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Moment Curvature

Bonded Tendons

Moment-Curvature Analysis


Analysis that follows behavior of a bonded


prestressed concrete beam thru the total load
range
Initial Loading Failure

Curvature is the slope of the strain


distribution line
= c / x

Assumptions
Tendons are bonded to concrete: changes
in strain in the steel & concrete after
bonding are assumed to be the same
Initial strain due to effective prestress in the
tendons (No moment from applied loads):

1.

2.




In concrete at level of steel ce


In the tendon se (strain in steel after prestess
losses)

b
c

x
dP
AP

ce

se

ce

se

s
(a) Strain Distribution
at Zero Moment

(a) Strain Distribution


After Moment is Applied

Assumptions (Contd)
3.

4.
5.

6.

7.

Stress strain curves of concrete and steel


are known
Linear strains though the depth of the beam
Tension and compression forces in the
section are in equilibrium
Ultimate moment corresponds to strain in
concrete that causes crushing or steel strain
that causes fracture of the tendon
Failure in flexure (Adequate shear and bond
strength)

Stress-Strain Properties of Materials


2

c = f ck

c2

c 2 = 2% for


c2

f ck < 50MPa

c 2 = 2 + 0.085 ( f ck 50)0.53 for


Cc = b f ck

c2

f ck 50MPa

x 2 1
3
c 2

8 c2 3 x

x = x
12 c 2 4 x

fse

T = AP f se
se

Analysis Procedure


Two Stages



1st Stage: Beam is elastic and uncracked


2nd Stage: Beam is cracked inelastic analysis
based on material response


Point to point check for a series of assumed values for


top fiber strain

2nd Stage Procedure







Assume top fiber strain


Assume depth of neutral axis: x
Compute internal forces: C, T
Check if C = T





If not revise x and iterate until C = T

Once final x is calculated compute and M


Assume another top fiber strain and repeat
the whole procedure

Example 1
Normal weight concrete fck = 48MPa, 915 x 458 mm
AP = 1777 mm2, fp0,1k = 1580 MPa, Initial prestressing stress = 1296 MPa,
Ep = 190 GPa, Prestressing losses 15%
Find M, for the following steps:
(a) Initial stage zero applied moment
(b) Zero strain in concrete at level of steel
(c) Cracking moment
(d) Cracked section with top fiber strain 0.001, 0.002 and 0.0035
458

800

AP

(a)

Initial stage zero applied moment


Use gross section properties
Ac = 0.458 0.915 = 0.42m 2
y p = 0.8

Ic =

0.458 0.9153
= 0.0292m 4
12

0.915
= 0.343m
2

Pe = 0.85 (0.001777 1296000) = 1957.5kN

bot =

1957.5 1957.5 0.343 0.458

= 15.2 MPa
0.42
0.0292

top =

1957.5 1957.5 0.343 0.458


= 5.9 MPa
+
0.42
0.0292

Ec = 22(48)
10

top =

0 =

x=

0.3

= 35.2GPa

5 .9
= 0.000168
35200

bot

top )
h

bot =

15.2
= 0.000432
35200

( 0.000432 0.000168 ) = 6.557 10 4


0.915

1
m

0.000168 0.915
= 0 .256
0.000168 ( 0 .000432 )

ce =

1957.5 1957.5 0.343 0.343


+
= 12.5MPa
0.42
0.0292

ce =

12.5
= 0.000355
35200

se =

0.85 1296
= 0.00564
195000

Zero strain in concrete at level of steel

(b)

f s1 = ( se + ce ) E p = (0.00564 + 0.000354) 195000 = 1168.8MPa

P = 0.001777 1168800 = 2077kN


I c ce 0.0292 12500
=
= 1067.3kN m
d p yt
0.8 0.458

M1 =

bot1 =

top1 =

top1 =

1 =

x1 =

(c)

2077 2077 0.343 0.458 1067.3 0.458

+
= 0.62MPa
0.42
0.0292
0.0292

2077 2077 0.343 0.458 1067.3 0.458


+

= 10.5MPa
0.42
0.0292
0.0292

10.5
= 0.000298
35200

bot 1

top1 )
h

bot1 =

0.62
= 0.0000176
35200

(0.0000176 ( 0.000298 ) ) = 3.121 10 4


0.915

1
m

0.000298 0.915
= 0.864
0.000298 (0.0000176 )
Cracking moment
Approximate method

f ctm = 0.3 f ck3 = 0.3 (48) 3 = 4 MPa


2

h
915
f ctm, fl = max 1.6
f ctm ; f ctm = max 1.6
4;4 = 4MPa
1000
1000

M =

( f ctm , fl cb1 ) I c
yb

(4000 620) 0.0292


= 215.5kN m
0.458

M 2 = M 1 + M = 1067.3 + 215.5 = 1282.8kN m

f p =

M (d p yt ) n
Ic

n=

E P 195
=
= 5.54
Ec 35.2

215.5 0.343 5.54


= 14MPa
0.0292

f s 2 = f s1 + f p = 1168.8 + 14 = 1182.8MPa
P = 0.001777 1182800 = 2101.8kN

bot 2 =
top 2 =

top 2 =

2 =

x2 =

2101.8 2101.8 0.343 0.458 1282.8 0.458

+
= 3.8MPa
0.42
0.0292
0.0292

2101.8 2101.8 0.343 0.458 1282.8 0.458


+

= 13.8MPa
0.42
0.0292
0.0292

13.8
= 0.000392
35200

bot 1

top1 )
h

bot 2 =

3 .8
= 0.000108
35200

(0.000108 ( 0.000392 ) ) = 5.464 10 4


0.915

1
m

0.000392 0.915
= 0.717
0.000392 (0.000108 )

(c)

Cracked Section
Resultant internal compression force for a rectangular section:

Cc = b f ck

c

x 1 c
c2
3 c2

8 c2 3 c

x = x
12 c 2 4 c

Moment about prestressing steel location

M c = Cc x + d P x

Resultant internal tensile force:

f P = P EP

f P = f P 0,1k

For P fP0,1k / EP (1580/190000 = 0.00832)

P
+ ( f Pk f P 0,1k )

uk

T = AP f P

(c)

f P 0.1k

EP

f P 0.1k
EP

For P > fP0,1k / EP:

P = ( se + ce ) + (d P x )

c
x

c
x

Cracked Section
Assume strain in concrete at the top c = 0.001

Assume depth to neutral axis x = 0.287 m


Cc = 0.458 48000

0.001
0.001

0.287 1
= 2629kN
0.002
3 0.002

P = (0.000355 + 0.00564) + (0.8 0.287)

0.001
= 0.00779
0.287

f P = 0.00779 190000 = 1479.5MPa


T = 0.001777 1470500 = 2629kN
8 0.002 3 0.001
x = 0.287
= 0.187m
12 0.002 4 0.001

M c = 2629 (0.187 + 0.8 0.287 ) = 1840.3kN m

0.001
1
= 0.00348
0.287
m

(c)

Cracked Section
Assume strain in concrete at the top c = 0.002

Assume depth to neutral axis x = 0.2 m


Cc = 0.458 48000

0.002
0.002

0.2 1
= 2933kN
0.002
3
0.002

P = (0.000355 + 0.00564) + (0.8 0.2 )

f P = 1580 + (1830 1580)

0.002
= 0.012
0.2

(0.012 0.00832) = 1646.3MPa


(0.0222 0.00832)

T = 0.001777 1646300 = 2926kN

Close enough

8 0.002 3 0.002
x = 0.2
= 0.125m
12 0.002 4 0.002

M c = 2933 (0.125 + 0.8 0.2 ) = 2126kN m


=
(c)

0.002
1
= 0.01
0.2
m

Cracked Section
Assume strain in concrete at the top c = 0.0035

Assume depth to neutral axis x = 0.192 m


Cc = 0.458 48000

0.0035
0.0035

0.192 1
= 3078kN
0.002
3 0.002

P = (0.000355 + 0.00564) + (0.8 0.192)

0.0035
= 0.0171
0.192
(0.0171 0.00832) = 1738.1MPa
f P = 1580 + (1830 1580)
(0.0222 0.00832)
T = 0.001777 1738100 = 3088kN

Close enough

10

8 0.002 3 0.0035
x = 0.192
= 0.173m
12 0.002 4 0.0035

M c = 3078 (0.173 + 0.8 0.192 ) = 2404kN m

0.0035
1
= 0.0182
0.192
m

Plot all points calculated to construct the moment curvature diagram


Moment Curvature
0
-0.000656
1067.3 0.000312
1282.8 0.000546
1840.3
0.00348
2126
0.01
2404
0.0182

2800

Moment (kN-m)

2100

1400

700

0
-0.003

0.003

0.006

0.009

0.012

0.015

0.018

0.021

Curvature (1/m)

11