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Flow of Statistical Analysis

Selection of samples/cases/observation/subjects

Modes of statistical tests


*n 30
*Data should be normally distributed

Parametric tests

Normal Distribution

Linearity-Homogeneous mode of variations


Probability and Non-Probability modes of
samplings and distributions
Continuous variables (ratios and intervals)
Zero/Low forms of correlations between
independent variables. (Lower power of multicollinearity)

*n 30 & n>30
*Data should not be normally distributed

Non-Parametric tests

Non-Normal /Free Distribution

Non-Linearity-Heterogeneity mode of variations


Probability and Non-Probability modes of
samplings and distributions

Continuous variables (ratios and intervals) that


are not normally distributed, ordinal and
nominal variables(Categorical variables)
Zero/Low forms of correlations between
independent variables. (Lower power of multicollinearity)

Ordinary Statistical Tests


Ordinary Statistical Tests
Regression analysis (Y-X)(continuous variablecategorical & continuous variables)
A) Linear regression
(i) DV=Continuous variable, and IV=Continuous
variables/categorical variables/mixed structure
[Parametric forms of assumptions]
-Simple Linear Regression (Two variable case)
*may not be applicable in reality residuals
might be higher efficiency reduction
-Multiple Linear Regression(Multi variable case)
*applicable in reality-residuals might be
lower-expansion of efficiency should be tied up
with diagnostic testing

Regression Analysis
A) Non-Linear regression
(i) DV=Continuous variable, IV=Continuous
variables/categorical variables/mixed
structure
Simple version of Non-Linear regression
(i)Scatterplot smoothing
(ii)Smoothing splines
(iii) Non-linear mode of regression
Multiple version of Non-Linear regression
(i) Additive/Polynomial regression

& Ordinal variables)-Categorical & Continuous variables)

& Ordinal variables)-Categorical & Continuous variables)

Binary Probit Regression(Dichotomous variable-categorical


& continuous variables)

Binary Logit Regression(Dichotomous variable-categorical


& continuous variables)

-residuals are normally distributed linearity mode


homogeneity

-residuals are not normally distributed non-linearity mode


heterogeneity

Multinomial Probit Regression(Multi choices/Ordinal


variable categorical & continuous variables)

Multinomial Logit Regression(Multi choices/Ordinal


variable categorical & continuous variables)

-residuals are normally distributed linearity mode


homogeneity

-residuals are not normally distributed non-linearity


mode heterogeneity

Parametric mode of paired samples(dependent


samples)test

Involves related samples


n 30
measures significant differences between means
of same persons/objects/subjects at different
time points
Indicates modes of improvements and
decrements
Similar to repeated measures of testing
Matched and unmatched paired samples t-test(2
levels)
Independent variable involves two levels
(nominal)
Normal distribution & Linearity mode
Repeated measure of ANOVA(more than 2 levels)

Parametric mode of independent samples test

Involves unrelated samples


n 30
measures significant differences between means of
two persons/objects/subjects.
Independent variable involves two groups and more
than two groups(categorical variable)
Normal distribution & Linearity mode
Dependent variables deal with continuous variables
Independent sample t-test/Levene version of ttest(2 groups)
One way of ANOVA test (>2 groups)

Parametric mode of correlation


Measures the strength of association between variables
that are normally distributed (Continuous variables) Pearson correlation, Pearson distance, stepwise linear
regression, Auxiliary mode linear regression - No/zero
correlation (r=0.00), Weak correlation ( 0.01 r 0.39),
Moderate correlation ( 0.4 r 0.69), High correlation (0.7
r 0.79), Very high correlation ( 0.8 r 0.99), and
Perfect correlation( r=1)

Non-Parametric mode of paired sample test

Involves related samples


n < 30
measures significant differences between ranks
of means of same persons/objects/subjects at
different time points
Indicates modes of improvements and
decrements
Similar to repeated measures of testing
Independent variable involves two or more than
two levels
Non-normal distribution & non-linearity mode
Wilcoxon test, sign test, McNemar test, and
Marginal test of homogeneity.(2 levels)
Friedman test, Kendalls W test, and Cochrans
test(more than two levels)

Non-Parametric mode of independent samples test

Involves unrelated samples


n < 30 / n 30
measures significant differences between ranks
of means of two persons/objects/subjects.
Independent variable involves two or more than
two groups (categorical variable)
Non-Normal distribution & Non-Linearity mode
Dependent variables deal with categorical
variables
Mann Whitney test (2 groups)
Kruskal Wallis rank test (>2 groups)

Parametric mode of correlation


Measures the strength of association between variables
that are normally distributed (Categorical variables) Spearman and Kendalls tau b ranks correlations tests,
stepwise non-linear regression, Auxiliary mode of nonlinear regression- No/zero correlation (r=0.00), Weak
correlation ( 0.01 r 0.39), Moderate correlation ( 0.4 r
0.69), High correlation (0.7 r 0.79), Very high
correlation ( 0.8 r 0.99), and Perfect correlation( r=1)