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Census of India 2011


The provisional figures of Indias largest Census 2011 were
released in New Delhi on 31st March 2011 by Union Home
Secretary GK Pillai and RGI C Chandramouli.The 15th Census
of India and the seventh Census of Independent India-2011 was
started on 1st April 2010 with President Pratibha Patil being the
first citizen to be enumerated, followed by Vice President Hamid
Ansari.The estimated cost of the Census was 22 Billion Rupees.
Census 2011 is the 15 Census of India since 1872
Census 2011 was held in two phases:
Houselisting & Housing Census : (April to September 2010)
Population Enumeration (9 th to 28 February 2011)

No. of Administrative Units in Census 2011
States/Union Territories 35
Total Districts
6.41 lakh
Density of Population (persons per sq. km)
Density of population in India 382
Highest Density in state Delhi (11297)
Lowest Density in state Arunachal
Pardesh (17)
SEX RATIO (females per 1,000 males)
Sex-ratio in India
- 940
Child (0-6yrs.) sex-ratio - 914
Highest sex-ratio in state Kerala (1084)
Lowest sex-ratio in UTs Daman & Diu (618)
Highest child(0-6) sex-ratio in state
Mizoram (971)
Lowest child(0-6) sex-ratio in state
Haryana (830)
Decadal Population Growth 2001-2011 facts
The population of India has increased by more
than 181 million during the decade 2001-2011.
Percentage growth in 2001-2011 is 17.64 in
comparison to 21.15 per cent in 2001;
males 17.19 and females 18.12.
2001-2011 is the first decade (with the
exception of 1911-1921) which has actually
added lesser population compared to the
previous decade.
Uttar Pradesh (199.5 million) is the most
populous State in the country population
is more than the population of Brazil.

Population as on 1st March 2011 at 00:00 hrs

Literacy Rate

Persons : 1,210,193,422
Females :
Child(0-6) :

The total number of children in the age-group 0-6 is 158.8 million.

The proportion of Child Population in the age group of 0-6 years to
total population is 13.1 percent while the corresponding figure in
2001 was 15.9 percent. The decline has been to the extent of 2.8
Five Largest Populus State of the country
1. Uttar Pradesh - 19,95,81,477
2. Maharashtra - 11,23,72,972
3. Bihar
- 10,38,04,637
4. West Bengal - 9,13,47,736
5. Andhra Pradesh - 8,46,65,533
Highest Populus State : Uttar pardesh
Five Least Populus State of the country
1. Lakshadweep
2. Daman & Diu
- 2,42,911
3. D. & N. Haveli
- 3,42,853
4. A. & N. Islands
- 3,79,944
5. Sikkim
- 6,07,688
Least Populus UTs : Lakshadweep
Decadal Literacy Growth 2001-20011
Literacy rate has gone up from 64.83 per cent
in 2001 to 74.04 per cent in 2011 showing an
increase of 9.21 percentage points.
Percentage growth in literacy during 2001-2011
is 38.82; males : 31.98% & females : 49.10%.
The state of Kerala has the highest literacy rate
93.11%, whereas Bihar has the lowest 63.82%.

Some facts of Census 2011:

Census 2011 mascot is a female enumerator (who everybody would identify as the school
teacher next door).
The population of India has increased by more than 181 million during the decade 2001-2011
The absolute addition is slightly lower than the population of Brazil, the fifth most populous
country in the world.
The population of India, at 1210.2 million, is almost equal to the combined population of U.S.A.,
Indonesia, Brazil, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Japan put together (1214.3 million)
The percentage decadal growth during 2001-2011 has registered the sharpest decline since
Independence a decrease of 3.90 percentage points from 21.54 to 17.64 percent
Of the total population, 623.7 million are males and 586.5 million are females.

Uttar Pradesh (199.5 million) is the most populous State in the country followed by

Maharashtra with 112 million.

The combined population of Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra is bigger than that of the US.
While Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Puducherry has the highest population growth rate of about

55 percent, Nagaland has the lowest -0.47 percent.

The density of population is highest in Delhi, followed by Chandigarh.

The report said that Jammu and Kashmir, Bihar and Gujarat show decline in sex ratio while 29

states show an increase.

Population (0-6 years) 2001-2011 registered minus (-)3.08 percent growth with minus (-)2.42 for

males and 3.80 for females.

The report further said that the literacy rate has gone up from 64.83 per cent in 2001 to 74.04

per cent in 2011 showing an increase of 9.21 per cent.

Total expenditure and materials used :

Cost Rs. 2200 crore
Cost per person Rs. 18.33
No. of Census Functionaries 2.7 million
No. of Languages in which Schedules were canvassed 16
No. of Languages in which Training Manuals prepared 18
No. of Schedules Printed 340 million
No. of Training Manuals Printed 5.4 million
Paper Utilised 12,000 MTs
Material Moved 10,500 MTs

The unemployment rate in India is estimated at
9.4 percent or 94 persons out of 1000 persons
in the labour force for the fixed reference period
of FY 2009-10, according to employment-unemp
loyment survey by the Labour Bureau under the
Labour and Employment Ministry.From 1983 until
2000, Indias Unemployment Rate averaged 7.20
percent reaching an historical high of 8.30 percent
in December of 1983


India ranks 67 on the Global Hunger Index 2010,
conducted by the International Food Policy
Research Institute (IFPRI) among 88 nations.
India may be the second fastest growing economy
in the world, but it fares far worse than lesser deveoped countries such as Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka
in the neighbourhood, when it comes to taking care of
its malnourished children. India is home to 42% of the
underweight children under the age of five year in the

Poverty combined with escalating population has placed
undue pressure on the forests as they are being cut down
without any remorse. Some other effects of population
tsunami on surrounding environment (directly or indirectly)
are given here :
Air Pollution
Water Pollution
Noise Polltuion
Deforestration which further responsible for :

global warming,decreased biodiversity, soil erosion,

reduce rainfall, desertification, flooding, removal of
habitats for animal, removal of topsoil.


Literacy rate has gone up from 64.83 per cent in 2001 to 74.04 per cent
in 2011showing an increase of 9.21 percentage points.
Percentage growth in literacy during 2001-2011
Overall persons in country : 38.82%
: 31.98%
: 49.10%.
Literates constitute 74 per cent of the total population aged seven and above
and illiterates form 26 per cent.

Union Budget 2012 Highlights

March 21, 2012 2 Comments

81st Union Budget of independent India for the financial year 2012 2013 has been presented by Pranab Mukherjee, the
Finance Minister of India in Lok Sabha on 16th March 2012 . He has presented his 7th budget of carrier and joined the league
of P Chidambaram, Yashwant Sinha, Y B Chavan and C D Deshmukh, who have presented seven Budgets each in the past.
This year, Mr Mukherjees Budget speech is against the backdrop of a sharp slowdown in growth, deteriorating fiscal
conditions, continuing inflationary pressure and political turbulence. He faces a huge challenge of reviving economic growth,
which has slowed down over the last six quarters.
At the very beginning of his speech Mr Mukherjee said that a year of recovery interrupted meant that it was time to take
tough decisions. The idea ahead of the budget was that fiscal deficit needed to be controlled by cutting subsidies and raising
taxes. The finance minister has raised taxes and promised cuts in subsidies.
Mr. Pranab Mukherjee said that Indias GDP growth in 2012-13 is expected to be 7.6 per cent 0.25 per cent. He said that in
2011-12, Indias GDP is estimated to grow at 6.9 per cent after having grown at the rate of 8.4 per cent in each of the two
preceding years. Mr. Mukherjee said the slowdown is primarily due to deceleration in industrial growth. Stating that the
headline inflation remained high for most part of the year, the Finance Minister expressed hope that it will moderate further in
the next few months and remain stable thereafter.
The Union Budget 2012-13 identifies five objectives to be addressed effectively in the ensuing fiscal year. They include focus
on growth recovery, private investment, supply bottlenecks, malnutrition and governance matters.

Highlights of Union Budget 2012-13

Following are the prominent highlights of the Union Budget for 2012-13 presented in the Lok Sabha on
16th March 2012 by Shri Pranab Mukherjee, the Finance Minister of India.
For Indian economy, recovery was interrupted this year due to intensification of debt crises in Euro
zone, political turmoil in Middle East, rise in crude oil price and earthquake in Japan.
Budget identifies five objectives relating to growth recovery, private investment, supply bottlenecks,
malnutrition and governance matters.
GDP growth estimated at 6.9 per cent in real terms in 2011-12. Slowdown in comparison to
preceding two years is primarily due to deceleration in industrial growth.
Deterioration in fiscal balance in 2011-12 due to slippages in direct tax revenue and increased
GDP growth to be 7.6 per cent ( 0.25 percent) during 2012-13
At current prices the advance GDP estimate of 2011 12 is Rs. 82,80,000 Lakh Crore and at
2004-05 prices Rs. 52,22,000 Lakh Crore.
Amendment to the FRBM Act proposed as part of Finance Bill. New concepts of Effective Revenue
Deficit and Medium Term Expenditure Framework introduced
Current account deficit at 3.6 per cent of GDP for 2011-12 and reduced net capital inflow in the 2nd
and 3rd quarters put pressure on exchange rate.
Central subsidies to be kept under 2 per cent of GDP; to be
further brought down to 1.75 per cent of GDP over the next
3 years.
Based on recommendation of task force headed by Shri
Nandan Nilekani, a mobile-based Fertilizer Management
System has been designed to provide end-to-end
information on movement of fertilisers and subsidies. Nationwide roll out during 2012.
Proposed LPG transparency portal; scaling up and rolling
out of Aadhar enabled payment for government schemes in
at least 50 districts.
Subsidies related to administering the Food Security Act
will be fully provided for.
Projected Exp. & Deficit for FY 2012-13
Total subsidies at
- Rs. 1,90,015 cr.
Fertilizer subsidies at - Rs. 60,974 cr.
Food subsidies at
- Rs. 75,000 cr
Oil & petrol subsidies at - Rs. 43,580 cr.
State PF
- Rs. 12,000 cr.
External aid
- Rs.10,148 cr.
Less others
- Rs. 12,442 cr.
Fiscal deficit at
Rs. 5,13,590 cr.
Market loans
- Rs. 4,79,000 cr
The governments total expenditure for

FY 2012 -13 is projected at Rs. 14,90,925 cr.


DTC Bill to be enacted at the earliest after expeditious examination of the reportof the Parliamentary
Standing Committee.
GST network to be set up as a National Information Utility and to become operational by August 2012.
Rs. 30,000 crore to be raised through disinvestment.
At least 51 per cent ownership and management
control to remain with Government.
Efforts to reach broadbased consensus on FDI in
multi-brand retail.
Rajiv Gandhi Equity Saving Scheme: to allow
income tax deduction to retail investors on investing
in equities.
A central Know Your Customer depository to be
developed in 2012-13 to avoid multiplicity of
registration and data upkeep.
Rs. 15,888 crore to be provided for capitalization of
public sector banks and financial institutions.
Swabhimaan: Out of 73,000 identified habitations

that were to be covered under Swabhimaan campaign by March, 2012, about 70,000 habitations
have been covered. Rest likely to be covered by March 31, 2012. Ultra small branches to be set
up in Swabhimaan habitations.
Out of 82 RRBs in India, 81 have successfully migrated to Core Banking Solutions and have also
joined the National Electronic Fund Transfer system.


During 12th Plan period, investment in infrastructure to go up to Rs.50 lakh crore with half of this,
expected from private sector.
Government has approved guidelines for establishing joint venture companies by defence PSUs in
PPP mode.
First Infrastructure Debt Fund with an initial size of rS. 8,000 crore launched earlier this month.
Tax free bonds of Rs.60,000 crore to be allowed for financing infrastructure projects in 2012-13.
National Manufacturing Policy announced with the objective of raising, within a decade, the share
of manufacturing in GDP to 25 per cent and creating of 10 crore jobs.
Allocation of Road Transport and Highways Ministry enhanced by 14 per cent to Rs. 25,360 crore
Projects covering length of 8800 km to be awarded under NHDP against 7,300 km during 2011-12
Financial package of Rs. 3,884 crore for waiver of loans to handloom weavers and their cooperative
societies; mega handloom clusters in Andhra, Jharkhand; weaver service centres in Mizoram,
Nagaland and Jharkhand.
Rs. 70 crore for powerloom mega cluster to be set up in Ichalkaranji in Maharashtra.
Rs. 500 crore pilot schemes for promotion and application of Geo-textiles in North-Eastern region
Rs. 5,000 crore India Opportunities Venture Fund to be set up with SIDBI to help small enterprises
Direct import of Aviation Turbine Fuel permitted for Indian Carriers as actual users.

Outlay for Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) increased to Rs. 9,217 crore in 2012-13.
Plan Outlay for Department of Agriculture and Co-operation increased by 18 per cent.
Target for agricultural credit raised by Rs.1,00,000 crore to Rs.5,75,000 crore in 2012-13.
Allocation to agriculture enhanced; RKVY gets Rs. 9,217 crore; Bringing Green Revolution to
Eastern India (BGREI)I gets Rs. 1,000 crore; Rs.2242 crore project to improve dairy productivity;
Rs. 500 crore for coastal aquaculture
Allocation of Rs.15,850 crore made for Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) scheme,
representing an increase of 58 per cent over BE 2011-12.
Various other agricultural activities merged into 5 missions
Target for agricultural credit raised to Rs. 5,75,000 crore
Interest subvention for short-term crop loans to farmers at 7 per cent interest continues;
additional 3 per cent for prompt paying farmers
Rs. 200 crore for awards to incentivise agricultural research
Provisions under rural housing fund increased to Rs. 4,000 crore from Rs. 3,000 crore
Interest subvention of 1 percent on housing loans uptoRs. 15 lakh extended for one more year
AIBP allocation raised by 13 per cent to Rs. 14,242 crore
National Mission on Food Processing to be started in cooperation with State Governments
Scheduled Caste Sub Plan allocation increases by 18 per cent to Rs. 37,113 crore;
Tribal Sub Plan by 17.6 per cent to Rs. 21,710 crore
Multi-sectoral programme to address maternal and child malnutrition in 200 high burden districts
58 per cent rise in allocation to ICDS, at Rs. 15,850 crore
Rural drinking water and sanitation gets 27 per cent rise in allocation to Rs. 14,000 crore;
PMGSY gets 20 per cent rise to Rs. 24,000 crore
RTE-SSA gets Rs. 25,555 crore allocation, showing an increase of 21 per cent; 6000 schools to
be set up at block level as model schools in the 12th Plan; Credit Guarantee Fund to be set up for
better flow of credit to students

National Urban Health Mission is being launched

Allocation for NRHM proposed to be increased from Rs.18,115 crore in 2011-12 to Rs. 20,822 crore
in 2012-13.
Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana being expanded to cover upgradation of 7 more
Government medical colleges.
34 per cent increase in allocation to National Rural Livelihood Mission, to Rs. 3915 crore
Rs. 1000 crore allocated for National Skill Development Fund
Bharat Livelihood Foundation of India to be established to support livelihood interventions particularly
in tribal areas through Aajeevika scheme.
Widow pension and disability pension raised from Rs. 200 to Rs. 300 per month.
An allocation of Rs. 750 crore proposed for Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent
Girls, SABLA.
Grant on death of primary breadwinner of a BPL family in the age group 18-64 years doubled to
Rs. 20,000
A provision of Rs.1,93,407 crore made for Defence services including Rs.79,579 crore for
capital expenditure. Any further requirement to be met.
Rs.1,185 crore proposed to be allocated for construction of nearly 4,000 residential quarters for
Central Armed Police Forces.
Rs. 3,280 crore proposed to be allocated for construction of office building of Central Armed
Police Forces.
Scheme to create National Population Register likely to be completed within next 2 years.
UID-Aadhar to get adequate funds for enrolment of 40 crore persons, in addition to the 20 crore
persons already enrolled

Gross Tax Receipts estimated at Rs 10,77,612 crore.

Net Tax to Centre estimated at Rs 7,71,071 crore.
Non-tax Revenue Receipts estimated at Rs 1,64,614 crore.
Non-debt Capital Receipts estimated at Rs 41,650 crore.
Fiscal deficit at 5.9 per cent of GDP in RE 2011-12.
Fiscal deficit at 5.1 per cent of GDP in BE 2012-13.
Effective Revenue Deficit to be 1.8 per cent of GDP in 2012-13.
Net market borrowing required to finance the deficit to be Rs.4.79 lakh crore in 2012-13.
Total expenditure for 2012-13 budgeted at Rs 14,90,925 crore.
Plan expenditure for 2012-13 at Rs 5,21,025 crore is 18 per cent higher than
BE 2011-12. This is higher than 15 per cent projected in Approach to the Twelfth Plan.
Non-plan expenditure estimated at Rs.9,69,900 crore.
99 per cent of the total plan outlay met in the Eleventh Plan.
Temporary arrangement to use disinvestment proceeds for capital expenditure
in social sector schemes extended for one more year.
Central Government debt at 45.5 per cent of GDP in 2012-13 as compared to Thirteenth
Finance Commission target of 50.5 per cent.
Rs.3,65,216 crore estimated to be transferred to States including direct transfers to
States and district level implementing agencies.
Entire amount of subsidy is given in cash and not as bonds in lieu of subsidies.

DTC rates proposed to be introduced for personal income tax.
Exemption limit for the general category
of individual taxpayers proposed to be
enhanced from Rs.1,80,000 to Rs.2,00,000
giving tax relief of Rs. 2,000.
Upper limit of 20 per cent tax slab
proposed to be raised from Rs. 8 lakh to
Rs.10 lakh.
Senior citizens not having income from
business proposed to be exempted from
payment of advance tax.
Proposal to allow individual tax payers, a
deduction of upto Rs.10,000 for interest
from savings bank accounts.
Proposal to allow deduction of upto Rs. 5,000 for preventive health check up.
A net revenue loss of Rs. 4,500 crore estimated as a result of Direct Tax proposals.
Turnover limit for compulsory tax audit for SMEs raised from Rs.60 lakh to Rs.1 crore
Security Transaction Tax (STT) reduced 20 % from 0.125 % to 0.10 % on all Delivery
Cash Transaction.


To maintain a healthy fiscal situation proposal to raise service tax rate from 10
per cent to 12 per cent, with corresponding changes in rates for individual services.
Proposals from service tax expected to yield additional revenue of Rs. 18,660 crore.
TDS on Buying/Selling of immovable property: TDS of 1 % of the transaction value if transaction
value is more than Rs. 50 lakhs in Tire 1 cities or more than Rs. 20 lakh in other cities.
Standard rate of excise duty raised from 10 per cent to 12 per cent.
Custom duty on standard gold bars, coins of purity 99.5 per cent and Platinum have been
hiked from 2 per cent to 4 per cent & on non -standard gold from 5 per cent to 10 per cent.
Excise duty on large cars also proposed to be enhanced.
No change proposed in the peak rate of customs duty of 10 per cent on nonagricultural goods.
Full exemption from basic customs duty for import of equipment for expansion or setting up of
fertiliser projects upto March 31, 2015.
Full exemption from basic customs duty to coal mining project imports.
Duty-free allowances increased for eligible passengers and for children of upto 10 years.
Proposals relating to Customs and Central excise to result in net revenue gain of RS.27,280 crore.
Indirect taxes estimated to result in net revenue gain of Rs. 45,940 crore.
Net gain of Rs.41,440 crore in the Budget due to various taxation proposals.
This is again a major burden on the common man as ultimately he has to pay this tax while using the various services in daily
life under its purview.
Almost all the manufactured items used in every day life will become costlier, while luxury cars, gold, eating out at restaurants
or hotel accommodation, wireless telecommunication, postal/banking services etc. will become even more expensive after a
steep hike in tax rates proposed in Budget 2012-13. Hike in excise duty and service tax rates will increase the input cost, fuel
inflation and lead to further slowdown in economic growth.
Cigarettes and bidis will also become dearer as Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee has proposed to tax these items more in
the Budget for 2012-13. With service tax being hiked to 12 per cent from the existing 10% except in a few items, common
man will have to pay more while travelling by air or hiring a law firm.
Certainly, inflation rate will increase with the hiked tax rates. Inflation simply means rise in prices. Inflation is the overall
increase in cost of products and services. Increase in taxes and fees leads to inflation. The ever increasing inflation has
forced the common man to borrow money from banks and other financial institutions. The consequences, of course people
have to stand with indefinite debts or either have to cut down on their lifestyle or beg for hike in compliance with inflation to
assist them move at the forefront.
Inflation has become an ever growing problem in our country but our government seems unwilling to address its causes.Why
the government took decision to hike service tax rather than taking any guard against black money and curruption in its
network of operations? If the government have the guts to recover the tax dues from the Corrupt Bureaucrats, Politicians and
other Officers, then the government can avoid all these new taxes targeted to common man.
The reasons behind railways fare hike are reasonable but, my few question in concern to proposed new tax rates are :
Will it be a good move to raise service tax and excise duty to combat the high inflation rate?
What are the real reasons behind Governments decision to raise service tax and excise duty?

(Put your views/ans. in comment section.)

Source : Budget Speech

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