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ORGANIC REACTION
Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds.[1] The basic organic
chemistry reaction types are addition reactions, elimination reactions, substitution reactions,
pericyclic reactions, rearrangement reactions, photochemical reactions and redox reactions. In
organic synthesis, organic reactions are used in the construction of new organic molecules. The
production of many man-made chemicals such as drugs, plastics, food additives, fabrics depend
on organic reactions.
The oldest organic reactions are combustion of organic fuels and saponification of fats to make
soap. Modern organic chemistry starts with the Wöhler synthesis in 1828. In the history of the
Nobel Prize in Chemistry awards have been given for the invention of specific organic reactions
such as the Grignard reaction in 1912, the Diels-Alder reaction in 1950, the Wittig reaction in
1979 and olefin metathesis in 2005.
CLASSIFICATIONS
Organic chemistry has a strong tradition of naming a specific reaction to its inventor or inventors
and a long list of so-called named reactions exists, conservatively estimated at 1000. A very old
named reaction is the Claisen rearrangement (1912) and a recent named reaction is the Bingel
reaction (1993). When the named reaction is difficult to pronounce or very long as in the CoreyHouse-Posner-Whitesides reaction it helps to use the abbreviation as in the CBS reduction. The
number of reactions hinting at the actual process taking place is much smaller, for example the
ene reaction or aldol reaction.
ORGANIC REACTIONS BY MECHANISM
There is no limit to the number of possible organic reactions and mechanisms.[3] However,
certain general patterns are observed that can be used to describe many common or useful
reactions. Each reaction has a stepwise reaction mechanism that explains how it happens,
although this detailed description of steps is not always clear from a list of reactants alone.
Organic reactions can be organized into several basic types. Some reactions fit into more than
one category. For example, some substitution reactions follow an addition-elimination pathway.
This overview isn't intended to include every single organic reaction. Rather, it is intended to
cover the basic reactions.

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Addition reaction
An addition reaction, in organic chemistry, is in its simplest terms an organic reaction where two or more
molecules combine to form a larger one.

Often a substituent moves from one atom to another atom in the same molecule. or with triple bonds (alkynes). and the two-step mechanism is known as the E1 reaction. Substitution reaction Substitution reaction (also known as single displacement reaction or single replacement reaction) is a chemical reaction during which one functional group in a chemical compound is replaced by another functional group. such as molecules with carboncarbon double bonds (alkenes). Molecules containing carbon—hetero double bonds like carbonyl (C=O) groups. In organic chemistry oxidations and reductions are different from ordinary redox reactions because many reactions carry the name but do not actually involve electron transfer in the electrochemical sense of the word. Substitution reactions in organic chemistry are classified either as electrophilic or nucleophilic depending upon the reagent involved. The one-step mechanism is known as the E2 reaction. Rearrangement reaction A rearrangement reaction is a broad class of organic reactions where the carbon skeleton of a molecule is rearranged to give a structural isomer of the original molecule. In the example below the substituent R moves from carbon atom 1 to carbon atom 2: .Addition reactions are limited to chemical compounds that have multiple bonds. can undergo addition as they too have double bond character. Substitution reactions are of prime importance in organic chemistry. but rather the kinetics of the reaction. Elimination reaction An elimination reaction is a type of organic reaction in which two substituents are removed from a molecule in either a one or two-step mechanism. Organic redox reaction Organic reductions or organic oxidations or organic redox reactions are redox reactions that take place withorganic compounds. or imine (C=N) groups. The numbers do not have to do with the number of steps in the mechanism. bimolecular and unimolecular respectively.

where S stands for Substitution. but the chiral 3º-alkyl bromide reactant undergoes substitution by the modest nucleophile water with extensive racemization. The S 2 Mechanism N As described in the previous section. A similar example is found in the hydrolysis of tert-butyl chloride. This mechanism is referred to as the SN2 mechanism. N stands for Nucleophilic and 2 stands for bimolecular. it is an elimination reaction and must therefore proceed by a very different mechanism. which will be described later. as in the case of reaction 7 above.1. 2. It not only shows first order kinetics. shown at the end of the previous section. shown below. The S 1 Mechanism N Reaction 7. a majority of the reactions thus far described appear to proceed by a common single-step mechanism. Note that the initial substitution product in this reaction is actually a hydronium ion. Although reaction 3 exhibits second order kinetics. In all of these features this reaction fails to meet the characteristics of the SN2 mechanism. Other features of the SN2 mechanism are inversion at the alpha-carbon. (CH3)3C-Cl + H2O ——> (CH3)3C-OH2(+) + Cl(–) ——> (CH3)3C-OH + HCl . This second acid-base proton transfer is often omitted in writing the overall equation. which rapidly transfers a proton to the chloride anion. increased reactivity with increasing nucleophilicity of the nucleophilic reagent and steric hindrance to rear-side bonding. is clearly different from the other cases we have examined. especially in tertiary and neopentyl halides.