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Q1 P-1:

ORGANIC REACTION
Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds.[1] The basic organic
chemistry reaction types are addition reactions, elimination reactions, substitution reactions,
pericyclic reactions, rearrangement reactions, photochemical reactions and redox reactions. In
organic synthesis, organic reactions are used in the construction of new organic molecules. The
production of many man-made chemicals such as drugs, plastics, food additives, fabrics depend
on organic reactions.
The oldest organic reactions are combustion of organic fuels and saponification of fats to make
soap. Modern organic chemistry starts with the Whler synthesis in 1828. In the history of the
Nobel Prize in Chemistry awards have been given for the invention of specific organic reactions
such as the Grignard reaction in 1912, the Diels-Alder reaction in 1950, the Wittig reaction in
1979 and olefin metathesis in 2005.
CLASSIFICATIONS
Organic chemistry has a strong tradition of naming a specific reaction to its inventor or inventors
and a long list of so-called named reactions exists, conservatively estimated at 1000. A very old
named reaction is the Claisen rearrangement (1912) and a recent named reaction is the Bingel
reaction (1993). When the named reaction is difficult to pronounce or very long as in the CoreyHouse-Posner-Whitesides reaction it helps to use the abbreviation as in the CBS reduction. The
number of reactions hinting at the actual process taking place is much smaller, for example the
ene reaction or aldol reaction.
ORGANIC REACTIONS BY MECHANISM
There is no limit to the number of possible organic reactions and mechanisms.[3] However,
certain general patterns are observed that can be used to describe many common or useful
reactions. Each reaction has a stepwise reaction mechanism that explains how it happens,
although this detailed description of steps is not always clear from a list of reactants alone.
Organic reactions can be organized into several basic types. Some reactions fit into more than
one category. For example, some substitution reactions follow an addition-elimination pathway.
This overview isn't intended to include every single organic reaction. Rather, it is intended to
cover the basic reactions.

Q1 P-2:

Addition reaction
An addition reaction, in organic chemistry, is in its simplest terms an organic reaction where two or more
molecules combine to form a larger one.

Addition reactions are limited to chemical compounds that have multiple bonds, such as molecules with carboncarbon double bonds (alkenes), or with triple bonds (alkynes). Molecules containing carbonhetero double
bonds like carbonyl (C=O) groups, or imine (C=N) groups, can undergo addition as they too have double bond
character.

Elimination reaction
An elimination reaction is a type of organic reaction in which two substituents are removed from a molecule in
either a one or two-step mechanism. The one-step mechanism is known as the E2 reaction, and the two-step
mechanism is known as the E1 reaction. The numbers do not have to do with the number of steps in the
mechanism, but rather the kinetics of the reaction, bimolecular and unimolecular respectively.

Substitution reaction
Substitution reaction (also known as single displacement reaction or single replacement reaction) is a
chemical reaction during which one functional group in a chemical compound is replaced by another functional
group. Substitution reactions are of prime importance in organic chemistry. Substitution reactions in organic
chemistry are classified either as electrophilic or nucleophilic depending upon the reagent involved.

Organic redox reaction


Organic reductions or organic oxidations or organic redox reactions are redox reactions that take place
withorganic compounds. In organic chemistry oxidations and reductions are different from ordinary redox
reactions because many reactions carry the name but do not actually involve electron transfer in
the electrochemical sense of the word.

Rearrangement reaction
A rearrangement reaction is a broad class of organic reactions where the carbon skeleton of a molecule is
rearranged to give a structural isomer of the original molecule. Often a substituent moves from one atom to
another atom in the same molecule. In the example below the substituent R moves from carbon atom 1 to
carbon atom 2:

1. The S 2 Mechanism
N

As described in the previous section, a majority of the reactions thus far described appear to proceed by
a common single-step mechanism. This mechanism is referred to as the SN2 mechanism,
where S stands for Substitution, N stands for Nucleophilic and 2 stands for bimolecular. Other features
of the SN2 mechanism are inversion at the alpha-carbon, increased reactivity with increasing
nucleophilicity of the nucleophilic reagent and steric hindrance to rear-side bonding, especially in tertiary
and neopentyl halides. Although reaction 3 exhibits second order kinetics, it is an elimination reaction and
must therefore proceed by a very different mechanism, which will be described later.

2. The S 1 Mechanism
N

Reaction 7, shown at the end of the previous section, is clearly different from the other cases we have
examined. It not only shows first order kinetics, but the chiral 3-alkyl bromide reactant undergoes
substitution by the modest nucleophile water with extensive racemization. In all of these features this
reaction fails to meet the characteristics of the SN2 mechanism. A similar example is found in the
hydrolysis of tert-butyl chloride, shown below. Note that the initial substitution product in this reaction is
actually a hydronium ion, which rapidly transfers a proton to the chloride anion. This second acid-base
proton transfer is often omitted in writing the overall equation, as in the case of reaction 7 above.
(CH3)3C-Cl + H2O

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(CH3)3C-OH2(+) + Cl()

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(CH3)3C-OH + HCl