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Proceedings of the ASME 2009 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition

IMECE2009

November 13-19, Lake Buena Vista, Florida, USA

Proceedings of IMECE2009 2009 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition November 13-19, 2009, Lake Buena Vista, Florida, USA

IMECE2009-11105

IMECE2009- 11105

ENERGY DYNAMICS OF GREEN BUILDINGS, AN ALTERNATIVE TO THE TRADITIONAL HEATING VENTILATING AND AIR CONDITIONING COURSE

Mohammad H. Naraghi 1 Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering Manhattan College Riverdale, NY 10471

ABSTRACT 1 This paper describes a Mechanical Engineering Senior Undergraduate and/or early Graduate level course in sustainable building mechanical systems. This course can be an alternative to the traditional HVAC course and a part of energy concentration for undergraduate and/or graduate Mechanical Engineering. The course runs for a semester involving fourteen weeks of lecture – at most three hours of lecture per week. The course is primarily for Mechanical Engineering students. It is however, encouraged to be taken by Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering majors. A good part of the course is a group semester-long project. Attempt is made to form multidisciplinary groups involving Mechanical and other Engineering majors.

INTRODUCTION Based on the data presented by the Energy Information Administration [1] the greenhouse gases – primarily CO 2 - emitted due to the energy consumption by buildings (combined total commercial and residential buildings) exceeds other sectors (transportation and industrial). The fact that buildings are the major polluter of the environment has compelled pertinent professional organizations, such as, ASHRAE and the AIA to develop Advanced Energy Design Guides. The Advanced Energy Design Guides series provides a sensible approach to achieve advanced levels of energy savings without having to resort to detailed calculations or analysis. The guide offer contractors and designers the tools, including

1 ASME Fellow

1

Michael T. McGough, PE Partner Buro Happold Consulting Engineers, PC 100 Broadway, New York, NY 10005

recommendations for practical products and off-the-shelf technology, required for achieving a 30% energy savings compared to buildings that meet the minimum requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1- 1999. The energy savings target of 30% is the first step in the process toward achieving a net-zero energy building, which is defined as a building that, on an annual basis, draws from outside resources equal or less energy than it provides using on-site renewable energy sources.

The definition of green or sustainable buildings, as described in [2], extends beyond the heating and cooling systems of buildings, since the very concept places an emphasis on integrated design of mechanical, electrical, architectural, and other systems. They are buildings that are designed and constructed to the highest environmental standards, (with minimum use of energy, water and scarce minerals/timber), that are economic to run over their whole lifetime and are sufficiently flexible to meet the needs of future generations. The traditional HVAC courses and available textbooks (e.g., [3] and [4]) do not cover alternative energy sources for buildings and impact of building energy consumption on the environment. The conventional approach in teaching HVAC courses is to present models for heating and cooling load calculations and discuss building mechanical systems, such as, piping and ductworks, chillers boilers etc. Often the course involves a semester-long project (group or individual) involving selection of an appropriate HVAC system for a given building design.

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The new course, Energy Dynamics of Green Buildings, which replaces the traditional HVAC course, emphasizes on the understanding of the impact that various environmental systems have on the building design and operation process:

Environmental Technologies – A review of environmental technologies historically used in buildings to achieve human comfort will serve as an introduction to the objectives for the course. There is a review of the fundamental physics that effect internal and external environmental conditions. Site and climate analysis will be the starting point for defining performance criteria of the built environment. Students are introduced to the analysis tools for interpreting weather data and the fundamentals of occupant comfort. Criteria used to define internal environmental conditions are discussed as a design goal to which all building elements must strive to achieve through systems integration.

Students are challenged to engage the making of building systems through a design process that understands systems as complete assemblies with designed relationships to other systems (manmade and natural/internal and external). The content of the course will emphasis the tectonic aspects of architecture; however other aspects such as the technology and methods for maintaining comfort conditions and ecological balance within buildings will be reviewed with an emphasis on high performance sustainable design, human comfort, social responsibility, ecology, and sustainability.

The course involves a semester-long project in which students are asked to provide the architectural design of a one family house that require lowest heating and cooling loads. Then they are asked to come up with appropriate heating and cooling system. It is highly desirable that the building, by using solar energy, both passively and actively, achieve a net-zero energy consumption.

JUSTIFICATION FOR DEVELOPING THIS COUSRE Most of greenhouse gas emissions in the United States are due to the energy use. Primary drive for this is the economic growth, i.e., fuel used for electricity generation, and weather patterns affecting heating and cooling needs. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions, resulting from fossil fuels, represent 82 percent of total U.S. human-made greenhouse gas emissions (see Figure 1). Other greenhouse gas shown in Figure 1, methane, comes from landfills, coal mines, oil and gas operations, and agriculture; it represents 9 percent of total emissions. Nitrous oxide (5 percent of total emissions), meanwhile, is emitted from burning fossil

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fuels and through the use of certain fertilizers and industrial processes. Human-made gases (2 percent
fuels and through the use of certain fertilizers and
industrial processes. Human-made gases (2 percent of total
emissions) are released as byproducts of industrial
processes and through leakage.
Nitrous Oxide
HFCs, PFCs, and SF 6
31.4 (2%)
97.5 (5%)
Methane
Carbon Dioxide from Fossile Fuel Combustion
1,547.0 (82%)
175.8 (9%)
Other Carbon Dioxide
31.7 (2%)

Figure 1: US manmade greenhouse gas emissions by gas during 2001 in Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent

[1]

As mentioned earlier 82% of greenhouse gases are from carbon dioxide emission (CO 2 ) for energy generation. Figure 2 shows CO 2 emission for different sectors. As shown in this figure carbon dioxide emitted by the industrial sector fell by 6 percent from 1980 to 2005. By 1999, transportation sector carbon dioxide emissions exceeded industrial sector emissions. Of the major sectors, the commercial sector (commercial buildings) generated the least carbon dioxide but recorded the largest growth (61 percent) since 1980. The combined total commercial and residential buildings carbon dioxide emission exceeds all sectors. Figure 3 shows the percentage of the manmade carbon dioxide emission by the three major sectors. Contrary to the common belief that auto and transportation is the major contributors to the green house gases the buildings are by far contribute to the carbon dioxide emissions. It should be noted that most of the energy consumption by buildings are in the form of the electric power.

The growth in the carbon dioxide emission of buildings has been faster than all other sectors. This is due to the widely use of high energy consuming air conditioning units. Figure 4 shows the variation in major sources of energy for buildings (both commercial and residential buildings) in the United States since post World War II. As shown in this figure coal was the major source of energy supply to the buildings during late 40’s and early 50’s. The breakdowns of the energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings are shown in Figure 5 and Figure 6, respectively. By mid 50’s natural gas use started to become the major source of energy supply to the buildings

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Trillion BTU

and its usage in buildings increased until early 70’s. The natural gas usage remained almost flat from 70’s on. The fluctuations in natural gas usage shown in Figure 4 are simply due to yearly increase or decrease in the outdoor temperature. The usage of petroleum products for heating buildings remained almost flat since 1950’s, though it shows some increase until 1970 then a decrease between late 70’s to early 80’s. The only source of building energy supply that shows constant increase since 1950’s is the electricity to the point that it is presently the leading source of building energy supply. The problem with this increase of the electric power usages is two fold:

1. There is a large loss in energy conversion from fossil fuels to electric power at the end user. This loss occurs at several stages of conversion, including energy losses in: combustion, turbine, generator and electric power transmission. The data shown in Figure 4, 5 and 6 shows that the power loss in producing electric power is more than twice of what is used in a building.

2. The major source of the electric power generation in the United States is coal (see Figure 7 for sources of electricity generation in the US during 2005). Most electricity net generation came from coal. Coal has be the worst source of greenhouse gas generation. Additionally, it is responsible for excessive mercury in waters and acid rain.

Figure 8 shows the major sources of total electricity net generation since 1949 (data is taken from reference 1). In 2006, fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, and natural gas) accounted for 71 percent of all net generation, while nuclear electric power contributed 19 percent and renewable energy resources 9 percent. Three-fourths of the net generation from renewable energy resources was derived from conventional hydroelectric power [1].

2500 2000 1500 1000 Residential buildings 500 Commertial buildings Industrail Transpotation Buildings all 0
2500
2000
1500
1000
Residential buildings
500
Commertial
buildings
Industrail
Transpotation
Buildings all
0
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
CO 2 Emissions (million metric ton)

Year

Figure 2: Carbon dioxide emission for energy use from different sectors [1]

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Industrial, 28% Bluidings, 39% Transpotation, 33%
Industrial, 28%
Bluidings, 39%
Transpotation, 33%

Figure 3: percentage of carbon dioxide emission for different sectors (US 2005 data) [1]

As the public becomes more aware of the environmental impact of buildings the demand for “greener” buildings grows. This public awareness forces the governmental authorities to come with regulations designed to protect the environment. As a result, many municipalities require LEED certification for new constructions. There are also, tax incentives for greener new constructions and making old buildings greener. The environmental and health costs associated with air pollution caused by nonrenewable electric power generation and on-site fossil fuel use are generally externalized (not considered) when making investment decisions.

20,000 18,000 Coal Natural Gas 16,000 Petroleum Electricity losses Electricity retail 14,000 Electricity losses
20,000
18,000
Coal
Natural Gas
16,000
Petroleum
Electricity losses
Electricity retail
14,000
Electricity losses
12,000
10,000
Natural Gas
8,000
6,000
Electricity retail
4,000
Petroleum
2,000
Coal
0
1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010

Year

Figure 4: Major source of energy for buildings, commercial and residential [1]

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Trillion BTU

12,000 Coal 10,000 Natural Gas Petroleum Electrical system losses Electricity (retail) Electrical system
12,000
Coal
10,000
Natural Gas
Petroleum
Electrical system
losses
Electricity (retail)
Electrical system losses
8,000
6,000
Natural Gas
4,000
Electricity (retail)
2,000
Petroleum
Coal
0
1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010

Year

Figure 5: Major source of energy for residential buildings [1] 12,000 10,000 Coal Natural Gas
Figure 5: Major source of energy for residential buildings
[1]
12,000
10,000
Coal
Natural Gas
Electricity loss
Petroleum
8,000
Electricity retail
Electricity loss
6,000
Electricity retail
4,000
Natural Gas
2,000
Petroleum
Coal
0
1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
Trillion BTU

Year

Figure 6: Major source of energy for commercial buildings [1] Others, 2% Oil, 3% Hydro,
Figure 6: Major source of energy for commercial buildings
[1]
Others, 2%
Oil, 3%
Hydro, 7%
Natural gas, 17%
Coal, 51%
Nuclear, 20%

Figure 7: United State electricity generation by source for 2005 [1]

2500 Coal Petroleum 2000 Natural gas Hydroelectric Nuclear 1500 Coal 1000 Nuclear Natural gas 500
2500
Coal
Petroleum
2000
Natural gas
Hydroelectric
Nuclear
1500
Coal
1000
Nuclear
Natural gas
500
Hydroelectric
Petroleum
0
1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
Electric power Billion KWh

Year

Figure 8: Major Sources of Total Electricity Net Generation since 1949 [1]

In response to develop Greener and Sustainable buildings professional societies dealing with various aspects of buildings, i.e, American Institute of Architectures (AIA), Department of Energy (DOE), American National Standard Institute (ANSI), American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) came up with the idea of Advanced Energy Design Guides. The Advanced Energy Design Guides series provides a sensible approach to easily achieve advanced levels of energy savings without having to resort to detailed calculations or analysis. The guide offer contractors and designers the tools, including recommendations for practical products and off-the-shelf technology, needed for achieving a 30% energy savings compared to buildings that meet the minimum requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999. The energy savings target of 30% is the first step in the process toward achieving a net-zero energy building, which is defined as a building that, on an annual basis, draws from outside resources equal or less energy than it provides using on-site renewable energy sources (see Figure 9 for AEDG timelines).

renewable energy sources (see Figure 9 for AEDG timelines). Figure 9: Advanced Energy Design Guides (AEDG)

Figure 9: Advanced Energy Design Guides (AEDG) targets and dates.

The thrust of this new course is to train students in both sides of energy equation, supply and demand sides. For the supply side, the use of solar photovoltaic cells, solar heater, combined heat and power and geothermal can make the net power generation in a building surpass building’s

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energy consumption. In the solar radiation part of the course it is shown that the net annual solar energy incident on any building in the continent of the United States is well above its energy consumption and accomplishing the net zero energy building is not a wishful thinking. For the energy demand side, reduction in heating and cooling loads, use of efficient appliances, efficient lighting and better use of water resources are a few to name.

COURSE STRUCTURE AND LECTURES The course is designed for one semester with fourteen lectures. Each lecture lasts two and half hours totaling 35 hours of lectures and they are held during evening hours when part-time students can take it. Due to practical nature of the course, lectures are given by two instructors. One a regular college professor specialized in energy systems and the other instructors a hands-on practicing engineer who is involved in designing LEED certified buildings. The lectures layout is as follows:

Lecture 1

Introduction to Green Building

Introduction, definition of green buildings, contribution of buildings to greenhouse gases fundamental concepts. This lecture discusses the need for sustainable buildings. It provides data, similar to those presented in the previous section, to enhance consciousness of the students on the impact of buildings on the environment.

Lecture 2

Introduction to Building Systems

This lecture introduces various building equipments and reviews topics for simple analysis of the systems. Topics covered in this lecture include: Dimensions and units, definition of physical properties, application first and second law of thermodynamics to building equipments, all air systems, all water systems, coils, energy recovery equipments, boilers, chiller, heat pumps, etc.

Lecture 3

Fundamentals

of

Energy

Transfer

in

Buildings 1 Since the course is open to Non-Mechanical Engineering students, e.g., Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering students, who had little background in Heat Transfer two lectures, are devoted to this topic. This lecture covers Heat Transfer in Building Structures, basic heat transfer modes, conduction, convection and radiation, overall heat-transfer coefficients, thermal bridge

Lecture 4

Fundamentals of Energy Transfer in

Buildings (2) Overall heat transfer coefficient for windows, heat loss from pipes, and energy storage in buildings (transient thermal analysis), energy transfer through soil, and energy loss from buried pipes, economical and environmental impact of insulation. At the end of this lecture the environmental impact insulating a pipeline carrying hot water is investigated.

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Lecture 5

Indoor Environment/Indoor Air Quality

Indoor Air Quality - Comfort and Health of Building occupants, basic concerns, common contaminants, methods to control contaminants, comfort - physiological considerations, environmental comfort indices, ASHRAE 55, ASHRAE 62, indoor air contaminants, filtration, building ventilation strategies. Emphasis is made in this lecture that high quality indoor air is an integral part of sustainable buildings. Also, the concept of dynamic indoor air temperature and humidity, i.e., varying indoor air condition within the comfortable zone of ASHRAE standard 55 envelope is discussed in this lecture.

Lecture 6

Indoor Environment/Cooling

Calculations Moist Air Properties and Conditioning Processes, moist air and the standard atmosphere, fundamental parameters, adiabatic saturation, wet bulb and psychometric chart, moist air processes, space air conditioning-design and off design conditions.

Lecture 7

Building Energy Use and Atmosphere 1

Since passive and active use of solar radiation in buildings is an important concept in green buildings two lectures are devoted to this topic. Topics covered in the first lecture in solar radiation includes: fundamentals and spectrum of solar radiation, the earth's motion about the sun, solar angles, solar irradiation. Energy Calculations, The degree day procedure, Bin method, sol-air temperature

Lecture 8

Building Energy Use and Atmosphere 2

The second part of solar radiation lecture concentrates on the passive and active use of solar radiation. Passive use of solar radiation: solar heaters, and solar photovoltaic. Heat gain through fenestration, use of sol-sir temperature for load calculation. Energy calculation: the degree day procedure and Bin method. Available DOE based software for load calculations such as eQuest is discussed in this lecture.

Lecture 9

Indoor Environment/Air and water

Distribution Topics covered in this lecture involve fluids (air and water) distribution systems in buildings. Both fluids share basically the same type of governing energy and head loss equations. Topics covered for air distribution systems are:

sizing of ducts, space air diffusion selection, fans characteristic curves and selection. For the water distribution topics covered are: losses in piping systems, sizing pipes and pump and pump selection.

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Lecture 10

High Performance Building

Considerations Introduction to High Performance Buildings. A case study presentation of a completed Platinum LEED rated building. General overview of building systems - from concept to installation.

Local environmental conditions can inform a buildings orientation, spatial arrangement, fenestration, material selection, mechanical system and distribution selection. Building upon information gained from climate and site analysis techniques, passive and active environmental control strategies will be diagramed. The role of the building envelope will be discussed. Introduction to LEED rating system.

Lecture 11

Heating Systems - Building

Considerations Heating Systems, combustion and fuels, residential heating systems, commercial heating systems, boilers, furnaces, heating elements, district heating, cogeneration systems, hot water systems, steam systems, radiant floor systems.

Lecture 12

Air Conditioning Systems - Building

Considerations

Air-conditioning Systems, complete system, air conditioning and distribution system, central mechanical equipment, all-air systems, air-and-water systems, all- water systems, unitary air conditioners, heat pump systems, heat recovery systems.

Lecture 13

Water Use and Management

Domestic water and water supply, wastewater technologies, water use reduction, water quality, water reuse, waste, soil and storm drainage, hot and cold water distribution, back flow prevention, domestic hot water heating systems, gas distribution, water pressure maintenance, water conserving fixtures, ADA compliance

Lecture 14

Electrical Distribution and Reduction

Building energy use/Electrical Distribution Systems – power distribution and equipment, electrical use and limiting. Building Operation and Energy Savings - Building management systems - commissioning, operations, and maintenance – this class will cover the role of building management systems. The process and importance of building commissioning will be covered and related to high performance building guidelines and LEED requirements.

In addition to the lectures and homework assignments the course is involved a semester-long group project. The groups consist of two or at most three students. In forming groups the interdisciplinary background of individual members are taken into consideration. Since Mechanical

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Engineering students are in majority, each group had at least one ME student. Other member(s) is (are) Architectural, Civil or Environmental Engineering majors. The semester-long project assigned to the class during spring semester of 2009 is described below.

Semester-long project description:

It is desirable to design a small house 30 ft × 50 ft one- family home shown in Figure 10, such that it using the minimum energy for heating, cooling and lighting. The house is located in Bridgeport Connecticut (41 o Latitude). The designed indoor temperature and humidity should be within the ASHRAE Standard 55 envelop, for both summer and winter. The house has two bedrooms, one full bathroom, kitchen and living room. The architectural design of the house (e.g., the floor plan, location of windows, orientation of the house) should accommodate for a pleasant indoor living condition and low annual energy consumption, a net zero energy consumption is highly desirable.

After coming up with the layout of the house decide on the walls, roof, windows and entrance door constructions. Keep in mind you need to minimize heat lost with minimum material usage. Then design appropriate piping and duct systems for heating cooling and ventilation. Also, select appropriate heating and cooling units.

Also, select appropriate he ating and cooling units. Figure 10: Dimension of a one family home

Figure 10: Dimension of a one family home

Some design conditions for the project are as follows:

The house is constructed on an on-grade concrete slab. There is no crawl space or basement.

The house is occupied by a family of four.

Standard kitchen and laundry appliances are used.

The infiltration rate is 0.8 ACH.

The report requirements are as follows:

Layout and orientation of the house

a table of all reference values obtained from tabulated sources used in this analysis (cite these sources)

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power ratings, usage and load factors, efficiencies of kitchen/laundry appliances

calculations for all U-factors all heating/cooling load calculations

calculate amount of fresh air needed for indoor air quality

layout of piping and ductwork

select appropriate pump and fan

The project part of the course resulted in some impressive and innovative student work.

STUDENTS FEEDBACK Since the introduction of this course in Mechanical engineering Department at Columbia University two years ago the course enrollment has substantially grown. The first year the enrollment was 16 students and the last semester, spring of 2009 the enrollment grown to 44 students – unprecedented for a graduate class. Followings are some comments by students about the course:

The best course that I have ever had.

An excellent and practical course that ties in multiple concepts from across the discipline (thermo, heat xfer, power transmission, fluid dynamics, etc). I learned a GREAT deal and enjoyed the fact that the mathematics behind the course were not [as] rigorous as to take away from the practicality of the examples. The "case

study" method of presenting the material kept the course firmly grounded and the concepts easy to understand. The material was sometimes covered

at

a somewhat slower pace than necessary, and

the classroom delivery was not exactly exciting/enthusiastic/engaging, but the material

itself did a good job holding the students' interest.

A

great course, in my opinion.

I found the class material interesting and thought provoking. Overall I enjoyed what was covered and the delivery method.

It

would be good to have a textbook or something

as a second reference to see the information presented in a different way as another way of learning it.

This is one of the best classes I’ve taken at this school. I really like the mix between [the two professors]. They bring two diff viewpoints to the class and make it that much more valuable. They re also both passionate about their work and interesting lecturers. I like that this class is also good for those w o a strict engineering background. And the project is very good too.

The negative comments were mainly about lack of textbook, which we agree there is no appropriate textbook

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for the course. The instructors provided their own writing and notes on every lecture. The notes were posted on the course web site prior to each lecture. A few negative comments were about the delivery method of the instructors and lack of enough homework assignment on every topic.

CONCLUSIONS Energy Dynamics of Green Buildings (Energy Dynamics

of Sustainable Buildings) is an excellent substitute for the

traditional Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) course. This course can be as a graduate/undergraduate elective course. It also can be a part of sustainable energy course for those departments who would like to have energy concentration Bachelor or Master degrees.

A common question asked by possible students visiting

campuses is concerning “Green Campus,” or “Sustainable Energy Courses.” This course helps the student recruitment

in both undergraduate and graduate levels.

REFERENCES

1.

site: http://www.eia.doe.gov/ 2. ASHRAE GreenGuide, The Design, Construction, and Operation of Sustainable Buildings, Second Edition, ASHRAE, Inc., 2006. 3. McQuiston, F.C., Parker, J.D., Spitler, J.D.,

Energy Information Administration (EIA) web

4.

Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Analysis and Design, Sixth Edition, Wiley 2005. Kreider, J.F. Curtiss, P.S. and Rabl, A., Heating and Cooling of Buildings, Design for Efficiency, Second edition, McGraw-Hill, 2002.

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