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# STUDENT CODE OF ETHIC

(SCE)
DEPT. OF WATER RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.
FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL
ENGINEERING
UTHM
I, hereby confess that I have prepared this report on my own effort. I also admit not to receive or
give any help during the preparation of this report and pledge that everything mentioned in the report
is true.

___________________________
Student Signature
Name

Matric No.

Date

## FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL

ENGINEERING
DEPT. OF WATER RESOURCES &
ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.

## FLUID MECHANICS ENGINEERING LABORATORY

REPORT
SUBJECT CODE
TEST CODE & TITLE

## MMB 02 / FLOW IN PIPES

COURSE CODE
TESTING DATE
STUDENT NAME
GROUP
1.
2.
GROUP MEMBER NAMES

3.
4.
5.

## LECTURER/ INSTRUCTOR/ TUTOR

NAME
MARKS
* Refer to laboratory rubric attached

EXAMINER COMMENT

PAGE NO.:

1/10

## DEPT: WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.

TEST TITLE: FLOW IN PIPES

EDITION:
REVIEW NO.:
EFFECTIVE DATE:
AMENDMENT DATE:

1
03
25/2/05
18/12/08

1.0 OBJECTIVE
TO VERIFY TOTAL ENERGY HEAD LOSSES IN PIPE FLOW DUE TO FRICTIONAL RESISTANCE IN
THE PIPELINE.
2.0 LEARNING OUTCOME
At the end of this experiment, students are able to:
To evaluate the frictional resistance to flow along a long straight pipe with smooth walls.
To calculate the additional head and the rate of flow along an existing pipeline.
Measure the losses at various fittings, typical of those which are used frequently in pipe systems.

3.0 THEORY
When fluid flows in a pipe, whether smooth or rough pipe, there would be frictional losses. Friction loss is due to
frictional resistance at the pipe wall and frictional resistance between fluid molecules. Therefore, there would be
a reduction in energy head hf. Minor head losses such as occurs at valves, pipe inlet and outlet, and bends is
considered to be negligible in the test.
3.1 FLOW IN PIPES ANALYSIS CALCULATION EXAMPLES
1. For fully developed flow along a circular pipe, head loss due to friction (in mH 2O) is given as:
2
L v

d 2g
L = length between points of pressure measurement (m) = 1 meter for all pipes
v = mean velocity of flow m s

hf f
where

## g = gravity acceleration 9.81 m s 2

d = internal pipe diameter m

## f = pipe friction factor

Note: When Reynolds number Re of a flow is known, then
vd
Re

## where, = viscosity of fluid

= 1.15 10-3 Ns m 2 at 15 C

UPDATED BY

## : EMEDYA MURNIWATY SAMSUDIN

SIGNATURE

DATE

15 C

18 DECEMBER 2008
FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.
DEPT: WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.
TEST TITLE: FLOW IN PIPES

PAGE NO.:
EDITION:
REVIEW NO.:
EFFECTIVE DATE:

2/10
1
03
25/2/05

AMENDMENT

18/12/08

DATE:
2. For expansion and contraction in pipe, head loss due to friction (in mH2O) is given as:
kv 2
hf
2g
And the losses coficient value, k refer table 3.1 & 3.2

v d2

d1

d2
d1

1.0

1.25

1.75

2.0

2.25

2.50

2.75

3.0

km

0.0

0.32

1.56

9.0

16.5

27.6

43.1

64.0

d1

d2

d2
d1

1.0

0.80

0.60

0.50

0.40

0.35

0.30

0.25

km

0.0

0.22

0.35

0.40

0.44

0.45

0.47

0.48

## 3.2 Contraction Pipe

3. For smooth pipe with bend of , head loss due friction (in mH 2O) is given as:

hf

kv 2
2g

90

r
d

r
a
d

60

45

22.5

1.0

0.30

0.25

0.21

0.13

2.0

0.16

0.13

0.11

0.05

3.0

0.12

0.10

0.08

0.04

4.0

0.11

0.09

0.08

0.04

5.0

0.09

0.07

0.06

0.03

6.0
0.08
above
3.3 Bend Pipe

0.07

0.06

0.03

## FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.

DEPT: WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG..
TEST TITLE: FLOW IN PIPES

PAGE NO.:
EDITION:
REVIEW NO.:
EFFECTIVE DATE:

3/10
1
03
25/2/05

AMENDMENT DATE:

18/12/08

## FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.

DEPT: WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.
TEST TITLE: FLOW IN PIPES

PAGE NO.:
EDITION:
REVIEW NO.:
EFFECTIVE DATE:
AMENDMENT DATE:

4/10
1
03
25/2/05
18/12/08

4.0 EQUIPMENT
1. Apparatus for measuring head loss along a pipe
2. Stop watch

5.0 PROCEDURE
1. Fill the pipe system with water. Make sure there is no trapped air in the pipe under test (smaller
diameter pipe).
2. Open the inlet valve of the smaller diameter pipe and make sure all other inlet valve is remained
closed. Make sure the cover to supply tank of the hydraulic bench is open.
3.

4.

## The control valve is partly and water level in the

manometer will be raised hB or depressed hA. Record the
of smaller pipe, manometer 7 and 8). Make sure the
difference of hB - hA is not less than 10 mmHg. Close the
bottom of the hydraulic bench to collect water of desired
volume and record the time needed for the collection.
Record the readings in Table 6.1.

5.

6.

## FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.

DEPT: WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.
TEST TITLE: FLOW IN PIPES

PAGE NO.:
EDITION:
REVIEW NO.:
EFFECTIVE DATE:
AMENDMENT DATE:

5/10
1
03
25/2/05
18/12/08

## 7. Open the inlet valve of smaller diameter pipe.

8. Repeat steps 2 to 6 and record the readings of head loss
and time in Table 6.2 (for contraction of smaller diameter
pipe, manometer 9 and 10).
9. For test of pipe having bend of 90 o (manometer 5 and 6),
open the right inlet valve and record the readings in Table
6.3.
10. Close the control valve and switch off the pump.
11. Close the pipe inlet valve.

## FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.

DEPT: WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG..
TEST TITLE: FLOW IN PIPES

PAGE NO.:
EDITION:
REVIEW NO.:
EFFECTIVE DATE:
AMENDMENT
DATE:

6/10
1
03
25/2/05
18/12/08

## 6.0 RESULTS AND CALCULATION

All readings should be recorded in the tables below.
Table 6.1: For smaller diameter of smooth pipe, pipe expansion (manometer 7 and 8)

Volume

liter

Time

(sec)

Discharge
Q

m s
3

Diameter
of pipe

V 10 3

Velocity
v m s

4Q
d 2

Reynolds
number
Re
ud

hf

mH 2 O

mmHg
(h A h B )

Table 6.2: For bigger diameter of smooth pipe, pipe contraction (manometer 9 and10)

Volume

Masa

liter

(sec)

Discharge
Q

m s
3

V 10 3

Diameter
of pipe

Velocity
v m s

4Q
d 2

Reynolds
number
Re
ud

## FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.

DEPT: WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.
TEST TITLE: FLOW IN PIPES

hf

mH 2 O

mmHg
(h A h B )

PAGE NO.:
EDITION:
REVIEW NO.:
EFFECTIVE DATE:
AMENDMENT DATE:

7/10
1
03
25/2/05
18/12/08

Volume

Time

liter

saat

Discharge
Q

m s
3

V 10 3

Pipe
diameter

Velocity
v m s

4Q
d 2

Reynolds
number
Re
ud

hf

mH 2 O

mmHg
(h A h B )

## Table 6.3: For smooth pipe, straight pipe (manometer 5 and 6)

Table 6.4: For smooth pipe with bend of 90o (manometer 1 and 2)

Volume

Masa

liter

(sec)

Discharge
Q

m s
3

V 10 3
T

Diameter
of pipe

Velocity
v m s

4Q

d 2

Reynolds
number
Re
ud

hf

mH 2 O

mmHg
(h A h B )

## FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.

DEPT: WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.
TEST TITLE: FLOW IN PIPES

PAGE NO.:
EDITION:
REVIEW NO.:
EFFECTIVE DATE:
AMENDMENT DATE:

8/10
1
03
25/2/05
18/12/08

7.0 QUESTIONS
1. Based on the data obtained, calculate flow rate Q, velocity u, Reynolds number N R and head loss h in
Table 6.1 (pipe expansion) and Table 6.2 (pipe contraction).
2. Calculate the difference for hA - hB in the column for head loss H (mmHg).