and leads to increased losses The three level comerter topology
c;lnachieve the goal by varying dead mgle P 111th fundamental switching frequency [96]
The conierters that allow the variation of both rnagnltude and the phase angle of converter
output voltage are classified as TYPE-1 converters [71] Here the UPFC is reallzed by t n o
three level, t!%elve pulse Voltage Source Conveiters (VSC)
As there is no published work on the analysis of SSR wlth UPFC, it becomes essential to
establish the validity of the models used Thls is performed by uslng a detailed nonlinear 3
phase system model (including the switching action within the VSC) for transient simulation
which is also used to validate the D-Qmodels employcd for the linear analysis While eigenvalue analysis is accurate and gives comprehensive information about the system stability at
an operating pomnt, slmpler frequency domain techniques such as damplng torque analys~s
can be used for a fast determination of stability of torsional modes

5 2 1 Basic equations
Both the shunt qnd serles branches of the UPFC conslsts of 12-pulse converters with 3-level
poles The deta~ledthree phase model of UPFC is developed by niodelling the comerter
operation by switching functions as described in sections 3 3 1 and 4 3 1
The jth converter tcrmlnal voltagcs with respect to the neutral of the transfo~mercan be
expressed as,

where,
P3 1s the transformat~onratios of the iilterfac~ngtransformer of jth conterter

Saw(t) =

pab)(t)

P a ( j ) ( t ) + p b ( ~ )(t)+Pc(,)(t)

Sab)(t)a the sw~tchingfunction for phase 'a' of a 6-pulse 3-level VSC Similarly evpressions
be derived for Sbb)(t) and ScD)(t) It should be noted that, for shunt convertel the
abbreviation (3) is replaced by (sh) and for series converter it is replaced by (se) subsequently

If the sw~tchlngfunctions are approximated by their fundamental frequency components

142

Chapter 5 SSR Chamcterrsttcs of Unzfied Power Flow Cmtmhj

(neglecting harmonics) for a 12-pulse, three level converters, we get for shunt converter

and ~ d ,(v ~~t s h~


are
l ,phase shifted successively by 120'
The port-1 voltage via of UPFC 1s given by via = fivlszn(%t
81) and vls, vlc are phae
shifted successively by 120 Note that a 1s the angle by which the fundamental frequency
componeilt of shunt converter output voltage leads the port-1 voltage
Similarly, the expression for series injected voltage (neglecting harmonics)is obtluneda,

and v~n(se),v~(sel
are phase slufted successively by 120
The port-2 current 22. of UPFC s Oven by 12. = fi12szn(w,t
4) and ira, zlc are ghae
shifted successively by 120 Note that y is the angle by which the fundamental frequency
colnponent of serles converter output voltage leads the port-2 current
Neglectiilg converter losses, we can get the expression for dc capacitor Current as,

where,

where psh and ps, are the transformation ratios of the interfacing transformers of shunt and
series VSC respectively

5 2 2 Mathematical model in D-Q frame of reference


When s w i t h n g functions are approximated by their fundamental frequency components
neglecting harmonics, UPFC can be modelled by transforrmng the three phase voltages and
currents to D-Qvanables using Kron's transformation (191 The UPFC can be representd
f ~ c t l o n d l yas a two port devlce as shown in Fig 5 2

5 2 Modelltng of UPFC ~12thThree Level Voltage Source Converters

143

Figure 5 2 UPFC as a two port FACTS controller


1

In Fig 5 2, Rsh,Xsh and Rsb,Xsc are the resistance and reactance of the interfacing
transformer of shunt and series VSC respectively The magnitude control of shunt and scrlcs
converter output voltages
and Vi,,) is achlcved by modulating the conduction period
affected by dead angle Pahand P,, of indimdual concerters while dc voltage is mamtalned
constant
The shunt converter output ~oltngecan bc represented in D-Qframe of lcfcrencc as
1

for a 12 pulse converter and psh IS the transformntlon


mere, kml = k p , cos(Psh), k =
ratio of the interfacing transformer TI a is the angle by which the fundamental component
of shunt converter output voltage leads the port-1 voltage &
The series converter output voltage can be represented in D-Q frame of reference as

144

Chapter 5 SSR Chamctenshcs of Unzfied Power Flow C o n t m i ~

= k p , cos(ae), pse is the transformation rat10 of the interfacing transformerT~


-f 1s the angle b~ which the fundamental component of series converter output voltage leads

the po~t-2current I2
The dc side capacitor is described by the dynamlcal equation as,

523

Shunt current control

The real current drawn by the shunt VSC is controlled by phase angle a and reactive current
by modulating the converter output voltage magnitude as a function of Psh In section 3 4 1,
the dynmical equations of the shunt current control are dealt with in dqail [14, 941 The
Fig 6 3 shows the schematic representation of type1 controller for shunt current control The
reactive current reference of shunt converter can be kept constant or regulated to mutam
port-1 voltage magnitude at the specified value
In Fig 6 3, real and reactive currents are defined as

I~(sh)
= - 2 s h ~ cos(61) + ZshQ sln(e1)
and a and fish are calculated as

V P ( ~=
~ )V D ( ~ sln(el)
~)

+ V Q ( C~O~S)( ~ I )

VR(=
~~
V )D ( cos(e1)
~ ~ ) - V Q ( Ssin(el)
~)

(5 19)

(5 20)

with respect tothe


VP(S~)
and V R ( are
~ ~the
) in-phase and quadrature components of
port-1 voltage The equations (5 15) and (5 16), result in positive values when shunt VSc
1s drawing actme current and inductive reactive current

5 2 m e l h n g of

UPFC ~12thThree Level Voltage Source Converters

145

F~gure5 3 Shunt current controller

5 2 4 Ser~esvoltage control
The type1 contrhler structure for serles convcrtcr IS shown in R g 5 4 The mdepcndmt 111jection of real and reactive voltage give rise to two operating combinations of serles convtrter
as described below
1 Constant renctir e voltage arid port-:! voltage coritrol
2 Constant react~vevoltage and coilstant resistance emulatioil

The active power can be regulated and/or modulated by controlling the series reactlr e voltage
reference ( V R ( ~ [101],[102]
~ ) ~ ~ ~ )The reactive power in the line can be regulated by controlling
Series real voltage (V'(,,)) injection and this 1s equivalent to port-2 voltage control[l4)
The voltage at port 2 of the UPFC is algebra~callyrelated to that at port-1 and the
mlt&3e Injected by senes VSC (For slmpllcltj the ser~estransformer reactance is clubbed
with the line impedance)

Chapter 5 SSR Chamctewtzcs of unzfied fiedower plow COT&&,

146

YH

YD

Y*

t
4

%XY

-7

hn-2

voltage
Conuoller

$ -

r' and B
Cdcul~lor
"Pi

dl

IJe

I +AT,

e
Flgure 5 4 Series voltage controller
The voltage relat~onis glven by

where Vpl and VRI.are the in-phase and quadrature components of port-1 voltage Vi mth
respect to port-2 current and expressed as,

VP(S.Z)
and V~(r.1 are the in-phase and quadrature components of 5,)
w t h respect to port 2
current and are expressed as,

147

5 J Analysts of SSR- A case study

Since all quantities are locally available,


call easily calculate real voltage vp(,) to be
mlectedto obtain desired magnitude of %(see fig 5 4) There are two solutions of vp(..),
the solution which has a lower magnitude is chosen
ln ~ l g5 4, y and ,&, are calculated as

The various operating modes of UPFC considered are summarized in Table 5 1 These
are not exhaustive as the reactive voltage reference for the controller can be set by an outer
controller regulating power flow in the line

I
1

Table 5 1 Operating modes for shunt and series VSC


Series converter
Case Shunt Converter
Controller-2
Controller-1
1
Port-1 voltage Reactive voltage
Port-? voltage
Port-1 voltage Reactive voltage Resistance emulation
2
Port-2 voltage
3
Reactive current Reactlve voltage
4
Reactive current Reactive voltage Resistance emulation

---

I
(

5 3 Analysis of SSR- A case study


The system considered is adapted from IEEE FBM [88] The electrical system 1s represented
schematically in Fig 5 5 , which consists of a generator and series compensated long tlansmsslon llne with UPFC The shu~ltcapac~tor(B,) and VSCl is located at the electrical
center of the transmission line (considering series lnjected reactive voltage) The data for
generator, mechanical system, UPFC and transmission line are given in Appendix-C
The modelling aspects of the electromechanical system comprising the generator, the
multi-mass mechanical system, the excitation system, power system stabilizei (PSS) , torslonalfilter and the trans miss lo^^ line coi~tmningthe series capacitor are gven in detail
Chapter-2

UPFC

Figure 5 5 Electrical system of IEEE FBM with UPFC


The analysis of SSR with UPFC is carried out based on damping torque analysis, elgen
value analysis and transient simulation The analysis IS carried out on the IEEE FBM based
on the following Initial operating condition and assumptions
1 The generator delivers 0 9 p u power to the transmission system

2 The input mechanical power to the turbine is assumed constant


3 The total series compensation level is set a t 0 6 p u

4 The turbine-generator mechanical damplng

531

IS

neglected for damping torque analysis

Damping torque analysis

The damping torque method iilvolves less computational burden and is a convenient tool for
analyzing the SSR characteristics of the electrical network Damping torque analysls can be
used to predict the potential SSR problems under varlous system operating condtions For
the computation of damplng torque with UPFC, it is necessary to express the admlttm
function [ Y ( j w ) ]=

YDD YDQ
YQD YQQ

derived m Appendix-F
5311

seen at generator internal bus, in D-Q reference frameas

Damping torque analysis w i t h Vp(,) = 0 0

The total series compensation of 60% is met by hybrid compensation wherein 40% of camp*
sation is met by fixed capacitor and the remanlng 20% is reallzed by injected series rmt1'
voltage by UPFC, at the operating p a n t The imtlal operating value of VP(W)
= 0 0 'nI

149

5 9 Anulysls of SSR- A case study

caes, the shunt reactive current 1s ad~ustedto a value to obtain the mamltude of p0~t-1
&age 1 015(p u ) In steady state, the operat~ngvalue of IRsh = -0 0856

The variation of damping torque 1~1thfleq~ellcyfor cases 1 to 4 (as given


m Fig 5 6 and Fig 5 7 respect~rely
ue

Table 5 1)

Figurp 5 6 Plot of damping torque with frequency for cases 1 and 3


8

It is to be noted that in all the cases, maximum negative damplng occurs at around 160
rad/sec whlch matches with torsional mode 3 of IEEE FBM and adverse tors~onal~ntcractloils
are expected
It 1s to be noted that peak negative damping with cases-1 and 3 is nearly about -86
P u assoc~atedwith a sharp dip W ~ t hcase-2 and 4 the peak negative damping 1s about
37 5 P u lnd~cat~ng
that res~stanceemulation gives better SSR characteristics compared to
Port 2 voltage control It is observed that, constant reactive current control mode of shunt
converter (cases 3 and 4), Increases the damping at low frcquenc~esand the peak ne,oatlve
dam~lng1s mar~nallyreduced
5 3 1 2 Semntrvlty of damping torque for serles real voltage(V~(,))

ln~ectlon

The peak negative damping associated with vanous operat~ngcases depends also on the
mWtude of series real voltage ~n~ectionThe vanation of damping torque with frequency
for Cue- 1 is shown in Fig 5 8 Referring to R g 5 8, peak negative damping 1s ~ d ~ c e d

Chapter 5 SSR Charactenstzcs of Unzfied Power Plow Controller

150

-1 00
0

50

100

150

- Wlth UPFC Case-2


- - W~thUPFC Case-4
200

250

300

Figure 5 7 Plot of damping torque with frequency for cases 2 and 4

Figure 5 8 Sensitivity of damping torque for variation in

Vp(,e)

5 9 Analysrs of SSR- A case study

151

substantldlyw t h positive real voltage injection Vp(,)= O 065, wllich emulates posltlve restance in series with the line However, negative real voltage injection I/P(se)=-0 015, whlcll
emdatesnegative resistance, can destabilize the network mode and the elgenvalue 1s found
to be 18973 f 3159 21 The damping torque remains practically unchanged In the regions
0-130and 180-300 rad/sec (not shown in Fig 5 8)
A comparison of cases 1 and 2 with VP(,,)=O065 is shown in Fig 5 9 This again shorns

Figure 5 9 Variation of damping torque with frequency for cases 1 and 2 for V,(,,) = 0 065
that constant resistance emulation mode gives better torsional damping compared to constant port-2 voltage control mode
5 3 1 3 Sensitivity of damping torque for series reactlve voltage(V~(,,))injection

The effectof increase in series uyected capacit~vereactive voltage (hence Xa) and keeping
total compensation at GO%, is sllown 111 Fig 5 10 11 is observed that, liweased lllJcLtlon
~fcapacltivereactive voltage causes sigmficant increase m the frequency at which ~SOnance
occurs Whlle the peak negative damping increases with increase in V~(ee)for ~ase-1(collstmt
mltage control), it decreases for case3 (constant reactive current control) indicating constant
reactive current control 1s better than port-1 voltage control at the operating point The
torque remans practically unchanged in the regions 0-120 and E@-300 rad/sec
a d hence not shown in Figs

Chapter 5 SSR Chamctenstzcs of Unzfied Power Flow Controlla

152
20

--_

0.

20

Wlth UPFC (Case-1) [ I


I _ - -

'

-- -

W~thUPFC (Case-3) [ lRsh = -0 0856 VQe = 0 01


-r

__ - - - - _

>

--\

Figure 5 10 Sensitivity of damping torque for variation in X(,,)


5 3 14

Sensitivity of damping torque for s h u n t reactive current (IRsh) injection

The effect of injection of slluilt reactive current is shown In Fig 5 11 The injection of
increased capacitive reactive current by shunt converter increases the resonance frequency
marginally and decreases the damping of torsional modes As mentioned eqlier, the results
for case-2 indicates better damping with resistance emulation The damping torque remans
practically unchanged in the regions 0-130 and 180-300 rad/sec and hence not shown in the
Figure

5315

Constant reactance emulation operation of series converter

In this analysis, with cases-1 and 2 constant reactive voltage is replaced by constant rew
tance emulation operation The effect of constant reactance emulation operation 1s shown
in Fig 5 12 Referring to Fig 5 12, lt can be seen that the constant reactive voltage mode
of operation reduces the peak negative damping and increases the resonance frequency corn
pared to constant reactance emulation T h s suggests that constant reactive voltage control
1s better than the constant reactance emulation (as in SSSC)

153

5 3 Analyszs of SSR- A case stud3

10

Wtth UPFC (Case-2) [ V,,(*,

.-

= 0 0 Xse = 0 20 1

corn (radlsec)

Figur

- case-1

-l8-20

-22

--- Case-2
Port-1 voltage constant reactance emulation and port-;!

voltage control
Port-1 voltage constant reactance and constant r e s l s t a n a fmulatton
50

100

150

200

250

300

om(radlsec)

Figure 5 12 Dampmg torque wlth constant r e a c t a n c e emlllatlon

Chapter 5 SSR Chamctenstzcs

154

532

0.f

un~fiedPower F h Contmlb

Eigenvalue analysis

In this analysis, generator model(2 2) [19] 1s ~ ~ n s l d e r e dThe electromechanical system


collslsts the multi-mass mechanical system, the generator, the excitation system, power
system stabilizer (PSS), torsional filter and the transmlsslon line with UPFC The UPFC
equations (5 8-5 27) along with the equations representing electromechamcal system

Q variables), are linearized at the operating point and elgenvalues of system matrx ae

colnputctl Tllc \t<~hillty


of thc systcb~nis drtcnnlllt d t ~ ythc loc~tiollof t l i ~~ i g t l 1 1 ~ a l ~ ~ ~
systein matrix The system is stable if the eigenvalues have negative real parts
Here the operating value of series injected real voltage is set at Vp(,,)
= 0 0, x,,=
- " R ( s ~ ) = 0 2, X, = 0 4 and port-1 voltage at I& I = 1 015p U as in section 8 3 12 The
12

elgenvalues of system matrix are computed for cases 1, 3, 2 and 4 are given in Table 5 2 and
Table 5 3 Comparing the eigenvalue results of Table 5 2 and Table 5 3, it is to be noted
that, the mode of control of shunt VSC has no significant effect on the torsional modes,
whereas damping of mode 0 has improved with port-1 voltage control The latter fact a
not in agreement with the results of damping torque analysis (shown in F g s 6 and 7) wh&
assume classical model of the generator However, eigenvalues corresponding to mode zero
with classical model of the generator are (2) 0 0221 fJ 7 8242 and (22) - 0 4191 fJ 74542
for cases 1 and 3 respect~vely Thus the modelling of the generator affects the stability of
mode zero The negative damping associated with mode 3 is maximum with case-1 and
minlmum with case4 are in agreement with the conclusions of damping torque analysls
Table 5 4 gives the eigenvalues of the combined system when series real voltage is set to
0 065 p u and the controller emulates (positive) resistance in series with t,he line All the
torsional modes are stable in this case

533

Transient simulation

The elgenvalue analysis uses equations in D-Q variables where the switching functions are aP
proxlmated by their fundamental frequency components (converter switchings are neglected)
To validate the results obtaned from damping torque and eigenvalue analysis,the translent
simulation should be carried out using detailed nonlinear three phase model of UPFC whxh
considers the s w i t h n g in the three phase converters Hence the

UPFC is modelled by two

three level 12-pulse converters by generating switching functions The transient slmulatKo
of the combined nonlinear system wlth detailed three phase model of
using MATLAB-SIMULINK [47]

UPFC 1s curled out

The transient simulation of the combined system with D-Q model and detded three

5 3 Analysts of SSR-A case study

155

Table 5 2 Eigenvalues of the detailed ~ y s t e r n ( V ~=( ~0)~ ,

Table 5 3 Elgenvalues of the detalled system(Vpcse1= 0)

'I

Network mode subsynchronous, (wo - we,)

1 -2 7931 f

160 0700 -2 7657 fj 159 9900


Network mode supersynchronous, (wo we,)
( -1 3266 f3 560 1900 -1 4757 f j 560 1500
j

Chapter 5 SSR Chamctenstzcs of Unzfid Power How ContmllA

156

Table 5 4 Eigenvalues of the detmled system (Vp(,,, = 0 065)


- -

1 -6

1 -11 9020 f3 159 9200


Network mode supersynchronous, (wo + we,)
-

0148 f3 158 4500

-5 7150 f3 543 9000 -16 8880 fJ 545 2700


t

phase model of UPFC have been carried out for case-1 using MATLAB-SIMULINK [47]
The simulation results with D-Q model for case-1 with Vp(,,)
= 0 and Vp(,,)
= 0 065 for a
10% decrease in input mechanical torque applied at 0 5 sec and removed at 1 sec are shown
in Fig 5 13 and Fig 5 14 respectively The simulation results with detailed three phase
model are shown in Figs 5 15 and Fig 5 16 respectively The results are m agreement with
what 1s predicted by eigenvalue analysis

A large disturbance IS inltlated at 0 5 sec in the form of three phase fiult at port 1 of
UPFC wlth a fault reactance of 0 04 (p u ) and cleared at 4 5 cycles The s~mulationresults
with detaled three phase model of UPFC for case-1 with Vp(,,)
= 0 065 is shown in Figs 5 17
and 5 18 for D-Q and three phase model of UPFC respectively It is observed that, there
a good match between the simulation results of D-Q and three phase model of UPFC The
shaft torque oscillations decay fast

54

Discussion

Although, the damping torque method accurately predicts the torsional mode stablhty, the
stabllty of the entire system can be studied by eigenvalue analysis The ~ntroductlonof
UPFC m the transmission network, m general, has the effect of reducing the electricalr*
nance frequency due to the series reactive voltage injection and reducing the peak negative

UPFC w~thCase-1

Ttme (sec)

F~gure5 13 Simulation with D-Qmodel of UPFC fol step c h ~ n g e111 T,, Vp(,,)= O

95

UPFC wlth Case-1


[IV1l = 1 015 xIB 0 20 VPlsB,5 0 0651

750

me (sec)

09

UPFC wlth Case-1


[IV, I = 1 015 Xm = 0 20 V,l,o,

0 5l
0

= 0 0651

4
Time (sec)

Rgure 5 14 Simulation 1~1thD-Q model of UPFC for step change in T,, VP(,) = 0 065

Chapter 5 SSR Charactenstzcs of Unzfied Power Flow Controller

158

as,

Figure 5 15 Simulatlon with three phase model of UPFC for step change in T,, Vpb) = 0

95

UPFC w~thCase-1

[IV,I = 1 015

xW= 0 20

v ~ (= 0
~ 0651
)

UPFC wdh Case-1


[IV,I = 1 015 Xw 0 20 Vp(Bs)= 0 0651

08-

a1 0 6 -

o 50

3
4
Time (sec)

Flgure 5 16 Simulatlon wlth three phase model of UPFC for step change in T m ,Vp(a.4 =
0 065

140
120

UPFC w~thCase-1

[IV, 1 = 1 015 Xw = 0 20 Vp,(

= 0 0651

6
h

4
a,

I-

-21

-6l
0

""'I'

'

'

3
4
Time (sec)

I
7

Flgure 5 17 Simulatlon wlth D-Q model of UPFC for three phase fault

-."

120

[IV,I

UPFC w~thCase-1
Xse 0 20 Vp(w) = 0 0651

= 1 015

3
4
T~me(sec)

4
Time (sec)

6
4

5I -20 <

-4-

-6.
0

Flwre 5 18 Simulatlon with three phase model of UPFC for three phase fault

160

Chapter 5 SSR Chamctenstzcs of Unzfied Power Flow Conhllff

damping due to the series real voltage tn~ection This 1s shown in Fig 5 19 where the damping
torque with two operating modes of the UPFC are compared with the case without UPFC
60% series compensation is provided by fixed sales capacitor done) Note that
the resonailt frequencies shown in Fig 5 19 are the complements of the electrical resonant
frequency

Without UPFC

Figure 5 19 Comparison of damping torque wlth and without UPFC


The control of the real voltage plays an important role here The 'resistance emulation'
type of control is better than the fast control of port-2 voltage of the UPFC ( w h h 1s
equivalent to the control of reactive power flow in the line) It is to be noted that, slow
control of port-2 voltage will have no significant effect on the torsional damping
The mode of control for the shunt VSC (constant reactive current or constant port 1
voltage) has little effect on the resonant frequency or the peak negatlve damping However,
the operating value of the reactive current has some effect on the torsional damping
The eigenvalue analysis can be correlated with the damping torque analysis if it 1s assumed that the sensitlvit~esof the real part of an elgenvalue corresponding to a torslond
mode is constant It can be shown that, the real part cr: and 0: for the P torsional mode
for two hfferent cases are approximately related by

161

5 5 Concluszons

where H,,,,is the modal i~leltlafor the

Zth

mode, Tie, and Td2,,are the damping tolque

foi the two cases


For the case study, from Table 5 2 and 5 3, Aa3 = a: - 032 = 15185 - 0 8427 = 0 6758
The R H S of equation (5 28) 1s calculated as 0 6701 at 159 3 rad/sec (the torsional mode
frequency with classical model of the generator) This shows the importance of damping
as a quick check on the torsional mode stability
torque
Although the dai~lpingtorque analysis is apploximdte, it can be used as a fast screening
tool As shown in Appendix-F, the computation of admittance function is speeded up as
most of the network elements are passive and have simple expressions The active elements
(uPFC in t h s case) rue reprcscnted indlvid~idlyby state space models and admittance
functions are derived from them The represelltation of the electrical system as a netnork
simplifies the computation of the damping torque even for complex iletworks This ~pproach
of computing the damping torque IS novel Although the IGE is ignored in the generator
model, it can be approximately accounted by inserting a negatite resistance in series with
the generator stator
I

It is to be noted that, the active power control mode of UPFC is not considered here as
~tis not possible (in the IEEE FBM) The damping controllers also not considered as PSS
is provided at the generator

In this chapter, the annlys~sand simulation of series compensated system ivith UPFC is
presented which is reported for the first time The model of UPFC based on twelve-pulse
three level VSCs is developed from the first pxinciples taking in to consideration the switching
action in three phase VSC For the linearized study rf hich includes eigenvalue and damping
torque analysis, the D-Q model is developed bv neglecting the harmonics in the output
voltage of VSCs The method of damping torque analysis with UPFC is de~elopedfor the
first time for the fast prediction of torsional mode stability The appllcatlon of the D-2 n~odel
1s validated by the transient simulation of three phase model of UPFC The effectiveness of
various combinations of operating modes of shunt and series converters in damping of SSR
has been investigated
The following points emerge based on the results of the case study
1 The operating mode of the shunt converter has no significant effect on the torsional

modes

Chapter 5 SSR Charactenstzcs of Unzfied Power Flow Controller

2 he injection of positive series real voltage lm~rovesthe damping of the critical tm


slollchal mode The resistance emulation mode 1s slgnlficantly better than the constsnt
(polt-2) voltage control (whicllch is equivalent to the constant reactive power flow
trol)

3 The injectlon of series reactive voltage for line compensation reduces the risk of SSR
as not only the negative damping is reduced, the resonance frequency is increased
This indicates the possibility of detuning SSR by adlusting the series reactive voltage,
whenever feasible In addition, a significant increase in the damping of torsional modes
1s achieved by emulating a positive resistance wlth the injection of series real voltage

I
I

Chapter 6

Modelling and Selection of Optimal


Controller Parameters for VSC based
HVDC System
6 1 Introduction
The development of power seiniconductors with turn-off capability, specially IGBT's, has led
to the introduction of small power HVDC transmission based on Voltage Source Converters
(VSCs) The VSC based HVDC installations has several advantages compared to contentional HVDC such as, independent control of active and reactive pouer, dynn~n~c
toltage
support at the converter bus for enhancing stability, possibility to feed to \leak AC systems
or even passlve loads, reversal of poRer without changing the polarity of dc voltage (advantageous in multi~ermnaldc systems) and no requirement of fast communication bcheen the
two converter stations [16, 17, 181
Each converter station is composed of a VSC The amplitude and phase angle of the
converter AC output voltage can be controlled simultaneously to achieve rapid, incleperldent
control of active and reactive power in all the four quadrants 7 he contzol of both active and
reactive power is bi-directional and continuous across the operating range For actwe pouer
balance, one of the converter operates on dc voltage control and other conperter on active
power control When dc line power is zero, the two converters can function as independent
STATCOMs
This chapter presents the modelhng and control design of VSC based HVDC ~ h l c huses
twelve pulse three level converter topology The modelling of the system neglecting VSC
18 detaled (including network transients) and can be expressed in D-Q variables or (tliree)
phase variables The modelling of VSC 1s based on (a) D-Q variables (neglecting harmonics

" the output voltages of the converten) and (b) pilase variables aith the modelling of
5mtdlng action in the VSC The eigenvalue anitlysis and the controller des~gn1s based on

1G4Cltapter 6 hfodellzng and Selectzon of Ophlnal Controller f'm~7-~eter5


for VSC based H V D C S ~ ~

the D-Q model while the transient simulation considers both models of VSC
Each VSC has basically two controllers which determine active and reactive current
outputs of the individual VSC The active current reference can be obtaned either from
power controller or dc voltage controller The reactive current reference call be kept constant
or obtained from ac bus voltage controller lf ac bus voltage 1s also to be regulated Thus,there
are a large number of controller parameters to be tuned for different operating modes A
systcinatic approclcli [92], for pardrnctc~optllrll/rltl0111s clppllcd f0l tlie sc~lcctlonof colltrollcr
guns The method is illustrated with a case study

62

Modelling of VSC based HVDC

The VSC based HVDC transmission system mainly consists of two converter stations con
nected by a dc cable (see Fig 6 1)

'1

C Cable-+

'2

v2

BUS 1
Rs2 Xs2

Figure 6 1 Schematic representation of VSC based HVDC '

Usually, the magnitude of ac output voltage of the converter is controlled by Pulse Width
Modulation (PWM) wlthout changing the magnitude of the dc voltage However, the three
level converter topology considered here can also achieve the goal by varying the dead angle
0 with fundamental switdung frequency [3, 961 Here, a combination of multi-pulse and
three level configuration is considered for both VSCs to have 12-pulse converter w ~ t h%level
poles The amphtude and phase angle of the converter AC output voltage can be controlled
simultaneously to achieve rapid, illdependent control of active and reactlre power 1x1 four
quadrants
The detaled three phase model of converters 1s developed by modelling the wnverter
operation by switching functions (see section 3 3 1)

6 2 Modelhng of

VSC based HVDC

165

6 2 1 Basic equatlons
The differential equations for the current drawn by jt%onverter are given as

where v:, , vi,, v; are the con1 erter output phase voltages and w~ 1s the base frequency
uaJ, us,, v, are the phase voltages of jth conherter bus The bus voltage ua, is given by
ual =
sm(w.t 8,) and vb, ,vc, are phase shifted successively by 120
The jth converter output phase voltages in p u are expressed as,

f i ~ +

where, Si2(t), x = a, b and c are the switching functions for a 12-pulse 3-level VSC (defined
in section 3 3 1) and vdy is the dc slde capacitor voltage of jth converter in p u p, is the
and Vacb
are the base voltages
transformation ratlo of the lnterfaclng transformer and Vdcb
of dc and ac sides respectively a, is the angle by which the fundamental component of jth
converter output voltage leads the jthac bus voltage V, With the two convertei VSC blued
HVDC system, J = I , 2
If the switching functions are approvimated by their fundamental components (neglecting
harmonics) for a 12-pulse three level converters, we get

and uiJ, uT, are phase shifted successively by 120'


Neglecting converter losses we can get the expression for dc side currents as,

Neglecting the harmonics


verter is given by,

111 the

swfiching functions, the dc side current of the f h con-

1G6Chapter 6 Modelhng and Selectzon of Opttmal Contmiler Pmameters for VSC baed HVDC SRSirn

622

Mathematical model in D-Q frame of reference

When switching functions are approxlinated by their fundaineiltal frequency components


neglecting harmonics, VSC based HVDC can be modelled by transforming the three phase
voltages and currents in to D-Q variables uslng Kron's transformation [I,191 The equivalent
circuit of a VSC viewed from the AC side 1s shown in Flg 6 2

BUS

v,/el

Figure 6 2 Equivalent circult of a VSC vlewed from the AC side


In Flg 6 2, R,, X,,are the resistance and reactance of the interfacing transformer
of VSC(J) The magnitude control of jth converter output voltage V&)B achieved by
modulating the conduction perlod affected by dead angle P, of individual converters one
of the converter controls dc voltage while the other converter controls dc llnk power
The output voltage of jth converter can be represented in D-Q frame of reference as

Where' L ~ =J kt cos(P,), kt = kp,

%, k = 9 for a 12 pulse converter

6 2 Modellzng of VSC
- based HVDC

167

The following equations in the D-& variables can be given for descr~bingthe converter
currents

The dc side capacitors are described by the dynamics1 equations as,

where,

- [klsm(01+ Q I ) ~ D ( I )+ kmiC O L (+~ ~I)~Q(I]]


I
1&1= - [km2sin(& + a r ) l ~ ( z+
) km2 cos(02 + a a ) ~ ( 2 ) ]

tkl =

zg(l) are D-Qcomponents of converter-1 current Il


t ~ ( 2 )and zg(2) are D-Qcomponents of converter-2 current I2
Z d ~ land z d ~ 2are the DC cable currents in the left and r~ghthand side sectioxls of the cable
Since the rating of two VSCs are same, it is taken as,
bcl = bc2 = bc \
~ ~ ( and
11

Jci = YCZ = SC

623

Converter control

The Fig 6 3 shows the schematic representation for corlverter contlol In Chapter-3, the
dynarnical equations of the current control are glven in detail
The real and reactibe current controller forms inner loop control for all the converters At
jthconverter, the reactwe current reference (IR(J)rel) of j t h converter can be kept constant
or regulated to mantam the respective AC bus voltage rnagnltude at the specified
The active current reference (Ipb) can be either obtalned from DC voltage controller or
Power controller as one collverter controls DC voltage and other controls porver The AC
bus voltage controller and DC voltage/Power controller forms an outer loop control Hence,
b u l ~at
d any
~ converter

the two quantit~esto be controlled are (I) AC bus voltage/reactlve


Cment and (u) power/DC voltage All controllers are of P I type except power controller
~ k c huses PID type The combination of various lnner and outer loop controllers at any

168Chapter 6 Modellrng and Selectton of OptZmal ContTCJllerPammeters for VSC baed H V D C S ~

Figure 6 3 Converter controller


comerter are indicated in Table 6 1 below The figures given in parenthesis indicate the
number of controller parameters

S1 no
1

Table 6 1 Inner and outer loop controller combination


Inner loop controllers
Outer loop controllers
Reactive current (2), Active current (2) Power (3),
Constant reactive current
Reactive current (2), Active current (2) Power (3),
AC bus voltage (2)
Reactive current (2), Active current (2) DC voltage (2),
Constant reactive current
Reactive current (2), Active current (2) DC voltage (2),
AC bus voltage (2)
I

3
4

Referring Fig 6 3, active and reactive currents for J t h converter are defined as

169

6 8 Optzmzzatzon of the cont?o l l e ~parameters


and a, and

4 are calculated as
a, = tan-'

[2;;;::)
I

VP(,)= "b(3) sln(e,)


~ l p ( and
~)

+ Ub(,)

cos(oJ)

(6 20)

VR(J)= vb(7)C O S ( ~ ~vbe)


) sln(0,)

(6 21)

Kt(,) a1c the in phzse and quadrature components of

y3)with respect to J t h

bus voltt~gc Tlie cy~icltlolls (G 20) ~11d(6 21), 1esults 111 posititc ralucs W ~ ~ C Ij tI h VSC 1s
drawing red current and inductive reactlve cune~it
The varlous operating combinations of VSC based HVDC are summarized in Table G 2
Table 6 2 Operating combiiiatlons of VSC based HVDC

VSCl (Rectifier)

Case

Controller-1
Power
Power

VSC2 (Inverter)

Controller-:!

Controller-1

Controller-2

current DC voltage Reactive current


I Reactive
I
I
I
AC Bus voltage DC voltage AC Bus voltage
I

DC voltage

Rea,ctive current

Power

Reactive culrenit

DC voltage

AC Bus voltage

Power

AC Bus voltage

VSCl (Inverter)
Power

(
8

Power

DC voltage

Reactive current
Bus voltage
Bus voltage

VSC2 (Rectifier)

DC voltage
DC voltage
Power

Reactive current

Bus voltage

Bus voltage

Additional 4 cases (cases 5-8) arc obtai~lcdn hen VSCl ope~ntcsas an invcrtel and VSC2
operates as a rectifier

6 3 Optimization of the controller parameters


With the 2 outer loop controllers which control 2 quailtities (DC voltage/Power and Reactive
C~rentlACbus voltage) at each converter statlon along wlth the Inner 1001) controllers,

170Chnptsr 6 Modellzng and Selectton of Ophmal Contmller P ~ m m e t e rfor


~ VSC bmed HVDC syrb,
there call be up to 17 controller gmns to be selected for a two terminal VSC based HVDC
link Each operating mode requires proper tuning of controller gains In order to
satisfactory system performance
A systeinatic approach for parameter optimidation [92] 111 seltctmng controller gains of

VSC based HVDC is discussed in the section to follow

6 3 1 Statement of the optimization problem


Coilsider a system defined by the equation

Y = [C]X
where matrix [A(r)]involves one or more adjustable parameters [r] is the vector of
co~it~oller
gains to be optimized The optiinizatioi~problem is based on the standard infinite
time quadratic performance Index which is to be minimized by adjustllig the controller
parameters and can be stated as,

Assuming the system is stable, J can be expressed as

J =X ~ P X

where P is a positive definite matrix and solved from the Liapunov equation

PA + A ~ P
= -Q

where Q = CtC
For t = 0,

If XCIlies on the hypersphere of rad~usunity, the expected value of J can be expressed

6 4 A case stud3

632

171

Algorithm for optlmmzatlon

The performace Index J^


by equation (6 27) can be obtaned In terms of the lnltial
state Xo and inltlal values of the controller parameters [TO] which are determined by trial
and error The algonthm for mnirmzatlon is gven as below
1 Set iteration counter 'k' to zero

2 Assume

= [ro]

[r(k)]

3 Solve for [PI from equation (6 25)

4 Calculate 7 = tr[P]
5 Compute the update for the parameters

by l ~ n esrarch

6 Update

I)]

= [ ~ ( k ) ] Ark

7 Test for convergence


( 3 ) lJ(~k+l) ?(rk)l < Tolerance, where Tolerance = le-6 and
(n)The magnitude of directional derivative
1s < 2 * Tolerance
If converged stop Else

(w)

8 k=k+l go do step 3

64

A case study

The system dagram 1s shown In Fig 6 4, which conslsts of a generator and AC transmission
system on either side of VSC HVDC cable transmsslon The data for generator, HVDC
cable and AC transmsslon hne parameters are glven in Appendur-C
The modelling aspects of the electromechan~calsystem comprising the generator modelled
with 2 2 model, mechanical system, the excltatlon system, power system s t a b h e r (PSS),
torsional filter and the transmsslon hne are gven m detal in Chapter-2
al
The analysis is carrled out on the test system based on the follomng ~ n l t ~operat~ng
condltlon and assumptions
1 The generator dehvers 0 125 p u power to the transmlsslon system

2 The magnitude of generator tcrminal voltage 1s set at 105 p u

172Chapter 6 Modelling and Selectton of Optimd Controller Parameters for VSC based H V D C ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Figure 6 4 System diagram


\

3 The magnitude of both the converter bus voltages are set at 1 01 p u The magnitudes
of both the lnfinite bus voltages are set at 10 p u
t

4 The VSCl draws 0 9 p u power from busl to feed to HVDC cable for rectifier operation

and draws -0 9 p u power from busl with inverter operation The base MVA is 300
MVA, AC voltage base is taken to be 500kV and DC voltage base is 150kV

5 Generator rating is taken to be 300 MVA in all case studies

6 4 1 Parameter Optlmlzation
For slmphcity, the generator dynam~csare neglected for parameter optimnation The pa
rameters are optirmzed withln the range of upper and lower bounds The upper and lower
bounds for parameters are determined by e~genvalueanalysis to ensure a stable system It
1s found that, the parameters of power controller are critical in ensuring the stabihty ofthe
system It should be noted that, the the system r n a t r ~[A(r)]is unlque for each of the OPeratlng modes of VSCs The optirmultion dgor~thmpresented 1n section 6 3 rs implemented
using the optinmation routine 'fmncon' of MATLAB [47] The initial values of c0ntroUm
psrameters are suboptimal and are obtslned by tnal and error The Table-6 3 gw the
s u b o p t l d and optimum parameters for the/vanous operating modes of VSC HVDc In
l a b e k g controller parameters gven m Table 6 3, the first two letters are a t h e 'bI 9 ib'

5, 4 A case study

173

or tkdl lndlcate~the type of controller proportional, Integral or derivative respectively rile


t, letters indlcate the function of the controller viz 'lr' for reactwe current, 'ip' for active
current,Gplfor actlve power, vdc' for dc voltage control and 'v' for AC voltage control The
number1 or 2 at the end of the label lndlcates the respective VSC station where the control
Is considered

Table 6 3 Details of parametel optimlzatlon


Case
1

Parameter

Controller
v a lable
~

Subopt~mal

Optlmal

kpir 1, kiir 1

0 OG, 0 60

0 025, 0 750

hpipl, kiipl

0 06, 0 60

0 051, 1200

kflir2, k11r2

0 06, 0 60

0 035, 0 375

kp1p2, k1ip2

0 06, 0 60

0 075, 0 375

kppl, k ~ p lkdpl
,

0 05, 40, 0

7 5, 175, 0 010

kpvdc2, kivdc2

2, 20

2, 20

kplrl, kiirl

0 06, 0 60

0 025, 0 750

kplpl, kilpl

0 06, 0 60

0 054, 1 204

kplr?, kiir2

0 06, 0 60

0 037, 0 375

kpip2, knp2

0 06, 0 60

0 075, 0 375

kppl, klpl, kdpl

0 05, 40, 0

7 502, 175, 0 008

kpvdc2, kivdc2

2, 20

2, 20

kpvl, klvl

0, -100

0, -99 998

kpv2, k1v2

0, -100

0, -99 995

kpirl, kiirl

0 03, 0 15

0 055, 0 750

kpipl, k11p1

0 03, 0 15

0 007, 0 040

kpir2, k11r2

0 03, 0 15

0 04, 0 SO0

kp1p2, knp2

0 03, 0 15

0 007, 0 040

kpp2, k1p2, kdp2

0 5, 4, 0

2 5, 25, 0 20

kpvdcl, klvdcl

2, 20

7 5, 10

Iterations Function value

aopt)

22

0 2864

12

0 3078

12

2 4676

174Chapter 6 Modelltng and Seiectzon of Optlmal Contmlier Pammeters for VSC based HVDC ,yyalr

Table-6 3 Detals of parameter optimization (contd )

Parameter

Controller

Case

variable

Suboptimal

Optimal

bpir 1, kiir 1

0 015, 1 5

0 030, 0 300

kpipl, kiipl

I 0 03, 0 045 1

0 028, 0 040

kpir2, kiir2

0 015, 1 5

0 030, 0 400

kpip2, kiip2

0 03, 0 045

0 035, 0 040

kppl, kipl, kdpl

0 6, 8, 0 03

0 765, 15, 0 040

kpvdc2, kivdc2

2 1, 20

2, 10

kpir 1, kiir 1

0 015, 1 5

0 030, 0 6

hpipl, kiipl

0 03, 0 045

0 028, 0 075

kpir2, kiir2

0 015, 1 5

0 02, 0 6

kpip2, kiip2

0 03, 0 045

0 035, 0 075

kpp2, kip2, kdp2

10, 100, 0

13 863, 99 774, 0 01

kpvdcl , kivdcl

5, 50

5, 4 9 303

Iterations Function value

I(oP~)

12

1 8996

11

0 3405

',

Referring to Table 6 3, it is observed that, the optimal parameters obtained for AC bus
voltage control (case-2) are not significantly different from the optimum parameters obtaned
with reactive reactive current control (case-1) Hence, the parameters obtained with constant
reactive current control for cases-1, 3, 5 and 7 call be used for cases-2, 4, 6 and 8 respectively
with additional parameters corresponding to the PI control of the bus voltages
is minimum for case1 compared to case-3 A
The function value at convergence
simmlar comparison for case-5 and 7 indicate that
is less for case-7 This indicates that,
the fast response of the system with quick settling to steady state 1s expected for case-1 and
7 in comparison with cases 3 and 5 respectively

(G,)

642

Simulation results

TO study the effectiveness of optimized controller parameters on the system performance!


a pulse change in the controller reference is applied and the simulation results for subop
tima1 and optimum controller parameters (obtaned by the algorithm) are compared The
simulation is based on nonbnear system model using D-Q variables

6 4 A case study

model Includes detailed generator model It is to be noted that parameter


The
o p t l ~ ~ s t iISo bn w d on the m d e l neglecting generato1 dynamics However, it F V obsel
~
ved
that the lncluslon of generator model did not affect the response to step changes in the
referencevariables of the HVDC system
The slmulat~onresults for step changes In reactive current and power reference of VSCl
with case-l (when the controller parametels are suboptimal) are shown 111 rig 6 5

0 7s0

05

15

25

T~me(sec)
L

Flgure 6 5 S~mulationresults for step change with suboptimal controller parameters (case-1)
The simulation results for step change in reactive current and power reference of VSCl
nth case-1 (when the co~ltrollcrparameters ale optimal) are shown In Flg 6 6 It is obse~ved
that, the system response to step changes IS sign~ficantlyimproved with optimal controller
parameters
The variation of act~vepower and dc voltage of ind~vidualconverters for a pulse change
active power reference (PI) 1s show11 m Fig 6 7 w ~ t hcase-1 and optiinum controller parameters It IS observed that, the performance of the system under transient changes ls
satisfactory

176Chapter6 Modelltng and Selectzon of Ophmal Contmller Pa?umetec* for VSC based HVDC surim

-0 06;

05

15

25

25

Time (sec)

0 75'
0

05

15

Time (sec)

::pi1

Figure 6 6 Simulation results for step change with optimal controller parameters (case 1)

*;

085
L

08

-0 8

0 750

05

Time (rec)

''0

-075

25

-0 85
0

05

15

25

Time (sec)

I
- 8 0 0
05
1 1 5
2
25
05
1 1 5
2
25
Time (sec)

Time (sec)

Figure 6 7 Variation of converter power and dc voltages for step change in power reference
(case-1)
The optimal parameters obtaned for case-1 can be used with case-2 as mentioned earher
The slmulatlon results for step change in bus voltage and power reference of VSClwlth case2 (when the controller parameters are suboptlrnal) are shown in Fig 6 8 W ~ t hthe optimal
controller parameters, the improved response with case-2 is shown in Fig 6 9

177

6 4 A we study

0 94;

05

15

25

T ~ m e(sec)

0 951

0 75;

05

15

25

Time (sec)

Figure 6 8 Simulation results for step change wlth suboptimal controller parameters (casc-2)

05

15

1
Tlrne (sec)

25

Figure 6 9 Simulation results for step change with optimal controller parameters (case-2)
The simulation results with case-3 for step changes in reactlve current of VSCl and powTer
reference using the optimal parameters obtained for case-1 are s h o w in Fig 6 10 It 1s to
be noted that, the system 1s unstable Thus the optimal parameters for case-1 operatloll arc
found to be unsuitable for case-3 The simulation results for step change m reactive current
0fvSC1and power reference with case3 (when the controller parameters are optimal) are

178Chopter 6 Modellzng and Selectzon of O ~ t z m a lC ~ n t m l l e R


r u w n e t e r s for VSC based AVDCsyatrn

shown in Fig 6 11

Figure 6 10 Simulation results for step change with case-3 using the qptimal controller
parameters of case- 1

Time (sec)

Figure 6 11 Simulation results for step change with optimal controller parameten (cse3)

The optimal parameters of case-3 can be used for case-4 as mentioned earlier The
simulation results wlth case-4 for step change m bus voltage of VSCl and power referencc

64 A

179

case study

using the subopt~rnaland optimal parameters dre sho\vn in Flgs 6 12 and 6

respectively

1 02

a
1(15

098096-

0 940

-0
- 9
0

05

15

05

15

25

d
25

Time (sec)

Figure 6 12 Simulation results for step change with suboptimal controller parameters (cnse-

4)

0 94'

05

15

25

Time (sec)
-0 65

-0 9l

1
05

15

25

Time (sec)

Figure 6 13 Simulation results {or step change nnth opti~nalcontroller parameters (case-4)

The slmulatlon results for step changes m rertctlve current of VSCl and power refer-

180Chapter 6 Modelhng and Selectton of O ~ t l m a lContmller Parameters for VSC baed HVDC brtsnI
ence with case-5 are shown in Flg 6 14 and Fig 6 15 when the controller parameters are
suboptimal and optimal respectively

Figure 6 14 Simulation results for step change with suboptimal controller parameters (case

5)

Figure 6 15 Simulation results for step change with optimal controller parameters (c~e-5)
The simulat~onresults for step changes in bus voltatage of VScl and power reference with
~ase-6are shorn in Flg 6 16 and Fig 6 17 when the controller parameters are s u b o ~ t l d

6 4 A case study

0 92;

05

15

25

15

25

Time (sec)

-0 9s1

05

Time (6%)

Figure 6 16 Simulation results for step change with suboptimal controller parameters (case-

6)

U
L
05
1
15
2
25

0 920

Time (sec)

-0 95;

05

1
Time (sec)

15

25

Figure 6 17 Simulation results for step change wwlth optimal controller parameters (case6)

The simulation results for step change m reactlve current of VSCl and power reference
Mh case-7 are shown in Fig 6 18 and Flg 6 19 when the controller parameters are suboptimal and optimal reqpectivrly The improvement of the system response s evident with

189Chapter 6 Modelltng and delechon

Of

Optzmal C ~ ? ~ t m l lPammeters
er
for VSC based HVDC

Fig 6 19 The vanation of active power and dc voltage of lndlvldual converters for step
change in power reference (P2) with case-'7 and o ~ t l m u mParameters 1s shown in Rg 6 20
The perforlnance of the system under transient changes is found satlsfactor~

Figure 6 18 Simulation results for step change with suboptimal controller parameters (case
7)

85

o0 80

05

15

25

Time (sec)

Figure 6 19 Simulation results for step change with optimal controller parameters (cae7)

6 4 A case study

183

Time (see)

Time (sec)

Trine (see)

Figure 6 20 Var~ationof converter p o i w and dc voltages for step change in poirer iefer~nce
(case-7)

The optlrnal parameters of case-7 can be used for case-8 as mentioned earlier The
simulatiol~results for step change 111 reactive current of VSCl and poiter reference nith

case 8 ale shown in Frg 6 21 and Fig 6 22 when the controller pararncte~sare subopt~mal
and optimal respectikely The improvement of the system response is evident from Fig 6 22
It is observed'that, the response to step change in power is slow with rectlfier on loltage
control and inverter on power control (cases-3 and 4) compared with cases-1 and 2 Thls IS
observed even when VSCl is operating as an inverter and VSC2 as rectlfier (the response to
step change in power reference is slow with cases-5 and 6 in comparison with cases-7 and 8)
The transient simulation of the system with D-Q and detaled three phase model of the
system is carried out using MATLAB-SIMULINK 1471 A large disturbance is initiated at 0 5
sec in the form of three phase fault at converter-1 bus of VSC HVDC with a fault reactance
of 0 04(p u ) and cleared at 4 0 cycles The limits on type-1 controllel outputs P, and cr,
are selected to minimize the over shoot m power flow through the converter under transient
conditions The simulation results for case-1 with D-Q model of VSC HVDC are shonn m
Fig 6 23 The simulation results for case-1 with three phase model of VSC KVDC are shown
in Fig 6 24
It 1s to be noted that, there is a good match between the sllnulatlon results (vanation of
rotor angle (6,) and power of converter l(Pl)) obtmned with D Q and three phase models of

VSC HVDC Also, the power flow in the HVDC link is brought back to the reference value

184chapter 6 Modelhng and Selechon of Ophmal Contmiler f)cwcmeters for

vsc based WDCs~~~~~

in a short time The high frequency oscillations in the power dunng steady state dueto
harmonics in the converter output AC voltage

I
05

15

25

T~me(sac)

Figure 6 21 Simulation results for step change with suboptimal controller parameters (case8)

0 81

05

T~me(sec)

15

25

Figure 6 22 Simulation results for step change 1~1thoptimal controller parameters (case-8)

6 4 A case study

185

Time (see)

Figure 6 23 Variation of rotor angle and power at converter 1 for three phase fault (D-Q
model)

-1

,
1

Time (sec)

Figure 6 24 Variation of rotor angle and power at converter 1 for three phase fault (Three
phase model)

In this chapter, we have presented the analysis and simulation of VSC based HVDC
The modelling details of HVDC system wlth twelve-p~lsethree level VSC are discussed A
systematic approach for the selection of controller parameters based on parameter optlrmza
tion is presented
The following points emerge based on the results of case study
1 he optimal controller gains depend significantly on the location of the dc

contloller The response of the power controller

IS

slow if the dc voltage controller Is

located at the rectifier statlon


2 The D-Q model is quite accurate 1x1 predicting the system performance

Chapter 7
-

Torsional Interact ions with VS C


based HVDC

The HVDC converter control can destabilize torsional modes of nearby turbo-generators
The first experience of HVDC-turbine generator torsional interaction was obselved in 1977
dumg field tests a t Square Butte project [81] in North Dakota The test shoned that the
relatively high gmn pouer modulation coiltrol did indeed destabilize the fi~sttorsional mode
at 115 Hz A detmled study [83,84] based on the concept of damping torque identified some
of the factors colitributlng to t h ~ s~nteractlo~ipower level, the delay angle at the operating
point, the strength of adjacent ac transmission, etc Interestingly, the interaction .cr as rnost
unfavourable if dc link is operated radially Also, the equidistant pulse control (EPC) used in
modern dc links is more unfavourable than the individual phase control (IPC) The operation
at low short circuit ratios (SCR) can aggravate the problem

Fortunately, the negative damping of torsional oscillations introduced by HVDC current


control is not as serious, as that introduced by series compensation of ac lines Modification
of the current controller solved the ploblem at Square Butte However, in general, auvlllary
controllers to damp subsynchronous oscillations may be required
The phenomenon of SSR, arising from an VSC based HVDC system connected close to
generation units, needs to be investigated The details of modelling of VSC based HVDC

has been discussed in the previous chapter In this chapter, possible torsional lnteroctions
~11thVSC based HVDC are investigated It is shown that, with the proper selection of
operating mode of VSC, the VSC HVDC can contribute posltne damping in the torsional
mode frequency range

Chapta 7 Torszonal Interactzons unth VSC baad HVDC

188

Conventional and VSC based HVDC


The conventional HVDC systems are based on CSC and are line cornmutated They s u ~ e r
froin the problem of commutation failures and operation with weak AC systems 1s difficult
The strength of AC systems connected to the terminals of a DC llnk 1s measured m terms
of short circuit ratio (SCR)wh~chis defined as

SCR =

Short czrcuzt level at the converter bus


Rated DC power

If the SCR is less than 3, the AC system is said to be weak (the net reactance of the
AC network seen at the converter bus is large and hence short clrcuit level is small) The
conventional constant extinction angle control may not be satisfactory with weak AC system
The recovery of inverters following the clearing of fault in the connected AC system can also
be problematic Constant reactlve current control or AC voltage control have been suggested
to overcome some of the problems of weak AC systems The voltage instabivty and dynmc
over voltages are other two problems when HVDC is operated with weak AC systems The
coordination of converter control with fast reactive power control a t the converter bus by
applying static var systems is practiced in modern HVDC converter stations to overcome
these problems
The VSC based HVDC installations are very attractive in view of their superior tech&
qualities as compared to conventional HVDC (based on CSC) [16,17, 18,871
In general, The VSC based HVDC has following advantages

1 Independent control of active and reactive power

2 Dynarmc voltage support at the converter bus for enhancing stabihty

3 Free from problems like commutation failures


4 Possibility to feed to weak AC systems or even passive loads
5 Reversal of power vnthout changing the polarity of dc voltage (advantageous in mdtl

terminal dc systems)
6 No requirement of fast communication between the two converter stations

yg Analyszs of SSR m t h VSC based HVDC

7 3 Analysls of SSR with VSC based HVDC


The system diagram 1s ~hownin Fig 7 1, which Con~lstSof a turbme-generator one side
md AC transmission system on elthcr side of VSC HVDC cable transrn~ssion The data for

r-DC

Cable'2

C-

vsc2

Figure 7 1 System diagram


turbine-generatof [I, 881, HVDC cable and AC transmission lines are glven in Appendiu-C
The modelling aspects of the electromechanical system comprlslng the generator modelled with 2 2 model, mechmical system, the excitation system, power system stabilizer
(PSS), torsional filter and the transmission line are glven in detail in chapter 2, section 2 2
The modelhng details of VSC based HVDC system based on three level 12-pulse VSCs are
discussed in chapter 6, section 6 2
The analysis of SSR with VSC based HVDC IS carried out based on damping torque
analysis, eigenvalue analysis and transient simulation The analysls 1s carried out on the test
system based on the following initial operating condition and assumptions
1 The generator delivers 0 125 p u pouer to the transmission system

2 The magnitude of generator terminal voltage is set at 105 p u

3 The magnitude of both the converter bus voltages are set at 101 p u The xnagnitudes
of both the infinite bus voltages are set at 1 0 p u

Chapter 7 Torszonal Interactzons unth VSC based HVN

190

4 The VSCl draws 0 9 p u power from bus1 to feed to HVDC cable for rectifier operation
dlaws -0 9 p u power froiii bus1 with illvcrter ogerdtioil Tiic base MVA 300
MVA, AC voltage base is taken to be 500kV and DC voltage base 1s 150kV
5 The generator rating is taken as 300 MVA
6 ?lechanical damping is neglected for damping torque analysis

The various operating coinbinations (as given in section 6 2) of VSC based HVDC are
summarized 111 Table 7 1
Table 7 1 Operating combinations of VSC based HVDC
Case
1
2
3
4

5
6
7
8

1
(

VSCl (Rectifier)
Controller-2
Controller-1
Reactive current
Power
power
Bus voltage
DC voltage Reactive current
DC voltage
Bus voltage
VSCl (Inverter)

1
I

Power
Power
DC voltage
DC voltage

VSC2 (Inverter)
Controller-1
Controller-2
DC voltage

Reactive current
DC voltage
Bus voltage
Power
Reactive current
Power
BUS voltage
VSC2 (Rectifier)

current I DC voltage Reactive current


II Reactive
I
I
Bus voltage I DC voltage I Bus voltage (

I Reactive current I

Power

I Reactive current I

Bus voltage

Power

Bus voltage

7 3 1 Damping torque analysis


The damping torque method involves less computational burden and is a convenient tool for
analyzing the SSR characteristics of the electrical network For the computation of d a ~ W
torque with VSC based HVDC, it is necessary to express the equivalent admittance function
[YHv]of the HVDC system along with the transmission system-2 t o which it suppll@/dram
power The derivation for computing [YHV]
seen a t BUS-1 in D-Q reference frame 1s given
in Appendur-H
For the computation of damping torque with VSC based HVDC, the equations repe
senting the system are linearized about an operatlng point and the equivalent admttance
seen at the generator internal bus in D-Q reference frame is calculated

7 3 Analyszs of SSR unth VSC based HVDC

191

When fixed capacitors are used at the convei tei bus for reactive power support
d u e of Qc = 0 30 p u 1, the effective strength of AC system is calculated as effective short
clrcult ratio (ESCR) defined as,

ESCR =

Shost czrcu~tlevel at the converter bus - Qc


Rated DC power

The damping characteristics of VSC HVDC is dependent on the AC system strength to


which it is connected The strength of ad~accntAC system is changed by varying the line
reactance Xel The variation of damping torque with frequency for cases 1 to 8 (as given m
Table 7 1) are shown in Fig 7 2 to Fig 7 5 where the sensitivity of damping torque fol the
~ l a t l o nof ESCR (proportional to the strength of AC system) 1s also compared

Figure 7 2 Plot of damping torque with frequency for cases 1 a.nd 2

Torszonal Intemctzons wzth VSC based ~

Chapter 7

192

3-

- ESCR = 4 5

1,

2-

--

'

-21
0

-1

ESCR=25

50

100

150
om (radlsec)

200

250

300

50

100

150

200

250

300

.'

-2
0

om (radlsec)

Figure 7 3 Plot of damping torque with frequency for cases 3 and 4

20

15

Case-5 P1= -0 9 Ql= o o

- ESCR - 4 5
- - ESCR 2 5
1

10-

t-

5-

-\

\
\ %

-0
I

-5-

------------

--- -

\ J
I

-1 0

50

100

150

200

250

300

om (radlsec)
20
15

h
11

II

10-

II

'
Case-6 PI = -0 9

Q,= 0 0

- ESCR = 4 5

- - ESCR = 2 5

-,

Figure 7 4 Plot of darnplng torque wlth frequency for cases 5 and 6

7 J Analyszs of SSR wzth VSC based HVDC

193

Figure 7 5 Plot of damplng torque with frequency for cases 7 and 8


By referring F ~ g s7 2 to 7 5 the following observations can be made

Rectifier o n power control and inverter o n DC voltage control


Ths mode of operation contributes small negative dampmg in the entire frequency range
(0 300 rad/sec) bvhen the generator 1s at the rect~fier(cases 1 and 2) The effect of AC
voltage control (case-2) is to further reduce the damplng of torsional modes compared to
constant reactlve current control (case-1) Honcver, for strong AC system the reduction in
damping 1s only mprg~nal
Referring cases 7 and 8 when the generator 1s at the inverter, ~t contributes to posltive
damping in the ent~refrequency range for reactive current control (case-7) whereas, the AC

voltage control (case-8) reduces the damping m the low frequency (below 60 rad/sec) n h~le
damping at torsional frequencies is increased

The effect of reduction in AC system strength (ESCR=2 5) is to reduce the da~nplng


of torsional modes when generator 1s a t rectifier (cases 1 and 2) and to increase when the
generator is near the inverter
7 and 8) However, the increase/decrease in the damping

of torsional modes 1s small and with the lntrlnslc mechanical damp~ngof the systcnl the
system 1s expected t o be stable
Rectifier o n DC voltage control and lnverter on power control
T ~ operating
s
mode contributes positive damplng ~n the rmge of torstonal frequency (30-

194

Chapter 7 Torszonal Intemctzons wzth VSC based HVDC

300 iad/sec) when the generator is at the rectifier (cases 3 and 4) However, the ma*1tude
of positive damplng is small The damping at lower frequencies 1s m h c e d and 1s ind1cped
by a dip in the damping torque below 30 rad/sec The AC voltage control (case4) reduces
the peak negative damping compared to constant reactive current control (case-3) whenthe
AC system is strong (ESCR.4 5)
The reduction in damping at low frequencies (below 30 rad/sec) is also true when the
crenelator is at the inverter (cases 5 and 6) However, III cases 5 & 6, there are mnor
0
negatlve excursions of the damping torque in the frequency range of 70-120 rad/sec (not
clea~lyvisible in figures for strong AC system) which causes reduction of damping of first
torslonal inode (of frequency 99 rad/sec) and are more pronounced with the reduction of
AC system strength The AC voltage control (case-6) further reduces damping of model
cornpazed to case-5 whereas the damping of higher torsional modes (mode 2, 3 and 4) 1s
increased
The effect of reduction of AC system strength (ESCR=2 5) is to increase the magutude
of the dip in da~nplngtorque below w, = 50 radlsec (cases 3 and 5) The AC voltage control
reduces the magnitude of this dip (negative damping) when the generator is at rectifier (case
4) herea as it illcreases and is more pronounced when the generator is at inverter (case-6)
Since these frequencies at which dip occurs do not match with any of the torslonal mode
frequencies of IEEE FBM, the system is expected to be stable
It 1s interesting to note that except for cases 1 and 2 where VSCl (connected close to
the generator), is operating as a rectifier in the power control mode, the reduction in ESCR
imploves damping of torsional modes at higher frequencies (w, > 120 radlsec)

7 3 2 Eigenvalue analysis
In this analysis, generator model(2 2) [19] 1s considered The electromechanical system
conslsts the multi-mass mechanical system, the generator, the excitation system, Power
system stabilizer (PSS),torsional filter and two AC transmission systems hnked by VSC
based HVDC The equations representing the VSC HVDC system (see sectlon 6 2) 810%
with the equations representing electromechanical system (m D-Q variables), are lmearld
at the operating point and eigenvalues of system matrut are computed The stablhtty ofthe
system is determined by the location of the elgenvalues of system matrix The system Is
stable if the eigenvalues have negatlve real parts

7 3 Analyszs of SSR mth VSC based H VD C

195

7 3 3 1 Elgenvalue analysis with s t r o n g hC system (ESCR=4 5)


Generator at the rectifier
The elgenvalue iesults with strong AC system (ESCR=4 5) when the gerleretor is at the

rectifier (for cases 1-4) are giken In Tables 7 2 to 7 3


Table 7 2 Eigenvalues of the detailed system with VSC based HVDC for cases 1and 3 with

Torsional
Eigcnvalue
case- 1
Mode
case-3
- 1 0 5 1 2 f ~ 74987 -10520f:j
0
75383

Table 7 3 Eigenvalues of the detailed system with VSC baed HVDC foi cases 2 and 4 with
ESCR=4 5

Referring Tables 7 2 and 7 3, it 1s observed that, the DC voltage control (cases 3 and
4) margnally improves the damplng of torsional modes compared to power control (cnses 1
and 2)

19G

Chapter 7

Torszonal Intemctzons wzth VSC bead WDC

m e n rectifier on power control, the effect of AC voltage control (case-2) 1s to m a m y


reduce the damping of torsional modes compared to constant reactive current operation of

rectifier (case-1)
When rectifier on DC voltage control, the effect of AC voltage control (case 4) to
malglnally reduce the damping of mode-1 and inarglnally increase the damping of other
torsional modes These results are in agreement with the damping torque analysis
The AC voltage control results In improving the damping of mode 0 compared to the
constant ieactive current control
Generator at t h e inverter
The eigenvalue results with strong AC system (ESCR=4 5) when the generator is at the
inverter (for cases 5-8) are given in Tables 7 4 to 7 5
Table 7 4 Eigenvalues of the detailed system with VSC based HVDC for cases 5 and 7 w~th
ESCR=4 5

Referring Tables 7 4 and 7 5, lt IS observed that DC voltage control at VSCl when


operating as an lnverter (cases 7 and 8) increases the damping of torsional modes-1 and 2
while the damping of other torsional modes are marginally reduced compared to constant
power control (cases 5 and 6)
When inverter on power control, the effect of AC voltage control (case-6) 1s to martPal1J'
reduce the damping of mode-1 and margrnally increase the damplng of other torsional moden
coln~medto constant reactive current control (case-5)
When the inverter i s on DC voltage control, the effect of AC voltage control (me-8) ls to
marginally Increase the damping of torsional modes compared to constant reactive curent
operation (case-7) These results are in agreement with the damping torque anal~sls

7 3 Analyszs of SSR wtth VSC based HVDC

197

Table7 5 ~ ~ ~ ~ n ofv the


d udetailed
e ~ system with VSC based HVDC for cases 6 and 8 rnlth

ESCR=~5

It 1s observed that, in general, the DC voltage control a t the rectifier is better t11a11 power
control as the damping of torsional modes IS increased However, the tors~onalmodes are
better damped when the generator is close to inverter than rectlfier
The Inverter operation of the VSCl (located close to the generator) (cases 5 to 8) Improves
sllghtly the damplng of swing mode compared to the rectifier operation (cases 1 to 4)
732 2

E ~ g e n t a l u ea n a l y s ~ swxth w e a k AC system (ESCR=2 5)

The eigenvalue results wlth weak AC system (ESCR=2 5) when the generator 1s at the
rectifier (for cases 1 t o 4) are given in Tables 7 6 to 7 7
Generator at the r c c t ~ f i e r
Comparing Table 7 2 wlth 7 6 and Table 7 3 with 7 7, it is observed that, wlth the reduction
ln AC system strength (ESCR=2 5), the frequency and damping of swing mode (mode 0) 1s
reduced This is expected The effect of reduction of AC system strength is to reduce the

damping of torsional modes for constant power operation (case-1) whereas lt

IS lllcreaqed

for DC voltage control mode of operation of rectlfier (case-3) compared m t h the respectlTre
cases when AC system IS strong (ESCR=4 5)
The trends of the effects of DC voltage control v/s power control and AC voltage control
v/s constant reactwe current control on damplng of swing and torsional modes m-~-~alns
similar to the cases m t h ESCR=4 5
Generator at the inverter
The elgenvalue results with weak AC system (ESCR=2 5) when the generator 1s at the

Chapter 7 Torstonal Interactzons wlth VSC based HVDC

198

Table 7 6 Elgenvalues of the detailed system ~11thVSC based HVDC for cases 1and 3 mth
ESCR=2 5

I Torsional

--

Eigenvalue

Table 7 7 Eigenvalues of the detaled system w ~ t hVSC based HVDC for cases 2 and 4 wlth
ESCR=2 5
f

Torsional
Mode
0
-0
-0
-0
, -0

Eigenvalue
case-2
case-4
6637 z t g 6 2293 -0 6535 f3 6 2413
2019 fg 98 9380 -0 2309 =t J 98 9220
0704 fg 127 0100 -0 0744 fg 127 0100
6281 fg 160 5600 -0 6456 J 160 5600

mverter (for cases 5 to 8) are glven in Tables 7 8 to 7 9


Comparing Table 7 4 with 7 8 and Table 7 5 wlth 7 9, ~t 1s observed that, for cases 7 and
8( Inverter 1s on DC voltage control), the reduction of AC system strength causes increasem
damping of torsional modes Although the damping of mode-1 is reduced wlth the reduction
on AC system strength wlth cases 5 and 6 (inverter on constant power control), the damPlng
of other torsional modes 1s Increased
The trends of the effects of DC voltage control v/s power control and AC voltage control
v/s constant reactive current control on damping of smng and torsional modes are Q&
to the cases with ESCR=4 5

7 $ Analyszs of SSR wzth VSC based HVDC

199

Table 7 8 Elgcnvdues of the detailed system with VSC based HVDC for cascs 5 and 7 with

ESCR=2 5

Table 7 9 ~ i ~ ~ n v a lof
u ethe
s detailed system with VSC based HVDC for cases 6 and 8 wlth

Torsional
Mode

Eigenvalue
case-6

case-8

The eigeilvalucs for thc case-6 wlth ESCIt=2 5 and for 3 different ratlrlgs of generato1
are shown in Table 7 10
It IS observed that, the damping and frequency of mode-0 1s increased wlth reduction
m generator ratlng Although the damp~ngof first torslonal mode 1s reduced wlth reduced
generator rating, the damping of higher torslonal modes (2,3 and 411s increased The mode
5 1s unaffected as its modal inertia is very high
The effect of actlve and reactive power loading on the damping of torsiond modes 1s also
studled for cases 1-8 (wth ESCR = 4 5 for which the results are not reported here) and ~t
15 observed that, the vanation in the damping IS only lnarglnal

Chapter 7

200

Torszonal interactzon8 unth VSC board HVDC

Table 7 10 Sensitivity of damping with generator rating for case 6 with ESCR=2 5
Torsional
Mode
0

1
2
3
4
5

Eigenvalues for generator rating


300 MVAR
100 MVAR
600 MVAR
-4 9710 fj 10 1470 -0 8203 fj 6 1312 -0 3934 fJ 4 2710
-0 1369 fJ 99 2380 -0 1450 fj 98 9030 -0 1699 f J 98 8090
-0 0785 fJ 127 0200 -0 0749 fJ 127 0000 -0 0738 f J 126 9900
-0 6857 k J 160 6300 -0 6692 fj 160 5500 -0 6594 fJ 160 5300
-0 4169 =t J 203 0400 -0 3963 fJ 202 9100 -0 3830 f J 202 8800
-1 8504 fj 298 1700 -1 8504 fJ 298 1700 -1 8504 fJ 298 1700

7 3 3 Translent simulation
The transient simulation is carried out using detailed nonlinear D-Q and three phase model

of VSC HVDC which considers the switching in the three phase converters Here, VSCs
are modelled by generating switching functions determined by the controllers The transient
simulation of the combined nonlinear system with detailed D-Q as well as three phase model
of VSC HVDC is carried out using MATLAB-SIMULINK [47]
The disturbance considered is a step increase in ~ n p u tmechanical torque of 0 25 p u
applied at 0 5 sec and removed at 1 sec The simulation results for case-1 with D-Q and
3-ph model are shown in Flgs 7 6 and 7 7 respectively for strong AC system (ESCR=4 5)
It is seen that, the disturbance in generator mechanical power, has not affected the power
transfer in DC link (PIis practically constant) There exists a good match 1h the simulation
results with D-Qand 3-phase models
It is observed from the eigenvalue analysis that, the damping of first torsional mode
(model) IS least for case-6 with ESCR 2 5 The simulation results for case-6 with D Q
model is shown m Fig 7 8 for the weak AC system The oscillations are effectivelydamped
as well The peak overshoot in the generator rotor angle is increased compared to case1
simulation with ESCR=4 5 (refer Fig 7 6) also rotor swings damp relatively slowly

A three phase fault at converter-1 bus of with a fault reactance of 0 04 (p u ) 1s initiated


at 0 5 sec and cleared at 4 0 cycles The simulation results for case-1 with D-Qmdel and
t h e e phase model of VSC HVDC are shown in Figs 7 9 and 7 10 respectively It to be
noted that, there is a good match between the simulation results obtmned with D-Qand
t h e e phase models of VSC HVDC Also, the power flow m the HVDC link 1s brought bad;
to the reference value m a short time It should be noted that, in the sirnulatlon mth

7 3 Analysas of SSR vnth VSC bawd HVDC

201

Figure 7 6 Variation of rotor angle, LPA-LPB section torque and power at converter 1 for
pulse change in T, (D-Q model) for case-1 with ESCR=4 5

a 06

T~me(sec)

I
Time (sec)

Oo

1
I

Time (sec)

Figure 7' 7 Variation of rotor angle, LPA-LPB section torque and power at converter 1 for
pulse change in T, (Three phase model) for case-1 with ESCR=4 5

Chapter 7

202

Torstonal Interachons wtth VSC bas& HVDC

Figule 7 8 Variation of rotor angle, LPA-LPB section torque and power At converter 1 for
pulse cha~lgein T, (D-Q model) for case-6 with ESCR=2 5

--0
05

Time (arc)

(7

F~gore7 9 Variation of rotor angle, LPA-LPJ3 section torque and power at converter
three phase fault (D-Qmode1)for case-1 with ESCR=4 5

7 4 Concluszons

203

a:

-05;

1I

2[

3I

43

Time (sec)

Figure 7 10 Variation of rotor angle, LPA-LPB sectlon torque and pomer at converter 1 for
three phase fault (Three phase model) for case-1 with ESCR=4 5
phase model of VSCs,the high frequency osclllat~onsin power of DC llnk is due to har~nonics
injected by VSCs
1

74

Conclusions

In this chapter, the analysis and simulation of SSR with VSC based HVDC system 1s presented The various operating modes of HVDC system are considered for the investig~tlon
of possible SSR conditions
The follow~ngpoints emerge based on the case study of the test system

1 Although the power controller at the rectifier contributes negative damping, the magnitude of the negative damp~ngis small and the system is stable a s the net damplng
is positive
2 The DC voltage control at the converter stat~onVSCl (close to the generator) IS
better than power control as it induce positive damping in the torsional frequency
range However with inverter operation of VSCl In power control 1s better than DC
voltage control at higher torsiollal frequencies

204

Chapter 7 Torsrond Interachons wth VSC bmed WDC

3 Except for the rectifier operation with power control at VSC1, the damping oftorslO1lal
modes is increased with the reductloll of AC system strength
4 Although, the inverter operation of

VSC close to the generator improves slightlythe

darnping of swing mode than rectifier opelatlon, the mode of operation of VSC bared
HVDC system has no slgnlficant effect on the damplng of generator swing mode

Chapter 8
Analysis of SSR Interactions with
Interline Power Flow Controller
8 1 Introduction
The Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC) is a Voltage Source Con~erter(VSC) bnsed
FACTS controller for series compensation with the unique capability of power flow manage
ment among the multi-line transm~ssionsystems of a substat~on
IPFC consists of two or more serles connected Voltage Source Converters linked through
a common dc llnk as shown in Fig 8 1 (which shows two converters) VSCl and VSC2 can
generate/absorb reactlve power Independently and the tuo bran~hescan exchange active
power and hence capable of affecting direct transfer of real power between the compensated
hnes
4

The component of serics Injected voltage m phase and quadrature wit11 the line cnrrent
are termed as active voltage and reactlve voltage respectnely The lnjectlon of series reactive
voltage provides a c h e serles cornpensat~on(to control active power in the hne) while the
wectlon of series active voltage controls the reactive power in the llne
One or more VSCs in IPFC (excludmg one VSC) i11ject controlIable serles voltages and
1s regarded as 'pnme' system where independent control of both actlve and reactive voltage
(and hence control of reactive and active power) is deslred The remalnlng VSC is designated
as the 'support' system which injects reactrve voltage mdependently 13, 151 The dc capacitor

voltage is regulated by dc voltage controller of the 'support' VSC


The independent control variables for IPFC shown in Fig 8 1 are reactlve voltage inJectlons in the two lines and actwe voltage Injection In 'prime' Ilne When actlve voltage
lnJectlon of 'prime' hne 1s zero, the IPFC works hke Independent SSSCs m steady state The
dc voltage controller regulates the capacitor voltage and mantans power balance betmen

two collvcrtcrs

206

Chapter 8 Analysw of SSR Intemctrons wzth interlme Power Flow Contmk

VSC- 1

VSC-2

Figure 8 1 Schematic representation of IPFC


The power balance for the IPFC shown in Fig 8 1 can be expressed mathematically as

The IPFC is assumed to be realized by two three level, twelve pulse Voltage Source
Converters (VSC) The IEEE Second Benchmark Model (SBM) [89] is considered for the
analysis of SSR The objective is to i~lvestigatethe effect of the IPFC controller on SSR
damping The study is carried out based on damping torque analysis, eigenvalue analysis
I
and transient simulation
The modelling of the transmission system is detailed (including network transients) and
can be expressed in D-Q variables or (three) phase variables The modelling of VSC 1s based
on (a) D-Q variables (neglecting harmonics in the output voltages of the converters) and
(b) phase variables and the modelling of switching action m the VSC which also generates
harlnonics The damping torque analysis, eigenvalue analysis and the controller design is
b a s ~ d011 the D-Qmodel while the transient simulation considers both models of VSC

82

Modelling of IPFC

In the power circult of an IPFC, the converter is usually a t h e r a. multi-pulse and/or amu1
tilevel configuration The control of injected voltage m a ~ t u d by
e Pulse Width Modulation
(PWM) with two level topology demands higher swltcbng frequency and leads to increased

8 8 Modellzng of IPFC

207

losses The three level converter topolol5Y can achieve the goal by varying dead angle P n lth
fundamentalswitching frequency [96] Here, a combination of multi-pulse and three level
configuration is considered Both the series branches of IPFC conslsts of 12-pulse converter
blevel poles The detailed three phase model of IPFC is developed by modelling the
converter operation by switching functions (see section 4 3 1)

The converter output (phme) toltages which are lnjected in series with lme-J are g l e n by
the following equation

where S:2, Si2 and S:2 are switching functions for a 3-level 12-pulse VSC (which are defined
in sect~on3 3 1 and 4 3 1) generated in the same manner as glven m section 3 3 l(rep1aang
a by y for comparison with saw tooth wave forms) p, is the transformation ~ a t i oof the
lnterfaclng transformer T, vdc is the dc side capacitor voltage
The jthline current neglecting harmonics, is even by

are phase shlfted successively by 120'


The angle of hne current is 4, = tan-I
If the switching functioils are approximated by their fundamental components (neglectm,~
hannomcs) for a 12-pulse three level converter,we get
zb and ,z

( )

where, P, is the dead angle and the fraction of time perlod 111 a cycle durlng uhich the
converter pole output voltage is zeio is given as $ vi,, v:, are phase shifted successlvety
by 120'
is the angle by which the fundamental component of the J" converter output
voltage leads the jthline current, Ib)
Neglecting converter losses, we can get the expression for dc side current of J~~con\ertel

When switching functions are approximated by their fundamental components (neglectmq


harmonics), the expression for dc side current 1s given as

z&,

4
= --p,
7r

822

cos ,L$

sin(w,t

+ y, + - -

+ y, + 4,) + z b , s m

$3

Matliematical model in D-Q frame of reference

LVhen switching functions are approximated by their fundamental frequency components


neglecting harmonics, IPFC can be modelled by transforming the three phase voltages and
currcnts illto D-Q variables using I<ronls transformation [I, 191 The equivalent circuit of a
VSC viewed from the AC side is shown in Flg 8 2

Figure 8 2 Equivalent circuit of a VSC viewed from the AC side


I

In Flg 8 2, R,b(,), X,C(~)


are the resistance and reactance of the interfacing transformer of
VSC-j The magnitude control of 3th converter output voltage 4)is achieved by modulating
the conduction period affected by dead angle O
,,
The output voltage of j t h converter can be represented in D-Q frame of reference as

%(,)

= km(~)vdc
sln(@3+ 73)

V&,) = km(,)v&cos(4, + cy,)

(8 8)
(8 9)

for a 12 pulse converter, p, is the transformation ratlo


Where, km(3)= kp, cos(P(,)), k =
of the interfacing transformer T,
With the two converter IPFC, j = 1 , 2
The dc side capacitor is described by the dynamical equation as,

8 2 Modellzng of IPFC

209

where,
ldcl
=-[km~
~ l n ( 4 i +Y ~ ) I D
+Ik n l C O S ( ~ I ? l ) I Q ~ ]
ldc2
= - [Lasln(42
ID^ + km2 cos(42 y2)IQ2]
lD1
and IQl are D-Q components of line-1 current Il
ID2and IQ2are D-Q components of line-2 current I2

+
+

82 3

Converter control

The Fig 8 3 shows the schematic representation for converter control In thls controller,
both magn~tudewhich is a function of cos P, (for a constant vc) and phase angle y, of the
converter voltage are used to control reactive and real voltage P, and Q, are the activt and
reactwe powers in the jth line measured at the output port of IPFC

VRD) ref

1j-d

I
Calculator
ord

Flgure 8 3 IPFC controller


In F~gure8 3, y and p are calculated as

Chapter 8 Andysts of SSR Intemct~ons1~~2th


Interhne Power flow~~~t~~~~~

210

We can define injected reactive and real voltages in terms of variables in D-Q frame (VAand

as follows
VR(3) = VL;(J)COS 4J - V&) sin 4,

(813)

Here, positive VR implies that VSC injects ~nductivevoltage and positive Vp impliesthat
draus real power from the line
The 'support' VSC regulates the capacitor voltage at a constant value The real voltage
refe~enceof 'support' VSC is obtained froin DC voltdge controller while for 'pnme' VScs
it 1s obtaned from reactive power controller or constant resistance emulation The reactive
voltage reference of 'support' VSC can be kept constant However, the reactive voltage
refelence of 'prime' VSCs can be kept constant or obtained from active power controller
The operating colnbinations of two VSCs of IPFC considered for the analysis are sum
ma1 l ~ e din Table 8 1

Table 8 1 Operating combinations of IPFC


--

Case
1

VSC-1 (Support) in lme-1


Controller-1

Controller-2

Controller- 1

Constant

Const ant Reactive

Constant

DC voltage

voltage VR(i)

Reactive power Q2

Constant

Collstailt icactivc

DC voltage

volatge VR(l)

+-

Coilstant resistttllce Constaut reactive

RSezelnulation

Controller-1

Controller-2

Controller- 1

Controller 2

Constant

Constant

Constant

Constant Reactive

Q1

Active power Pl

DC voltage

Constant resistance

Constant reactive

Constant

Reactive power
4

Active power p2

VSC-2 (Support) in line-2

VSC-1 (Prime) in lme-1


3

VSC-2 (Prime) in line-2

RBel

emulation

voltage

v ~ ( ~ ) DC voltage

voltage V R ~ )
Constant reactive
volatge VR(~)

8 3 A Case Study

A Case Study
diagram 1s shown in Fig 8 4, which consists of a generator and parallel AC transmssl~nline one of which 1s series compensated by the fixed capacitor The IPFC provides
series compensation for both of the parallel lines The generator and transmlsslon line
data [I, 891 are adapted from IEEE SBM and given in Appendix-C

T-,~

", Le 1
Generator

./

R, X ,

BUS-1

VSC- 1

v2&2

L~ne-l

h1

&$+~
-

.I,

R~
... Line-2X ,
Z. h

R2

Xc
I/

-rY?

Fbh

X,

tf$j?h

BUS-2

vsc-2

Figure 8 4 System diagram


The m o d e l l i ~aspects of the electromechanical system comprising the generator (rnodelled with 2 2 model), mechanical system, the excitation system, power system stabilizer
(PSS),torsional filter and the transmission llne are given in detail in section 2 2 The analysls is carried out on the test system based on the following initial operating condition and
assumptions
1 The generator delivers 0 9 p u power to the transniiss~onsystem

2 The magnitude of the generator and infinite bus bus voltages are set at 1 0 0 p u

3 Input mechanical power to the turbine is assumed to be coilstant

4 The turbinegenerator mechanical damping 1s neglected for the dmplng torque analys1s

The controller parameters are selected by parameter optimizat~onmethod as described in


section 6 3 1

212

Chapter 8 Analyses of SSR Interactzons 1112thInterlZne Power Flow Contnrlkr

8 3 1 Results of damping torque analysis


The damping torque method involves less computational burden and 1s a convenient tool for
mldyzmg the SSR characteristics of the electrical network The effect of in~ectionof series
real voltage of 'prime' system on SSR characteristics of the network are investigated with
dalnp~ilgtorque analysis
8311

W i t h o u t IPFC

Here only line-1 is compensated by fixed capacitor The variatlon of damping torque with
frequency hen Xc = 0 2496 is ~ndicatedin F I 5~ 6 It is to be noted that, the peak negative
damping torque occurs at about 155 rad/sec which matches with mode-1 of the SBM and
adverse torsional interact~onsare expected
8 3 12

W i t h IPFC

For the cornputatloll of damping torque with IPFC, it is iiecessary to expres the admittance
function seen at the generator internal bus [Y] in D-Q reference frame (see Appenduc-G)
Here the reactance of lines are increased by a factor 1 25 and the increased reactance of
lines are compensated by capacitive reactive voltage injection of IPFC The operating values
of compensated reactance (Xseb)= -?)

due to IPFC for lines 1 and 2 are XN1= 0 12

and XSe2= 0 11085 respectively Now in line-1 we have hybrid compensation and line-2 is
compensated by VSC2 of IPFC If the real voltage (Vp),injection of 'prime' VSC is set to zero
and IPFC behaves like two independent SSSCs in steady state The variatlon of damplng
torque with frequency for cases 1 and 2 (as given in Table 8 1) are shown in Fig 8 5 The
enlatged view of Fig 8 5 in the frequency range of 120-180 rad/sec is shown in Fig 8 6
It IS clear from Fig 8 6 that, although the peak negative damping torque with case 2 1s
less, the damping at cr~ticalmode-1 torsional frequency of 155 rad/sec is better with case1
It is observed that, IPFC operat~ngwith case-1 increases the peak negatlve damplng while
the damping at low frequencies is increased compared to the case without IPFC Comparing
cases 1 Qc 2 it is seen that change in the control strategy of 'prime' VSC results in reduction
of peak negative damping and increase in the frequency at which resonance occurs
The optimal controller gans obtaned for case1 & 2 are found unsuitable ~ t h
& 4 as the system becomes unstable Hence for cases 3 & 4, optimal controller gans are
determined separately The variat~onof damping torque with frequency for cases 3 and
are shown in Fig 8 7

8 3 A Case Study
2

Xlle,= 0 12 XI02=4 0 1 1085 Vp2 = 0 0


1 >'

4-x

'\
\
\
\

0-

9 -1

B
I-2

-3

-4

I I

I I
I '
I'
I'
I

50

100

--

150

200

lPFC Case-1
- W~th
W~thIPFC Case-2
W~thoutIPFC
250

300

350

Figure 8 5 Plot of damp~ngtorque with frequency for case 1 and 2

Figure 8 6 Plot of damping torque w ~ t hfrequency fol case 1 and 2 (zoomed)

It 1s seen that, the trend of damping torque varlatlon w ~ t hcases 3 & 4 remalns slrn~lar
to that of cases 1 & 2 Agan comparing cases 3 & 4 it IS seen that, change in the control

214

Chapter 8 Analysts of SSR Interactrons wtth Interlzne Power Flow Controller

I
I

0-

'.--

-2 -

--

IPFC Case-3
- With
W~thIPFC Case-4
-4

Without lPFC

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

Figure 8 7 Plot of damping torque with frequency for case 3 and 4


~ t r d t ~ g(from
y case 3 to c&e 4) results 111 redu~tiorlof peak lieglttivu darnpiilg mid ilicreaJe
In the frequency at which resonance occurs
When mechanical system damping is neglected, the damping torque contribution by elec
trical network Td,can be correlated with eigenvalue results obtained with classical generator
model When the sensitivities of real part of eigenvalue corresponding to a torsional mode 1s
assumed constant, it can be shown that the real part of eigenvalue (a,)and damping torque
are ielated as [I],
I

The eigenvalues for the torsional mode-1 with classical model of generator, for case-1
and 2 are (1) 0 3799 f j 154 85 (11) 0 3896 k j 155 25 respectively The R H S of the
equation (8 15) for the above cases (obtmned from damping torque) are (1) 0 3877 and (11)
0 3982 respectively This shows that, there is a good correlation with damping torque and
elgenvalue results indicating the importance of damping torque analysis as a quck check on
the torsional mode stability

83 1 3

Sensitivity of damping torque for series real voltage(Vp) in~ectlon

The peak negative damptng associated with various operating cases depends also on the
magnitude of series real voltage injection The variation of damp~ngtorque with frequency

8 3 A Case Study

215

for case-2 is shown in Fig 8 8


1

Wtth Case-2 Xse,= 0 12 Xw2= 0 11085

Figure 8 8 Sensitivity of damping torque for variation in Vp2


Referring to Fig 8 8, peak negative damping is reduced substantially wlth positive red
voltage injection Vp2= 0 060, which emulates positive resistance in senes with the line-2
1
However, negative real voltage injection VP2= -0 015, wh~chemulates negative resistance,
Increases the negative damping Although the peak negative damping is decreased 1~1th
Positive resistance emulation, the damping at higher frequencies 1s reduced whereas, ~tis
increased at lower frequencies
It 1s worthwhle to note that, the injection of positive real voltage in line-2 (positive
Vbz and hence positive Rsez) causes the negative real voltage injection in line-1 (and hence
negative RSel)to mmntam the power balance This is because positive real voltage in~ection
line-2 causes active power to be fed to line-1 from line-2 to maintmn power balance in the

dc hnk
The variation of Rsel with Rsez for the study system is shown in Fig 8 9
It 1s to be noted that, for a given change in R.e2 change in Rse1 1s small as PQmr
ca~abllltyof line-1 1s higher compared to line-2 Hence increase in positive %,z @ves small
'"crease in negative Rse, and the net loop resistance comprising hne-1 and 2 a increased It
observed that, the network mode becomes unstable when the net loop resistance becolnes
large negative due to negative real voltage Vp? lqection

216

Chapter 8 Analysu of SSR Interactzons unth Interlzne Pourer Flow Contmller

Figure 8 9 Variation of Rsel with Rsez

832

Eigenvalue analysis

In this analysis, the turbinegenerator mechanical damping is considered and generator is


modelled wlth 2 2 model 1191 The eigenvalues of system matrlx are computed for cases 1to 4
are glven in Table 8 2 and Table 8 3 It is to be noted from the eigenvalue results of Table 8 2
that, with case-2, the network mode(sub) is closer in frequency with the torsional mode-1 of
IEEE SBM compared to case-1 (this is in agreement with damping torque dalysls) causlng
instability This fact is also observed with the elgenvalue results of cases 3 and 4 as given
in Table 8 3 The damplng of other torsional modes ( mode 2 and 3) are not sigmficantly
affected by the operating modes of IPFC
The damping of mode0 is increased with constant reactive voltage control (case2 and
4) as compared with constant power control (case-1 and 3) Thls fact is not in agreement
with the damplilg torque analysis (shown in Fig 8 5) However, elgenvalues corresponw to
mode-0 wlth classical model of the generator are (1) -0 0895 f J 8 1884 and (11) 0 0160
J 8 9456 for cases 1 and 2 respectively Thus the modelling of the generator affects the
stability of mode-0
Table 8 4 gives the eigenvalues of the combined system when series real voltage (Vn)
set to 0 060 p u for cases 1 and 2 and the controller emulates (posltlve) resistance ln series
w ~ t hthe line-2 of 'prime' system Comparing these results wdh those given Table 82, lt

8 3 A Case Study

Table 8 2 Elgenvalues of the detmled system with IPFC(Vp2 = 0) for cases 1 and 2
Torsional

Eigenvalue
case 1

Mode

case-2

-2 0944 f3

-0 0154 f3 154 6500

0 0851 z t 3 154 8800

-0 0633 -+ J 203 4100

-0 0567 rt J 203 4400

-0 0494 -+ J 321 1800

-0 0500 z t J 321 1800

5 7455

- 2 3503 fJ

5 9558

Network mode subsynchronous, (wo - we,)


-8 0629 =t 3 150 0200

-13 3260 =t J

Netuork mode supersynchronous, (wo


-11 803 f3 563 3600

156 2200

+ we,)

-12 0690 z t J 563 5900

Table 8 3 Elgenvalues of the detailed system w ~ t hIPFC (VP2= 0) for cases 3 and 4

noted that, the dainping of mode-1 1s increased with the injection of positive Vp2 The
damping of mode-2 1s decreased wlth the lll~ectionof posltlve Vp2 Also, w ~ t hthe in~ection
1s

of Positive VP2for case-2, the frequency of network subsynchronous mode 1s Increased (1101~
at about 181 rad/sec) v,hlch is far from torsional mode-1 and close to mode-2 These results
are in agreement with damping torque analysis All the torsional modes are stable ~ w t h
Posltlve real voltage lnject~on

C2 18

s ~12th
Interltne Power Flow contmlln

Table 8 4 Eigenvalues of the detailed system with IPFC


E~genvalue

Torsio~lal
Mode

(VPI= 0 060)

case-2

case-1
5 9389

-2 1133 fJ

-0 0308 f J 154 9200

-2 3012 f J

5 9468

-0 0475 fJ 155 0400

I Network mode subsynchronous, (wo - we,)


Network mode supersynchronous, (wo

+ we,)

-10 4120 fJ 567 8200 -14 3020 fJ 567 2200

833

Transient simulation

The translent simulation of the comblned nonlinear system wlth D-Q and detaled three
phase model of the system IS carrled out using MATLAB-SIMULINK [47]
The simulation results for case-2 with D-Q model and three phase model of IPFC for a
10% step reduction In T, applied at 0 5 sec and removed a t 1 sec (for Vp2=0) are shown m
Fig 8 10 and Fig 8 11 respectively It 1s observed that, the shaft section t o r ~ u eoscillations
grow with tlme It is to be noted that, there 1s a good match between the simulation results
obtaned wlth D-Q and three phase models of IPFC
When Vp2 = 0 06 simulation results are shown in Figs 8 12 and Fig 8 13 It is observed
that, the system is stable wlth series injection of real voltage VpZ= 0 06

8 3 A Case Study

F~gure8 10 Slmulat~onw ~ t hdetailed D-Q model of IPFC for pulse change in T, (15, =
0 00)

lime (sec)

Fuzure 8 11 Slmulatlon with detmled 3 phase model of IPFC for pulse change in T, (VPZ
=
0 00)

4
I

5
T ~ m e(sec)

10

in T,

Figure 8 12 Simulation with detailed D-Q model of IPFC for pulse ch*e
0 06)
80

(VpZ=

"0

5
6
Time (sec)

10

T~me(sec)

Figure 8 13 Simulation with detmled 3 phase model of IPFC for pulse change in Tm (VPZ=

0 06)

8 4 Conclusions
this chapter, we have presented the allalysis and simulation of SSR wlth IPFC compensated system T h e ~nodelllllgdetails of IPFC 1~1thtwelve-pulse three lekel VSC we discussed

The folloa lng points elnerge based on damping torque analysis, eigenvalue analysis and
translent s~mulationfrom the case study on IEEE SBM
1 Injection of series real voltage to emulate a posit~veresistance m the transmlsslon loop

can improbe the damping of the critical tors~onalmode


2 The

D-Qmodtl

IS quite

accurntc

111

predicting the system performance

Chapter 9

Conclusions
9 1 General
SSR 1s an important aspect to be considered in the application of FACTS contxollers particularly m the lines with fixed series compensation The fast control feature of FACTS
controllers can be used effectikely for the mitigation of SSR However, some of the operating
modes of FACTS controllers can cause adverse interactions The investigation of SSR characteristics of varlous VSC based FACTS and HVDC controllers is relativelj a new top~cof
s
presents the analysis of torslonal
research and there is hardly any work reported T h ~ thesls
interactions In systenis with VSC based FACTS and I-IVDC controllers
The major contributions of the thesis are llsted belour
i

1 The development and validation of the models for various VSC based FACTS and
HVDC controllers for SSR studies

2 The detailed investigation of SSR cllaractenstics of UPFC, IPFC and VSC based
HVDC links is reported for the first tlme
3 Fast and accurate prediction of the stability of torslonal modes using damplng to~que
analysis based on accurate network and FACTS models in D-Q variables

4 An effective, yet simple method for the design of SSDC wlth STATCOM and SSSC
5 The role of FACTS controllers in mitigating SSR 1s investigated with particular refer-

ence to UPFC and IPFC

A review of the work done and suggestions for further research in this area are Wen in
the sections to follow

Chapter 9

224

92

Conclzlseons

Modelling and Review of Methods for Analysis of

SSR
921

Modelling of Generator and Network

In the analysis of SSR, the network transients are to be considered The transmission kne
is modelled by a lumped resistance(R~),inductive reactance(X~)andcompensating series
capacitor (Xc) The transformers are modelled by resistance (Rt)and leakage reactance
( X t ) between two busses The detmled generator model 2 2 is considered where the stator
and iotor are represented by six differential equations The modelling of transmission line,
geneiator, static exciter and PSS with torsional filter are described in chapter 2 The turbule
genelator mechanical system is modelled as masssprlng-damper system which is represented
from analogy to an electrical (RLC) network

92 2

Modelling of FACTS controllers

Since this thesis deals with the transmission systems, PWM converters are not considered
wheieas, 12 pulse, 2 or 3 level converters are considered for the studies with STATCOM
and SSSC However, 12 pulse, 3 level converters are used with UPFC and IPFC where i dependent control of active and reactive power is desired The modelling of various FACTS
contiollers are developed from first principles taking in to consideration thk switchmg ac
tion in three phase VSC The switching actlon of two and three level three phase VSCs are
modelled by generating switching functions as described in detml in chapter 3 Neglect
mg harmonics in the switching functions, time invarlant models are derived based on D-Q
variables The developed models can be easlly interfaced with models of other system cornponents including generator and transmission network The modelling of converter controls
is also dealt with in d e t d The two structures of the controller namely Type-2 (for two
level VSC) and Type-1 controller (for three level VSC) are discussed in chapters 3 and 4 for
STATCOM and SSSC respectively In Type-1 controller, the DC capacitor voltage 1s regulated by a PI controller In Type-2 controller, the control of injected reactive current/voltage
1s achieved by phase angle control of the converter output voltage and the capacitor voltage
1s not regulated The capacitor voltage varies over a small range with change in operatng
polllt

g g Analyszs of SSR mth FACTS controllers

923

225

Methods for the a~ialysisof SSR

The small signal stability analysis 1s performed by developing the llnear state sprtce models
wbch are obtmned by linesrizlllg the system equations m D-Q bariables about a quiescent
operating point The state space model of the generator and ~ t ind~vidual
s
subsystems are
combined to represent the entire sjstem lllcluding FACTS controllers in state space form
The eigenvalue andjsls of SSR 1s lllustiated using the examples of IEEE FBM and/or IEEE

SBM systems
A fast evaluation of torsional lnteractiolls can be carr~edout using darnplng torque analysis Here, the stability of torsional modes is predicted by the non-negativeness of the net
damping torque a t the torsional mode frequency Although it 1s possible to consider the
detaled model (2 2) of the generator in the computation of damping torque, ~t is conven~ent
to model the generator with classical model (constant voltage source ( E ' ) behind transient
~fthe low frequency behaviour is not important This assumption is equivreactance (xi),)
alent to neglecting IGE and does not have a sigriificant effect on the prediction of torsional
mode stablllty The damping torque analysis is computationally fast Howevel, it does not
gve information about the stability of the entire system
The agenvalue malysu gives the stability information of the entire system whereas, it is
time consuming for a large system Whlle the validat~onof eigenvalue results is doilc bj the
transient simulation of detmled nonlinear model of the system wlth small disturbance, tl.e
transient SSR is~studiedby the large disturbance The transient simulations aith D-Q and
three phase models of FACTS controllers she\\ that, the D-Q model is accurate III predicting
the system performance

93

Analysis of SSR with FACTS controllers

9 3 1 STATCOM
The study reported in chapter 3 sllows that, the inclusion of STATCOM in the transi~llssion
hne does not change the SSR characteristics of the network sigmficantly The differcnces
in the SSR characteristics of 2 level (with Type-2 control) and 3 level (with Qpe-1 control) STATCOMs me marginal It is observed from the case study on the system adapted
from IEEE FBM that, the voltage control introduces less undamping than reactwe current
control for thc cr~tlcaltorsional mode However, the voltage control reduces the damping
of torsional modes in the lugher frequency range A properly designed SSDC 1s req~llred

for damping of crlt~caltorslonalmode The SSDC takes Thevenln wltage signal, whlcll 1s

Chapter 9 Conchszons

226

syntlleslzed from the locally available bus voltage and STATCOM current signals as its input
and lnodulates reactlve current reference to Improve the damping of the unstable torsional
mode A technique for tuning the parameters of the SSDC to provide positive damplng
the range of critical torsional frequencies is presented The technique 1s novel and found to
be satisfactory in damplng the subsynchronous oscillations (SSO)

932

SSSC

The SSR characteristics of a series compensated transmission line wlth 2 level (with Type-2
control) and 3 level (with Type-1 control) SSSC are investigated in chapter 4 based on the
case study on the system adapted from IEEE FBM The SSR characteristics with 2 level
(with Type-2 control) and 3 level (with Type-1 control) SSSCs closely match It is observed
that, the constant reactive voltage control is better than constant reactance emulation as not
only the negative damping is reduced, the resonance frequency is increased The occurrence
of SSR can be avoided by varylng the reactive voltage compensation introduced by SSSC
However, this may not always be feasible In such cases, the damping of torsional modes can
t
be achleved by SSDC The SSDC is assumed to take line current signal (locally amlable)
as illput and modulates the reactive voltage reference to damp the unstable torsional mode
The effectiveness of SSDC in damping of SSO is demonstrated using the case study

9 3 3 UPFC
The UPFC is the most versatile of the FACTS controllers capable of control of three system
parameters The reactive current injection of shunt VSC can be maiilta~riedconstant or
cont~olledto regulate port-1 voltage constant The injection of series reactive voltage IS kept
constant as active power control mode of UPFC is not possible in the IEEE FBM system
considered The Injection of serles real voltage is controlled for constant resistance emulation
or constant port-2 voltage control (which is equivalent to the constant reactive power flow
control m the hne) The DC voltage controller of shunt VSC maintains real power balance
between the two converters
SSR charactenstics of UPFC for various operating cornbinat~onsof shunt and series
are investgated w t h the help of a case study based on IEEE FBM in chapter 5 It 1s
observed that, the operating mode of shunt VSC has no significant effect on the damping
and resonant frequency of torsional modes as with a STATCOM As in SSSC, the occurrence
of SSR can be avoided by varymg the series reactive voltage injection The rnjectlon of
positive series real voltage improves the damplng of the crltlcal torsional mode The constmt

g4

Torszonal A~teractzo?zswzth 'ITSC based H VDC

227

reslstal~eemulation colltrol of series VSC 1s slgnlficantl~better than the constant port-2


voltage control The serles in~cctlonof leal voltage (to emulate a pos~ti\ercslstance) as a
SSR countermeasure is found to be ver) effective in stablllzlng crltlcal torsional mode

9 3 4 IPFC
The IPFC is a VSC based FACTS controller for series compensation for multlple lines with
a common DC bus The SSR characterlstlcs of a IPFC with two series connected

VSC IS

mnvestlgatedby a case study on the system adapted from IEEE SBM T h t prime' VSC inlects
controllable serres voltages In one of the parallcl line where Independent control of actlve and
reactlve power IS desired whereas, the 'support' VSC Injects reactlve voltage lndependcntly

m the other line The DC capac~torboltage is regulated by dc voltage contloller of 'support'


VSC and mailltalrls power balance between the two converters
The case stud~esconducted In chapter 8 show that, constant reactlve voltage control is
better than power control mode of operation of 'prime' VSC The injection of serles real
voltage to emulate a posltlvc resistance in the transmissloll loop can improve the damplng
of the crltical torsional mode and IS suggested as an effective SSR countermeasure
In all cases, the comparisons of the transient simulation results obtailned by D-Q and
three phase models of FACTS controllers shon that, the D-Q rnodel is qu~teaccurate in
predlctlng the system performance
1

94

Torsional Intexactions with VSC based HVDC

9 4 1 Design of Controllers
In a two converter VSC based HVDC system, each VSC has haslcally two controllers n hlch
determine act~veand reactwe current outputs of the individual VSC The active current
reference can be obtmned either from power controller or DC voltage controller The reactlve
current reference can be kept constant or obtalned from AC bus voltage controller ~f ac
bus voltage is also t o be regulated For actlve power balance, one VSC operates on DC
voltage control while the other controls the actlve power Thus there are a large number
of controller parameters to be optimized t o achleve satisfactory system performance
systematic approach for parameter optlrnlzatlon 1s presented in chapter 6 The effectlvrness
of the approach 1s validated by considering a case study It IS s h o w that, lncorporatlon
of optimal controller parameters has slgn~ficantly~mprovedthe step responses of ~ l ~ l o ~ s
controllers on a test system

Chapter 9 Concizlszons

228

94 2

Analysis of SSR

The analysis of SSR with VSC based HVDC 1s presented m chapter 7 It is observed from
the case study that, power controller at the rectifier contributes negative darnping However
the magnitude of the negative damping is small and the system is stable as the net damping
1s positive The DC voltage control at the rectifier station VSCl (close to the generator)
~s
better than power control as it induce positive damping in the entire torsional frequency
range While DC voltage control is better for inverter operation of VSCl at low tors~onal
frequencies, power control is better at higher frequencies It is observed that, except for
rectifier operation with power control at VSC1, the reduction of AC system strength increases
the damping of torsional modes in the higher frequency range

95

Suggestions for Further Work

In the context of the work carried out in the thesis, the following are some of the problems
~vhichneed further investigation
1 The analysis of SSR with multiple generators and FACTS controllers can be investi-

gated The investigation of SSR characteristics of the Generalized UPFC (GUPFC)


can also be taken up for further study
2 It u well known that, the damping of low frequency oscillations is improved by supple

mentary modulation controller on FACTS controllers The adverse interaction effects


of these modulation controllers on damping of torsional modes needs to Ibe investigated
3 The robustness of the SSDC under changing operating conditions requires further
invest~gations

Appendix A

Derivation of equation (2.44)


The mechanical system can be represented in terms of modal quantities[l] and for zth Inode
dynamics can be represented as shown in Fig A 1 where M, =
1s the modal inertla, H,,
is the modal inertia constant of zth torsional mode and K, is the sprlng constant correspondiilg

to zth tors~onalmode

---------

"'~-IX1-l~pJ----- -----:

Electrical system

Figure A 1 Block dlagram showing interaction between electrical and mechanical system
The internctions between electrical and mechanical system can be studied by tak~ngelectncal system in the feed back The output of electrical system comprlslng of generato1 and

AC network, is the change in the electr~caltorque ATe which is the Input to the mechanical
system The output of the mechanical system is the change in modal angle A& which 1s the
Input to the electrical system The electrical system dynamrcs can be expressed in tcrms
of the open-loop transfer functlon between electrical torque Te and modal angle 6, which a
defined in the frequency domain as,

The transfer functlon of the mechanical system between the input and the output(for%th
mode dynarnlcs) can be expressed in terms of residues
and system eigenvalues A, as

a3

The resldue associated with an eigenvalue A, and the feedback transfer functlon ( K H ( s ) )
are related by [104],

Equatlon A 3 glves the relation between the sensitlvlty of an elgenvalue A, to feedback loop
galn K and the open loop resldue associated with the same elgenvalue [I051
Assuming the gain K is small, we have

For the system considered,


&3

= =t

2~ d X K 1

* 2J

1
M,W,

When K=O, we have no feedback path (no lnteractlon due t o electrlcal system) and the
elgellvalues of the system are due to only mechanical system and unaffected by electrical
system To study the effect of electrical system lnteractlon on system elgenvalues, the feedback galn K = 1 is used and hence AK = K = 1 Therefore addlng the electrlcal system as
feedback results m a change m the 3th eigenvalue as,

Substituting equations(A 5) and (A 6)in equation(A 7) we get for small K

We know that,

Substituting equation(A 9) m equation(A 8) we get

ACT, = Ii. -Tde(wa)


4Hma

Assuming that the sens~tlvityof eigenvalue A, is unaffected by ' K ' , the change 111 eigenvalue due to the electrical system interaction is gnen as (putting K = 1In equatlon (A LO)),

Appendix B

Derivation of expression for damping


torque using imrnit tance functions
In damping torque analysis, the impedance f~inctionsof the network as vlewed from the
generator Internal bus 1s of 9ignifrcancc and can be expressed wlth respect to Kron's (D-Q)
synchronously ;otstmg frame of rckrcnce The electrical torque (AT.) as a functlon of the
change In per unit rotor speed (AS,) can be derived from the knowledge of the ~mpedance
functions In D-Q axes
Conslder a single mach~ncinfin~tebu(; (SMIB) system as In Flg B 1 In damping torque
analys~s,the generator 15 modelled by a constant voltage source (E') behlnd a transient
reactance (x')Thc ~mpcdclnccof thc netwark external to the generator can be gven bj

where & = Q + RL,LC =

''I

'' '.' L ~'*.*


WH

and C =

w e kc

R, X ,

Flgurc B 1 SMIB system wlth series compensation


The expression for mpedance functions in D-Q axes are gven in referencell] and can be
@Enas

234
-

Appends B Denvatcon of expresston for dampzng t o w e wzng trnrnattance &ncttons

For the slrnphfied generator model, the change in electrical torque can be expressed as,

AT, = E'AZ,

(B 4)

From the relation,

we can derive

Az, = cos boAzg + szn &AtD + zdoA6

There 1s no loss of generahty in assuming the operating value of b = 60 as zero Hence


equation (B 6) can be simplified as

Az, = AZQ$ z&A6


At the generator internal bus the following equation apphes

where

AeD and AeQ are der~vedfrom the fact that the generator voltage (at the internal bus) has
only a q-axis component(eg) glven by

and eq is related to e D and e~ by

e~ = e, szn 6
eg = e, ws 6

Assurnl~lg60 = 0

(ah

before), ue get

YDr-,I'Dq, YQu,YQQ arc the admittance functions and can be expressed as

and Z " ( s )
Since,

1s the

impedance funct~on(per phase) v~ewedfrom the generator internal bus

n e can derlve the expression for AZQas

AzQ(s)

= [YQD(s)

+~

~ ( E'
s AS,
) ]

(B 17)

sribstituting cquat~on(B 17) In equation (B 7) and s~mplifylngthe equation (B 4) we get

Appendix C

System Data
C1

fEEE FBM

The ~ l c t c mdatn ih rllr rnod~fiedI f CE filst benchmark model Data are glven on 892 4
UVA, 500hI tsnsr I f t c a t ~ ~ frrqucilct
~sc
1% tnkcn as 60 Hz
Gencrnt or Data
xd

= 1 79 .r:, = 0 10'1 r,, = 0 135

2,

= 1 i l r ; = 0 228 rV = 0 200 R,, = 0

Go= 4 J

r ,= 0052 I& = 085 i;=OO5

I/,
= 0 lo00 1, - 0 025o T, = 0 107,) T;'= 0 0463
M t i l t t m a ~n~i~rI~trx~~cnl
qystcin

IF"turt,r;kr
LPA turbine
LPD turhne
Gcncrstor
Exciter

0 155589

0 8581370

0 884215
0 868495
0 0342165

IP-LPA
LPA-LPB
LPB-GEN
GEN-EXC

34 929

52 038
70 858

2 822

The self damping of O 20 1s considered for HP, IP, LPA and LPB turblnes The mutual
damping between HP-IP, IP-LPA,LPA-LPB and LPBGEN are taken as 0 30 n h e r e ~ sfor
GEN-EXC 1t is taken as O 005

Appendtx

238

C System Data

The fractions of total torque for HP, IP, LPA and LPB turbines are takes as 0 30, 0 26,
0 22 and 0 22 respectively
Trailsformer and transmission line d a t a for Chapter 2
Rt = 0 00, Xt = 0 14, RL = 0 02, XL = 1, XSYS = 0 06
Excitation System
K A = 200, TA= 0 025, Ejdmaz= 6, EfdmZn= -6
Power System Stabilizer
Tw = 10, KPS = 6, TI = 0 10, T2 = 0 01, wn = 22 rad/sec, C = 0 5, VPsmnz= 0 10,
V p S man = -0 10

C.2

Data for Chapter 3

Trailsformer and transmission line data


Rt = 0 0, Xt = 0 14, Ri = 0 016, Xi = 0 8, Xc = 0 6
Bc = 0 25213, R2 = 0 004, X2 = 0 2, Xsvs = 0 06
STATCOM Data
Rs = 0 0381, Xs = 0 5711, bc = 0 2984, R, = 299 66
Voltage controller
Ks = O 15, Kp = O 00, Kt = -100, 2Rma = O 1681, ZRmln = -0 1681
Type I Controller
Kpl = 2 j Kzl = 1, Kpz = O 175, KZ2 = 3 5, Kp3= O 175, KZ3= 3 5
SSDC Xth = 0 16, Limits on SSDC output=& 0 00260
Type I1 Controller
K1= 0 175, K2= 3 5
SSDC Xth = 0 16, Limits on SSDC output=& 0 00285

C 3 Data for Chapter 4.


SSSC Data
b, = 0 2984, R, = 299 66, gc = 2
,Transformer tap=& =
RP
Type I Controller
K p u d ~= 1, K~udc= 1, V ~ ( s e ) m a =
x 0 2017,

i,Limits on SSDC output=&O 000035

V R ( =
~ -0~ 2017
) ~ ~ ~

Type I1 Controller

Km = 1, Kq = 1, VR(se)muz = 0 2017, VR(se)mm = -0 2017

SSSC reactance controller

ICpxse = 50,I(,xse = 50

C.4

Data for Chapter 5

Transfornler a n d transmlss~onllne d a t a
Rt = O 0,Xt = O 14,R1 = O 012,XI = 0 6, Xc = 04
Bc = 0 25213,X a e = 0 2, R2 = 0 008,Xz = 0 4, Xsvs = O 06
UPFC Data
Rating of each VSC 150 MVAR
R, = 00381,Xs= 0 5711, bc = 0 5967,R, = 149 83,gc = 1
RP
Voltage controller
Ks = 0 15,Kp = 0 00,Kt= -100,Znmaz = 0 1681,ZR,,, = -0 1681
Shunt current controller

Kpl= 2,

= 1,

Kp2
= 0 1, I(r2= 0 1,

= 0 2,Kt3 = 4

Series boltage controller


Td = O 1,
= 100,I<Rsc = 500
V~(se)mcrz= O 2017,VR(~,),,, = -0 2017,V~(~e)ma+
= 0 075,Vp(Se)mm= -0 03
Transformer tap
Psh

= 1 0,pse = 51

C 5 Data for Chapter 6 and 7:


Data are given on 300 MVA base The AC voltage base is taken as 5OOhV The DC side
voltage base is 150kV
nansforrner a n d transmission line d a t a
Rt = 00,& = 0 14,R1= 002,XI= 0 5,Rel = 002,Xel= 02806
BCI = O 3, Bc2 = O 3, Re2= O 02,Xe2
=03, pj = 2 75

VSC Data
Rating of each VSC 300 MVAR
Rs = 00064,Xs 0 096,bc = 1 775,R, = 50368,9, =
Voltage controller
KS = 0 15,Kp = 000%K,= -100
Shunt current controller for VSCl and VSC2

I~mas= O 3667,IRmn = -0 3667,IPmat


= 1 1, Ipmm = -1 1

Appendca: C System Data

240

The measured IR and I p are passed through a band reject filter with the stop band of 165-195

Hz

C.6

IEEE SBM

The system data of IEEE second benchmark model are given on 600 MVA, 500kV base The
base frequency is taken as 60 Hz
Generator Data

xd = 1 65, x(d = 0 25, xi = 0 20


x, = 1 59, xi = 0 46, xi = 0 200, R,,= 0 0045
T, = 4 5, T* = 0 04, = 0 55, T:~= 0 074133
Mu1timass mechanical system

<,

r G r ~ a i p l n ~Shaft Sections Spring constant


lbf-ft/rad
lbm-ft2 Ibf-ft-sec/rad
50 12x lo6
HP turbine 49912
HP-LP
155 2
r

LP turb~ne 310729
Generator 176204
Exc~ter
1383

966 2
547 9
43

97 97 x lo6
4 39x lo6

LP-GEN
GEN-EXC

The fractions of total torque for HP and LP turbines are takes as 0 40 and 0 60 respectively
Transformer and transmission line data for Chapter 2

Rt = 0 0012, Xt = 0 12, R1= 0 0444, X I = 0 48, R2= 0 0402, X2 = 0 4434


Rsys = 0 0084, Xsvs = 0 18
Excitation System

KA = 200, TA= 0 025, Efdm, = 6, Efdmtn


= -6
Power System Stabilizer

T'= 10, l ( P s = 5
VPSm a

5, TI=O35, T2= 001, wn = 45 rad/sec,


= 0 10, VpSmtn = -0 10

=0 6

C 7 Data for Clzaptcr S

C 7 Data for Chapter 8

Type-1 controller

Td=006
Case1 and 2
VSCl I(,* = 0 35,

VSC2

Kpp2

= 37

= -1 5, K t p 2 = -59 338, K , - J =
~0

KPq2 = -0 3, KzQ2 = -7 SMi4,K d q z = O 002, KpRse2= 50, K,Rsea= 500


Case3 and 4
VSCl Kppl = -0 16, I<,pl = -29, I(dP1= 0 002
I c p ~ l=

VSC2

Krwdc

-0 1451, I(tQl = -1 98,Iidql = O 00, I(pRsel = 50, i(iRsel= 50

= 0 35,

I\:vdc= 37

All measurements' ( ~ nDQ frame) are passed through a measurement delay block whose
transfer function is 1

Appendix D
Derivation of STATCOM admittance
function in D-Q axes
D 1 With simplified model of STATCOM
The equivalent cirttllt lcprrsentatlor~of

STATCOM is sllowri in Fig D 1

r ~ g ~I
~)r1r Equi\ulent crrcu~treprcscntation of

STATCOM

Referring to cqu~axlcntexcurt the following equations ale derived

AtdD =

- cos&AZ8+ sin SszSAOs

, esZS~es
AtsQ = sin ~ I ~ A+Zcos

Appendzx D Denvatzon of STATCOhf admzttance functzon zn D-Q

244

Simplifying equation D 2 to equation D 6 we get

YsDD
= -T(s) cos 8, sin 8, + CK1

+
XQD= T ( s )sin28, + CKS

YaDQ= -T(s) C O S es
~
CK2

YsQQ
= T ( s )COS os Sln 8, $ CK4
veQ
CK1= sin 8s~s-,
CK2=

K2

CK3= cos 8 s ~ s T r CK4=

U SD

- sln O s Z s ~
VSD

- cOse

s z s ~

D 2 With detailed D-Q model of Type-1 apd Type-2


STATCOM

[&I,

Here to obtain
the STATCOM equations (including controller) are linearized at the
opeiatlng point and expressed as,

The matrlx elements of (Ast],[B,t],[Cat]and [Dst]for two level STATCOM with Type-2
controller can be obtained as below
Type-2 STATCOM Equations
The two level VSC based STATCOM equations (3 26 to 3 28) are linearized and expressed

D ,g Wzth detazled D Q rrzodel of

njpe-1 and Tr~pe-2STATCOM

245

where

AX p r = [ A ~ , DAxs,,
,

A&,

= [AvsD AvSQlt

where
CI = -

2 , ~

+ +

COS(Q

Q3)

+ OS)

Z ~ QS ~ I I ( Q

Os = tan-'
"4
Type2 controller equations
The l~nearitedequat~onsof STATCOM controllcrs ~~lcludillg
reactl~cand Ioltage corlt~ol
loops can be euprcsqed ns

A a = [Csc]AXsc

Appendzx D Denvatton of STATCOM admzttance functzon zn D-Q

246

where

Cquations (D 18) and (D 23) can be colnbined by elimincltillg Acu from equation D 24
and noting that

how we have

The delivation of matrix elements of [Ast],[Bst],[Cst]and [Dst]for three level STATCOM


with Type-1 controller can be obtaned in a sim~larway

Appendix E

Derivation of SSSC impedance


function in D-Q axes
For the evaluat~onof darnplng torque, ~t 1s necessary to express the lmpedancc Iuncf~on
[Z,,]of SSSC in D-Q frame To obtaln [Z,,], thc SSSC equations (along with controllrr) are
hnearlzed at the operating point and expressed as,
I

where,

[I]1s id&txty matrlx

The tmpedance functlon [Z] of the network external to the generator (excluding SSSC)
IS calculated in the same way as gven in Appendix-R The cqurvalent admittance seen at
the generator ~ n t e r n dbus

1s

gwen as,

NOW,the evpressron for damplng torque can be written as,

Appendw E Demvatzon of SSSC zmpedance functzon zn D- Q ma

[C,,]
E 1 Expressions for matrix elements of [A,,], [Bse],
and [Dse]for Type-2 SSSC
The state vector AX,, for Type-2 SSSC along with lts controller (refer Fig 4 5) can be
gven as
[AXse]= [Auk AXm AX,]'

(E6)

The matrix [A,,] and [B,,] are obtaned as

where
kcl =
kd

=
be

= {[k~.. cos(b + r)$z~]


- [kp,sln(b

+r ) $ ~ ] }

2 f [bS.
cos(4 + $23
1- 'kpSe sm(d + 7) 5%

kd = { k ~ sin($
.
+7)

kd = {kpS. cos(4+ r)? t [kp,sln(d t r


'I' is the magnitude of llne current
The matrix Cse can be obtaned as,

gDr

) ? ~ -] 'kp,cos(4+

where

The elements of matr~xDse can be obtalned as,

The matrices [A,], [Re], [C,,] and [D,,] for Type1 SSSC are obtaned i n a s~rmlarway

Appendix F

Derivation of admittance function of


UPFC in D-Q axes
The electrical system wlth UPFC shown in Fig 5 5 can be ~epresentedas shown m rig F 1
for the purpose of damplng torque analysis
*V,

Generator
~nternalbus

I
z,

.-

A I*

A 1,
CI
/

4%

-7

UPFC

111

Figure F 1 Linearized electrical system for damping torque calculations

In damplng torque analysis, the generator a modelled by a constant voltage source (8')
behind a translent reactance ( X I ) The Impedance of the network external to the generator
(refer Fig 5 5) are

x2+xsva
where Rel = Rc + 4, Le1 = X'+X~+XL,
C = &, Le2 = W B '
ws
The impedance fu~ictionsof the network elements external to the generator(exc1udmg
UPFC)are calculated in the same way as given m Appendix-B The expression for Impedance

&pen&

250

F Denvatzon of admzttance fvnctzon

of

UPFC tn D Q axes

functions in D-Q axes are given in reference[l] These are,


-

wheie z = 1,2,3and the elements of [Z,]can be glven as

To obtain the admittance function [Y,] seen at port-1 of UPFC, in D-Q frame of reference,
the UPFC equations (including the controllers) are linearized at the operating po~ntand
exp~essedas,

1 AVID 1

F'rom (F 7) and (F 8) we obtain

By expressing the D-Qcomponents as a vector, we can write equation (F 9) as,

whele,

UPFC

[Kz]
= [Ze2]-' is the admittance matrut of the right arde of network seen at port-2 of

Elirninatlng AV2 from (F 10) and silnplifying we finally get

where,

[Yu]= ( [ h l l ] [hi2][K2][(l- 1122Ye2)]-'[h21]) and I is ldentity matrix


Now, the admittance seen at the generator internal bus is computed as,

Now, the express1011 for damping torque call be written as,

T&(a)= 3 [ Y ~ ~ (J uJ +
WyQQ(.?W)]
)~

Appendix G
--

Derivation of admittance function in


D-Q axes with IPFC
Cons~dera single machine infinite bus (SMIB) system adopted from IEEC SBM rrlodel tvlth
IPFC as In Flg G 1

v, Le 1

v;

Le

t1b1h e - 1
x,

R,

LL

xc

Rs,
-I

BUS-I

R2

v;

F~gureG 1 IEEE SBM

X2

E~LLJ

,s

BUS-2

SMIB sygtcrn with IPFC

The ~mped~znce
seen from the generator internal bus of the system shown in Fig G 1 can
be represented as shown in Fig G 2 for the purpose of damping torque anal~sis

-f
0

I , z

IPFC

z s ~ ~

iZ2J

Figure G 2 Impedance seen form generator internal bus for SMIB system rvlth IPFC

In damplng torque andyss, the generator IS modelled by a constant voltage source (b)
behind a translent reactance (x')The ~rnpedaneeof the network external to the generator

254

Append= G Denvatzon of admzttance functzon zn D-Q axes unth IPFC

(refer rig G 2) can be given by

Z2(s) = R2

+ L2s

Z s r s (s) = Rsus + Lsuss

2,

where Lgt = *,
Ll = L,
C = wsxc
1
L2 =
Lsus=
WB
The impedance functions of the network elements external to the generator (excluding
IPFC) is calculated In the same way as aven Appendix-A The expression for Impedance
functiolls in D-Qaxes are given in reference[l] and can be given as

where z = g, 1,2, S Y S
The elements of [Z,] can be given as

The system shown in Fig G 1 can be reduced to the form as shown in Fig G 3 where
[ZN]represents the equivalent lmpedance of line-1 and 2 including IPFC for cases 2 and 4

Equivalent impedance of
transmission network

Figure G 3 Equivalent representation of transmission hne witJ~ IPFC for cases-2 and 4

To obtaln the equivalent impedance [ZR]


right side of bus-1 w ~ t hIPFC (ZN Zw,) for
cases-1 to 4(refer Table 8 I), we hnearlze equations (8 7) to (8 14) (representing IPFC along
with controller) at the operating polnt and are expressed as,

By expressing the D-Qcomponents as a vector, we can write equation (G 11) as,

Referring Fig G 1, we can write following equations,

Where,

Where [Zl], [Z2]are the impedance functions of line-1 and line-2 respectively From eqt1atlon(G 13)
we get,

25 6

Appendza: G Denvatzon of adrnzttance jhnctzon zn D-Q axes unth I p p ~

Where,

we know that,
[V21= [ILI[Z,SI

Substituting equation(G 16) In equation(G 15) and simplifying we obtain

[h]= [ZR]
[IL]
where,

[ZR]
= {[YN~]
- [YNI]

}-I

{ [I]+ [ Y N[zsys]
~] )
t

whele [I] is the identity matrlx


The net adrmttance seen at the generator internal bus is computed as,

Now, the expression for damplng torque can be wr~ttenas,

Speclal case
For cases 2 and 4, [rn13]=[ma3]=0
and equation (G18) reduces to,

where the impedance of h e - 1 and 2 dong with IPFC for cases 2 and 4 is obtaned as,

Appendix H
Derivation of admittance function in
D-Q axes with VSC based HVDC
The system d~agramshown In Fig 7 1 can be represented as in Flg H 1

re^

'I

..
A

Port-1

and
DC Cable

Port-2
Bc2

Generator
Figure H 1 Simphfied system diagram with VSC HVDC represented as two port network

In damp~ngtorque analysis, the generator is modelled by a constant voltage source ( E ' )


behind a transient reactance (x') The impedance of the network external to the generator
can be gven by

258

Appendz;c H Denvatzon of adrnattance finctzon zn D - 9 axes mth VSC based HVDC

where RI, = 9 R1,L1, = +:i+X1,


Le1 = &,
W B Le2 = W B
The impedance functions of the network elements external to the generator(excludmg
VSC HVDC) is calculated in the same way as given Appendu-A The expression for impedance
functiolis in D-Q axes are given m reference[l] and can be glven as

where z = lg, e l , e2, cl, c2


The elements of [Z,] can be gven as

The HVDC system can be mewed as two port network, (as shown in Fig H 1)with port
voltages are inputs and port currents are outputs To obtan the parameters of two port
network in D-Qframe of reference, we linearize equat~ons(6 9) to (6 21) (representing VSC
HVDC along with controller) at the operating point and expressed as,

By expressing the D-Q components as a vector, we can w r ~ t eequation (H 12) as,

Referring to Fig H 1, we can write following equations,

substitutiilg equation H 16 in H 13 we get,

where,

iYHvI = [3hli] 4- [ Y ~ I ~ ] [ - Y Nyh22]-'[1/h21]


~

Now the net admittance seen at the generator Internal bus is computed as,

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List of Publlcatlons
1 k It P a d l ~ n r?nd Lagc sli I'r-ibltu, ' Allall si5 aiid Si~nulnt~on
of SubSynchlonous Rcsonanct n ~ t hSTATCOII Intc I 11atlon~11
Confei cncc on P ~ e s e ~and
i t Future Trends in
Transmi~sionand Co~l~crgcncc,
hen Dclhl, pp 1x11-1x23, Dectirlbcr 2002
2 k R Padiyar and \ages11 Prabhu, ' A~lnl~.sis
of SubSynchronous Resonance with 1hrec

Level Taclcc-Pulse. VSC bastci SSSC' , IEEC TENCON-2003 Bailgalore, pp 76-50


Octobc~2003
of VSC
3 I< R Pcxdi,ar and 'Ingesh Prabht~,"!iodclli~zg, Colitrol design and AIIBI~SIS
based HVDC Transrnlsslorl S\ 5tems ', Accepted for IECE POI! ERCOh-200 1 Slngapore, 'Vo\embcl 2004
4 I< R Padndr and \age.;h P~abhii 'Xn?lys~sof SSR Interactions with Interline Ponei

rlon Controller ' 4cccptcd for \ationnl Pancr Svstem Conference, Chennal, December
2004