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HAND

RIGGING

BOOK

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S
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TACK

Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.


All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.


All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

FOREWORD
The handling, setting, and erection of materials
and equipment is a hazardous occupation. Each
operation presents its own peculiar problems and
no two jobs are alike. With proper consideration
taken, each job can be performed free of bodily
harm to the worker and without damage to the
equipment.
This manual has been designed as a reference to
assist in safely applying the basic rigging equipment used in construction work.
The contents of this manual are minimum
requirements. Check with local and country
regulations for stricter requirements.
The Hand Rigging Book contains recommendations for users to consider. The booklet is not
legal advice and should not be relied upon
solely in any given situation. DuPont makes no
express or implied warranty or guarantee as to
the information content of the Hand Rigging Book
or that it contains all possible recommendations
concerning safety, health or the environmental
protection. DuPont assumes no liability or
responsibility of any kind whatsoever resulting
from the use of any information contained in this
booklet.
This handbook is issued and maintained
by Engineerings Facilities Construction
& Support organization.
Copyright 2007 E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. The DuPont Oval Logo and The miracles
of science are registered trademarks or trademarks of
DuPont or its affiliates.
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

RIGGING TERMS AND DEFINITIONS.......................1


SECTIONS
1. Wire Rope...........................................................5
2. Wire Rope Sling Capacities...............................10
3. Wire Rope Clip Splice.......................................10
4. Use of Chain......................................................15
5. Synthetic Web and Round Slings......................16
6. Synthetic Fiber Rope.........................................17
7. Hooks, Shackles, Beam Clamps,Trolleys..........23
8. Methods of Hanging Rigging.............................28
9. Chain Hoists......................................................29
10. Lever-Operated Hoists......................................31
11. Use of Jacks......................................................32
12. Use of Rollers....................................................33
13. Plate and General Purpose Grips.....................35
14. Eyebolts.............................................................35
15. Mobile Cranes...................................................39
16. Rigging with Forklifts.........................................44
17. Handy Things to Know......................................45
18. Weights of Materials..........................................45
19. Safe Hitches and Knots . ..................................46
TABLES
1.
Effect of Sling Angle.........................................9
2.
Wire Rope Sling Capacities............................10
3.
Cable Clips.....................................................14
4.
Synthetic Fiber Comparison Chart.................21
5.
Properties of Fiber Rope................................22
6.
Strength of Standard Hooks...........................25
7.
Strength of Shackles......................................26
8.
Swivel Eyebolts..............................................37
9.
Type 2 Shouldered Forged Steel

Eyebolts..........................................................38
10. Crane Signals.................................................42
FIGURES
1
Effect of Sling Angle Examples........................8
2
Joining Wire Ropes........................................12
3
Cable Clips.....................................................13
4
Proper Eyebolt Usage....................................36
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

RIGGING TERMS AND DEFINITIONS


The following terms are commonly used in the subject
of rigging. Each term is defined in brief to give correct
usage and to clarify the meanings of the various terms.
A-FRAME - A framework made in the form of an A,
either from wood, metal tubing, or structural shapes,
from which a load can be suspended.
Anti-two-blocking Device - An attachment to a
crane that prevents the load block or hook assembly
from being drawn tightly to the boom point.
BIGHT - A simple loop. A part of all knots.
BIRD-CAGING - The twisting of fiber or wire rope in an
isolated area in the opposite direction of the rope lay,
causing it to take on the appearance of a bird cage.
BLOCK AND TACKLE - Sometimes referred to as a
rope fall and consisting of two single or multiple pulley
blocks complete with load hooks and with rope reeved
between to give a mechanical advantage in lifting.
BOOM - The long, usually fabricated, part of a crane
that makes it possible for the load sheaves to be
maneuvered directly over the load to be lifted.
CHAIN HOIST - A portable lifting device geared to give
mechanical advantage for hand operation and using
chain to transmit the load to the hoist.
CHOKER - A hitch made using a sling in a manner so
that the heavier the load, the tighter the sling will hold it.
CLEVIS - A U-shaped or stirrup-shaped device used
to connect two or more lifting members. This usually is
referred to as a shackle.
DEAD WEIGHT - The total weight of all the suspended
rigging.

1
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

DERRICK - A structural or fabricated member of considerable length or height used to provide a fixed stable
point above the load from which a lift can be made.
DESIGN FACTOR - The factor by which ultimate
strength is divided to determine working load limit.
DRIFTING - The act of moving a suspended load in a
horizontal direction using two or more pieces of hoisting
equipment.
EVENER - A beam arrangement suspended from
overhead beams in two or more places from which
single-point loading can be made. Used to distribute
load over greater area of overhead structural member
or members.
FACTOR OF SAFETY - See Design Factor.
FIBER ROPE - A rope made from nonmetallic materials
such as vegetable, animal, or synthetic fibers.
GIRDER - A permanent strength member in building
construction from which rigging often is hung.
HOOK GAGE - A fixed gage used to measure the
allowable hook opening caused by excessively loading
the hook.
KINK - The making of a loop in the rope so small that
it will destroy the lay of the rope. This is one cause of
bird-caging and also weakens the strands of the rope.
KNOT - The intertwining of the end of a rope with a portion of the same rope or another rope of the same size.
LAY OF ROPE - A term used to describe the forming
(not twisting) of wires or fibers into strands and strands
into rope.
LIFE NET - A spring-type rope net used directly below
an elevated work area to catch any worker who should
lose his footing and fall.

2
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

LIFT ANGLE - The angle between an imaginary line


vertical to the load to be lifted and an imaginary line
between the load and the hoist or fitting device.
LINK - A piece of metal forged or formed to make an
endless rod with half circle at each end and straight
sides between.
LOAD (DEAD) - The total weight of all the suspended
rigging.
LOAD (LIVE) - The weight of the object to be lifted.
LOAD (TOTAL) - The sum of dead load plus live load.
MANILA ROPE - A high-strength fiber rope made from
manila fibers obtained from the abaca or wild banana
plant grown in the Philippines.
Moused - Securing a wire, strap, rope or cord to close
the throat opening of a hook to prevent the sling or
shackle from becoming detached.
OUTRIGGER - A part built or arranged to project
beyond the natural outline of a piece of equipment to
provide additional support in preventing the equipment
from overturning.
REEVING - The threading of the rope between the
blocks in rope blocks and falls.
ROLLERS - Long pieces of hardwood about 7 or 8
inches in diameter (or long pieces of pipe) used to
place under heavy pieces of equipment to facilitate
rolling along flat surfaces.
SHACKLE - A U-shaped or horseshoe-shaped piece
of metal provided with a means for applying a bolt or
pin through the ends and used to hold several lifting
members together; sometimes called a clevis.
SKID - Normally a heavy timber used under heavy
machinery or other equipment that is being moved on
rollers.
3
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

SLING - A length of wire rope, webbing, synthetic, or


chain fitted at each end with an eye splice or some
other special rope or chain fitting and used to tie on to
the materials to be lifted.
SOFTENER - Wood or other soft materials placed over
the sharp edges of objects to be lifted to keep them
from cutting or damaging the slings making the hitch.
SPLICE - The method of permanently attaching two
ends of rope together or joining one to the stranding
portion of the rope to form an eye in the case of an eye
splice.
STRAND - The result of twisting or forming several
fibers or wires together. The strands then are formed in
a twisted fashion to form a rope.
THIMBLE - A metal-formed piece inserted in the eye of
an eye splice to prevent the wear on the rope in the eye
splice area.
TURNBUCKLE - A fitting used to tighten or loosen the
stress on a rope by utilizing right- and left-hand threads
at opposite ends and a common threaded centerpiece.
WEDGE SOCKETS (beckett) - A socket attachment for
the end of wire rope that employs the wedge principle
to hold the rope in the socket.
WINCH - A power source for hoisting or moving. Usually consisting of a cable drum with a gasoline-engine
drive or with a gear-reduction unit for hand operation.
WIRE ROPE CLIPS - A mechanical means of temporarily joining two wire ropes together.
WLL - Working Load Limit

4
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

1. WIRE ROPE
1.1 WIRE ROPE INSPECTION

1.1.1 Inspection for handling damage should be


made of the exposed turns of coils and reels when
wire rope is received from the supplier.

1.1.2 Wire rope having been stored three


months or longer should be completely inspected
for damage and corrosion just prior to installation.

1.1.3 Many wire ropes are permanently damaged by improper handling and use; kinks, twists,
and untwisting are the results.

1.1.4 A permanent bend from pulling out a kink


seriously damages the rope. These conditions
are especially likely to occur when rope is first
unwound from the reel.

1.1.5 All wire rope should be inspected before


each use and should be inspected periodically
according to specifications; the periodic inspection
may require written documentation.

1.2 IN-USE INSPECTION


1.2.1 Frequency - Wire rope should be


inspected at frequent intervals and frayed, kinked,
worn, or corroded rope replaced. The frequency of
inspection is determined by the amount of use of
the rope.

1.2.2 Procedure - The weak points in the rope


or the points where the greatest stress occurs
should be inspected with great care. In general,
examine the rope for worn spots and broken wires.

Worn spots will show up as shiny flattened spots


on the wires. Measure some of these shiny spots.
If it appears that the outer wires have been
reduced in diameter by one-fourth, the worn spot
is unsafe.

5
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

There may be several points in the rope where


broken wires occur. Inspect each point to determine whether it is a single broken wire or several.

If several wires are broken next to each other,


unequal load distribution at this point will make the
rope unsafe.

Consider the rope unsafe if three broken wires


are found in one strand of 6 x 7 rope or six broken
wires are found in one strand of 6 x 19 rope.

1.2.3 Never allow wire rope to operate without


lubrication.

1.3 HANDLING

1.3.1 Leather-palm gloves must be used at all


times when handling wire rope.

1.3.2 Exposure of wire rope to dirt, grit, water, or


corrosive material should be avoided.

1.3.3 Extreme precautions must be taken


to avoid kinking wire rope. When a kink has
occurred, the wire rope or the damaged section of
the wire rope must be removed from service.

1.3.4 When coiling or uncoiling wire rope, the


reel should be reeled or unreeled slowly, in a
straight line, keeping the wire rope taut and free of
kinks or large loops that could form kinks.
1.3.5 Wire rope should be stored on reels
whenever possible. When reels are not available
it should be stored in coils and hung on a broad
support to prevent concentration of the load of the
coil on just a small area or a few wire strands.

6
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

1.4 USE

1.4.1 Sudden stresses in wire rope should


be avoided. Traveling over rough area with an
automotive crane with load suspended or quick
acceleration in lifting may cause stresses above
the breaking strength of the wire rope.

1.4.2 After installing new wire rope on a crane


or other hoisting equipment, the equipment should
be operated for about an hour at no load to ensure
that it will accommodate itself to the sheaves and
drums before the heavy strain is applied.

1.4.3 Avoid crushing forces on wire rope at all


times to avoid damage to cores and hidden wires.

1.4.4 Loose ends of wire rope must always be


seized to prevent untwisting of wires and strands.

1.4.5 When applying a choker hitch on an object


to be hoisted, care should be taken to avoid damage to the sling. Use softeners to safely handle
objects with sharp corners or edges.

1.4.6 The listed safe load in Table 2 should


never be exceeded unless the sling has a
manufacturers tag attached and that tag indicates
a higher capacity rating.

1.4.7 When lifting at an angle such as with bridle


slings, basket and choker hitches, the actual load
on the sling parts increases as illustrated in Figure
1. To calculate the total stress implied to the sling
by the angle and load, multiply the actual vertical
load by the load angle factor listed in Table 1.

1.4.8 When using basket hitches, care should


be taken that slings do not slip on the object being
lifted.

7
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

1.4.9 Effect of Sling Angle. It is best to use bridle


slings with horizontal angles above 45 degrees
from the horizontal. However, at no time should
the horizontal angle be less than 30 degrees.

1.4.10 Combined reductions must be considered


when using a bridle sling configuration that
incorporates a choker hitch connected to the load
being lifted. One reduction will be required for the
horizontal sling angle and an additional for the
choker hitch. Avoid using choked bridle slings at
less than a 60-degree angle from the horizontal.

Table 1 shows what happens to the vertical lifting


capacity of a sling with a working load limit of 1000
pounds as the angle from the horizontal decreases
from 90 degrees (a vertical lift) to 30 degrees (the
minimum allowed horizontal sling). As the angle
from the horizontal decreases, so does the capacity as compared to a vertical pull. Notice that the
capacity decreases more rapidly as the horizontal
sling angle decreases. For angles of less than 30
degrees from the horizontal, the horizontal forces
are actually greater than the vertical lifting force. It
is for this reason that the horizontal angle should
never be less than 30 degrees.

FIGURE 1
Effect of Sling Angle Examples

Sling Load x Load Angle Factor = Implied Load


90 degree angle: 500 lbs x 1.0 = 500 lbs
60 degree angle: 500 lbs x 1.154 = 577 lbs
45 degree angle: 500 lbs x 1.414 = 707 lbs
30 degree angle: 500 lbs x 2.0 = 1000 lbs
8
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

TABLE 1
Effect of Sling Angle

Caution

Normal Operating Range

Sling Angle

from
Working Load

Capacity as a Load Angle

Horizontal Limit (WLL) Capacity % of WLL
Factor

90
1,000 lbs. 1,000 lbs 100.0%
1.000

85
1,000 lbs. 996 lbs
99.6%
1.003

80
1,000 lbs. 985 lbs
98.5%
1.015

75
1,000 lbs. 966 lbs
96.6%
1.035

70
1,000 lbs. 940 lbs
94.0%
1.064

65
1,000 lbs. 906 lbs
90.6%
1.103

60
1,000 lbs. 866 lbs
86.6%
1.154

55
1,000 lbs. 819 lbs
81.9%
1.220

50
1,000 lbs. 760 lbs
76.6%
1.305

45
1,000 lbs. 707 lbs
70.7%
1.414

40
1,000 lbs. 643 lbs
64.3%
1.555

35
1,000 lbs. 574 lbs
57.4%
1.743

30
1,000 lbs. 500 lbs
50.0%
2.000
Do not use slings at less than a 30-degree angle

It is important to remember as angles from the


horizontal decrease, the implied stresses to all involved
equipment (i.e. slings, shackles, eyebolts, hoists, beam
clamps) increase. Rigging equipment and hardware
must be resized or increased, if necessary, to accommodate this extra loading. DO NOT assume the
equipment component safety factors will accommodate
angle-induced overloads.

9
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

2. WIRE ROPE SLING CAPACITIES


TABLE 2

Working Load Limit in U.S. tons (2000 lbs) of 6x19 and 6x37 IPS IWRC
Wire Rope
2 leg basket or bridle hitch
Sling
60o Angle
45o Angle
30o Angle
Choke
Diameter
Straight
Both Legs
from
from
from
Hitch
(inches)
Pull
Vertical
Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal

0.56
0.42
1.1
0.97
0.79
0.56
5/16
0.87
0.65
1.7
1.5
1.2
0.87
3/8
1.2
0.93
2.5
2.1
1.8
1.2
7/16
1.7
1.3
3.4
2.9
2.4
1.7

2.2
1.6
4.4
3.8
3.1
2.2
9/16
2.7
2.1
5.5
4.8
3.9
2.7
5/8
3.4
2.5
6.8
5.9
4.8
3.4

4.9
3.6
9.7
8.4
6.9
4.9
7/8
6.6
4.9
13.0
11.0
9.3
6.6
1
8.5
6.4
17.0
15.0
12.0
8.5
1 1/8
10.0
7.8
21.0
18.0
15.0
10.0
1
12.0
9.2
24.0
21.0
17.0
12.0
IPS Improved Plow Steel Grade Wire Rope
IWRC Independent Wire Rope Core

Straight
Pull

Choke
Hitch

Basket
Hitch

Bridle
Hitch

3. WIRE ROPE CLIP SPLICE


3.1 The number of clips and spacing required per
diameter of rope used is given in Table 3. Make sure
the saddle grooves on the clips match the lay of the
rope.
3.2 Do not use clips made of malleable iron material.
3.3 U-bolt clips must be placed on the rope with the
U bolts bearing upon the short or dead end of the
rope (Table 3). Properly made, a U-bolt clip eye splice
develops 80% of the strength of the rope.
3.4 Twin base clips have corrugated jaws on both
parts and can be installed without regard as to which
10
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

installed, twin base clips will develop 90% of the


strength of the rope and cause very little deformation to
the wire rope.
3.5 When forming an eye with a thimble, the clip
farthest from the eye should be applied first about
four inches back from the end of the dead rope and
tightened evenly. Next, apply the clip close to the toe of
the thimble and finger tighten. Space all intermediate
clips evenly and finger tighten. Torque all clips evenly to
the manufacturers recommended setting.
3.6 When making a lapped splice to a stay rope, apply
a twin-base clip about four inches from each dead end
and tighten evenly.
3.7 After assembly, the rope shall be loaded to the
expected working load and the clips re-torqued to the
manufacturers recommended setting. After approximately one hour of service recheck torque settings on
clips again. The wire rope clip torque value shall be
checked on a regular basis.
3.8 After using clips on a wire rope, special inspection
of the wire rope in the area where the clips are removed
should be made. Look for any possible damage to the
rope.
3.9 Always apply clips with the U-bolt on the dead end
and the saddle of the clip on the live end of the wire
rope. Never saddle a dead horse.
3.10 Never use clips to form sling eyes used for
overhead lifting.
4. USE OF CHAIN
4.1 For general construction rigging never use a chain
when it is possible to use wire rope. The failure of a
single link of a chain can result in a serious accident.
Wire rope on the other hand, is frequently composed of
114 wires, all of which must fail before the rope breaks.
Wire rope gives you reserve strength and a chance to
notice a hazard; chains do not.
4.2 There are certain jobs for which chain is better
suited than wire rope. Chains withstand rough handling,
do not knit, are easily stored, have dead flexibility, and
11
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

RIGHT

WRONG

Figure 2
Joining Wire Ropes

12
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

Figure 3 - Cable Clips


Right and Wrong Ways of
Using Cable Clips

Proper Method of Installing


Cable Clips
STEP 1

Correct

U-Bolt of all clips


on dead end of
rope.

APPLY FIRST CLIP - one base width from


dead end of wire ropeU-Bolt over dead
endlive end rests in clip saddle. Tighten
nuts evenly to recommended torque.
STEP 2

Incorrect

Do not stagger clips.

APPLY SECOND CLIP - nearest loop as


possibleU-Bolt over dead endturn on
nuts firm but DO NOT TIGHTEN.
STEP 3

Incorrect

U-Bolt of all clips


on live end of
rope.

ALL OTHER CLIPS - Space equally between


first two.
STEP 4

Double Saddle Clips (Flat Grip Clips)

Apply
tension

Apply tension and tighten all


nuts to recommended torque.
STEP 5

Apply
tension

Recheck nut torque after rope


has been in operation.

13
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

N/A

1/8

3/16

1/4

5/16

3/8

1/2

5/8

3/4

7/8

U-Bolt

Number of Clips

Twin-Base

Wire Rope
Diameter
(inches)

37

26

16

13 1/2

11

5 1/2

N/A

Twin-Base

26

19

18

12

11 1/2

6 1/2

5 1/4

4 3/4

3 3/4

3 1/4

U-Bolt

Turn Back past


Thimble

4 3/4

4 3/8

3 1/2

3 1/4

2 3/4

2 3/8

1 5/8

1 3/8

5 3/8

7 3/8

4 1/4

4 1/8

3 3/4

2 3/4

2 1/8

N/A

5 3/8

4 3/4

4 5/8

4 1/4

4 1/8

3 3/4

2 3/4

2 1/8

225

225

225

130

65

45

30

30

30

N/A

225

225

130

95

65

45

30

15

7.5

4.5

Appx. spacing
Required Torque
Minimum
(foot pounds)
distance - between clips (inches)
dead end
U-Bolt
Twin-Base
U-Bolt
to first clip Twin-Base
(inches)

TABLE 3
CABLE CLIPS

14
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

when used as slings, grip the load well. They are much
more resistant to abrasion and corrosion than wire rope
and are particularly well suited as slings for lifting rough
loads such as heavy castings which would quickly
weaken or destroy wire rope slings due to the sharp
bends over the edges of the castings.
4.3 CARE AND USE

4.3.1 Use only alloy steel chain, Grade 8 or


Grade 10, and never exceed its rated working
load limits as specified by the manufacturer and
indicated on the required attached information tag.

4.3.2 Chains must be inspected by the user


before each use and by a designated person,
making a written record of the inspection, at
intervals not to exceed 12 months.

4.3.3 Know the weight of all loads to avoid


accidental overloads.

4.3.4 Avoid impact loading.

4.3.5 Store chains where they will not be damaged or corroded. A light coating of oil should be
placed on chains before storage.

4.3.6 Never shorten a chain by twisting or knotting it or with nuts and bolts.

4.3.7 Never use a chain when the links are


locked, stretched, or without free movement.
Stretching can be distinguished by small cracks in
the links, elongation of the links, or a tendency for
the links to bind on each other.

4.3.8 Never hammer a chain to straighten the


links or to force the links into position.

4.3.9 Avoid crossing, twisting, kinking, or knotting a chain.

4.3.10 Never use the tip of chain hooks to carry


a load.

4.3.11 Never re-weld alloy steel chain links.


They must be replaced by the manufacturer.

15
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

4.3.12 Inspect each link regularly for wear, nicks,


gouges, stretch, localized bending, and shearing.

4.3.13 Make sure the chain is of the correct size


and grade for the load.

4.3.14 Make sure all attachments and fittings are


of a type, grade, and size suitable for service with
the chain used.

4.3.15 Make sure that alloy steel chains are


never annealed or heat treated. Their capacity will
be completely destroyed if they are.
5. Synthetic Web and Round Slings

5.1.1 Synthetic slings offer numerous advantages:


conformity to regular shapes, not affected by moisture,
wont rust, non-sparking, minimized twisting during
lifting, lightweight, preclude hand cuts and bumps from
swinging, resist crushing, and will not harm the surface
being lifted.
5.1.2 Each synthetic sling shall be marked, coded
or tagged to show the rated capacities for each type
of hitch and type of synthetic material or it shall not
be used. Do not use any synthetic sling that is not so
identified.
5.1.3 Synthetic slings manufactured with nylon material
shall not be used where fumes, sprays, mists, or liquids
of acids are present.
5.1.4 Synthetic slings manufactured with polyester
material shall not be used where fumes, sprays, mists,
or liquids of caustics are present.
5.1.5 The working temperature range for nylon and
polyester synthetic slings is -20F to +180F
(-30C 82C).
5.1.6 Avoid choking or hooking directly on the identification tag, splices or stitching.
5.1.7 Wear pads and sling covers should be used to
help protect the sling from sharp corners and abrasive
surfaces.
16
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

5.2.1 Synthetic fiber web slings shall be immediately


removed from service if any of the following conditions
are present:

Missing or illegible capacity tag

Chemical burns

Holes, tears, cuts, snags or punctures

Excessive abrasive wear

Melting or charring of any part of the sling

Knots

Broken or worn stitching

Damaged end fittings

Any condition which causes doubt as to the
strength of the sling
(While many manufacturers incorporate the use of a
red warning thread in the fabrication of web slings,
these threads are not to be used as the sole means for
reason to remove a sling from service. In most situations, visibility of the warning thread indicates the sling
is severely past the removal from service point.)
5.3.1 Synthetic round slings shall be immediately
removed from service if any of the following conditions
are present:

Missing or illegible capacity tag

Visible inner cover or yarn

Chemical burns

Holes, tears, cuts, snags or punctures

Excessive abrasive wear

Melting or charring of any part of the sling

Knots

Broken or worn stitching

Damaged end fittings

Diminished tattle tale visibility or broken fiber
optic (if so equipped)

Any condition which causes doubt as to the
strength of the sling
6. Synthetic Fiber Rope
Synthetic fiber rope should only be used for rigging
when other applications as hoists and slings are
impractical or undesirable for a particular job. Natural or
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Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

plant fiber (manila) rope should not be used for rigging


or hoisting applications.
6.1 If using a synthetic fiber rope for rigging, a minimum
safety factor of 5 must be used to determine the working load limit of the rope.
6.2 Synthetic fiber rope suitable for rigging applications
includes nylon, polyester and polypropylene.
6.3 Nylon rope is a strong, rough rope with excellent
resistance to abrasion and will absorb greater shock
loads than any other synthetic fiber rope. However,
nylon has a greater percentage of stretch than polyester or polypropylene ropes. Do not use nylon rope in the
presence of acids.
6.4 Polyester rope has good resistance to abrasion and
has application where minimum stretch is desired. Do
not use polyester rope in the presence of caustics.
6.5 Polypropylene rope is the lightest and lowest in cost
of all synthetic fiber ropes. It is flexible, has minimum
stretch and excellent shock resistance. While polypropylene is generally not affected by moisture, acids,
alkalis, oil, grease and other chemical, it does degrade
in sunlight and its strength is less than polyester or
nylon of comparable size.
6.6 INSPECTION

6.6.1 Look and feel for broken fibers or other


signs of abuse of the rope. Broken fibers are an
indication of excessive abrasion or overloading.
If approximately 5% of the fibers are broken, the
rope should be condemned.

6.6.2 The fiber rope naturally will become dirty


from use, however, inspect for excess dirt and
grit penetrating between the fibers making up the
strands. If excessive to the point that it will cause
internal wear in the strands, the rope should be
condemned for hoisting.

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Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

6.6.3 Inspect for excessive oil on the surface of


the rope. This is an indication of excess loading
and the rope should be condemned.

6.6.4 Check the rope for strands unlaying, high


stranding, or the presence of a spiral appearance.
This will cause uneven distribution of the load on
the strands and early rope failure.

6.6.5 Inspect outside of rope for evidence of


exposure to heat, acid, chemicals, or excessively
moist atmosphere. Synthetic fiber rope should
be condemned if it is not resistant to the above
exposures.

6.6.6 Open up the strands of the rope by twisting


it in the opposite direction of the lay. Do not open
to the extent of kinking the fibers or damaging the
rope lay. Inspect for the following:

- If excessive broken fibers are found, the rope


should be condemned. This is a definite indication that rope has been overloaded.

- Interior of the rope should be as bright as the


original new rope. If discolored or dirty, there are
indications of chemical or dirt penetration and
rope should be condemned.

- Inspect for the presence of a powder-like sawdust. If present, there has been severe internal
wear and rope should be condemned.

6.6.7 If possible to open up a strand, the following inspection inside the strands can be made:

- Pull on several fibers near the center of the


strand. If they come out in short pieces, the rope
has been overloaded and should be condemned.

- Pull out some long fibers from the center of the


strand and check for strength. If the strands

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Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

break easily, the rope probably has been chemically attacked and should be condemned.

- A condemned rope should be cut into short


pieces and scrapped.

6.7 HANDLING, USE, AND STORAGE


6.7.1 In general, the uncoiling of rope should


start with the loose end inside the coil. The coil
can be laid flat and the rope uncoiled by pulling the
loose end away from the coil to obtain the desired
length.

6.7.2 As the rope comes out of the coil, it should


unwind in a counterclockwise direction and may
form loops. These loops should be removed carefully to avoid damaging kinks in the rope.

6.7.3 Before cutting a fiber rope, whipping


should be applied on both sides of the intended
cut to prevent unlay of the strands or upsetting of
the fibers in the strands.

6.7.4 Do not drag rope over dirty or gritty


surfaces. Abrasion to the outside of the rope will
occur immediately and the picking up of gritty
particles will cause later internal abrasion.

6.7.5 Avoid wrapping fiber rope around sharp


edges or corners. The use of padding or softeners
is recommended.

6.7.6 Do not use fiber rope in an atmosphere of


acids, chemicals, or chemical fumes unless the
specific rope has properties to resist that atmosphere.

6.7.7 Do not bend or flex frozen fiber rope. Wet


or frozen rope should not be placed against steam
pipes for thawing or drying.

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Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

6.7.8 Synthetic fiber rope should be stored in


a clean, well-ventilated area. Preferred storage
is hanging loosely on large-diameter pegs, in
temperatures between 50F- 70F (10C 22C),
between 40-60 percent humidity and out of direct
sunlight.

6.7.9 If rope has become damp or wet in use, it


should be dried before storing.

6.7.10 Do not expose synthetic fiber rope to


temperatures outside of 20F to 180F (-30C
82C).

6.7.11 Never use rope that shows signs of cutting,


unraveling, or breaking.

6.7.12 Keep rope ends seized.

TABLE 4
SYNTHETIC FIBER
COMPARISON CHART

RESISTANCE TO*

Abrasion




Wet Dry
Acid
Alka
Water Heat Rot
MATERIAL






Nylon
E
VG
P
E
E
G
E

Dacron
VG
G
VG
F
E
VG
E
Polypropylene VG
G
E
E
E
G
E
*Most chemical solutions and solvents affect rope to varying degrees; therefore,
care should be taken to prevent contact with them.
KEY



E - Excellent
VG - Very Good
G - Good
F - Fair
P - Poor

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Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

22
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

/8

/4

/8

23/4

21/4

8,910

22,230

17,280

12,780

9.9

25.3

19.5

14.3

1,835 - 4,446

1,440 - 3,456

1,065 - 2,556

743 - 1,728

Working Load
Range (lbs)
Design Factor
5 to 12
473 - 1,134
600 - 1,440

Figures above are safety factors of minimum 5 to 1.







Diameter Circumference
(inches)
(inches)
1/2
11/2
9/16
13/4

Nylon

Minimum

Break

Strength
Weight
(lbs)
(lbs/100 ft)
5,670
6.3
7,200
8.0

Size

19,775

15,225

11,200

7,825

30.4

23.4

17.2

12.0

Minimum

Break

Strength
Weight
(lbs)
(llbs/100 ft)
5,085
7.7
6,435
9.8

Polyester

1,648 - 3,955

1,269 - 3,045

933 - 2,240

652 - 1,565

Working Load
Range (lbs)
Design Factor
5 to 12
424 - 1,017
536 - 1,287

TABLE 5
PROPERTIES OF FIBER ROPE

12,825

10,350

7,650

5,580

Minimum
Break
Strength
(lbs)
3,780
4,590

18.0

14.2

10.4

7.2



Weight
(lbs/100 ft)
4.6
5.9

Polypropylene

1,069 - 2,565

863 - 2,070

638 - 1,530

465 - 1,116

Working Load
Range (lbs)
Design Factor
5 to 12
315 - 756
383 - 918

7. HOOKS, SHACKLES, BEAM CLAMPS,


AND TROLLEYS
7.1 BASIC RULES

7.1.1 Only ONE eye in a hook. Use a shackle to


hold two or more eyes.

7.1.2 Pin of shackle should be placed in hook


with the eyes of chokers bearing on the shank.
See Table 7.

7.1.3 All hooks should either bear a safety latch


or be moused.

7.1.4 Never overload a hook beyond its rated


capacity.

7.1.5 Hooks must be replaced when inspection


shows spread, distortion, wear, or fracture.

7.1.6 Never place a load on the point of a hook


- always in the center.

7.1.7 Get approval before applying a beam


clamp to any structural member to assure that
structural member will support the load being
raised.

7.1.8 Use only approved type beam clamps for


lifting any load. No welded rings or field-fabricated
lifting devices are to be used.

7.1.9 Check to make sure clamp fits beam and is


adequate to support load to be handled. (Consider
strength of flange of beam).

7.1.10 Beam clamps should be securely fastened


to the beam.

7.1.11 The use of beam clamps is not recommended when angle lifts are to be made. The

23
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

design calculations for beam clamp capacity are


made for straight lifts. Lifting at an angle places
the beam flange under multiple stresses and the
beam clamp under point loading, making it possible to exceed design capabilities.

7.1.12 Never use plate grips, tongs, girder hooks,


pipe clamps, etc., as substitutes for beam clamps.

7.1.13 All hooks, where possible, shall be


equipped with a safety latch. For those hooks
where safety latches are not possible, mousing
must be applied to close the throat opening.
Rigging using hooks with no safety latches that
incorporate mousing should be avoided.

7.1.14 Beam clamps should be visually inspected


before each use by checking hooks, locking pins,
and lifting eyes for distortion or other defects;
inspecting welds for cracks; checking bolts or
locking devices for ease of operation; making sure
that identification numbers, capacity, and beam
size are clearly marked on the clamp.

7.1.15 Rebar shall not be used as a lifting device.

7.1.16 Installation of trolleys on monorails should


be performed by trained personnel only.

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Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

TABLE 6
STRENGTH OF STANDARD HOOKS
Carbon Steel Forged, Quenched, Tempered
Design Factor = 5

EYE HOOK
Working
Load
Limit
Tons

3
/4
1
1 1/2
2
3
5
7 1/2
10
15
20
24
32

SHANK HOOK

Throat
Opening A
Inches
5
/16
1 1/32
1 1/16
1 7/32
1 1/2
1 7/8
2 1/4
2 1/2
3 3/8
4
4 3/4
5 3/4

SWIVEL HOOK

Eye
Size B

Shank
Size C

Swivel
Thickness D

1 15/32
1 3/4
2 1/32
2 13/32
2 15/16
3 13/16
4 11/16
5 3/8
6 5/8
7
9 5/16
10 3/4

/32
21/32
23
/32
7
/8
1 5/32
1 13/32
1 11/32
1 27/32
2 1/4
2 3/4
3 1/2
4 1/8

3
/8
1/2
5
/8
5
/8
3
/4

19

1
1 1/8
1 1/4
1 1/2
1 1/2

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Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

TABLE 7
STRENGTH OF SHACKLES
Screw Pin, Round Pin, Safety Forged,
Quenches, and Tempered Alloy Steel Pins
Design Factor = 6

SCREW PIN

Working Load

Limit

Tons

1
/2
3/4
1
1 1/2
2
3 1/4
4 3/4
6 1/2
8 1/2
9 1/2
12
13 1/2
17
25
35
50

ROUND PIN

Size of
Shank A

Diam. of
Pin B

Inside
Width C

Inches

Inches

Inches

1/4
5/16
3
/8
7/16
1
/2
5
/8
3
/4
7
/8
1
1 1/8
1 1/4
1 3/8
1 1/2
1 3/4
2
2 1/2

5/16
/8
7/16
1/2
5/8
3
/4
7
/8
1
1 1/8
1 1/4
1 3/8
1 1/2
1 5/8
2
2 1/4
2 3/4

/32
/32
21
/32
23
/32
13/16
1 1/16
1 1/4
1 7/16
1 11/16
1 13/16
2 1/32
2 1/4
2 3/8
2 7/8
3 1/4
4 1/8

15
17

Size of shackle identified by diameter of shank. All shackle pins must


be straight.
If the width between eyes (C) exceeds +1/16, the shackle has been
overstrained and must not be used.
Working load limit must be permanently shown on each shackle.

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Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

TABLE 7 (Contd.)

Washers

Hook

Never allow shackle to be


pulled at an angle the
legs will open up.

Pack the pin with washers


to centralize the shackle.

Poor Practice

Good Practice

27
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

8. METHODS OF HANGING RIGGING


The method of hanging rigging depends largely upon
the job to be done. It is important to check all phases
of the job and all the potential possibilities of job
deviations that may affect the rigging components.
Before hanging any rigging, it is imperative that the
overhead structures be checked to make certain they
will withstand the stresses of the load to be lifted. When
starting the job, the affected area should be roped off
and identified as an overhead work area.
8.1 Beam clamps are the preferred method for hanging rigging overhead. For beam clamps and their use in
hanging rigging, see Section 7.
8.2 Slings are sometimes used to hang rigging and
wire rope slings should be given preference for this
application.
8.2.1 When slings are used they must be protected
from sharp edges on the support member with the use
of softeners.
8.2.2 If multiple points or eyes are used to support the
rigging, they must first be gathered in a shackle.
8.3 Lashing consists of a straight piece of wire rope
wrapped around the overhead beam or strength
member from which the rigging can be fastened. The
wire rope ends are secured by cable clamps. The cable
clamps used should be selected and used in accordance with Table 3.
8.3.1 The number of wraps around the beam is determined by the load to be lifted and the diameter of the
wire rope. However, a minimum number of three wraps
are usually needed to prevent slipping.
8.3.2 To ensure maximum resistance to slippage
when the load is lifted at an angle, a shackle should
be placed through the middle wrap only; providing the
single wrap is of sufficient strength to support the load.
28
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

8.3.3 Rope wrapped around the beam or strength


member must be protected from sharp corners by the
use of softeners.
8.3.4 Severe angle lifts may require that additional
wraps of lashing be used.
8.4 Use of Eveners: In cases where the overhead
structure will not withstand point loading, or where two
overhead strength members must be spanned to place
the rigging directly over the object to be lifted, eveners
should be used.
8.4.1 When an evener is used to distribute the load on
the beam, it should be lashed to the strength member in
two or more places.
8.4.2 When an evener is used to span two or more
overhead strength members, the evener should be
lashed to all strength members.
8.4.3 The rigging should be hung from the evener
only, in the same manner as it would be hung from the
strength member.
9. CHAIN HOISTS
9.1 The spur gear chain hoist is the most efficient of
all chain hoists. Chain hoists should be marked with
capacity in tons. Use correct size hoists for the weight
to be lifted.

9.1.1 Be certain that the attachment and the


supporting structure will safely carry the load.

9.1.2 The term heavy-duty chain hoists refers


to the job it is capable of performing and not the
abuse it will stand.

9.2 Chain hoists must be equipped with an automatic


load brake to prevent the load from dropping.

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Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
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9.3 Chain hoists must have an overload limiting device


or be used under strict administrative controls.
9.4 A chain hoist should never be used beyond its
rated capacity.
9.5 Do not leave a load hanging on a chain hoist
unattended.
9.6 Do not stand below or have any parts of the body,
i.e., hand or foot, below a load suspended on a chain
hoist.
9.7 Do not wrap the load chain around the load to be
lifted.
9.8 Do not load the point of the chain hoist lifting hook.
Make sure the load is bottomed in the hook. Safety
latch or mouse all hooks.
9.9 If more than one lifting cable is to be handled by
one chain hoist, use a shackle to join the lifting cables
before placing them in the chain hoist lifting hook.
9.10 Chain hoists are designed so that one person
can operate the hand chain to lift the full capacity load
for the chain hoist. If not, use larger chain hoist.
9.11 Avoid making angle lifts with a chain hoist
wherever possible. Never use a chain hoist for a
horizontal pull as design chain-sprocket engagement
is not obtained. Lever hoists or come-alongs should be
used for these conditions.
9.12 When drifting loads using two or more chain
hoists, use extreme care in operation of the hand chain
so that it is pulled in line with the sheave. The angle of
lift should not exceed 30 with the vertical. This is one
of the few permissible chain hoist angle lifts.
9.13

Inspection
9.13.1 All chain hoists should be inspected
visually before making any lift. Visual inspection

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Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

should include (1) check hooks for any irregularities,


(2) check chain for wear or damage, and (3) check
housing and sheaves for any signs of damage
from abusive treatment.

9.13.2 Check top and bottom hooks. If the hook


opening is greater than indicated in Table 6, it
should be replaced. Never try to straighten a bent
hook.

9.13.3 Check load chain at inter-link points for


signs of wear. Check pitch of chain against the
original pitch as recorded in inches of length
per twenty links of chain. If the pitch shows an
increase of 3% elongation due to either stretch or
wear or a combination of both, it must be replaced.

9.13.4 For hand chain hoists that have multiple


parts of load chain reeved through a load block,
always check to ensure that the block is not
capsized causing a dangerous twist in the load
chain.

9.13.5 Lubricate the load chain as often as use


warrants. Do not oil load brake surfaces.
10. LEVER-OPERATED HOISTS

10.1

Rig carefully, keep hoist chain straight.

10.2

Dont use cheaters on hoist handle.

10.3

Dont overload, stay within rated limit.

10.4

Load hook properly and inspect for open hooks.

10.5

Handle carefully, dont throw or drop hoists.

10.6

Dont use hoist chain as sling or choker.

10.7 Never let the hoist chain gouge the side of the
frame, keep aligned with the work.
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Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

10.8 Bending hoist chain under load could cause


serious damage or breakage.
10.9 Set your footing before using a hoist to avoid
slips, falls, and strains.
10.10 Inspect periodically for defects with a visual
inspection prior to each use.
10.11 Link chain lever hoists may be used safely to lift
or pull a load or to stretch cable or wire at any angle or
in any position.
10.12 A lever-operated hoist under strain should not
be left unattended for any lengthy period of time.
10.13 Always stand clear of load being lifted or away
from the path of a load being pulled.
10.14 If more than one cable or chain is to be handled
by one hook, use a shackle to join the cables or chains
and place the shackle in the hook.
10.15 Lever-operated hoists must have an overload
limiting device or overload warning device.
10.16 The use of roller chain hoists is not permitted.
10.17 The use of wire rope lever hoists incorporating a
simple ratchet and pawl is not permitted for lifting.
11. USE OF JACKS
11.1 Jacking metal against metal is not permitted
use wood softeners. Never jack against rollers.
11.2 When jacking, always follow with chocks as a
precaution against the jack kicking. Never leave a jack
under a load without having the load blocked up.
11.3 Care must be exercised to ensure that jacks
are properly positioned and the load raised uniformly to
reduce tendency of the load to shift unexpectedly.
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Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

11.4 When using jacks, always make sure that the


base is placed firmly and evenly on a good solid footing. Never place jack directly on the ground.
11.5 Jacks should be used in such a position that the
direction of force is perpendicular to the base and the
surface of the load to be moved.
11.6 Never exceed the capacity of the lift distance of
the jack.
11.7 Do not use extensions to the handles furnished
with the jacks.
11.8 If a load is to be raised in its entirety by several
jacks, it should be braced laterally by struts to prevent
all the jacks from upsetting in unison.
11.9 When using jacks in a horizontal position to
move an object, the jacks should be lashed or blocked.
11.10 When using more than one ratchet-type jack for
lifting, it is desirable to obtain matched jacks for uniform
lifting.
12. USE OF ROLLERS
12.1 Rollers should not be used metal-to-metal
provide softeners.
12.2 Avoid pinch hazards keep fingers and feet
clear of rollers.
12.3 Loads must be properly chocked when they are
to be left on rollers.
12.4 Use wood softeners under rollers when on
smooth hard surfaces.
12.5 Material or load to be moved must be firmly
bolted or lashed to the skid to prevent any shifting

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Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

on the skid while it is being moved. On loads moving


down a slope, restrainer lines should be used, securely
fastened to both the load and the skid or dolly.
12.6 Force to move the load along the rollers or dollies should be applied to the skid and not the load itself.
12.7 Force to move the skid may be applied by a
winch, jack, come-along (tug-all), or manually with the
use of lever bars.
12.8 When using dollies, they should be selected
of sufficient capacity so that each dolly will take equal
weight of the total load.
12.9 The load will be moved on rollers in a direction
perpendicular to the center line of the rollers. To change
the direction of movement, the rollers should be moved
accordingly. Never drag a load over the rollers.
12.10 Force to move a skid on rollers should be
applied in the direction of movement as near as practical.
12.11 To change direction of movement of the skid,
the rollers may be moved by holding one end securely
with a lever bar and moving the other end in the desired
direction using jacks, lever bar, or a maul.
12.12 A minimum of three rollers must be under the
skid at all times, and be spaced so that one roller is
located forward of the load center of gravity and one
roller located after the load center of gravity. Long skids
will require additional rollers.
12.13 The forward end of the skid beams shall be
tapered on the bottom to more easily start on the roller.
12.14 The surface on which the load is to be moved
should be smooth and level as far as practical. When
moving skid on rollers over a dirt base, timber tracks
should be provided with staggered joints.

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Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
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12.15 Before moving a load on skids, rollers, or dollies, the load should be thoroughly checked for stability
with respect to the center of gravity of the load on its
supports.
13. PLATE AND GENERAL
PURPOSE GRIPS
When handling flat stock such as plate, utilize only
positive self-clamping and locking devices that must
be intentionally unlocked. Consider hardness and
surface of material to be lifted to assure proper gripping
and bite of gripper. Inspect before each use for wear
and proper capacity. Use proper grip for use such as
horizontal versus vertical lifts. Use tag line on load and
never expose any part of body under the load.
14. EYEBOLTS
Misuse of eyebolts causes injuries and damage to
equipment due to angular pulls on eyebolts. To avoid
angular pulls use spreaders or devices which provide
vertical or straight pulls. Before using eyebolts inspect
for burrs, grooves, or defects on the eyebolt and mating
part which could affect safety. Avoid painting or coating
of eyebolts used for lifting because they hide defects or
damage. Seat all eyebolts firmly and squarely against
mating parts. All eyebolts must have 90 percent of
threads engaged and must fit tightly into holes. Eyebolt
shank length must not be altered without Engineering
approval. Only swivel or shouldered eyebolts may be
used for rigging purposes; do not use unshouldered
eyebolts.
Note: Angular pulls on eyebolts should be avoided.
Not all manufacturers allow angle loading of their
equipment. If an angular pull is to be applied to an
eyebolt, the user must verify with the manufacturers
information that this type pull is allowed and abide by
the manufacturers recommended safe working load for
the angle at which the load is applied.

35
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

36
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

Straight Pulls
Recommended

Nut must be
tightened

Pack with washers to


ensure that shoulder
is firmly in contact
with surface

Angular Pulls
Not Recommended

Ensure that tapped


hole is deep enough

Spreader Beam
Recommended

FIGURE 4
PROPER EYEBOLT USAGE

Shoulder must be
in full contact with
surface

PLANE OF EYEBOLT
ILLUSTRATED

Plane of eyebolt

TABLE 8
SWIVEL EYEBOLTS
Swivel eyebolts are designed for angular loading,
and their ratings are usually good for any load angle.
Forces increase with load angle and the swivel eyebolt
must be sized to equal the load in the attached sling or
hardware. The drawing below shows a swivel eyebolt. A
chart for rated load and thread size for swivel eyebolts
is also shown below. Always use a proper torque
wrench and follow manufacturers recommended torque
values when installing swivel eyebolts.

Swivel Eyebolts
(Swivel Hoist Rings)
Rated Load
Thread Size
(lbs)

5
800
/16 - 18
3
1,000
/8 - 16
1
2,500
/2 - 13
5
4,000
/8 - 11
3
5,000
/4 - 10

Torque
(ft-lbs)
7
12
28
60
100

Swivel eyebolts are available in metric thread classes.

37
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

TABLE 9
TYPE 2 SHOULDERED
FORGED STEEL EYEBOLTS





Nominal

Size
1/4
0.25


5
/16
0.31


3/8
0.38


7/16
0.44


1
/2
0.50


9
/16
0.56


5/8
0.62


3/4
0.75


7/8
0.88


1
1.00


1 1/8 1.12


1 1/4 1.25


1 1/2 1.50


1 3/4 1.75


2
2.00

A

Shank
Dia.
0.25
0.28
0.31
0.34
0.38
0.41
0.44
0.47
0.50
0.53
0.56
0.59
0.62
0.66
0.75
0.78
0.88
0.91
1.00
1.06
1.12
1.19
1.25
1.34
1.50
1.59
1.75
1.84
2.00

B

Shank
Length
1.00
1.06
1.12
1.19
1.25
1.38
1.38
1.50
1.50
1.62
1.62
1.75
1.75
1.88
2.00
2.12
2.25
2.38
2.50
2.62
2.75
2.88
3.00
3.12
3.50
3.62
3.75
3.88
4.00

C

Eye
ID
0.69
0.81
0.81
0.94
0.94
1.06
1.00
1.12
1.12
1.25
1.19
1.31
1.31
1.44
1.44
1.56
1.56
1.69
1.69
1.81
1.94
2.06
2.12
2.25
2.44
2.56
2.75
3.00
3.06

2.09

4.12

3.44

H

Thread Size
UNC-2A
1
/4 - 20 or
0.250 - 20
5
/16 - 18 or
0.3125 - 18
3
/8 - 16 or
0.375 - 16
7
/16 - 14 or
0.4375 - 14
1
/2 - 13 or
0.500 - 13
9
/16 - 12 or
0.5625 - 12
5
/8 - 11 or
0.625 - 11
3
/4 - 10 or
0.750 - 10
7
/8 - 9 or
0.875 - 9
1 - 8 or
1.000 - 8
1 1/8 - 7 or
1.125 - 7
1 1/4 - 7 or
1.250 - 7
1 1/2 - 6 or
1.500 - 6
1 3/4 - 5 or
1.750 - 5
2 - 4 1/2 or
2.000 - 4.50

Wx
Working Load
Limit, lb.
at 0
400
800
1400
2000
2600
3000
4000
6000
6600
8000
10000
15000
18 000
22000
26000

(All dimensions in inches)

38
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

15. Mobile Cranes


15.1 OPERATION AND USE OF CRANES

15.1.1 Safety Responsibility: It is the responsibility


of site management to ensure that this equipment
is in serviceable condition and competently operated so as to afford safe operation at all times.

Responsibility for safety in the USE of this equipment, however, is shared with the craft working
same. It will be the working crafts responsibility to
ensure that:
1. Safe methods and procedures are observed in
their work at all times.
2. A qualified signalman is provided.
3. The work is at all times properly supervised.

15.2 Rules for Safe Crane Use


15.2.1 Always work crane on firm level ground or


cribbing.

15.2.2 Set all outriggers on truck cranes.

15.2.3 Outrigger pads should be used for all lifts


and must be used for all critical lifts.

15.2.4 Provide barricades and warning signs to


prevent exposure of passersbys to the hazards of
crane work.

15.2.5 Mobile crane equipment should be


equipped with anti-two-blocking devices. Mobile
cranes used to lift personnel must be equipped
with an anti-two-blocking device that renders the
cranes controls inoperable when the device is
activated.

39
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

15.2.6 Check all operating controls and safety


devices for proper operation and functionability.

15.2.7 Check hoist brakes before making a heavy


lift by picking load and checking it close to the
ground.

15.2.8 Before lifting, verify no one is in a position


to be struck or crushed by the motion of the load
as it is picked.

15.2.9 Know the weight of the load to be lifted.


Do not rely on onboard load indicating or limiting
devices to provide this critical data as they are a
backup tool only.

15.2.10 The capacity of the crane varies with the


boom radius. Check the boom charts in crane cab
for correct boom radius and measure if in doubt.
(Boom radius is measured from crane center pin to
center of load being lifted). Never exceed limits in
the load chart and lifting notes.

15.2.11 Keep the boom directly over the load


when making a lift. Do not side load or allow boom
to lean on or strike against other objects.

15.2.12 Check all loads for proper rigging and


hitching before they are raised. Always lift with a
balanced and stable load.

15.2.13 Keep hands out of pinch points when


holding hook or slings while slack is being taken
up.

15.2.14 Signals
a) Only authorized personnel are to act as crane
signalers
b) Make sure operator and signalers understand
the signals used
c) Only one person is to give signals to the opera-

40
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

tor at any time


15.2.15 Keep the load and all parts of the crane


15 feet (4.57m) from all electric lines.

15.2.16 Crane workers are to stay out from under


boom whenever possible. Never hoist or swing
loads over other workers.

15.2.17 Use sufficient tag lines of adequate size


and length on all loads. Make certain there are no
knots in the tag line that could get caught or tangle
during load movement.

15.2.18 Riding the hook or load is forbidden.

15.2.19 No maintenance or repair is to be permitted while a load is suspended.

15.2.20 In cases where the operator is not satisfied the job is being performed safely, he is to stop
the crane and contact the supervisor immediately.

15.2.21 The operator is not to leave the controls


while a load is suspended.

15.3 Some crane lifts are referred to as critical and


involve exposure to additional hazards from the
surroundings. These will always require additional
and/or higher level of management reviews and
permits before proceeding.



15.3.1 A crane lift shall be considered a critical


lift when any one of the following conditions
exists:
The lift involves the use of a crane-suspended
work platform or handling personnel by any
means (such as a fall protection anchor point).
Working with any part of a crane or load closer
than 15 feet (5 meters) to an overhead electric
line or critical industrial operating process.
The load exceeds 75 percent of the manufactur-

41
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

TABLE 10
CRANE SIGNALS

42
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

TABLE 10 (Contd.)

43
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

ers recommended crane capacity, as shown on


the load charts for the configuration to be used.
The load must be lifted by more than one crane.
The lift requires deviation from the manufacturers
recommendations, including but not limited to:
- Using a boom configuration unlike that on the
boom makeup chart
- Moving a crane with a longer boom than recommended
- Exceeding the capacities or restrictions shown
on the load chart
15.3.2 All critical lifts require a critical lift form be
completed (see PH84 for form) and may require a
close proximity permit.

16. Rigging with Forklifts


Forklifts are designed specifically to avoid the need
for co-worker assistance in front, to steady, engage, or
attach loads. Any need for others to assist a forklift in
handling or attaching a load greatly increases hazards.
16.1 Free rigging is the direct attachment to or placement of rigging equipment (slings, shackles, rings,
etc.) onto the tines of a forklift for a below-the-tines
lift. This type of lift does not use an approved lifting
attachment and is not recommended.
16.2 Attachments (jibs, poles, etc.) must be securely
attached to the tines or mast of the forklift.
16.3 Modifications and the use of free rigging or attachments will affect the capacity and safe operation of
the forklift. Written approval must be obtained from
the manufacturer authorizing use and providing
capacity.
16.4 Only stable or safely arranged loads should
be handled. Caution shall be exercised when
handling off-center loads.
16.5 Forklift rigging that involves the suspension of
loads from forks or attachments effectively turns
44
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

The lift requires deviation from the manufacturers


recommendations, including but not limited to:
- Using a boom configuration unlike that on the boom
makeup chart
- Moving a crane with a longer boom than recommended
- Exceeding the capacities or restrictions shown on the
load chart
15.3.2 All critical lifts require a critical lift form be completed
(see PH84 for form) and may require a close proximity permit.
16. RIGGING WITH FORKLIFTS
Forklifts are designed specifically to avoid the need for co- worker
assistance in front, to steady, engage, or attach loads. Any need for
others to assist a forklift in handling or attaching a load greatly
increases exposure to hazards. The use of forklift attachments
require specific skills that include, but not limited to, how to safely
connect and disconnect the attachment from the forklift, load capacity
changes, load handling characteristics and dynamics, limitations of
use and additional hazards the attachment creates. Prior to initial
use, training is required for the operator and any assistant on each
specific forklift/attachment combination.
16.1 Free rigging is the direct attachment to or placement of rigging
equipment (slings, shackles, rings, etc.) onto the tines of a
forklift for a below-the-tines lift and does not use an approved
lifting attachment. Free rigging shall not be used to support
loads from a forklift.
16.2 Modifications to a forklift by the use of attachments will affect
the capacity, stability and safe operation of the forklift. The use
of any attachment must be approved in writing by the forklift
manufacturer. The documentation shall include the capacity
and weight of the attachment as well as the resulting net
capacity of the forklift. Consult DuMES for assistance in
situations where the forklift manufacturers approval to use a
particular attachment can not be obtained.
16.3 Attachments (jibs, poles, etc.) must be securely attached to the
tines or mast of the forklift.
16.4 Only stable or safely arranged loads should be handled.
Caution shall be exercised when handling off-center loads.
16.5 Forklift rigging that involves the suspension of loads from
attachments effectively turns the forklift into a crane, with all the
additional requirements listed in Section 15 to be considered.
44
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

the forklift into a crane, with all the additional


requirements as listed in Section 15 to be
considered.

17. HANDY THINGS TO KNOW


TO FIND...

The circumference of a circle, multiply the diameter by 3.1416 (approx. 31/7).

The diameter of a circle, multiply the circumference by .31831.

The area of a circle, multiply the square of the


diameter by .7854.

The area of a triangle, multiply the base by 1/2 the


perpendicular height.

The volume of a sphere, multiply cube of the


diameter by .5236.

A gallon of water weighs 81/2 lbs.

A gallon of water contains 231 cubic inches.

A cubic foot of water contains 71/2 gals., 1728


cubic inches and weighs 621/2 lbs.

In board measure, all boards are assumed to be


1-inch thick. Area of a lineal foot multiplied by
length in feet will give the surface contents in
square feet.

18. WEIGHTS OF MATERIAL



MATERIAL
Brick (common)
Concrete
Crushed Rock
Lumber
Mortar
Sand
Steel
Tar/Roofing
Water

APPROX. WEIGHT
PER CUBIC FOOT LBS.
120 (about 3 tons per 1000)
150 (4050 lbs. per cu. yd.)
95 (2565 lbs. per cu. yd.)
32 (10 lbs./2 x 4 x 8-0)
100
120 (3240 lbs. per cu. yd.)
490 (40.8 lbs./Sq. Ft. 1 thick)
63
62.5 (8.3 lbs./Gal.)

45
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

19. Safe Hitches and Knots

SQUARE KNOT
A safe means of fastening
together the ends of two
ropes of the same diameter.

BOWLINE
A loop which will not slip
or draw tight.

CLOVE HITCH

Step 1

ROUND TURN & TWO


HALF HITCHES
For fastening a scaffold line
to a supporting beam.

Step 2

RUNNING BOWLINE

Remember, knots reduce the capacity of the rope by as


much as 50%.
46
Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.


All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

EN-3964
Rev. 6/07

Rigging Book Copyright 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.


All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007