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Muscular injury

A muscle is what is known as a contractile structure, which is to say that it can be


made to contract and can also be controlled. It is important to dissociate muscles from tendons,
which are the connections between muscles and bones.
There are 3 types of muscle injuries:
1. Contusions
Contusions are caused by blunt trauma to the outer aspect of the muscle, resulting
in tissue and cellular damage and bleeding deep within the muscle and between the
muscle planes. The resultant tissue necrosis and hematoma lead to inflammation. Little
is known about the role of the inflammatory process and its importance in the healing
process. Clearly, too much inflammation is unfavorable, but too little may be just as
devastating.
A bruise is caused by blood that has escaped from damaged capillaries into the
interstitial tissues. Within a few hours after the injury, the presence of necrotic tissue
and hematoma initiates an inflammatory reaction. Because inflammation initiates
macrophage action with subsequent phagocytosis of necrotic debris and stimulation of
capillary production, it is vital to the process of muscle regeneration. However,
inflammation invariably causes edema that leads to anoxia and further cell death.

2. Strain
A muscle strain is an injury that damages the internal structure of the muscle. It may be
small or severe enough to cause internal bleeding and lengthening of muscle fibers. If the
damaged parts of the muscle pull away from each other, it is called a muscle rupture.
A muscle strain is caused by tension or stress applied to the muscle that it cannot
withstand. There are several ways that this can happen:

Muscle may not be ready for sudden stress


Tension may be too much for the muscle to bear, such as lifting a weight that is too heavy for
you
Muscle is used too much on a certain day
Certain areas have muscles that are more likely to be strained than others, including:
a) Hamstrings
Muscle overload is the main cause of hamstring muscle strain. This can happen when
the muscle is stretched beyond its capacity or challenged with a sudden load. Hamstring muscle
strains often occur when the muscle lengthens as it contracts, or shortens. Although it sounds
contradictory, this happens when you extend a muscle while it is weighted, or loaded. This is
called an "eccentric contraction."

b) Groin
A groin strain is a partial or complete tear of the small fibers of the adductor muscles.
The adductors are a group of muscles located on the inner side of the thigh. They start in the
groin area and run down the inner thigh to attach to the inner side of the knee.

A groin strain can be caused by:

Stretching the adductor muscles beyond the amount of tension they can
withstand
Suddenly putting stress on the adductor muscles when they are not ready for
stress
Overusing the adductor muscles over time
Getting a direct blow to the adductor muscles

c) Calf
A calf strain or pull often happens during acceleration or an abrupt change in direction
while running. A torn calf muscle may spasm, and contract forcefully so that the toes will
automatically point downward. Bruises show up over the injured area as well as in the foot and
ankle due to pooling of blood from internal bleeding.