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Yes, I totally agree that organization preference into certain personality type would

gain the organization competitive advantage. Researchers agree that almost all personality
measures could be categorized according to the five factor model of personality. Research
also showed that the five personality factors have genetic basis (Digman, 1989) and that they
are probably inherited (Jang, Livesly & Vernon, 1966). The five dimensions of the five
factors model of personality are neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeable
and conscientiousness.

1. Neuroticism
People who have high score in neuroticism indicates a person is prone to
having irrational ideas, insecure, depressed, self conscious, insecure and
temperamental. Furthermore, those who score low on neuroticism are able to think
clearly, make decisions, more relaxed and able to face stressful situations without
becoming upset. Example such as pilots hired by Airlines industry should have low
neuroticism personality to handle difficult situation that might happen. They can think
clearly and make fast decision in difficult situation. Individuals high on neuroticism
tend to experience more negative life events.

2. Openness to experience
Openness to experience is refer to the person who have active and creative
imagination, aesthetic sensitivity, attentiveness to inner feelings, a preference for
variety, intellectual curiosity and independence of judgment. Openness reflects the
degree of intellectual curiosity, creativity and a preference for novelty and variety a
person has. Example, people who worked in training and consulting industries like a
trainer. A trainer should have intellectual curiosity to add their knowledge and skills
and also creative imagination to make training conduct by them more lively and
attractive in audience eyes. People who score low in openness tend to be conventional
in behavior and conservative outlook.

3. Agreeableness

An agreeable person fundamentally altruistic (trusted), eager to help others,

considerate, tolerant, generous, flexible and selfless. For example in hospitals, the
doctors and nurses are trusted and eager to help their patient in what matters
situations. They will be tolerated to the patient and treat then with their kindness and
patience. The cooperative nature of agreeable individuals may lead to success in
occupations. People who have low agreeableness tend to be uncooperative, egocentric
and intolerant.

4. Conscientiousness
Conscientiousness refers to self-control and the active process of planning,
organizing and carrying out task. The conscientiousness person is purposeful, strongwilled and determined. On the negative side, high conscientiousness may lead to
annoying fastidiousness, compulsive neatness or workaholic behavior. They are
predisposed to take initiative in solving problems and are methodical and thorough in
their work. People who are high in conscientiousness generally perform better at
work than those who are low in conscientiousness. Example such as in manufacturing
company, quality assurance executive have to do planning and organizing a lot of task
pertaining to quality of the product produce by the company. They have to pay
attention details while performing their task.

5. Extraversion
People who are high in extraversion are generally sociable, assertive, active,
bold, energetic, adventuresome, and expressive. They are self-confident, talkative,
gregarious, and spontaneous. Example such as, manager who worked in training
center of consulting firm. They are more talkative, sociable and confident when
handling people. In contrast, those who are low in extraversion (highly introverted
people) are timid, submissive, silent, and inhibited. Extraverts have the social skills
and the desire to work with others that may be necessary to be involved in knowledge
sharing and acquisition activities.

Extraversion is also an indicator of ones

assertiveness and confidence. Individuals who scored low on extraversion tend to be

quiet and private, and may feel too timid to engage in a problem-solving conversation
with people.


Digman, J.M. (1989). Five Robust trait dimensions: Development, stability and utility.
Journal of Personality, 57, 195-214.

Jang, K.L, Livesly, W.J. & Vernon, P.A. (1966). Hereditability of the big five personality
dimensions and their facets: A twin study. Journal of Personality, 64, 577-591.

McShane & Mary Von Glinow (2014). Organizational Behavior: Emerging Knowledge,
Global Reality, (7th ed.), Singapore, McGraw-Hill.