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CAMBRIDGE EXAMINATIONS PUBLISHING i Eee to Proficiency Student’s Book Leo Jones CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS New Edition Progress to Proficiency New Edition Student’s Book Leo Jones 53] CAMBRIDGE ge UNIVERSITY PRESS Published by the Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge The Pitt Building, ‘Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 IRP 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211, USA 10 Stamford Road, Oakleigh, Melbourne 3166, Australia © Cambridge University Press 1986, 1993 First published 1986 Seventh printing 1991 Seconil edition 1993 Third printing 1995 Printed in Great Britain at the University Press, Cambridge ISBN 0 52) 42575 1 Student’s Book ISBN 0 521 42574 3 Teacher's Book 2 5 Set of 3 cassettes Copyright “The law allows a reader to make a single copy of part of a book for purposes of private study. It does not allow the copying: entire books or the making of multiple copies of extracts. Wrieten permission for any such copying must always be obtained from the publisher in advance. 10 Contents Thanks Introduction Free time Comparing and contrasting Adjective + noun collocations Using participles ‘Golden rules’ for writing Adventure Articles and determiners Words easily confused Keeping the reader’s interest. Adverb position keep & hold People Reporting—1 Punctuation Using inversion for emphasis Opposites Communication -ing and to__ Forming adjectives Paragraphs ~ 1 Wh-clauses make & do Food and drink ‘The passive ~1 Position of adjectives & participles should and be Making notes ~ 1 Travel and transport The future Collocations: adverbs of degree Advanced grammar revision Avoiding repetition come & go Consumers Past and present Compound nouns Further uses of -mg Sequencing ideas The press Modal verbs Prefixes There... Paragraphs—2 bring & get Education Question tags and negative questions Abstract nouns Reporting~2 Making notes ~ 2 Nature and the environment Conditional sentences ~ 1 Different styles Uses of the past Showing your attitude put & set 19 36 65 79 94 Ml 129 145 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 A good read Conjunctions and connectors ~ 1A good beginning Collocations: idioms [1 . . . constructions epositions ive~2 Thinking about the reader give & ake As the saying goes... Underlying meanings The narrator Conditional sentences — 2 Earning a living Word order: phrasal verbs Collocations: verb phrases A good ending Advanced grammar revision good & bad Arts and entertainment Prepositions Exam practice: vocabulary Conjunetions and connectors -2 Styles Mind and body Relative clauses Illustration and allusion Synonyms Exam techniques: Use of English mind, brain & word The past Adjectives + prepositions _Collocations: exam practice Modifying adjectives & participles Modern life Examination practice Communication Acti Acknowledgements Index 162 176 191 203 219 238 258 272 289 312 inside back cover Thanks Td like to thank everyone who generously gave their advice and made comments and suggestions which have helped to shape this New Edition of Progress to Proficiency Heartfelt thanks to Jeanne McCarten, who started the ball rolling and kept the project moving along. Her discerning ideas and wise advice encouraged me to incorporate countless improvements ‘Thanks to the teachers who provided feedback on the first edition: Craig Andrew, C.A.R.E.L., Royan Liz Charbit, Geos Academy, Hove Anne Cosker, MPT Harteloire, Brest Marina Donald & Margery Sanderson, Stevenson College, Edinburgh Shirley Downs, British Institute, Rome Brian Edmonds, British Institute, Paris Hilary Glasscock & Jenny Henderson, Cambridge Centre for Advanced English Cecilia Holcomb, Scanbrit School of English, Bournemouth Ian Jasper, British Council, Bilbao Anne Koulourioti & Ourania Petrakis, Asimenia Featham School of English, Rethymnon, Crete Sheila Levy, Cambridge Academy of English Vicki Lynwoodlast, English Language Centre, Hove P.L. Nelson-Xarhoulakou, Athens Steve Norman, Cambridge School, Barcelona Bruce Pye, VHS Spracheninstitut, Nuremberg Michael Roche, Academia de Idiomas Modernas, Valladolid Cristina Sanjuan Alvarez, Escuela Oficial de Idiomas, Zaragoza Jennie Weldon, The English Centre, Eastbourne I'm particularly grateful to everyone who wrote detailed reports on the first edition, and recommended particular improvements and changes: Margaret Bell, International House, London _ Jennie Henderson, Cambridge Centre for Advanced English Ruth Jimack, British Council, Athens Jill Mountain, British Institute, Rome Clare West, English Language Centre, Hove ‘The New Edition was greatly enriched with ideas, criticisms and suggestions from Ruth Jimack Jenny Johnson Rosie McAndrew Laura Matthews Pam Murphy Jill Neville Madeline Oliphant Alison Silver Bertha Weighill Clare West And thanks to the following people for their contributions and assistance: Peter Taylor, who devoted so much time and effort to collecting the authentic interviews, who produced the studio recordings and edited all the recorded material, with the help of Peter, Leon, Andy and Di at Studio AVP. The actors who took part in the studio recordings, and who talked about their own experiences and attitudes: Ishia Bennison Tim Bentinck Amanda Carlton Elaine Claxton Charles Collingwood Karen Craig Rupert Farley Michael Fitzpatrick Gordon Griffin Tim Monro Jacqui Reddin Anne Rosenfeld Chris Scott Kerry Shale Ken Shanley Coralyn Sheldon Steve Tomkinson ‘The people who generously agreed to be interviewed: Steve Abbott Fiona Bristow Vince Cross Ray Gambell Kate Gooch Abdulrazak Gurnah Stephen and Susan Hill Amanda Hooper Karen Lewis Christine Massey Alastair Miller Jilly Pearson David Reindorp Sarah Springman Lisa Wood Lindsay White who coordinated the production of the book with friendly aplomb, tact and skill Amanda Ogden for her impeccable, resourceful work on researching the photographs, cartoons and reading texts Ruth Carim for proof-reading the material so carefully Nick Newton for his tasteful ideas for the design of the book Peter Ducker for his stylish, meticulous work on the design and layout of each page of the book Alison Silver guided the project smoothly, efficiently and cheerfully towards its publication. Her eye for detail, thoroughness and discernment enhanced the book enormously. Working with her was, as always, such a pleasure. Finally, thanks to Sue, Zoé and Thomas for everything. From the first edition My special thanks to Christine Cairns and Alison Silver for all their hard work, friendly encouragement and editorial expertise. ‘Thanks also to all the teachers and students at the following schools and institutes who used the pilot edition of this book and made so many helpful comments and suggestions: ‘The Bell School in Cambridge, the British Council Institute in Barcelona, The British School in Florence, the College of Arts and Technology in Newcastle upon Tyne, the Eurocentre in Cambridge, Godmer House in Gxford, the Hampstead Garden Suburb Institute in London, Inlingua Brighton & Hove, International House in Arezzo, Klubschule Migros in St Gallen, The Moraitis School in Athens, the Moustakis School of English in Athens, the Newnham Language Centre in Cambridge, VHS Aachen, VHS Heidelberg, VHS Karlsruhe, the Wimbledon School of English in London and Ray Thomson in Switzerland. Without their help and reassurance this book could not have taken shape. Introduction Progress to Proficiency is for students who are preparing for the University of Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English examination (the ‘Proficiency exam), or for an examination of similar level and scope. Each of the eighteen units is based on a different topic, and contains sections which will help you to develop and improve your reading, writing, listening and speaking skills in English. Using Progress to Proficiency © will make your learning an enjoyable experience will be intellectually stimulating and thought-provoking © will help you do your very best in the exam © will enable you to perfect your English for professional, academic and social purposes — not just for an exam, but for real life These criteria are reflected in every unit of Progr s to Proficiency through a wide variety of exer: es and activities, which focus on different aspects of English: © developing and increasing your vocabulary helping you to understand, enjoy and appreciate reading passages revising grammar studying more advanced grammar points improving your writing skills and composition writing developing your summary writing skills idioms and phrasal verbs improving your listening comprehension developing your oral communication skills Proficiency examination skills As you work through the units, you'll be building your proficiency in English PROGRESSIVELY. You'll notice a gradual change in the nature and style of the exercises and activities as you progress through the book. At the beginning, they help you to improve your English by giving you guidance, encouraging you to enjoy learning and giving you opportunities to use English creatively; towards the end, you'll be concentrating more on acquiring and refining the special skills needed for the examination. Many of the exercises and activities are designed to be done in cooperation with other students, working in pairs or small groups. You'll find that by sharing ideas you can learn a great deal from each other. Working in pairs or small groups really will help you learn more effectively — and more enjoyably. Working through Progress to Proficiency will help you to make progress, but it YOUR TEACHER who can help you to improve the specific aspects of English that you're weakest in and can guide you towards particular exercises that seem most valuable for you and your class, Your teacher may decide to leave out some exercises if the limited amount of time available can be more profitably devoted to other exercises ~ you may decide to do some of these omitted exercises as extra homework Remember that You are the most important person in the learning process, You are the person who is most responsible for your progress: by asking questions, seeking advice, continuing to expand your vocabulary (see page 7), reading English for pleasure, talking English and listening to English whenever you can, you should be in control. Improving your English takes time and practice ~ and hard work too. A lot of this work will need to be done on your own outside class: preparing material for each lesson, regularly reviewing what you have covered in class, learning new vocabulary, and doing all the written tasks that you are set. While working with Progress 10 Proficiency you'll need a good English-English dictionary beside you, as well as a comprehensive grammar reference book ~ no coursebook can answer all your questions on vocabulary and grammar, and your teacher is only available when you're in class. Symbols ES) indicates that you should use a fluorescent highlighter to highlight useful words or expressions in a text or exercise BE indicates Communication Activities. In these activities you and your partner(s) are given different information which you have to communicate to each other. These are printed at the end of the book in random order, so that you can’t see each other's information indicates recorded material on the cassettes. 4% indicates examination advice and study tips A\ indicates a warning. Enjoy using Progress to Proficiency! 1 Free time Ee A Work in pairs. Discuss these questions with your partner What's going on in the photos? What are the people doing? How much “free time’ do you have in an average week? What kinds of things do you enjoy doing in vour spare time, when vou have any? If vou had more time for hobbies or sports, what might you take up? What's your favourite sport and why? What's your main hobby? Why do you enjoy it? B Work in pairs. Before vou listen to the recording, find out what your partner thinks are the attractions (or otherwise) of these hobbies and interests: c +) You'll hear five people describing their hobbies or leisure interests: Karen, Tim, Jacqui, Mike and Ishia 1 As you listen, note down what each speaker's hobby or interest is and the reasons they enjoy it or find it rewarding Compare your notes with a partner. Listen to the recording again to settle any of disagreement, or to fill any gaps in your notes. 3. Discuss which of the activities sounded most and least attractive D Work alone. Evaluate each activity as follows: ¥ beside the sports and pastimes you participate in, are interested in, or watch F beside the ones that other members of your family take an interest in X beside the games and pastimes you dislike or disapprove of ? beside the ones you might take up or get interested in one day Underline your favourite activity in each category and add any which are missing. Team sports: soccer] American football] baseball] hockey 1) rugby] volleyball] basketball] ice hockey 1) Individual competitive and non-competitive sports: boxing motor racing] tennisL] badminton] golf) squash cycling] sumo(] field and track athletics) swimming 1) cross-country skiing L] downhill skiing] skating] aerobics ] windsurfing] surfing sailing] jogging) fitness exercises L] water-skiing L] Outdoor activities: birdwatching fishing) hiking gardening L] walking the dog) hunting L) Indoor games: chess[] draughts] backgammon C1] board games: Scrabble, Trivial Pursuit, Monopoly, etc. [] card games: bridge, poker, etc. [] Hobbies: collecting things - stamps, antiques, etc. ]_ reading books _) carpentry (] listening to music _} playing a musical instrument 1) photography ©] cooking] doing crossword puzzles] sewing knitting painting] car maintenance 1] do-it-yourself dancing|] singing cinema dramal) Work in groups and compare your lists. Find out the attractions (or otherwise) of the sports, games and hobbies that your partners have marked, Use a dictionary to look up any vocabulary you're unsure of, or ask your teacher ce When you meet someone for the first time (and in the Proficiency Interview), you may well be asked about your hobbies and interests. Saying ‘I don’t have time for any’ is a conversation killer. it may be better to pretend that you are interested ina couple of sports or hobbies, adding later that you regret how little time you have to pursue them ir A earning a musical instrument Work in groups and discuss these questions: eee © Do you know anyone who plays any of these instruments? © Which of them would you like to be able to pla ? Give your reasons. @ What are the rewards of learning a musical instrument? Fi_eew\\ B Read this article and then answer the questions that follow XCEPT perhaps for learning a foreign language and getting your teeth properly sorted out once and for all, there is nothing more rewarding than learning a musical instrument. It provides a sense of accomplishment, a creative outlet and an absorbing pastime to while away the tedious hours between being born and dying. Musical “At Homes” can be a fine way of entertaining friends, especially if you have a bitter grudge against them. Instrumental tuition is widely available publicly, privately and by post. Before choosing an instrument to learn you should ask yourself five questions. How much does it cost? How easy is it to play? How much does it weigh? Will playing it make me a more attractive human being? How much does it hurt? All musical instruments, if played properly, hurt. ‘The least you can expect is low back pain and shoulder strain, and in some cases there may also be bleeding and unsightly swelling. Various relaxation methods, such as meditation and the Alexander Technique, can help. The most popular instrument for beginners is the piano, though I don’t know why this should be so. The piano is expensive, it’s fiendishly difficult to play, it weighs a ton and it hasn’t been sexy since Liszt died. If you sit at the keyboard in the approved position for more than a few minutes, the pain is such that you are liable to break down and betray the secrets of your closest friends. The only Tinkling the ivories, jangling the nerves good thing you can say about the piano is, that it provides you with a bit of extra shelf space around the house. Being difficult to play means that learning the piano could make you vulnerable to a syndrome known as Lipel Dilemma. Lipchitz was an Austrian behavioural psychologist who observed that setting out to acquire a difficult skill leads to one of just two alternative results. Either, because of lack of talent or lack of application, you reach only a low to average level of attainment, which leads to general dissatisfaction and maudlin sessions of wandering aimlessly about the house, gently kicking the furniture and muttering, “I'm hopeless at everything.” Or you reach a very high attainment level but, because you spend anything up to 18 hours a day reaching and maintaining this level, other aspects of your personality do not develop properly, which leads to general dissatisfaction and maudlin sessions of wandering aimlessly about the house, gently kicking the furniture and muttering, “Up the Villa.” Having thus established that no good at ali can come of any sort of endeavour, Lipchitz himself gave up behavioural psychology and took a job in a Post Office as the person who runs out of things. The violin is definitely a Lipchitz’s Dilemma instrument, but it does have certain advantages over the piano. It is portable and need not, be all that expensive to buy. You might not be able 3 to get as good a sound out of a cheap instrument as an expensive one but since it is notoriously difficult to get much of a sound out of any sort of violin your best advice is to forget the whole idea and take up something easier. The maraca is a hollowed out gourd half filled with beads or dried lentils or some such. Shaken, it makes a rattling sound. Small babies find this mildly entertaining but nobody else is interested. The harmonica is similar. You buy it. You blow it. You suck it. You put it in a drawer. You lie on the sofa and you turn the telly on Some people think that the drums are easy to play and assume it must be fun, thrashing about like that. Do not be misled. Even basic rock ’n’ roll drumming requires a high level of musical understanding and physical coordination. Years of practice are needed to acquire a fluent technique, sufficient stamina and command of rhythmic and dynamic nuance and yet, after all that trouble, people still come up and say, “Must be fun thrashing about like that.” This is why drummers often contract some of the more amusing personality disorders from the Encyclopaedia Psychopathics. An evening out with a drummer can be diverting, but be prepared for it to end with lines such as, “Leave it, Terry!” “For God’s sake, he was only joking!” and “OH, CHRIST, WHAT A MESS!” Otherwise, take my mother’s advice and don’t have anything to do with drums or drummers. Brass instruments are much more fun. Professional brass players always wear an expression of bewildered good cheer. This is because they have discovered one of life's most wonderful secrets: you can eam a living making rude noises down a metal pipe. It is a secret that enables them to steer through all life’s uncertainties and absurdities with unruffied equanimity. Thave played the guitar for more than 30 years, but I would not advise others to do the same. Far too many other people play the guitar and you will probably find, as I have, that they do it better than you ‘A friend once invited me for tea, He had also invited a chap from the pub. The chap from the pub brought his accordion with him. It was an electric accordion which plugged into an amplifier. The living room was small, the amplifier large. He played Lady Of Spain and The Sabre Dance. The International Court of Human Rights has my report on the incident and is considering my recommendations. For sheer sex appeal you can’t do better than a saxophone. Just holding a saxophone gives you a late night charisma, enables you to drink whisky and smoke with authority, But if you wish to maintain credibility, it’s as well to have a good stock of excuses ready for when you're asked actually to put the thing to ‘your lips and blow, especially if your best shot is “Oh, The Camptown Ladies Sing This Song, Doo Dah Doo Dah.” Otherwise, be prepared for maudlin sessions of aimless wandering, gentle furniture kicking, and muttering, “I’m hopeless at everything.” David Stafford Note down your answers to these questions, or highlight the relevant information in the passage nine instruments he mentions? Nine instruments are mentioned: what are they? ‘Three rewards of learning an instrament are mentioned: what are they? Four kinds of pain are mentioned: what are they? What is the difference between the two symptoms of Lipchitz’s Dilemma? What reasons does the writer give for advising the reader nor to take up eight of the Write your answers to these questions in note form 6 Which of the instruments seems to have the fewest drawbacks? 7 What happened at the end of the imaginary evening out with a drummer? =} Compare and discuss your answers with a partner. 6 tok (EB) Highlight these words in the passage ~ the paragraph number is shown with the symbol € grudge ®1 syndrome physical coordmanion 12 nuance® 12 unruffled equanimity maudlin € 6.7.17 endeavour€8 be misled 412 14 charisma 417 Match their meanings to these words and phrases, using a dictionary if necessary: charm and magnetism condition control of one’s movements _ dislike effort get the wrong idea perfect calmness self-pitying subtle variation Ll Highlight two or three sentences which amused you in the passage. Discuss your reactions to the humour of the passage with a partner Learning new vocabulary Look at the advice given here and discuss with a partner which recommendations are most useful for you personally GM) Highlight the advice you want to remember. Exercises like 1.2C or 1.6A should be viewed as a sounce of new vocabulary, and as a reminder of vocabulary you may have come across before. © if you come across a potentially useful new word or phrase, use @ dictionary to look it up. Pay particular attention to the example sentences given and any information given about collocations* ‘* Ifa word or phrase seems specialised, obscure or recondite*, you shouldn't necessarily try to remember it ~ often you can guess its meaning from the context anyway. Make your own choices about whether new words and phrases are ‘useful’ or not. @ Highlight useful new words so that they stand out whenever you flip through* the book. Flip through the units you have covered so far at least once a week - you could do this on the bus on your way to or from class, for example. This will help you to assimilate* the words so that eventually you can incorporate them into your own active vocabulary, and use them in your writing and conversation. * Writing new words in a notebook will help you to memorise new words, particularly their spelling. If you put words in categories, rather than making a chronological" list, it will be easier to find them again later. © Use a loose-leaf ‘personal organiser’ or Filofax as your vocabulary notebook. New pages can be inserted when you run out of space in each category. ‘* New words can be stored under topic headings: Free time, Sport, Music, Literature, etc. Or you may prefer to build up a ‘personal dictionary’ where each fresh page lists words beginning with A, 8, C, and so on. ‘© When writing new words in your notebook, write an example of each word in a sentence, as well as a definition. If it’s a difficult word to pronounce, make a note of its pronunciation too. Leave a line space between each entry* in case you want to add more information at a later date. * Ifyou don’t understand these words, look them up now. Decide which of them are worth highlighting and remembering. = Find out from other students what techniques they use to help them remember new words. (a 3 Comparing and contrasting CeMuEae A Work in pairs. Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis between these sentences 1 Like you, I wish I could play the piano, wish I could play the piano like you Your essay was most interesting. Your essay was the most interesting The cliff was too hard for us to climb. The cliff was very hard for us to climb. She is a much better violinist than her brother. Her brother is a much worse violinist than she is. fen 5 Chaire is Britain’s second most popular name for girls, Claire is Britain’s most popular second name for girls. 6 She swims as well as she runs She swims as well as runs 7 Bob isn’t too bright, like his father. Bob isn’t as bright as his father Bob’s father is bright, but Bob isn’t that bright Bob isn’t all that bright, like his father B__ Fill each of the blanks with a suitable word or phrase. Try to think of TWo different structures you can use to complete each sentence, as in the example: 1 Track and field athletics . are far more strenuous than / require a great deal more skill than. jogging 2 She tennis that she can beat everyone in her age group, 3. She can run fast 4 Fishing energetic swimming 5. Learning English learning to drive a car. 6 Collecting antiques is that I can think of. 7 On Saturday night 1 than stay at home studying, C Find the mistakes in these sentences, and correct them, 1 {bion't true to say that London is as large than Tokyo. 2. He's no expert on cars: to him a Mercedes and a BMW are like. 3. Her talk was most enjoyable and much more informative as we expected, 4 Don't you think that the more something ie difficult, the less it is enjoyable? 5 Less people watched the last Olympics on TV than watched the soccer World Cup. 6 Who is the less popular political leader of the world? 7 My country is quite other than Britain: D Work in pairs, What are the similarities and differences between each of the activities shown here? Write sentences comparing and contrasting the activities ‘Then compare your sentences with another pair. ot KARYN EY Example: Riding a bike and riding a motorcycle both require a good sense of balance. As far as safety is concerned, neither cyclists nor motorcyclists are as safe as people in care. Anew bike costs much lecs than a motorcycle and riding one is good exercise. However, you can go much faster on a motorcycle. UR Cnc s A. This is the first paragraph of an article about a long walk From suicide notes to sunshine and serendipity Mark Wallington co ll souUTH I BEGAN the path from the Rae WALES Cardigan end, on the last evening Sense of August. The sky was clear, the Siocon . air warm and the grass igh after”) yg Garg aren Of one of the finest summers for SARE, Eimer years. Ahead of me lay the St Ann's Hen a Ne Pembrokeshire Coastal National es Angle Bo resby Lp Park and 300 kilometres of footpath. I walked five of them and camped out in some sand dunes... Work in groups. Discuss these questions with your partners: # Ifyou were setting out on such a walk how would you feel? ‘© What do you think happened during the course of the walk? ‘© What do you think happened when he awoke the next morning? BE 4 Work in groups of three. Student A should look at Activity 1, student B at 32 and Cat 34. One of you will find out more about the beginning of the trip, one about the middle, and one about the end While you're reading, MAKE NOTES on the high spots and low spots of Mark Wallington’s walk C Using your notes, tell your partners about what you've read, Make notes on what your partners tell you about the high spots and low spots of the walk. D__ Read this summary, and check how many of the unpleasant aspects that you've noted are mentioned here. Wallington’s bad experiences began at dawn on the first ing when his tent came down in the wind. He was soon wet ugh, and as the storm went on blowing all that day, he was horoughly drenched and depressed by the afternoon. His feet turned a strange colour and all of his clothes let in water. On wrote at ne ight his tent nearly got blown down and every day, as the cliffs, he was sprayed by waves breaking on To make matters worse, other walkers who had wisely decided to walk the path from South to North were blown struggled head down against the wind. For a few mproved, but at the end of the walk the rain ‘long while days, the weathe avenge: ce 10 E Gad Read all three parts of the text in Activities 1, 32 and 34, making sure you've noted all the high spots of the writer's walk. As you do this, highlight any useful vocabulary you'd like to remember "Then write a paragraph about what the writer enjoyed, asa continuation of the summary above. Begin like this: In spite of the bad weather, Mark Wallington has good memories of his walk. .. Try to use your own words and avoid quoting verbatim from the article. Ror eae aus A Work in pairs, Look at the odd-looking phrases below: replace the adjectives in italics with ones which really do collocate with the nouns. Examples: a high pleasure — a great pleasure a major cold — a heavy cold a profound lake b an expensive piece of advice a loud room overlooking the street _a silent room overlooking the garden aclose shop adear meal adeep book anvisy noise a quiet movie B_ Work in pairs. Look at the nouns below and suggest TWO suitable adjectives that can be used to describe them. Try not to use any adjective more than once while doing this exercise. Look at the examples first: an absorbing/overrated pastime an energetic/violent sport activity animal book boy exercise film friend game girl illness interest. job man meal painting photographer place song story student talk teacher woman C Work in pairs. Here are some adjectives which have similar meanings. Fill the gaps with suitable nouns, using a dictionary from time to time if necessary Look at the examples first: 1 alight summer coat a pale face a bright sunny day a colourless liquid 2a famous a well-known a notorious an infamous a distinguished 3 anextensive along awide abroad 4 anold an elderly an ancient an old-fashioned 3 anew a modern an up-to-date arecent afresh 6 aconsiderable a major a strong an important a significant a vital an essential 7 an insignificant a minor asmall alittle a trivial 8 astrange an unusual arare a peculiar an uncommon "> When you have finished, compare your answers with another pair. ‘kk When using a dictionary, remember that the examples given are often more helpful than the definitions. The examples show some of the contexts in which the words occur, and their collocations. There‘s no ‘best dictionary available’, so if your partner has a different dictionary to yours, there are even more examples at your disposal. It's only a sport! A. Before you read this article, discuss these questions with a partner: © What kind of training does a champion swimmer or athlete have to do? © Do you know anyone who is a keen swimmer or athlete? Describe them. © What kind of person do you need to be to become a world-class athlete? © What kind of qualities do athletes need to have? Choose ten of these adjectives which you think are most suitable to describe a successful athlete: brave charismatic compassionate competitive dedicated determined dignified disciplined exuberant fearless humorous intelligent introverted knowledgeable methodical modest obstinate painstaking persistent proud resourceful ruthless self-deprecating single-minded sociable temperamental aggressive confident consistent easygoing emotional arrogant B Read this article and decide which of the adjectives above you'd use to describe Zara Long’s personality Long’s winding road to the top FOR eight months of her teenage years, Zara Long, who flies out tomorrow week for swimming’s world + championships, sampled normality. She went to parties, she stayed out laie, she could sleep in to something like a civilised hour; she was not impressed. Free, for the first occasion since she was nine, from the chore of training, the 20-year-old extrovert from south London was like a prisoner making up 2 for lost time. “I did everything with a vengeance,” she said, to the extent that she added 10 kilos to her competing weight of 63 kilos. “Frankly, it wasn’t all it's cracked up to be, “I'd returned from the Olympics, where I'd not swum well, and felt unhappy with myself; I was going to meets out of habit rather than enjoyment. | thought, there’s no money in the stupid sport, I might as well give up and try the sort of life my friends have.” She got a job in a clothes shop, cash in her pocket and was quickly disillusioned. “You hear so many people saying 12 they might have done this or that if only think I'd shoot myself if I had to say the same thing. I'd put so much time, effort and love into swimming, it seemed a waste to give it up. If I competed in the next Olympics, I could slill retire at 21. I can close my book on my swimming, parties and the social life will still be there.” After consulting her parents and erstwhile coach, she recurned to a life of early mornings in the pool. “I had to cry myself through the first two weeks of training.” Long's return, painful because of her lost fitness, has become more comfortable. At the Commonwealth Games, she won two silvers in the relays and at the national champion- ships in Coventry last month, she set four personal records. The 2 min 17.90 sec set for the 200 metres individual medley ranks her at eighth in the world and she travels to Perth with genuine medal prospects. “I should get into the final and there, over one race, anything could happen,” she sai If she performs badly? “I don’t throw my goggles round the changing room like some of the girls, I try to say myself ‘ir’s only a sport, don’t get upset there'll be another time’. I'll probably swear at my coach and then apologise to him five minutes later and talk about what ‘went wrong,” Long is an endearingly exuberant character given to comments that would hit the headlines if she was in a more high-profile sport. She describes television coverage of swimming as diabolical - “all you get is a row of heads bobbing along in the water”; her training as boring ~ “you find yourself thinking about what you are going to have for dinner or even singing to yourself”; and the world best for her event as drug-induced - “I get angry when people say my best time is miles away from the record. I tell them “but it was set by a man’.” It is the subject of Sharron Davies that gets her most agitated, however. The former model and television presenter competes in the same individual mediey events and, like Long, first took part in an Olympics at the age of 13 and also dropped out, for a much longer spell, from the sport. ‘The comparisons end there. Davies was sponsored to the tune of £20,000 last year while Long has to pay her own way from her earnings as a part-time swimming teacher. (It cost her £200 to compete in Coventry ~ nearly three weeks’ wages.) Consequently, Davies, who failed to hit the qualifying standard for the world championships, has become an icon of ambition for Long. Last week, the latter recorded an episode of BBCl’s A Question of Sport but would reveal nothing about her performance other than “I did better than Sharron.” She has yet to be beaten by Davies in the pool either. “I don’t hate her,” Long said, “we are friends, But we have a strong rivalry. I swim better when | race her. At the Commonwealths, I didn’t care what my time or my place was, I just wanted to beat Sharron. I knew if I did, the time would take care of itself. My coach would like a cardboard figure of her to put on the side of the pool whenever I compete.” Long needs no motivation for her passion away from the pool. Her car is covered with Crystal Palace football stickers and she is, world champion- ships apart, at their every home game. She was also at Wembley for the FA Cup Final against Manchester United and the replay, which was lost 1-0. “I was more unhappy then than I've ever been with my swimming. I saw the players on the floor with their heads in their hands and I could relate to them. Issaid, ‘Don't get upset, it’s only a sport, there'll be another time.’ Then I just cried and cried.” Guy Hodgson " C Decide whether these statements are true or false, according to the article: 1 Zara Long enjoyed herself while she was not in training. 2. She had given up training because of her bad performance at the Olympics. 3 ‘Training again after such a long break was fun. 4+ She says the best time for her swimming event ‘was set by a man’ because men and women swim in the same event. 5. She isa very temperamental athlete 6 She doesn’t enjoy watching swimming on television. 7 Zara doesn’t make any money out of swimming. 8 Zara loses her nerve when Sharron Davies is competing against her. 9 The only sport she enjoys is swimming, 10. She was terribly upset when Manchester United won the FA Cup Final replay = Justify your choices to a partner, quoting from the passage if necessary D_ GM Highlight the words and phrases in the article that mean the same as the following (4 indicates the relevant paragraph): dull routine §2 10 an extreme degree 42 disappointing §2 disappointed § 3 former§5 attractively §8 lively §8 attract publicity 8 mell-known § 8 PEANUTS Featuring “Good ol! CharlieBeocn” b4 Selwe at I 1 HLL! KILL! out! ‘SMASH! REIT ] 4 i A. You'll hear Sarah Springman, who CE RO isa university lecturer in engineering, talking about her sport: the triathlon. Before you listen to the recording, look at the questions and pencil in any information you already know (or can guess). Sarah Springman B_ (=) Note down your answers to these questions with information from the recording. 1 Which three sports does the triathlon consist of? 2. How long does the triathlon event last? 3 What ‘wonderful benefits’ come from training for the triathlon? 4 How does training improve your outlook on life? 5 What ‘important ethic’ do triathletes tend to share in their attitude to races? 6 What kind of sponsorship would Sarah never condone? 7 What is her attitude to people who think that life is perfect? 8 What distances does the ‘Olympic distance’ event consist of? 9 How many hours training is she doing at the moment? 10 How far does she say she swims in a training session? (This is a slip of the tongue ~ how far does she really swim, do you suppose?) 11 How far does she cycle on a ‘long ride’? 12. How careful is she about what she drinks and eats? C Work in groups and discuss these questions: ‘© What kind of people do Zara Long and Sarah Springman seem to be? How are they similar and how are they different? © Would you like to take part in a ‘novice event’ triathlon? Give your reasons. .#) What is your attitude to commercial sponsorship of sporting events? ©) How are professional sportspeople different from amateurs? ‘© Do you take part in sports for enjoyment, for exercise ~ or to win Give your reasons. © What kinds of sacrifices does a top athlete or sportsperson have to make? nes STOWE ue ie A. Working in pairs, explain the difference in meaning (or emphasis) between these pairs of sentences: 1 Standing at the top of the hill, I could see my friends in the distance I could see my friends in the distance standing at the top of the hill 2 Before preparing the meal he consulted a recipe book, After consulting a recipe book he prepared the meal. Finding the window broken, we realised someone had broken into the flat We realised someone had broken into the flat, finding the window broken. 4 While preparing the meal, he listened to the radio, While listening to the radio, he prepared the meal Crawling across the road, | saw a large green snake, I saw a large green snake crawling across the road. B Study these examples before doing the exercises on the next page: 1 There are two forms of active participles: On TV all you get is a row of heads bobbing along in the water ... You find yourself thinking about what vou are going to have for dinner or singing to yourself. Having thus established that no good at all can come of any sort of endeavour and three forms of passive participles: Being warned about the approaching storm, they made for the coast. Warned about the imminent storm, they prepared for the worst. Having been warned about the impending storm, they foolishly pressed on. 2 Participles are used to describe simultaneous actions: We sat on the beach matching the windsurfers falling into the water maudlin sessions of mandering aimlessly about the house, gently kicking the furniture and muttering, “I’m hopeless at everything.” Dressed in her smartest clothes, she arrived early for the interview. and to describe consecutive actions: Getting to the beach, we looked for an uncrowded spot. (BUT NT: We looked for an uncrowded spot, getting to the beach. X) Having got to the beach, we found a parasol to sit under. and to explain reasons or causes Not being an expert, I can’t teach you how to use a sailboard. Being a poor swimmer, I don’t go out beyond my depth: 3 Participles can also be used after these words: after as before if on once since when whenever unless until Afier consulting her parents and ersuwhile coach, she started training again Once opened, this product should be consumed within 24 hours. All musical instruments, 1 p/ayed properly, hurt. 15 16 Passive participles and having... tend to be used more in formal style than in colloquial English. Normally the subject of a participle is the same as the subject of the main verb: Waiting for the bus, J saw him in his new car. (= I was waiting for the bus) But in some cases the context makes the meaning clear: Being difficult to play means that learning the piano could make you vulnerable toa syndrome known as Lipchitz’s Dilemma. Using participles of the verbs below, complete these sentences: As , we'll meet outside the cinema at 8 o'clock. He has been feeling terribly homesick ever since in this country. On home, I went straight to my room. by her indifference, he burst into tears. Having the game, they shook hands. Unless later, the key should be returned to the reception desk. Remember to use block capitals when the application form. Remember to bend your knees, not your back, whenever eA REN arrange arrive complete finish lifi reach require shake Finish the sentences, with each one still meaning the same as the one before it. 1 Thaven’t got a car, which is why I usually travel by bus. Not 2. The demonstrators chanted loudly as they marched into the square. Chanting 3. They turned back when they found their way blocked by the police. Finding 4 After she watched the match on TV, she’s wanted to take up golf too. Ever since 5. [heard that he collects butterflies and asked him to tell me about it. Having 6 None of her friends turned up outside the cinema, so she went home. Finding 7 AsI don’t know much about art, I can’t comment on your painting. Not 8. Three old men were sitting smoking at the back of the room. Sitting 9 If you drink coffee too quickly, it can give you hiccups. Drunk 10 I went to bed early because I felt a bit under the weather. Feeling Having spotted the mistakes in these sentences, rewrite them correctly Looking out of my window, there was a crowd of people in the street. Wearing bright yellow trousers, we thought he looked ridiculous, Being rather tall for hie age, hie father treats him like an adutt. Having been giving such a warm welcome he felt very pleased. If washing in hot water thie garment will shrink. when Add suitable participles to this story. On my eyes, I knew that I was in a strange, dark room. that I might still be dreaming, I pinched myself to see if I was still asleep, but, that I really was awake I began to feel afraid. I found the door in the darkness, but it was locked. I decided to call for help but, after for several minutes, I knew no one could hear me. I went to the window, and sly the shutters, I discovered that the window was barred and, outside, all I could see was darkness. My heart sank. with an apparently hopeless situation, I sat down what to do. I remained there on the bed in silent desperation for several minutes, Suddenly, a key being turned in the lock, I "> Add three more sentences, continuing the story with your own ideas omposi Work in groups. Rearrange these steps into a more sensible order, deciding which of them you would omit. Ifany vital steps are missing, add them to the list. GOLDEN RULES FOR WRITING A COMPOSITION Jot down all the points you might make Take a break Analyse your notes, deciding which points to emphasise and which to omit Show your first draft to someone else and get feedback from them Edit your first draft, noting any changes you want to make Proof-read the first draft: eliminate errors in grammar, spelling and punctuation Do any necessary research Proot-read your final version, eliminating any mistakes you spot Discuss what you're going to write with someone else Write a first draft, perhaps in pencil Look carefully at the instructions Write a plan, rearranging the points in the order you intend to make them Use a dictionary to look up suitable words and expressions and write them down Think about what you're going to write Get feedback from other students on your final version (they are ‘your readers’) Look again at the instructions Have a rest Write your final version Write down your own ‘golden rules’ for writing a composition, to remind you of the steps you should follow every time you do a piece of written work. Try w follow these steps every time you do written work during this course. "> Which of the steps would not be feasible when working against the clock under exam conditions ? Adapt your ‘golden rules’, bearing in mind how you performed in the composition paper of the last English exam you took Read this composition, based on what Mike said about playing squash in 1.1 C. You don’t have to be a yuppie to play squash: if you play at a public sports centre, rather than a private club, you soon discover that it’s a game that everybody plays. Taking part ina 1 an meet people from all walks of life, and it’s for men and women to play each other. However, play doubles, so it’s not such a gue, you quite norma unlike tennis, you can’ sh is su The reason why squ fun is that play. Beginners can have an enjoyable game right away and can v7 get involved in the tactics and strategy of the game. With tennis, where it’s a major achievement for @ beginner even to hit the ball back over the net, you have to be quite proficient before you can do this. With squash, returning the ball is easy and you don’t have to waste time retrieving the balls thi have been hit out — you only need one ball to play with and you can play at any time of the day or night and in all weathers. You don’t even need to be strong to play: a soft, cunning service can be just as effective as a powerful, fast one, It does help to be fit and agile, though, because even though a game only lasts half an hour or so, during that time you're constantly using your energy and you don’t have time for a rest while your opponent is off the court hunting for lost balls. Perhaps it’s because squash is such an energetic game that it’s thought to be dangerous, and admittedly there is a risk of minor injuries like strains and sprains, or getting hit by your opponent’s racket, because both players have to cover the whole court and sometimes get in each other’s way. But if you're careful, and don’t overdo it, it’s no more dangerous th: other sport mn any Discuss these questions with a partner © What further information would you like to be given, which is not given above ? © What information has the writer assumed you already know about the game ? Highlight the features that you find most effective, looking in particular at the choice of vocabulary style and sentence structure D_ Write a description of your own favourite hobby or sport, mentioning its attractions and drawbacks. (about 300 words) If you don’t take part in a sport or hobby, write about one that you'd like to take up one day — when you eventually have enough time. Follow the ‘golden rules’ you discussed earlier. Before you begin writing, MAKE NOTES of the points you might make. In 300 words, you're unlikely to have enough room to mention them all, so you'll have to select the most important or most interesting ones. ™ Show your finished composition to a partner and ask for feedback. k%& When writing a composition, leave a wide margin on either side of your work and leave a line or two between each paragraph. This will leave you room to add extra ideas, and even to rewrite complete sentences later if necessary. There’s also more space for your teacher to add comments later too. 18 2 Adventure A ee Re Us Work in groups. Discuss these questions with your partners: Are you an adventurous person — or do you tend to play safe and avoid risks? © What kinds of adventures or dangerous activities do you avoid at all costs? ‘© What kind of people do adventurers or travellers need to be? Which do you think are the ten most important qualities — and why? arrogance boldness charisma compassion confidence courage curiosity dedication determination dignity a good sense of direction enthusiasm fearlessness humility a sense of humour intelligence knowledge lingustic skills modesty obstinacy patience persistence resilience resourcefulness ruthlessness stamina tolerance willpower © Look at the people in this photo ~ what kind of people do they appear to be? Dercla and Rachel Murphy The passage on page 20 is a review of Light Feet in the Andes by Dervla Murphy. As you read it, find the answers to these questions 1 Whose were the eight feet? 3. How long was the journey? 2 Whois the heroine of the story? 4 Where did they sleep? GBI Hightight these words and phrases in the article — {indicates the relevant paragraph saunter§1 madcap schemes 3. frolic $4 heartening 44 overenthusiastically §6 day one§6 fretting §7 coveted ¥7 homespun $9 sticky moments 12 trusting soul § 13 Match their meanings to these words and phrases: amusing game crazy plans stroll encouraging without restraint the beginning someone who believes other people are honest unsophisticated dangerous incidents fussing and worrying envied and wanted 19 20 ONCE upon a time, with travel writing, the rewards won related to the risks caken, No longer. Travel writers eravel by public transport; often they just hop in che car. They travel round British seaside resorts; they saunter up low mountains in the Lake Discrict. Greatly daring, they visit islands off the coast. There is no poine in travelling hopefully; far better to arrive as quickly as possible and collect your multi- national publisher's advance. Dervla Murphy had never heard of such a thing when she decided, after che death of her invalid mother, co travel from Ireland co India ~ on a bicycle. Motherhood usually puts paid co such madcap schemes but for Miss Murphy only temporarily. She waited for the child co reach a reasonable age and then cook ic with her. Rachel was five when they travelled together in South India, six when they went through Baltistan with a pony, and nine when, in this book, she crossed the Peruvian Andes from Cajamarca to Cuzco with her mother and a mule — a 2,000 kilomerre journey of which she did 1,500 on foot. This Andean frolic — her mother’s term — was t0 be her last before seteling down co school, though it is hard co see what there can be left for her to learn. To read about Rachel is heartening for parents of a generation which seems 10 be losing the use of its legs. She is an ideal cravelling companion, settling dowa on a ledge overlooking the world to read Watership Down of write poems after ten hours up one mountain and down the next. “We're seeing clouds being born,” she says once. She is thrilled co find a baby scorpion under her sleeping bag After chree months of eravelling up and down vertical slopes of 3,300 metres her mother notes almost absently that she never once complained; and she herself only ‘once questions the wisdom of asking a nine-year-old -co walk 35 kilometres at an altitude of 4,000 on half a tin of sardines. Rachel confides in her diary: “I got the whole of my upper left arm punctured by lots of slightly poisonous thorns ... Mummy is in an exceedingly impatient mood ... I think this is a very pretty place, at least in looks ...We had to sit down. while we thought about what to do next ..." She has a much better sense of direction and indeed of responsibility than her mother who tends to join overenthusiastically in all religious festivals and who has dreadful blisters from day one in a hopeless pair of walking shoes. The Murphys clearly see not Rachel but Juana, their beautiful glossy mule, as the heroine of the story. She cost £130 and they fuss over her like a film star, fretting about her diet, her looks, her mood. Juana is coveted by all; as the journey proceeds it is shadowed by the parting from her. There is a terrible moment when she falls over a precipice co certain death but for a divinely placed single eucalyptus tree in her path, From Cajamarca to Cuzco they follow in the hoofprines of Pizarro and the conguistadores, often camping in the same place, almost always surveying the same timeless unchanging scene. Miss Murphy's philosophy may be homespun ~ “I know and always have known that we twentiech- cencury humans need to escape at intervals from that alien world which has so abruptly replaced the environment that bred us” ~ but she has an enviable gift for 10 (when permitted) with tins of sardines. She worries ehac religion is so little comfort to the Peruvian Indian, that the babies chew wads of communicating her passion for the road. No heat or cold is coo | extreme, no drama too intense for her co sit on the edge of some mountain and tell us about ic that | coca, that che boys Rachel plays evening in her diary. Sometimes the | football with on their sloping view is too exciting for her co eat | pitches have no future, that she | 11 her raw potatoes and sardines. cannot repay kindnesses: the ancient shepherdess who shared her picnic lunch of cold potato stew on a cabbage leaf, the old man who set There is very licele food; everyone goes hungry. The pair arrive at sizeable towns and find nothing 0 buy but noodles and stock cubes | his dog to guard their tent at night. and boreles of Inca Cola; the There are sticky moments, always restaurant offers hor water to add to | near towns. Within a day of Cuzco, your own coffee. There is always | Juana is stolen but all ends happily worry about alfalfa for the choosy | and they reach the Inca city with | 12 Juana. They are shocked ac che | feelings of anti-climax at journey's poverty chey see, and find it | end. They took a week less than the | mystifying that the Indians can | conguistadores but then che tolerate such a life conguistadares had bactles to fight. She and Rachel share it wherever The Murphys, mother and | possible. They stop, make friends, | daughter, know no fear just as they join in. They accept all invitations, | know no discomfort, and their | 4 are ready co sleep with hens roosting | remarkable journey shows that the on their legs, eat anything, drink | trusting soul is still free co wander anything no matter what floats on | at will top of it and they repay hospitality Maureen GLEAVE Now answer these questions, referring back to the article as necessary 1 What is the writer’s attitude to modern travel writers? 2. How many journeys had the mother and daughter team made before this one? 3. Why was this to be their last one together? 4 How did Dervla behave in a less grown-up way than her daughter? 5 When the writer describes Miss Murphy’s philosophy as ‘homespun’ (49), is this pejorative or complimentary? 6 What did they eat on their journey? 7 What happened to Juana at the end of their journey? 8 What were their worst and best experiences? Work in pairs. Looking at the first paragraph again, highlight the words or phrases which show SARCASM or IRONY Which of these, if any, do you actually find amusing? Work in groups and discuss your reactions to the passage: © What risks was Dervla Murphy running by taking Rachel on her journey? © What aspects of their journey would you find most difficult or rewarding? ‘¢ Where in the world is it safe for ‘the trusting soul’ to ‘wander at will”? 21 22 A Work in pairs. Match the sentences that mean the same as each other, 1 What was the mule like? What is a mule like? What are mules like? Could vou describe their mule? 2. Do you like tea now? Is the tea all right for you now? Do you like the tea now? Have you overcome your dislike of tea? 3 Would you like some coffee now? Would you like your coffee now? Would you like a coffee now? Would you like the coffee now? 4 Every difficulty was foreseen. Some of the difficulties were foreseen Some difficulty was foreseen. The difficulty was foreseen. No difficulty was foreseen. Each difficulty was foreseen. We didn’t expect any difficulty. We expected a particular difficulty Alll the difficulties were foreseen, Notall of the difficulties were foreseen. We expected a certain amount of difficulty. 5 He’s not the Michael Jackson. He's not the famous Michael Jackson He’s not Michael Jackson. Michael Jackson is not his name. 6 Who's coming to dinner? Who's coming to the dinner? Who has been invited co the banquet? Who has been invited to eat with us? B Some nouns are normally uncountable: advice applause behaviour clothing fan information laughter luggage music news progress rain research snow spaghetti teaching transport travel wealth Music helps me to relax. Travel broadens the mind. If we are referring to a particular example of each, a different countable word or phrase must be used What a preity song! What a catchy tune! What a lovely piece of music! Did you enjoy your trip? We had a great journey. Match the uncountable nouns above to these countable words or phrases: a/an action analysis article asset car chuckle class coat fact fortune game hint improvement joke journey laugh lesson possession report shirt song suitcase tip train trip tune a/an article drop fall flake item means piece plate round of kk These Grammar review sections will help you to revise the main ‘problem areas’ of English grammar, giving you a chance to consolidate what you already know and to discover what you still need to learn. The Advanced grammar sections wi introduce you to more advanced structures. But they are no substitute for a good, comprehensive grammar reference book, to which you should refer for more detail and further examples. Some nouns are uncountable if used with a general meaning: ABSTRACT NOUNS adventure atmosphere business confidence death education environment experience failure fear history imagination industry kindness knowledge life love philosophy pleasure success thought MASSNOUNS butter cheese coffee juice metal milk pasta plastic poison soup sugar tea wine wood Business is booming. Do you know much about business? Thave orange juice and coffee with milk for breakfast. But they are countable if they refer to particular things or examples: She runs her own business. Running a business is a great responsibility T'd like an orange juice please. Lead isa heavier metal than aluminium. Fill the gaps with suitable nouns from the lists above 1 A thorough of English is required. 7 He has a very vivid 2. Itwas an unforgettable 8 The trip was an utter 3. The journey was a great 9 This isa very salty 4+ Oak isa harder than pine 10. Cheddar is a very tasty 3. She hada thrilling 1 He has a great of music. 6 Itwasa great to meet them. 12 Pd like a strong black ..... please. ™ Write sentences using ten of the words listed above as uncountable nouns. The use of articles is often determined by the context, and depends on information given earlier in a text or conversation, as in this example: I bought a computer from @ mail order catalogue. The computer has gone wrong and I can’t get it fixed because the company’s gone out of business. Fill the gaps in these extracts with a, an, the, his, her, their, ot © (no article) — in some cases more than one answer is possible, Afterwards, refer back to paragraphs 7 and 1] of the article in 2.1 r The. Murphys clearly see not Rachel bur Juana, beautiful | glossy mule, as heroine of scory. She cost £130 and they fuss over her like film star, fretting about diet, looks, mood. Juana is coveted by all; as journey proceeds ic is shadowed by parting from her. There is terrible | moment when she falls over precipice to certain death | bu for divinely placed single eucalypeus tree in path, | She worries that religion is so little comfort to | Peruvian Indian, that babies chew. wads of coca, that boys Rachel plays football with on sloping pitches have no future, that she cannot repay kindnesses: ancient shepherdess who shared picnic lunch of cold potato stew on cabbage leaf, old man who set dog to guard tent at night 23 E Correct the errors in these sentences: 1 Politics don't interest him, except when election takes place. 2 Grapefruits are my favourite fruits, but | don’t like the banana. 3. The news are depressing today: two aircrafts have crashed 4 There are crossroads at top of hill 5 Mathematics were most difficult subject at the school for me. 6 Hague is capital of Netherlands, but Amsterdam is largest city. FE Work in pairs. One of you should look at the photograph in Activity 3, the other at Activity 22. Find out about your partner's picture by asking questions Write a paragraph about your partner’s picture, based on the answers you received, but WITHOUT looking at the photograph Read each other's paragraphs and check the use of articles and determiners. Finally, compare your description with the original picture. Alastair Miller A Before you listen to the interview with Alastair Miller, a member of the British Combined Services expedition to Everest, look at the questions he was asked. Discuss with a partner what answers you think he gave. 1 What do you enjoy about climbing mountains? 2. Do you ever find yourself in situations where you're frightened? 3. What is it like taking part in an expedition to climb Everest? 4 What is there left for you to do now, after going to Everest? B_ [=o Inthe first part of the interview, Alastair deals with the first two points. Note down your answers to these questions. 1 What are the four things he says he enjoys about climbing — and what are the reasons he gives for enjoying each of them? 2 What are the two kinds of fear he describes? 3 Why was the accident in Yosemite Valley, California, more frightening for his companion than for Alastair himself? 4 Why did he have to be ‘philosophical’ during the thunderstorm on the Aiguille du Midi in the French Aips? Why didn’t they go back down the mountain when the storm broke? =) The second part of the interview is about the Everest expedition. Fill the gaps in these sentences with information from the interview 1 Ona large expedition there is a‘ effect’: there are people at the bottom of the mountain and or people trying to reach the summit. This means that have to be carried up the mountain. 2. Approaching Everest from the , there were no to carry their equipment. So it was carried by yaks, and above Camp One, by 3. It was exciting for Alastair when he went above for the first time, even though he was on ropes and was entirely He was properly not just 4 Above Camp One they didn’t or . they only cleaned their 5. Snow holes are but they are and The final part of the interview deals with question 4 in A. Answer these Yes/No questions 1 Does he want to climb again in the Himalayas? 2. Does he want to be a member of another large Everest-style expedition? 3 Has he done any climbing in the Andes? 4 Has he done any climbing in North America? Work in groups. Compare your reactions to the interview. What impressed you most? What surprised you most? Would you like to be a mountaineer and rock- climber? Give your reasons. “No one’s actually ever bothered 10 climb the East Face before.” 25 26 Brazilian Adventure Giro ERE A. Find the answers to these questions in the text bene Apart from the writer, how many other people are mentioned in the passage? Which of them did the writer trust most — and who did he trust least? How confident was the writer that the expedition would ever leave London? Did Major Pingle really exist? OUTLOOK UNSETTLED THERE are, I suppose, expeditions and expeditions. I must say that during those six weeks in London it looked as if ours was not going to qualify for either category. Our official leader (hereinafier referred to as Bob) had just the right air of intrepiclty. Our Organizer, on the other hand, appeared to have been miscast in spite of his professionai-looking beard. A man of great charm, he was nevertheless a little imprecise. He had once done some shooting in Brazil, and we used to gaze with respect at his photographs of unimaginable fish and the corpses (or, as it turned out later, corpse) of the jaguars he had killed. But when pressed for details of our own itinerary he could only refer us to a huge, brightly- coloured, and obsolete map of South America, on which the railway line between Rio and Sao Paulo had been heavily marked in ink. ‘From Sao Paulo,’ he would say, ‘we shall go up-country by lorry. It is cheaper and quicker than the train.” Or, alternatively: “The railway will take us right into the interior. It costs less than going by road, and we shall save time, too.’ It was clear that Bob, for all his intrepidity, viewed our Organizer’s vagueness with apprehension, At the other end ~ in Brazil, that is to say ~ the expedition’s interests were said to be in capable hands. Captain John Holman, a British resident of Sao Paulo whose knowledge of the interior iS equalled by few Europeans, had expressed his willingness to do all in his power to assist us. On our arrival in Brazil, as you will hear, this gentleman proved a powerful, indeed an indispensable ally; but at this early stage of the expedition’s history our Organizer hardly made the most of him, and Captain Holman was handicapped by the scanty information which he received with regard to our intentions. In London we were given to understand that the man who really mattered was a Major Pingle ~ George Lewy Pingle. (That is not his name. You can regard him as an imaginary character. if you like He is no longer quite real to me.) Major Pingle is an American citizen, holding ~ or claiming to hold ~ a commission in the Peruvian army. He has had an active and a varied career. According to his own story, he ran away from his home in Kentucky at the age of 15; joined a circus which was touring the Southern States; found his way across the Mexican border; worked for some time on a ranch near Monterey: accompanied an archaeological expedition into Yucatan, where he nearly died of fever; went north to convalesce in California; joined the ground staff of an aerodrome there and became (of all things) a professional parachutist; went into partnership with a German, whose ambition it was co start an airline in South America; and since then had travelled widely in Colombia, Peru, Chile and Brazil. All this, of course, we found out later. All we knew, or thought we knew, in London was that Major Pingle was a man of wide experience and sterling worth who had once accompanied our Organizer on a sporting expedition in Brazil, and who was even now preparing for our arrival in Brazil — buying stores, | «0 hiring guides. and doing everything possible to facilitate our journey. A great deal, obviously, was going to depend on Major Pingle. “Chis Major Pingle,’ 1 used to tell people, ‘is going to be the Key Man.” It was difficult to visualize Major Pingle. all those miles away. The only thing we knew for certain about him was that he was not very good at answering | cables. This, we wee told, was because he must have gone up-country already, to get things ready. Whatever the cause. however, very imperfect liaison existed between his headquarters in $A0 Paulo and ours in London; and when a letter did at last reach London from Brazil, our Organizer lost it. So it was impossible to find out definitely whether Major Pingle’s preparations were being made in | 5 the light of our plans, or whether our plans were being made to fit his preparations or neither, or both. It was all rather uncertain, (from Brazilian Adventure by Peter Fleming) B Write down your answers to these questions. Highlight the relevant information in the text, but wherever possible, use your own words rather than quoting verbatim from the passage. Look at the example first. Why did Bob, the leader, inspire confidence? e.g. Quote: *... had just the right air of intrepidity.” Own words: Because he looked suitably brave. How much shooting had the Organizer done on his previous trip to Brazil? What were the Organizer’s plans for travel to the interior? How did Bob feel about the Organizer’s vagueness? What kind of man does Major Pingle seem to be? Whilst still in London, who did the writer consider to be their most valuable contact in Brazil? Where, according to the Organizer, was Major Pingle? How had they tried to get in touch with Major Pingle? How many letters from Major Pingle were the party shown? What preparations was Major Pingle believed to be making for the expedition? 10 Judging by what the writer tells us, how is the expedition likely to turn out? wee emus C LM Highlight these words in italics in the passage, then fill the gaps’ Expeditions and expeditions means that there are many different ‘Miscast is normally used when talking about , not explorers. A little imprecise is an example of When pressed implies that the Organizer was to answer questions. An obsolete map is one that is no longer An indispensable ally is someone whose help If you have scanty information, you have According to his on story, suggests the story is B+ eA REN 27 D_ Work in groups. Discuss these questions with your partners: ‘© When do you think the passage was written? ¢ How would you describe the tone of the writing? * Does it make you want to read more about the adventure? Why (not)? © Ifyou had been leader of the expedition, what steps would you have taken to ensure that all the necessary preparations were made? © What do you think the expedition found when they did actually arrive in Brazil? E Write a paragraph (about 70 words) describing the air of uncertainty surrounding the expedition ‘during those six weeks in London” EQ) First of al, highlight the relevant information in the passage 4k In the Proficiency exam you should try to avoid quoting word-for-word from a passage and try to use your own words instead. This is easier said than done, though, and may require a lot of practice. In later units, we'll practise some of the techniques you can use to avoid quoting from the text: using synonyms or opposites, using a different grammatical structure, ete. 2 Words easily confused A. Work in pairs, Study the pairs of words listed below and discuss the difference in meaning between them ~ putting them in sentences may be helpful. If you are unsure about any of them, use a dictionary. Look at the example first: actual = existing as arealfact current = (most) up to date Have you seen that article in the current issue of The Economist? Well, I've heard about it but | haven't read the actual article. actual current advice opinion remember remind control check editor publisher experience experiment fault mistake hear listen in fact indeed m front of opposite large wide lend borrow lose miss occasion bargain presently at the moment pretend intend propaganda advertising rob steal savage wild sympathise with like 1u were unsure of, together with any others that E&) Highlight any word: you want to remember. B_ Work in pairs. Decide which of the words in italics fit in the gaps, and which ones don’t. Tick the ones that do fit, as in the examples. 1 The immigration officer wanted to their passport check J control examine restrain 2 They hada big and now they're not on speaking terms. argument J debate discussion quarrel V row 4 3. Don’t take any notice of him, he’s just being difficult emotional moody sensible sensitive touchy 4 How many people the performance? assisted aitended helped participated served took part 3 Please go away and stop me! annoying bothermg infuriating provoking 6 Wearranged to meet at 7.30 and I made a note in my to that effect. agenda diary exercise book notebook schedule tumetable 7. Please forgive him for forgetting, he’s getting rather ashe gets older. absent-minded distracted forgetful mattentrve preoccupied 8 What are the of studying when you could be enjoying yourself? advantages benefits prices prizes profits remards 9 Tm getting tired, how much is it to the summit? far faraway faraway farther further furthermore 10 ‘They didn’t foresee the result of their irresponsible behaviour. eventual feasible imminent plausible possible 1) Itwas that they were in considerable danger. apparent conspicuous evident obvious prominent 12 Atthe end of her she had to sit a stiff exam, career course education experience training upbringing 13. I'll be away from work for the whole of the week while I’m attending a conference congress. meeting lecture seminar 14 She her boyfriend so hard that he lost his balance and fell over. beat hit knocked patted punched slapped smacked struck whacked 15 Ir’sa(n) club to which only members are admitted exclusice wliomane particular personal private secluded 16 T'llsend vou the information you require actually at once at present at the moment currently for the present immediately ina moment once presently shortly => (CQ) Highlight any words in B that you had difficulty with and check their meanings in a dictionary. Pay particular attention to the examples in the dictionary, not just the definitions given. Sometimes the differences are in the contexts the words are used in, rather than in their basic meanings Work in pairs. Write your own ‘fill the gaps exercise’ where some of the words that didn't fit in B can be used. Like these: 1 They have a savage dog, which neither of them can properly. check control V examine restrain 7 2 We hada long about the meaning of life. argument J debate / discussion J quarrel row Provided that you use the same sentence numbers, there’s no need to write out the words in italics. Start with number 3 "> Exchange exercises with another pair. Check your answers at the end and discuss any points arising. 29 30 2.6 Keeping the reader's interest Writing skills AB MEW Look at Activities 1 and 32, and highlight these phrases in the test L: There was nothing I could do but... It was only after... that I 32: My big mistake was to... AULT could do was Here are Some more expressions that can be used when telling a story. Complete each one with your own words: You can imagine how I felt when... It all started when. To my utter amacement ,. To our surprise . Slowly opening the door, I. After a while... Without thinking, I. T held my breath as B__ Read this composition on the topic: Describe an exciting or frightening experience you have had. D which features le which features of the writing help to keep your interest as a reader, and don’t. Consider these aspects in particular: choice of vocabulary humour sentence structure It had been a long, tiring journey to S__ The ferry, which should have taken at most five hours, had had engine trouble and didn’ arrive till 2 a.m. As the harbour itself was several miles from the main town — the only place where accommodation was available, and much too far to walk to even by daylight — we hoped against hope that the local bus service would st: Sure enough one tiny, ancient blue bus was waiting on the quayside, but imagine our dismay when we saw that abcut 98 other passengers also disembarking with the same destination. We fought our way onto the bus and waited for the driver to appear. A man staggered out of the bar nearby and groped his way into the driving seat — presumably he’d been drinking since early evening when the ship was supposed to arrive We were very frightened. Most of the passengers hadn’t seen the driver come out of the bar. The bus went very slowly up the steep road. On one side the cliffs dropped vertically down to the sea hundreds of metres below. We arrived in the town at 3 a.m, but there was no accommodation, We found a taxi to take us to the other side of the island. We slept on the beach As it began to get light and the sun rose over the sea, making us from our dreams, me realised that it had all really happened and that we were lucky to be alive re C Although the first paragraph was fairly interesting, the rest is pretty dull. Rewrite the second half, incorporating any improvements you think are necessary D Write the first two paragraphs (no more than halfa page) of a story about an exciting or frightening experience you have had E Work in pairs. Read each other's stories and guess what happened next in your partner's story and how the story might have ended, TEE PA SU ec) A. Work in pairs. Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis in these sentences 1 Tricia only wants to help Only Peter wants to help 2 Paul just doesn’t like flying. Olivia doesn’t just like flying 3. Pam doesn’t really feel well. Jack really doesn’t feel well. Anne doesn’t feel really well 4 Tony and Jane still aren't married Still, Sue and Bob aren’t married Olivia and Paul aren’t still married, are they? 3 I don’t particularly want to see Lisa. I particularly don’t want to see Tim. 6 Lenjoy eating normally. I normally enjoy eating. Normally, I enjoy eating. 7 Carefully, lifted the lid. I carefully lifted the lid. | lifted the lid carefully B_ Work in pairs. Look at the examples and fill the gaps with suitable adverbs or phrases from the lists. 1 Some adverbs are almost always placed in front of the main verb in a sentence (or after the verb ro Ae) — but not usually at the beginning or end of the sentenc almost already always ever hardly ever just nearly never ofien practically quite rarely seldom utterly virtually Have you ever been to South America? We have finished our work. IT disagree with what vou said. Tris as cold as this usually, 2 Some adverbs are usually placed in front of the main verb or after the object (but not normally at the beginning of the sentence): constantly continually perpetually regularly sporadically absolutely altogether completely enormously entirely exactly greatly more or less perfectly He constantly asks questions He asks questions constantly. Tdon’t agree with her Your work has improved. He isn’t brilliant. I enjoyed the show 3 Adverbs consisting of more than one word are usually placed at the end of the sentence, or at the beginning (but NOT in front of the main verb): again and again all the time every so often from time to time many times most of the time once a week "once every four years once ina while over and over again several times vice a day at the moment at one time a fortnight ago before breakfast before long everyday ina moment in the evening in the past the following week the previous day within the hour Most of the time Ltry to avoid risks. try to avoid risks mostiof the time. The Olympics take place I've warned you to take care. I don’t have the information , 80 I'll call you back Tagree with what she says, but we don’t see eye to eye Although she had washed her hair , She washed it again Bp 31 4 Many adverbs are usually placed at the beginning of the sentence, or in front of the main verb, or after the main verb or the object: normally occasionally periodically sometimes usually afierwards at once clearly eventually immediately later obviously presently presumably probably shortly soon suddenly sually Twash my hair twice a week. T usually wash my hair twice a week. Twash my hair twice a week usualy Ican’t give you my answer ., but Pll let you know Let me know what you thought of the film It will be time to go home, so you'll have to finish the work 5 Most adverbs of manner are commonly placed after the main verb or its object ~ though other positions are often possible: accidentally anxiously apprehensively automatically carefully discreetly easily fiercely fluently foolishly frankly gently gloomily gratefully hurriedly independently “innocently instinctively lovingly mechanically oddly proudly reassuringly reluctantly sensibly sincerely strangely systematically thoughtfully violently warmly He reacted violently to my comments. She was behaving very ‘They congratulated him He held up the prize and thanked everyone Iraised my hand to protect my face. She took his hand and looked into his eves: 6 Adverbs which ‘comment’ on the whole sentence are usually placed at the very beginning of a sentence before a comma, though other positions are often possible. Amazingly Fortunately Funnily enough Hopefully Luckiby Strangely enough Surprisingly Unfortunately Unfortunately, Elizabeth lost the race. Elizabeth unfortunately lost the race. 1 found my wallet in the car. , Pll have finished the work soon. , she didn’t get the job. , theyre getting married. > Compare your answers with another pair's. aA Remember that adverbs almost never go between a verb and a direct object: He ate quickly his sandwiches. X She took gently his hand. X C__ Rewrite the sentences using the words given, but without changing the meaning: 1 They eventually replied to my letter. after a while 2. Dm afraid that’s a mistake I frequently make again and again 3. There are many occasions when I eat out in the evenings. often 4 Soon I'll have finished writing this report. practically 5. They helped me although they seemed unwilling. reluctantly 6 ‘There’s nothing I’d like to do less than go for a walk particularly 7. Each branch of the company is a separate operation. independently °§ Lexpect that he will be feeling apprehensive, presumably \9 You should pay constant attention to your spelling always 10 She gave me a worried look anxiously 11 All enquiries will be handled with discretion. discreetly 12 He does occasionally lose his temper. from time to time Ay . . ZX Adverd position is a very difficult area of English usage, and it’s often best to rely on your feelings for what seems right and what seems wrong. Pay special attention to any corrections you are given. There are no hard and fast rules, unfortunately 2.8 Going for a walk? fic eso) A Work in pairs or alone. Before you listen to the recording, try to guess or deduce what information seems to be missing here | PRECAUTIONS | 1 DO have at least people in your party. =DONTT go alone | 2 DObe | —DON'T do anything you're not to do. | 3 DO expect the weather to = DON'T rely on 4 DO allow yourself plenty of =DON'T let catch up with you. 5 DO walk at the of the member of the group. - DON'T leave anyone 6 DO if fog or low clouds come down, and find where you can sit and wait for -DONT in case you walk over a ! EQUIPMENT 1A Map. — You must your before setting off. 2A in case there are no or the sun is obscured , and make sure you know — Don't just follow and rely on your | 8 A rucksack, containing and clothing. | 4 Footwear: not or | 5 Emergency in your rucksack: . , 6A in case you get caught in the dark. | 7A ora in case you have to spend the night in the open. And __ Before setting out DO and and DON'T forget to when you get back. Listen to the recording, filling in the missing information above C After listening to the recording, discuss these questions with your partner: @ What important advice did the speaker leave out? © Which of his advice do you disagree with? 33 a Work in groups. Make a list of your own safety rules for TWO of these activities: sailing windsurfing swimming in the sea skiing driving in remote areas, going out at night alone cycling in heavy traffic climbing a ladder Make up a fictional story about a walk in the mountains where you ignored the advice given in the recording but where, despite a number of close shaves, you arrived home safely. (about 300 words) . (If you prefer, you could write about one of the activities you discussed in D, where you ignored your own rules of safety.) > Make notes before you start writing Show your completed story to another student and ask for feedback. In the Proficiency exam, you'll be given a narrative composition title to write about - a fictional or semi-fictional story is often easier to control, and may be more interesting than a rather uneventful true story. Many storytellers narrate stories using an ‘I’ narrator. It’s usually more convincing to imagine yourself as the protagonist of a story than to create a main character. 34 Keep + hold A Which of the following would you KEEP and which would you HOLD? adiary ajobdown ameeting apromise astraight face your breath in touch with someone someone company your head high yourself to yourself someone in the dark someone responsible your fingers crossed B__ Find synonyms for the phrases in italics, or explain their meaning. Use a dictionary if necessary 1. She walked so fast that { couldn’t keep up with her 2. There's no point in trying to keep up with the Joneses You've done a lot of good work this month. I hope you can keep it up. They're getting married next month! Keep it fo yourself, though Tl keep my fingers crossed for you on the day of your interview I'm sorry for what I did, I hope you won't hold it against me Their reasoning just didn’t hold up Hold on a moment, I haven't got a pen. Could you hold the line, plea We got held up in the traffic 10 They explained what happened, but I feel they were holding something back. wou T ee C Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable phrases from the list below. You may need to change the form of the verbs 1 The clouds look pretty ominous, I don’t much hope of sunny weather. 2. Fortunately, their supplies till the rescue party got to them. 3. You'd better the subject of his first marriage, otherwise he'll get upset. 4 They managed to their costs by employing part-time workers. 5 It was a private argument, so I thought it best to it. 6. She felt that her boss's attitude was her in her career. 7 If she wants to get on, she'll have to her boss, not disagree with him 8 Tell me exactly what you think — don’t anything 9. They didn’t think our offer was high enough, so they more, 10 As they climbed up the cliff, the leader told them to tight hold back hold back hold on hold out hold out hold out for keep down keep in with keep off keep out of D Write the first paragraph of a story, using as many of the verbs and idioms from above as possible. Begin like this: ' didn't realise I'd be held up for so long but . . . 35 3 People he great escape’ eee) 36 A. Work in groups and discuss these questions: © Do you like being alone ~ or do you feel lonely when you haven’t got company? # Do you enjoy the pace of life in a big city? Or do you find it stressful? © Ifyou wanted to ‘get away from it all’ where would you g B_ Read this article, preferably alone before the lesson, and then do the tasks on the next page The great escape OOKING around the small wooden cabin, 1 counted seven people. Or it might have ibeen eight. The lighthouse keeper's wife was the last to arrive, She dropped out of the sky, unannounced, courtesy of a Coast Guard helicopter that landed on the gravel beach right in front of the cabin. “Hi, Tm Lise,” she shouted as the chopper disappeared. “I thought I'd drop in for a visit.” Looking around, she added: “Hey, I thought you were here on your own!” Td stopped thinking that days ago. “want to be alone,” I had declared on leaving London. I was tired, dog tired, of people and telephones and deadlines and crowds. So I planned a great escape, a Big Sleep, a magnificent foolproof Fortress of Solitude, where for three whole weeks I planned to hibernate like a bear in the middle of nowhere. Everything seemed perfect. A friend in Canada needed a house-sitter for his remote homestead on the far coast of Vancouver Island, the silvery western edge of Canada. Here, the map ends and the open Pacific begins. Huge silent forests swell in the heavy winter rains, growing dense and impenetrable right down to the water's edge. T knew I could be entirely alone here. No roads go near this part of the coast. The only way in is by boat or small plane. I would have no telephone, no electricity, no television, no interruptions. I felt unassailable. Friends and family were outraged. “What do you mean, you want to be alone? Out in the bush like that? No one wants to be that alone.” “Oh yeah?” I thought. I said nothing. They kept talking. And then came the unsolicited offers. No fewer than 15 people offered to come and stay with me, For my own good, of course. Some of the offers were positively scary. “Is, it OK if I bring the boys?” These boys are aged two and four, television junkies from the womb. Their mother has never lived out of range of a washing machine or a dishwasher in her entire life. “Frank and I will both come ~ he’s much better after his operation.” “Pil bring my guitar.” “ve been really depressed, I need solitude too.” But despite all these offers, when the tiny float plane at last landed in the inlet near the cabin, and I clambered out with my heavy boxes of books and groceries, Iwas blissfully alone. My first few days were entirely peaceful Allong-dreamed-of silence surrounded me, and vast space. It didn’t last long. ‘The depressed friend arrived first. She was heroically prepared to stay for 10 days. “Don't worry about me ~I won't get in your way.” “Oh yeah?” I thought. This friend had been egged on by numerous other friends. “What is that woman doing out there they're all asking? T'm supposed to report back.” It was really very simple. I wasn't doing much at all. Iwas sleeping and reading and chopping wood and beachcombing and watching the eagles and ooking out for other wildlife. The problem for everyone else seemed to be that I was doing it alone. Human nature, I decided, abhors a vacuum. It was clear that I would have to settle for semi-solitude. And in the end I found I didn’t really mind. Which is just as well. ‘No one else arrived from “outside”. The threat of “the boys”, the guitar and the post-operative Frank came to nothing. But as the days passed I was astonished to find myself meeting more and more people. ‘My nearest neighbours turned out to be 10 8 20 at 22 23 24 Dave and Diane, living in a deserted Indian village 15 miles up the coast. Diane called me on the marine radio. “Don told us you were there all alone, so we thought we'd check in to see how you're getting on.” “Don?” I thought. I didn’t know any Don. Dave and Diane and their children came to see me in their boat, They told me where to dig for clams and that the herring run had started and that hundreds of sea lions were playing further out in the bay and that the grey whales had arrived on their annual migration, ‘That was the day Lise from the lighthouse arrived. All day long, the coffee pot spluttered on the woodstove and conversation never flagged. Ilearned about light-keeping and edible seaweeds and how fo smoke mussels and where the gooseneck barnacles grow. “Here I was worrying about you,” said Lise cheerfully. “I never thought you'd have so much company.” Neither did I. But it was good company. On the day of the crowded cabin, we went out in the boat to see the grey whales spouting. Later on, we went all the way to the lighthouse, riding on the huge swells of the open Pacific, in Dave's smalll boat. My depressed friend became alarmingly cheerful after all this and thought she might stay even longer. She had, however, to get back to work. As her plane took off from the water, silence returned. The guests had all left. “Ah, solitude,” I thought, tentatively. Just me and the whales and the sea lions and the eagles and the herring. The solitude lasted precisely two more days before a large, friendly person emerged from the forest announcing that he was Bob, from the logging camp down in the next inlet. He'd hiked over to see how I was doing. “Just thought I'd check in. Bill told ‘me you were here all alone.” “Bill?” Lthought, and, “All alone?” Bob stayed and drank a pot of coffee. I learned a lot about trees. ‘A few days later, a strange boat anchored in front of the house and three men made their way to shore. They were from the Department of Fisheries, monitoring the herring run. “Liz, told us you were out here on your own. How's it going? Aren’t you lonely?” “Liz?” thought, and, “Lonely?” as I put the coffee pot on. That day Iran out of coffee and learned more about herring. Thad visitors on 14 of my 21 days of solitude. Learned a lot, not just about herring and trees and whales, but about solitude and loneliness. In such a remote landscape, people are very aware of each other. The presence of a person —any person - matters. People are assumed to be interesting creatures, and important. In the exhausting bustle of Central London, that doesn’t always seem to be the case. Ihave been lonely in the rush hour at Oxford Circus. I was never lonely in my days of solitude on the far coast of Canada. ‘Next year I’ve been asked to go back to that coast, to house-sit once again in that green, silent place. I'll go, of course. And I'll know, next time, to take more coffee. Margaret Horsfi C 1 Make notes on each of the visits to the homestead, in the order the visitors arrived — the writer’s information is given as an example: 2 Who were the friends or acquaintances who didn’t come to visit — and why do you think the writer was relieved? a) b) Who were Don, Bill and Liz? °) Why is the friend described as heroic (14) and alarmingly cheerful (424)? What were the most rewarding aspects of her stay? % 27 8 2 37 38 D_ [@ Highlight the following words and phrases in the article (J shows the paragraph number): foolproof J4 unassailable 6 outraged 6 the bush §6 unsolicited |8 positively §9 blissfully $13 egged on § 13 abhors a vacuum 416 came to nothing 47 flagged § 21 tentatively 425 bustle § 29 Then match them to their OPPOSITES below: calm civilisation confidently continued did happen discouraged invited loves an empty space not in the least precarious unhappily unruffled vulnerable E Work in groups. Discuss these questions with your partners © When have you been alone for a long time? Describe your own experience of solitude, loneliness or isolation, © Have you ever lived in a small community or village? What was it like? (Tuy 3. Gots A Maich these reporting verbs with the verbs with similar meanings below complain confess disclose emphasise forecast infer insinuate order promise reiterate remember suppose yell admit gather grumble guarantee guess imply predict recall repeat reveal shout stress tell B Decide which of the endings below fit comfortably with these beginnings: They... accused admitted advised agreed allowed apologised asked couldn't decide discovered dissuaded didn’t expect explained forbade forgave hoped imagined implied didn’tknow learned mentioned persuaded pretended promised never realised reckoned refused didn’tremember reminded didn'treveal didn’t say shouted suggested didn’ttell threatened wanted warned wished . that we had done it. . that we should do it. - to do it. - + when to do it -us to do it . if we had done it. . when we should do it. Five verbs don’t fit with any of the endings — which are they? = Note down any combinations you're unsure of and discuss these as a class later. Write sentences using any words in A and B that you were unsure of. © Change each sentence into reported speech, using a suitable verb from the list in Babove. Imagine that they were said to vou by different people last week 1 ‘Pll certainly give you a hand tomorrow evening.” She promised to help me the next evening. or — She promised that she would help me the following evening. 2. ‘I'm not going to help you, you'll have to do it by yourself.” 3. ‘There's no point in writing it all out in longhand ~ it'd just be a waste of time.’ ‘I don’t think you ought to feel too confident about your driving test, you know.’ ‘Why don’t you phone him up and see if he’s free tonight?” “Make sure that vou don’t start giggling during the interview.” ‘If you type this letter out for me, I'll buy you a drink, OK? Thanks!” “You're the one who borrowed my dictionary, aren’t you?” ‘If you don’t move your car, I'l call the police.’ 10. ‘All right. if you want me to, I don’t mind accompanying you.’ 11 ‘I'm most awfully sorry, but I seem to have broken your fountain pen.” 12 ‘Idon’t really mind about your rudeness ~ I know you were in abit ofa Ome state.” A ZY When reporting something which was said in another place or a Jong time ago, other parts of the sentence may have to be changed, apart from the tense: ‘Pll do it tomorrow.’ ~ She told me that she would do it the next day. ‘Lwas here yesterday.’ — He said that he had been there the day before ‘Do I have do it now?” ~ I wondered if I had to do it then/right away ‘Look at this document.’ — She wanted me to look at the document. a ing A You're going to hear five different people talking. In each case it’s not immediately obvious what they"re talking about or even who they're talking to, so you'll have to pick up ‘clues’ to get the answers. You'll need to hear the recording more than once to get all of the clues and answers. FIRST SPEAKER 1 How does the speaker feel and where is she? 2 Who is she talking to? 3. She says: *. . . they're all over the place . . .’ — who or what are ‘they’? 4 5 She says: ‘... it’s almost time to pick them up . . ” — who or what are ‘they’? She says: “ . . don’t look like that...” - how is the listener looking? 6 Why is the listener silent? SECOND SPEAKER 7 Who is the speaker talking to? 8 Why has he started talking to her? 9 Who are all the people he refers to? 0. Why is the listener silent? THIRD SPEAKER 11 Who is the speaker talking to? 12. She says: ‘ I told her not to include me . . .’ — who is ‘she’? 13. She says: *. I got all the stuff...’ — what ‘stuf? is she referring to? 14 She says: *... I got the bus all the way out there...” ~ what place is ‘there’? 15. She says‘... they called it off...” — what is iv? FOURTH SPEAKER 16 Who is the speaker? 17 Who is he speaking to? 18 He says:‘,. it couldn’t have happened...” ~ what is ‘it? 19 He ends by saying: §.. . nor is there any likelihood in the future of...” — complete his sentence > 39 40 FIFTH SPEAKER 20. What kind of person is the speaker? 21 Who is she talking to? 22. She says: ‘.. you can’t put them back...” ~ what are ‘they? 23. Why is the listener silent? 24. She says: *... Look, I’m sorry, I didn’t mean...” ~ complete her sentence. B Work in pairs. What kind of person do you imagine each of the speakers to be? Make notes of some words you could use to describe them. Then describe each person to another pair and ask them to guess which speaker you're describing C Write five short reports, giving the gist of what each speaker said in two or three sentences each. Rely on your memory and try to convey the essence of what they said, not a word-for-word report, Use suitable verbs from 3.2 => Compare your paragraphs with another student when you've done this. 3.4 Women’s rights ers A Work in groups. Read this passage and discuss your reactions to it with your ey partners. Could it equally well be a description of the situation in your country? We live in a man-made society, Man devised and built the framework of government that controls our daily lives. Our rulers, representatives and arbitrators have almost all been men, Male judges and justices of the peace compiled our system of common law. Men drafted and interpreted our statute laws. Men constructed a bureaucracy to administer the law. Men cultivated the jungle of red tape which often threatens to engulf us. Men outnumber women in Parliament by twenty-four to one. Over 80 per cent of local councillors are men, Two in three magistrates are men. Juries seldom include more than a couple of token women. Men have an overwhelming majority in the legal profession, in the police force, in the upper ranks of the civil service, and even among trade-union officials Read the continuation of the text and then answer the questions that follow The authority which men exercise over women is a major source of oppression in our society - as fundamental as class oppression. The fact that most of the nation's wealth is concentrated in the hands of a few means that the vast majority of women and men are deprived of their rights. But women are doubly deprived. At no level of society do they have equal rights with men At the beginning of the nineteenth century, women had virtually no rights at all. They were the chattels of their fathers and husbands ‘They were bought and sold in marriage. They could not vote. They could not sign contracts. When married, they could not own property. They had no rights over their children and no control over | | 20 riting their own bodies. Their husbands could rape and beat them without fear of legal reprisals. When they were not confined to the home, they were forced by growing industrialisation to join the lowest levels, of the labour force Since then, progress towards equal rights for women has been very slow indeed. There have even been times when the tide seemed to turn against them. The first law against abortion was passed in 1803. It imposed a sentence of life imprisonment for termination within the first fourteen weeks of pregnancy. In 1832 the first law was passed which forbade women to vote in elections, In I877 the first Trades Union Congress upheld the tradition that woman's place was in the home whilst man’s duty was to protect and provide for her. Nevertheless, the latter half of the nineteenth century saw the gradual acceptance of women into the unions and the informal adoption of resolutions on the need for equal pay. Between 1831 and 1872 the major Factory Acts were passed, which checked the exploitation of women workers by placing restrictions on hours and conditions of labour and by limiting their employment at night. In 1882 married women won the right to own property Wartime inevitably advanced the cause of women’s rights - women became indispensable as workers outside the home, as they had to keep the factories and government machinery running while the men went out to fight. They were allowed inio new areas of employment and were conceded new degrees of responsibility. In 1918 they got the vote, Again, during the Second World War, state nurseries were built on a considerable scale to enable women to go out to work. When peace came, however, women were unable to hold on to their gains. Men reclaimed their jobs, and women were forced back into the home and confined to their traditionally low- paid, menial and supportive forms of work. The government closed down most of the nurseries. Theories about maternal deprivation emerged - women who had been told it was patriotic to go out to work during the war were now told that their children would suffer if they did not stay at home. Little progress was made for the next two decades. (from Women’s Rights: A Practical Guide by Anna Coote and Tess Gill) 0 6 5 C Gai Highlight these words and phrases in the passage, so that you can see them in context (the line numbers are given in brackets). ‘Then match them to the words and phrases below which have similar meanings. oppression (Kine 15) deprived (line 17) doubly (line 18) chattels (line 21) legal reprisals (ine 26) confined (line 26) upheld (line 35) provide for (line 36) resolutions (line 39) indispensable (line 45) conceded (line 48) gains (ine 52) maternal deprivation (line 55) emerged (line 56) children suffering through their mother’s absence decisions essential given unwillingly in two different ways possessions punishment restricted robbed supported sustain/support the rights they had won tyranny were revealed D The passage describes several changes in the law affecting women. Complete each of the sentences below to explain in your own words what the legal position of women was before each of the changes Before 1803. Before 1832. Before the 1831-72 Factory Acts... Before 1882. Before 11g E How did the attitude of the British government towards women change during and then after the two world wars? Write a short paragraph, using your own words where possible. F When you’ve finished writing your answers to D and E, show your work to some other students and compare your work with theirs. ‘Then look at Activity 41 and compare your work with the model versions, there. A Work in pairs, Read these cases through and discuss which of them are permissible in your country, as far as you know 1 A barman in a hotel bar refuses to serve drinks to a group of women. 2. A barman in a private golf club refuses to serve a woman a drink 3. Jack and Jill are pupils in a mixed school: Jack is not allowed to join the cookery class that Jill goes to, and has to do carpentry instead Girl pupiis ina mixed school are discouraged from doing maths and science. A textbook on ‘Famous Writers? describes no women writers at all Job advertisements: a) ENTHUSIASTIC GIRL REQUIRED AS PERSONAL ASSISTANT b) MEN REQUIRED FOR WORK IN MIDDLE EAST c) EXCELSIOR HOTEL REQUIRES CHAMBERMAIDS FOR SUMMER SEASON d) WAITRESS REQUIRED TO SERVE IN SMALL FAMILY CAFE A woman is refused a manual job on a building site on the grounds that she is not muscular enough, A man gets the job later 8 Four equally qualified people apply for the same job. The two male applicants are interviewed, but the women are not interviewed and no reason is given 9 A female factory worker, who normally works a 40-hour week, is required to work 10 hours overtime during one week. 10. A factory manageress is required to start work at 6.30 a.m aoe ~ B_ &4| Listen to the recording and put a cross ( X ) beside the cases that represent actions which are illegal according to English law, and a tick (¥ ) beside the ones which are permissible in England "> Discuss your reactions to the broadcast with a partner. How different are the laws affecting discrimination in your country? 42 C These days it’s often considered undesirable to use words like foreman and fireman if neutral, non-sexist terms like supervisor and firefighter are available Choose neutral words to replace each of these words and phrases: bachelor & spinster unmarried person businessman & businesswoman cameraman & camerawoman chairman & chairwoman headmistress & headmaster policeman & policewoman salesgirl/saleswoman & salesman spokesman & spokeswoman stateswoman & statesman stewardess/air hostess & steward cleaning lady/cleaning woman NOTE: People who serve food are still called sraiters and maitresses, and we do thank our Host and hostess after a party and refer to the hero and heroine of a story D Here are some more male-orientated expressions. Can you think of non-sexist synonyms for these? 1 The man in the street The general public 2 We must find the best man for the job. 3 Prehistoric men lived in caves. 4 Nylon is a man-made substance “There is a shortage of manpower. Pollution is a problem for mankind. Her son has now reached manhood E Work in groups. Discuss these questions ‘© What kind of discrimination is there in your country against old people (ageism) and members of ethnic minorities (racism)? © To what extent do you agree with the principles underlying the laws explained in the broadcast? © Should boys and girls be educated separately? © What is the attitude of people in your country to feminism? 6 Punctuation iar A Write down the names of these punctuation marks, as in the example. P questionmark ; : 1... - — 8" * () [J /? B Add suitable punctuation and capital letters in the gaps in this text, Decide where to break the text into two paragraphs. When you've finished, but not until then, look at page 40. | the authority which men exercise over women is a major source of oppression in our society as fundamental as class oppression the fact that most of the nation’s wealth is concentrated in the hands of a few means that the vast majority of women and men are deprived of their rights but women are doubly deprived at no level of society do they have equal rights with men _at the beginning of the nineteenth century women had virtually no rights at all they were the chattels of their fathers and husbands they were bought and sold | im marriage they could not vote they could not sign contracts 43 when married they could not own property they had no rights over their children and no control over their own bodies their husbands could rape and beat them without fear of legal reprisals when they were not confined to the home they were forced by growing | industrialisation to join the lowest levels of the labour force Correct the errors in these sentences and then comment on the rules of punctuation that have been broken in each 1 Sitting on the beach we watched the windsurfers, falling into the water. 2. The aspect of punctuation, which is most tricky, is the use of commas. Could you tell me, when to use a semi-colon? 4 Feeling completely baffled we tried to solve the problem, with which we were faced. 5 Although | was feeling under the weather | went to work this morning 6 There were surprisingly no punctuation mistakes in his work. This job reference was typed by someone with good spelling, but poor punctuation. Proof-read it, correct the mistakes, and divide it into paragraphs. I have known, Jan Smith both professionally and personally, for several years, since 1992 when she first joined my department she has been a reliable, resourceful and conscientious member of ny staff with a thoroughly professional attitude to her work; she has cheerfully taken on extra responsibilities and can be ‘lied on, to take over when other staff are absent or re! unavailable! She particularly enjoys dealing with members of the public: and has a knack of putting people at their ease? She is adept at defusing delicate situations — with an appropriate word and a smile? As her portfolio shows she is also a very, creative e during her and talented person and her work shows great promi time with us her attendance has been excellent ... She is an intelligent thoughtful, and imaginative person, I have no hesitation in recommending her for the post!! Write two short paragraphs describing two people that the rest of the class know, but without naming them or revealing their sex. Use this person and they instead of he or she. Then, working in groups, show your paragraphs around the class and see if the other students can guess who is described, whether the descriptions are accurate — and whether the punctuation is correct. tk Clear punctuation helps the reader to follow your meaning. Commas, in particular, are useful for showing the reader where one phrase or clause ends, and the next one begins. Always proof-read your own written work before handing i 44 Using inversion for emphasis Work in pairs. Discuss the difference in emphasis between these sentences: 1 At no level of society do women have equal rights with men. Women do not have equal rights with men at any level of society Tt occurred to me later that I had made a big mistake. Not until then did it occur to me that I had made a big mistake, Rarely have I felt so upset about being criticised. Thave rarely felt so upset about being criticised So lonely did he feel that he went round to see his ex-wife for a chat. He felt so lonely that he went round to see his ex-wife for a chat, Little did they know that the sheriff was about to draw his revolver. ‘They didn’t know that the sheriff was about to draw his revolver. At the top of the hill stood a solitary pine tree A solitary pine tree stood at the top of the hill Bang went the door. In came Fred. On went all the lights. Out ran the cat The door went bang. Fred came in. All the lights went on. The cat ran out. B Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable words: 1 Little that she would win the competition. 2 Notonly the piano brilliantly but she too. 3. Never in my life so humiliated! 4 Nowhere in the entire town able to find a room for the night. 3 No sooner the bath than the phone 6 So difficult the work that 7 Under no circumstances the fire doors 8 Not until finished allowed to leave the room 9 Only after the police able to catch the thieves 10 Not once during her entire in trouble with the law 11 Not only rather naive but he also very sensitive 12. No sooner our picnic than C Rewrite the sentences more dramatically, using structures from above: 1 We went out in our best clothes. The rain came down, 2 The umbrellas went up. We went home, wet through. 3. A tall dark stranger was sitting beside her in the train 4 A fat tabby cat lay under the table, washing itself obliviously 5. The edge of the cliff gave way and she fell down 6 There was a ferocious dog behind the wall, barking furiously 7 The thieves drove off, with the police in hot pursuit. 8 Then I realised that I had made the biggest mistake of my life. 36k Inversion should be used sparingly as over-use can sound ridiculous. It can usually be avoided in conversation altogether. It does tend to come up regularly in the Use of English paper of the exam, though. 45 46 Work in pairs. Complete these sentences with suitable words. 1 He isn’t naive, he’s 7 Instead of spending her money, she 2. Sheisn’t brave, she's 8 Instead of pulling the door open, he 3. He wasn’t sorry, he was 9 Instead of reassuring me, she 4 Instead of slowing down, he 10 He didn’t get angry, he 5 She wasn’t guilty, she was 11 Bad isn’t an antonym of amfil, it’s 6 They didn’t help me, they 12. Instead of slamming the door, he Decide which of these words form their opposites with in- or with un acceptable unacceptable accessible inaccessible advisable appropriate aware bearable clearly competent considerate consistent conspicuous conventional convincing decided decisive desirable dignified discreet distinct efficient eventful expected explicable faithful foreseen forgettable frequent grateful gratitude imaginative manageable predictable rewarding sincere sincerity sociable sophisticated stability stable sufficient tolerant trustworthy visible wanted welcome Decide which of these words form their opposites with dis- or im, il or ir advantage disadvantage legalillegal agreeable approve arm connect contented entangle legible legitimate logical loyal mature organised patient personal possible rational regular relevant respeciful responsible satisfied similar GB highlight twelve of the more difficult negative words from B and C. Then work in pairs and test your partner, by starting similar sentences to the ones in A\ you; ‘It wasn’taccessible...’ YOUR PARTNER: *. . . it was inaccessible.” Here are some slightly trickier ones. Think of a suitable opposite for these: clumsy complimentary fearless neat rare restless tactful talkative thoughtless trivial beauty knowledge noise praise pride promotion solitude success ‘These adjectives are used pejoratively to describe someone's disposition or behaviour. Choose suitable opposites from among the words below bad-tempered good-natured conceited deceitful fussy lazy malicious mean narrow-minded neurotic pretentious secretive solitary sullen touchy cheerful easygoing frank generous good-natured gregarious hard-working imaginative kindhearted lard back liberal modest’ nonchalant open perceptive sociable talkative trustworthy truthful unassuming Er Two short poems. Before answering the questions, listen to the two poems read aloud. Not Waving but Waving but Drowning NOBODY heard him, the dead man, But still he lay moaning: Iwas much further out than you thought And not waving but drowning. Poor chap, he always loved larking 5 And now he's dead It must have been too cold for him his heart gave way, ‘They said. Oh, no no no, it was too cold always (Still the dead one lay moaning) 10 Iwas much too far out all my life And not waving but drowning. Stevie Smith Epitaph TAM old. Nothing interests me now. Moreover, Lam not very intelligent, And my ideas 5 Have travelled no further Than my feet. You ask me: ‘What is the greatest happiness on earth: Two things: 0 Changing my mind As I change a penny for a shillings And, Listening to the sound Ofa young girl ‘8 Singing down the road After she has asked me the way. Christopher Logue B Answer these questions about the poems: 1 In the first poem, how did the man die? 2. Which are the words spoken by the ‘dead man’? 3. Which are the words spoken by his friends? 4 What does “larking’ mean in line 5? 5 What was ‘too cold’ in line 7? What was ‘too cold’ in line 9? a7 6 In what ways was he ‘too far out’ in line 11 and ‘drowning? in line 12? 7 In what ways was he ‘not waving’ in line 12? 8 In the second poem, what was different for the poet when he was young? 9 How influential have his ideas been? 10 Why does he say that ‘changing my mind” makes him happy? 11 Why does he feel happy at the ‘sound of a young girl’? 12. Why is the poem entitled Epitaph? C Work in groups. Discuss these questions with your partners: © What did you think of the two poems? © What adjectives could you use to describe the people? ‘© Which one impressed you, or moved you or depressed you more? ‘© What are the similarities between the two poems? ‘© Who do you know who is like the drowning man or the old man in the poems? © What is the effect of expressing the ideas in verse, rather than in prose without any line breaks? © Are you fond of poetry? Give your reasons. ee A. Work in pairs. Note down five adjectives or phrases to describe each of these people. Try to avoid the most obvious or simple words, like mice, young, kind, ete 48 Join another pair and follow these guidelines to describe the people in the photos: ¢ First impression of the person pearance: clothes age hair Their character and the way they might behave Write descriptions of TWO people whom you know welll but who are quite different from each other ~ they could be two friends or relatives, for example, or someone you admire and someone you detest. (about 150 words each) 1 First of all, make notes on the following points: Appearance: age, clothes, complexion, eyes, hair Personality/character Family background Past achievements Occupation Interests and hobbies Tay you like/dislike him/her Examples of typical behaviour 2 Rearrange the notes in a suitable order. Decide which points should be left out because they are less interesting or less relevant. 3. Discuss your notes with a partner. Make any necessary amendments before writing your descriptions. Refer back to the ‘golden rules’ you wrote down in 1.9. 4 Show your completed descriptions to a partner, and ask for comments. "Hey. listen, I don’t really lock like the hind of person who feeds pigeons, do I?” 49 4 Communication ee UA A. Work in pairs. How would you describe these people’s expressions? Imagine they're about to talk to you. What are they going to say - and how will you reply? B __ In these sentences THREE of the alternatives can be used to complete the sentence correctly and TWO are incorrect. The first is done as an example. 1 She's going to about gestures and body language. say speak/ talk tell givea lecture v7 2. Ifyou keep on I won’t be able to understand what you're saying. grumbling mumbling muttering nagging _ whispering 3. During a lecture I try to down the main points that are made. doodle jot note ble sketch 4 Pmatraid P've only had time to the articles you recommended. glance at scan skim study interpret 5 When he told me about his misadventures I couldn’t help chuckling grinning sniggering shrugging stammering 6 He looked at me with a ‘on his face when I told him what I had done. frown gasp gulp scowl sneer 7 On sceing the body hanging from the apple tree she started to murmur scream’ shriek squeak yell 8. She went on to that I wasn’t working hard enough. implicate imply infer intimate suggest 9 And her made me feel guilty even though I'd done nothing wrong. attitude dialect’ expression idiom tone 10. She used a(n) which I couldn’t quite follow. expression clause phrase idiom speech 50 4.2 Attitudes to language ain A. Work in pairs. Ask your partner these questions: @ Where can you hear the ‘best English’ spoken? © Where can vou hear the ‘best accent’ of your language spoken? B__ Read these statements through and then read the first part of the passage. Decide whether the statements are true (TT) or false (F), according to the text. 1 The writer admits that he is amused by his own prejudices about language 2. Iris bad to use American expressions in British English. 3. The ‘popular woman columnist’ writes a column about language. 4 ‘I guess’ is an expression imported from the USA into Britain 5 The writer uses capital letters in ‘the British Way of Life’ because he considers it to be superior to other cultures. 6 The writer ridicules people who despise foreign languages. The writer believes that German is an ugly language. | A language is a system of communication used within a particular social group. Inevitably, the emotions created by group lovalry get in the way of. objective judgements about language. When we think we are making such a judgement, we are often merely making a statement about our prejudices. It is highly instructive to examine these occasionally. I myself have very powerful prejudices about what I call Americanisms. I see red whenever I read a certain popular woman columnist in a ertain popular daily paper. I wait with a kind of fascinated | , horror for her to use the locution ‘I guess’, as in ‘I guess he really loves you after all’ or “I guess you'd better get yourself a new boy- friend’. I see in this form the essence of Americanism, a threat to the British Way of Life. But this is obviously nonsense, and I know it. I know that ‘I guess’ is at least as old as Chaucer, pure British English, something sent over in the Mayflower. But, like most of us, I do not really like submitting to reason; 1 much prefer blind prejudice. And so J stoutly condemn ‘I guess’ as an American importation and its use by a British writer as a betrayal of the traditions of my national group. Such condemnation can seem virtuous, because patriotism — which means loyalty to the national group - is a noble word, While virtue burns in the mind, adrenalin courses round the body and makes us feel good. Reason never has this exhilarating chemical effect. And so patriotic euphoria justifies our contempt of foreign languages and makes us unwilling to learn them properly. Chinese is still regarded in the West as a huge joke — despite what TS. Eliot calls its ‘great intellectual dignity’ - and Anthony Burgess 51 52 radio comedians can even raise a snigger by speaking mock- | , Chinese, Russian is, of course, nothing more than a deep vodka- rich rumble bristling with ‘vitch’ and ‘ski’. As fer German — that is an ugly language, aggressively guttural, We rarely admit that it. | seems ugly because of two painful wars, that it is all a matter of association. Sometimes our automatic sneers at foreign languages | are mitigated by pleasant memories — warm holidays abroad. trips to the opera. Italian can then seem beautiful, full of blue skies, vino, sexy tenors. Trippers to Paris, on the other hand. furtively visiting the Folies Bergére, project their own guilt on to the French language and see it as ‘naughty’, even ‘immoral’ Now read the second part of the passage and answer these true/false questions 1 Although a rural accent may sound attractive, it may also be looked down on 2. The writer believes that a Cockney (London) accent doesn’t sound as attractive as a BBC announcer’s accent. 3. Languages shouldn't be described as either ‘beautiful’ or ‘ugly 4 Prunes are associated with death in English poetry. 5. British people’s accents may not just tell a listener what region they come from, but also the social class they belong to 6 East Midland English was once a regional dialect used by the élite in England 7 People who use Standard English may have more power than people who use regional dialects. Within the national group. our prejudices tend to be very mixed and, because they operate mainly on an unconscious level. not easily recognisable. We can be natives of great cities and still find a town dialect less pleasant than a country one, And yet. hearing prettiness and quaintness in a Dorset or Devon nvang. wwe can also despise it, because we associate it with rural stupidity or backwardness. The ugly tones of Manchester or Birmingham will, because of their great civic associations, be at the same time somehow admirable. The whole business of ugliness and beauty works strangely. A BBC announcer says ‘pay day"; a Cockney | says ‘pie die’, The former is thought to be beautiful. the later ugly, and yet the announcer can use the Cockney sounds in a) statement like “Eat that pie and vou will die’ without anybody's, face turning sour. In fact, terms like “ugly” and ‘beautiful’ cannot really apply to languages at all. Poets can make beautiful patterns out of words, but there are no standards we can use to formulate aesthetic judgements on the words themselves. We all have our pet hates and loves among words. but these always have to be referred to associations. A person who dislikes beetroot as a vegetable is not likely to love ‘beetroot’ as a word. A poet who, in childhood, had a panful of hot stewed prunes spilled on him is, if he is a rather stupid poet, quite capable of writing “And death. terrible as prunes’. We have to watch associations carefully, remembering that language is a public, not a private, medium, and that questions of word-hatred and word-love had best be tackled very coldly and rationally. ‘We are normally quick to observe regional variations in the use of the national language, but we feel less strongly about these than we do about class divisions in speech. If we speak with a Lancashire accent*, we will often be good-humoured and only slightly derisive when we hear the accent of Wolverhampton or Tyneside. Sometimes we will even express a strong admiration of alien forms of English — the speech of the Scottish Highlands, for instance, or Canadian as opposed to American. But we feel very differently about English speech when it seems to be a badge or banner of class. The dialect known variously as the Queen’s English or BBC English or Standard English was, originally, a pure regional form — so-called East Midland English, with no | Claim to any special intrinsic merit. But it was spoken in an area that was, and still is, socially and economically pre-eminent ~ the area which contains London, Oxford and Cambridge. Thus it gained a special glamour as the language of the Court and the language of learning. It has ever since — often falsely - been associated with wealth, position, and education — the supra- regional dialect of the masters, while the regional dialects remain the property of the men. In certain industrial areas it can still excite resentment, despite the fact that it no longer necessarily goes along with power or privilege * An accent is a set of sounds peculiar to a region, as opposed to a dialect, which covers, in addition to peculiarities of sound, peculiarities of grammar and vocabulary (from Language Made Plain by Anthony Burgess) D_ GaBl Highlight these words in the passage and match them with the words with similar meanings below {1 objective prejudice instructive {2 exhilarating euphoria mitigated 3 associations formulate aesthetic pet 4 derisive badge intrinsic the men excite arouse artistic bias connotations contemptuous devise _ emblem favourite happiness impartial inherent moderated revealing stimulating - workers E Work in groups and discuss your reactions to the passage: © Compare the author’s comments on British attitudes with the attitudes of people in your own country to other languages. Do they share similar prejudices? © Which of his comments on British attitudes to accents and dialects are comparable to the attitudes of people in your own country? fy TELE A. Work in pairs. Discuss the difference in meaning between these sentences. ‘Then decide how each one might continue, as in the example. Example: They went on running .. . even though they were tired. They went on to run . .. five more miles. 1 We stopped to take photos, but . We stopped taking photos, but . 2. Did you remember to send the fax or ...? Do you remember sending the fax or ...? 3 Tcan’t help you to feel better, but . Ican’t help feeling better, but 4 Pm not used to using a typewriter, but... Tused to use a typewriter, but. 5 Theard her scream, but . Theard her screaming, but B Match up the verbs and phrases below to make suitable collocation: to answer toa letter tocall ca tetter / the phone to contact someone a letter to drop someone a line to get someone on the phone to give someone by phone / by post to keep someone a ring to reply someone a story to tell through to someone on the phone to write in touch with someone Now use the collocations above to complete each of these sentences. Add a suitable preposition if necessary. In some cases more than one version is possible. 1 Pm sorry ..not to have kept... in touch with you. or .for not having kept. or. that | didn’t keep 2 Is there any point by post? 3. Pm not looking forward all these letters 4 Don’t forget a thank-you letter for your birthday present. 5 Have you heard her about the penguin and the polar bear? 6 Istrongly advise you his letter by return of post. 7 He never writes letters because he’s so used on the phone. 8 Her number was engaged all day but I finally succeeded in the evening. 9 Don't forget a line to let me know how you are. 10. Itmay be worth a ring if you ever need any advice. C Complete each sentence with your own ideas, using -ing or to__: ‘To get from the airport to the city centre I don’t recommend Pve never been to America but I hope ‘After a heavy meal I can’t face ‘The night before an important exam it’s unwise to risk After struggling to follow the first paragraph I gave up Some people enjoy to Beethoven but I prefer The first chapter was so exciting that I kept on MaueoNe 8 There was a violent thunderstorm but we carried on 9 After a hard day at the office I feel like 10 If T hear a baby I can’t bear 11 After an enjoyable English class I don’t mind 12. After ill for five days, on the sixth day I began 13. I've tried to call her several times but every time I’ve failed 14 Pdlove anew car, but I can’t afford 15. Someone started shouting at me but I pretended A. Here are the opening lines of the prefaces or introductions to three different books. Discuss with a partner what each extract tells you about: a) the writers as people ©) the intended readers of the book b) the purpose of the book This book is a collection of articles about how people communicate with each other in face-to-face interaction. We have tried to choose Readings which are sufficiently self-contained and non-technical to appeal to interested non-specialists, and which are yet detailed enough to give students and specialists a comprehensive basis for further work in the subject. The Readings are all as they originally appeared, with the exception that we have made minor editorial adjustments where necessary for consistency, especially to footnotes, and have standardized the bibliographical references. Where journal titles have been abbreviated, we have followed the conventions of the fourth edition of the World List of Scientific Periodicals 1900-1960, and of the Linguistic Bibliography of the Permanent International Committee of Linguists (Spectrum; Utrecht and Antwerp), If this book doesn’t change you give it no house space; if having read it you are the same person you were before picking it up, then throw it away. Not enough for me that my poems shine in your eye; not enough for me that they look from your walls or lurk on your shelves; Iwant my poems to be in your mind so you can say them when you are in love so you can say them when the plane takes off and death comes near; 55 56 I want my poems to come between the raised stick and the cowering back, T want my poems to become a weapon in your trembling hands, a sword whose blade both makes and mirrors change: but most of all I want my poems sung unthinkingly between your lips like air This book is a mixture of what, in the world of travel, tourists would expect to find in a ‘guide’ or a ‘companion’. In the main, it provides a systematic account of the most important characteristics of the English Tanguage, such as you would hope to receive from a professional guide. At the same time, it includes a number of special features and illustrations which are off the beaten track, and which would be more likely to come from a knowledgeable companion. In exploring a new country, both kinds of approach have their value; and so I believe it is in exploring a language. In the space available, I have been able to cover most of the topics that would be considered central, or orthodox, in any account of English; but I have devoted a great deal of space, especially in the panels and end-of- chapter features, to topics which have no other justification than that I find them fascinating. My hope is that my tastes and yours will coincide, at least some of the time. B_ Work in pairs, or do this alone and compare your answers with a partner later: 1 Extract 1 is fom Communication in Face-to-Face Interaction by John Laver and Sandy Hutchinson. Which phrases strike you as ‘academic’? Highlight some examples of complex structures, formal style and academic vocabulary 2 Extract 2 is from New Numbers by Christopher Logue. Which phrases strike you as being ‘poetic’? Highlight some examples of imagery or personification. Try reading it aloud — does it sound the same as it looks? What if it were written in prose ~ would it still have the same effect? 3 Extract 3 is from The English Language by David Crystal. Which phrases strike you as being ‘friendly’ or ‘down-to-earth’? Highlight some examples of phrases that involve or appeal to the reader. Work in groups. Discuss these questions with your partners: © Do you always read the introduction to a book carefully? Why (not)? © A non-fiction book contains information in its contents, chapter headings and index — what use can you make of these when opening a book for the first time? How useful is the ‘blurb’ on the back cover? Look at these features in this book! Cue ed Nee A Form adjectives from these verbs and add them to the appropriate list below Be very careful about the spelling. accept admire advise astonish break communicate convince cooperate deceive describe die distress disturb forgive inform inspire instruct obtain. overwhelm possess predict prevent produce Promise recommend recycle upset work -able negotiable readable desirable -ing moving tempting satisfying daring vive repetitive acquisitive appreciative decorative B_ Form adjectives from these nouns and add them to the appropriate list. Be careful about the spelling. adjective adventure adverb ambition convention curly hair diplomat editor education enigma experience fiction fortnight function idealist intention long legs magnet malice materialist music optimist pale skin person pessimist profession proportion quarter realist romance season secretary sensation space week year influential orchestral financial _ practical poetic dramatic emphatic _ systematic cautious poisonous religious _ glamorous daily neighbourly talented red-faced C Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable words from the list below. 1 Don't pick those mushrooms ~ they're 2. She was when she was picked for the team 3 This camera has exposure and focusing, + The characters in a soap opera aren’t realistic, they're 3. He always dresses in a way. 6 Small cars are more than powerful ones. 7 He was when his wife left him. 8 P'm afraid his work is only 9. Your signature is barely 10 Don’t be so , it’s only a game! astonishing astonished automatic automated childish childlike economical economic heartbreaking heartbroken idealistic idealised legible readable poisoned poisonous satisfactory satisfying stylish stylistic D GQ Highlight all the words in this section that caused difficulty and which you consider useful and want to remember. Work in pairs. Write a short exercise with gaps and give it to another pair to do, using words that vou have highlighted. e.g. tasked her about her trip but she wasn't very (communicative) 57 CU Readi A Note down what you think are the five most attractive, or intriguing, features of this product. Then compare your notes with a partner, _ NagastesdegtegeeeseeeseestsrberbtrttStsttett2ttaPedPeaPEEEEEEEEREEREEESESE SPSS SEES ESE ESTE New Interpreter — now with double the memo: plus 30% improved speech quality Y fluent English, French, German, tal the original Interpreter concept has already been acclaimed as a major breakthrough in language learning. Now we're delighted to present a new, more powerful development of Interpreter, with enhanced learning facilities. For the technically minded, Interpreter MK I has twice the memory of its redecessor; it now packs an incredible 16 megabit memory (with 2 megabytes of ROM). In 20 hours without repeating itself! ‘There are now 14 “get you out of trouble” categories added to Interpreter MK II which cover everyday situations ie “business”, “health and doctor”, “complaints” world first and exclusive; manufactured by Innovations, ‘The Interpreter isa quite extraordinary product—the and accent has been improved by 30%. To aid your only pockecaized petsonal language tutor that speaks protuncialion of words pnd pheases, you can size new “slow down” the real human voice at the touch of a button. Just like with the original version, all you need to do is enter a word on the typewriterstyle keyboard, and Interpreter MK II ‘can create a selection of associated phrases, then push your required language button and Interpreter MK'Il displays the phrase on a new brighter “Supertwist” LCD display. ‘Then press the “say” button and the Interpreter actually pronounces the phrase for you! You learn to speak andwrite the language simultancously, ‘As well as a builtin speaker, Interpreter MK Il features an earphone for “private” tuition, and a built in Contrast control. “Teach” mode also allows selection of random words and phrases across the entire database. Uses 4x AAA. batteries (not supplied) or optional and “sightseeing”. There are now AC adaptor. an amazing 760 commonly used phrases. — and the Interpreter It £149.95 SH694 articulated speech quality of Interpreter MK II's voice AC Adaptor £9.95 SH563A ‘Over 60,000 phrases ~ 13,500 individual words @ Instant phrase builder © Over 700 commonly used phrases on instant access across 14 categories ® New bright ‘Supertwist LCD display @ Variable speed pronunciation button 30% improved speech quality © 2 megabytes (16 megabits of ROM) memory @ Auto Accent Insert on required words @ Automatic accent correction/display ® Gender indication ® Spell Corrector using ‘close word match” © Display contrast control @ Built-in speaker and earphone ® Teach mode: Listen and Learn random words ‘Comes with protective carry case, wrist strap, multilingual instruction booklet © Takes 4 x AAA batteries (not included) B_ ©) You'll hear a broadcast about The Interpreter. Fill the gaps and answer these questions about the report 1 The Interpreter speaks languages. 2. Which of these situations are mentioned in the report? atthe airport [) — atthechemist’s — at the railway station __ atthe bank | business camping — complaining emergencies 1 inthe post office (making friends~ motoring restaurants shopping — _ sightseeing 3. What useful phrase might vou use if you want to know the admission charge to a museum or galler a building is on fire? you're trying to get a discount? the service in a restaurant is slow? 4 What useful phrase does the reporter say is missing from the Interpreter’s repertoire? 5 You can use the Interpreter in privacy, thanks to its 6 Its words also appear on the as it speaks 58 C Discuss these questions in groups: © If you owned the Interpreter, when might vou use it? © Have you ever used a phrasebook when visiting a foreign country? What was your experience? © Do you always assume people in another country will speak English or do you make an effort to learn some of the language before going there? © What are the ten most useful phrases you'd try to learn if you were visiting another country for the very first time? ‘© Which do you use more often: an English-to-English dictionary or a bilingual one? Give your reasons. D_ FE & Work in groups of three. In this dictionary comparison activity Student A should look at Activity 25, student B at 30 and C at 39. Each Activity contains definitions of some of these words. Together you should pool your information and discuss which dictionary seems most helpful and clear. You shouldn’t read your entries out loud (that would take a very long time) but you may wish to read out brief quotations. irony sarcasm collocation cliché platitude proverb slogan jargon > Now compare the dictionary entries in all three Activities. Suppose you didn’t know any of the words above: which of the entries would be most helpful? 4.7 Paragraphs TOS A Paragraphs in books tend to be longer than in an essay, a report or an article in the press. Look again at the reading passages you've studied so far in this book. How many paragraphs are there in these passages? 1.6 Long’s winding road to the top 2.1 Eight feet in the Andes 3.4 Women’s rights 4.2 Attitudes to language B There are no hard-and-fast rules for paragraphs, but here are some guidelines. GB Highlight any points that are new to you, or which you want to remember. © A new paragraph signifies a new theme, or a change of direction Paragraphs help the reader to follow your thought processes. © Short paragraphs are easier to read than long ones. © When there is dialogue, each speaker usually requires a new paragraph. Anew paragraph gives prominence to the first sentence, which sets the tone for the rest of the paragraph. A strong opening sentence for each paragraph keeps the reader's attention. @ The last sentence of a paragraph is given prominence: it is often the pay-off line before a new theme begins 59 © Look at The great escape, which you read in 3.1. Go through the first twenty or so paragraphs of the article, noting the reasons why the writer chose to start and end each paragraph at the place she does. The first six are done as examples: First sentence plunges the reader into the story: 4] Looking around . . . right in front of the cabin. Still the same event as first paragraph, but new speake! {2 “Hi, I’m Lise,” she shouted .. . here on your own!” End of what Lise said. Back to narrator's feelings: [3 I'd stopped thinking that days ago. Flashback to start of chain of events: 44 “Iwant to be alone,” I had declared . .. like a bear in the middle of nowhere. More precise description - new paragraph gives prominence to first sentence: 4|5 Everything seemed perfect. A friend . .. right down to the water's edge. New paragraph gives prominence to next sentence: {6 I knew I could be entirely alone here. No roads . “No one wants to be that alone.” D This is the end of the same article, printed without paragraphs. Decide where to begin each new paragraph. Don’t refer back to the passage until you've finished ‘A few days later, a strange boat anchored in front of the house and three men made their way to shore. They were from the Department of Fisheries, monitoring the herring run. “Liz told us you were out here on your own, How’s it going? Aren’t you lonely?” “Liz?” I thought, and, “Lonely?” as I put the coffee pot on. That day Iran out of coffee and learned more about herring. I had visitors on 14 of my 21 days of solitude. I learned a lot, not just about herring and trees and whales, but about solitude and loneliness. In such a remote landscape, people are very aware of each other. The presence of a person - any person - matters. People are assumed to be interesting creatures, and important, In the exhausting bustle of Central London, that doesn’t always seem to be the case. I have been lonely in the rush hour at Oxford Circus. I was never lonely in my days of solitude on the far coast of Canada. Next year I've been asked to go back to that coast, to house-sit once again in that green, silent place. Pll go, of course. And I'll know, next time, to take more coffee. 4k A350-word essay should contain at least three paragraphs, probably more. When planning an essay, decide where each new paragraph will begin. Note down a strong opening sentence for each paragraph before you start wi ing. Try to put these ideas into practice in your next composition in 4.9. 60 “Dear Diary, how are you? I am fine. Cold enough for you? isn't this snow something? I mean have you ever seen anything like it? ESS A What you should do is study these examples before doing the exercises: What annoys me is intolerance. Intolerance is what annoys me What | need is a friend to lend a helping hand All I need is a friend to lend a helping hand It doesn’t really matter whether he gets here in time or not. Whether or not he gets here in time doesn’t really matter. Whatever she does seems to be successful Wherever she goes she makes friends easily. Whoever she meets, they take a liking to her. B Work in pairs. Use your own ideas to complete each sentence, Then exchange sentences with another pair. Rewrite their sentences using different structures, 1 What I hate is people being rude to me. 2. One thing [like is 6 AlLT want is 3. What | feel like doing 7 What we need now + There’s nothing I enjoy more than 8 Ijust don’t want 3. Something that often surprises me is 9° What I want to do right now is C Match the sentences that mean the same as each other. 1 Say what you like. ———,_-— Speak 0 whoever you want ‘Talk to anyone you want to. Say whatever you want to. 2 Whatever you do, don’t tell everyone. Tell anyone anything you like Make sure you don’t tell everyone. Tell anyone whatever you want. 3 Whoever did you give it to? Who in the world did you give it to? To whom did vou give it? Who did you give it to? 4 Why ever don't you phone her? Why do you never phone her? Why don’t you ever phone her? Why on earth don’t you phone her? 5 Whenever I mention it he takes offence. When I mention it he loses his temper He reacts badly every time I mention it. Each time I mention it he gets angry D__ Rewrite these sentences without changing the meaning: 1 He takes a phrasebook with him everywhere Wherever 2. Itdoesn't matter when you arrive. You can 3. Tonly stuck out my tongue at her. All 4 You did something that was very rude. What 5 She just needs someone to tell her troubles to. All 6 You can put it anywhere you like I don’t mind 7 You can write or phone ~as you like Whether 8 Idon’t know what time you'll arrive, but get in touch. Whenever 9. He made a very impressive speech. What 10 I was astonished by her confidence What 6 Accents and di A (2 You'll hear an American, an Irishwoman and an Englishman discussing accents. Listen to the recording and decide whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F), according to what the speakers say: ‘There is more uniformity of accents in the USA than in Britain, American people have a good ear for different accents. ‘Americans seem to think that British and Australian people speak alike. British people can distinguish various American accents. ‘There are more regional accents in the USA and Canada than in Britain Hardly any people in Britain speak with a standard RP accent. Americans often dislike hearing a British accent. People in some regions of Britain are suspicious of someone with an RP accent Pupils in schools in England were once encouraged to lose their accents. 10 In the USA, Southerners used to make fun of someone with a Northern accent. 11 According to the Englishman, a regional accent won't prevent you getting a job. 12 Mike and Jackie both agree with the Englishman’s views on this. CoudsneenH B Work in pairs and discuss these questions about your language. 1 How many people speak your language? Which countries do they live in? 2. How many different languages are spoken in your country? Is there a single ‘official language’? 3 What language (and which dialect or variety of it) is used in schools? Do the children in your area speak the same language or dialect when they are at home? 4 Do you use a different variety of your language (or a different dialect) when talking with friends or family to the one which you use with strangers or people from other parts of the country? Is there a ‘high’ and ‘low’ variety of your language? What situations are the different varieties used in? What are some of the differences in vocabulary and grammar? Can you give any interesting examples? 5 What are the main regional accents and dialects that most people in your country can recognise? Do people in the capital regard the speakers of any of these as ‘funny’ or ‘uneducated’? 6 Do the people in the regions where different languages or dialects are used feel they have less power than the people in the capital? Do they have TV and radio programmes in their own language or dialect? 7 Do middle-class people talk differently to working-class people? Are there any regional accents which are considered to be less ‘educated’ or ess socially acceptable than others? What is claimed to be the ‘best accent’ in your language? 8 Are there any other points not covered by the questions above that you think would help to give a clearer picture about your country and language? = Make notes on your answers to the questions which are most relevant to your language and the questions which were thought-provoking. Rearrange the notes you've made (perhaps using arrows, lines or different colours) to make the sequence of ideas and information as coherent as possible, in preparation for writing a composition on this topic: ‘Write a short report about the different languages, dialects and accents in your country.’ {about 350 words) Work in pairs or small groups. Explain to your partner(s) what you're going to write. Add any further points to your notes that now seem necessary. Remembering the work on paragraphs that you did in 4.7, decide which points each paragraph of your report will contain. Write down the first sentence of each paragraph. Compare your sentences with a partner's. Write your report. Include a sketch map or diagram if you wish. Before handing your written report to your teacher, show it to the same student(s) you talked to earlier and ask for comments. “Funny how you soon forget his regional accent.”” 63 CRE idi A. Which of the following would you MAKE and which would you Do? an agreement with someone _an appointment with someone an arrangement an attempt your best _ business with someone certain about something a comment about something your duty an excuse a good impression someone a favour friends with someone harm to someone alotofmoney love a mistake a profit or a loss progress reservation sure someone a good turn the washing-up wrong or right your own thing B__ Find synonyms for the phrases in italics, or explain their meaning. Use a dictionary if necessary. I’ve read the report through twice, but I can’t make out what he’s getting at. Someone was coming down the hill, but I couldn’t make out who it was. It’s so unfair, he’s always doing me down in front of my friends. Adrift alone in the ocean, they knew that they were done for. I don’t see what this has to do with yout It was a three-seater sofa, but they refused to make room for me. None of itis true ~ I made it all up! I'm sorry you had to do all the work for me, I'll make it up to you, I promise. ‘They were finding it increasingly difficult to make boih ends meet. 10 How can I ever make amends for what I’ve done? 11 It’s not very important really, you're making a mountain out of a molehill. 12 Shh, don’t make a scene — we can talk about it when we get home. 13. It’s terrible portrait, it really doesn’t do justice to him. 14 It’sa shame we were held up, but now we can make up for last time 15 Tcan’t puta letter in with the parcel now that it’s been done up. Cou durene C__ Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable phrases from the list below. You may need to change the form of the verbs. 1 T left my bike outside the shop and someone has it! 2 You've this room since my last visit. What pretty wallpaper! 3 We went out for a meal together to our disappointment. 4 Lcan’t coffee in the morning ~ it helps to wake me up. 5 We collected £18 for her leaving present, so I it toa round £20. 6 Your shoes need , otherwise you'll trip over the laces. 7 Do you agree that all examinations should be ? 8 You're heading in the wrong direction if you're the station. 9 Iftoo many new staff are taken on, some of us older ones will be our jobs. 10 He threw everything on the floor, and then without another word. do away with do out of doup doup do without make for make off make off with make up make up for 64 5 Food and drink 1 To whet your appeti Roe A Work in groups. c 1 Think of the area you live in, or the place you're studying in. Decide what is the best place locally to get the following things, and give vour reasons fresh fruit bread and cakes a quick snack a good inexpensive meal a good cup of coffee aslap-up meal a refreshing drink a sandwich 2 Find out your partners’ reactions to these photos: Work in pairs. Write down three examples of each of these types of food. Try to think of some unusual examples, using a dictionary if necessary. | Appetisers (hors d’oeurre) melon avocado prawn cocktail paté | Fish and shellfish Poultry Game Herbs Spices | Dairy products Nuts Desserts Cakes and buns Work in pairs and discuss these questions: © Which are your favourite foods in each category above? @ Imagine it’s vour birthday — write a menu, including all your favourite foods © What are the specialities of your region or country? What are the ingredients required and how are they made? 65 OT CCL [seins 66 AQ Work in groups and discuss these questions: © What do you think are the pros and cons of running a restaurant? Would you like to run a restaurant? Give your reasons, © Ifyou were going to run a restaurant or café near where you live, what kind of food would you serve? What kind of atmosphere would you try to create? © From a restaurateur’s point of view, what are the attributes of an ideal customer? ‘© From a customer’s point of view, what are the qualities of a good restaurant? Susan and Stephen Hill le=3! You'll hear an interview with two restaurateurs. Listen to the recording and answer these questions. 1 Why did Stephen and Susan Hill decide to specialise in pancakes? 2 Which of these pictures best illustrates Stephen’s dessert speciality? 3. Tick the following attributes of an ideal customer which Stephen mentions. According to him, the ideal customer is someone who. appreciates fresh ingredients doesn’t complain doesn’t mind spending money eats out regularly enjoys eating out gives generous tips is very knowledgeable about cooking _takes an interest in food communicates their wishes to the restaurant staff 4 What is important when running a small restaurant? 5. Which of these tasks are done by Susan and which are done by Stephen? cooking pancakes making desserts making ice cream making soups preparing pancake fillings preparing salad dressings taking orders welcoming customers 6 What do they enjoy about running a restaurant? Work in groups. Ask your partners these questions: In an average week... ‘© How often do you eat lunch out? How often do you eat dinner out? ¢ How many meals do you prepare or help to prepare? © How many times do you lay the table and do the washing-up? © How often do you go shopping for food items? ™ How do your habits compare with those of a ‘typical person’ from your country? fier Everything all A Read the article and then answer the questions below eNO hee Feel free to protest HOBSON'S CHOICE has taken on an thinking that it didn't seem too difficult added meaning at Berni Restaurants, to get a free meal, I descended on the 0 the chain of more than 230 steak Berni Inn at Wimbledon, where my houses owned by Grand Metropolitan. _ waitress was Martha, who failed to Nowadays if you don’t like what is provide me with any opportunity to use provided in your meal you don’t pay. the repertoire of “Waiter, there's a fly in And that covers the service too. my soup” jokes [ had rehearsed 2% Slow waitresses, soup-spilling beforehand. The food proved a match waitresses, surly waitresses, and “please for the service. Simon Smith, the make up your mind” waitresses are manager, told me he had been out. pleasantly pleased at a lack of Under what Berni call a customer unscrupulous diners trying to take 40 service guarantee, diners who complain advantage of the scheme. Complaints about either the meal or the service _had generally been justified. have their bill torn up. One of the In fact some people who did intentions is to get round the traditional complain had to be persuaded to leave British habit of not complaining, but not the bill to him. Many had not even going back either. realised the scheme was operating. ‘A poll conducted by Berni found that “We're finding that those who 60 per cent of dissatisfied customers complained and had their bill torn up said they wouldn't go back to an are returning and bringing others with offending restaurant. To break down them. In the first five weeks we lost 50 this reserve, the scheme was initiated by a group of Berni managers and tried out in the north of England, where results were sufficiently encouraging to spread the scheme to the rest of Britain, ‘Armed with this knowledge and £1,000 in unpaid bills, but we're getting a lot of favourable publicity by word of mouth. “Tam sure we'll keep more customers longer this way.” James Allen Decide whether these statements are true (T) or false (F), according to the passage The scheme was the brainchild of Berni’s marketing department The scheme was introduced because Berni were losing a lot of customers The scheme was introduced because British people don’t like to complain, Berni wanted customers to complain if they were dissatisfied A lot of customers who complained didn’t know their bill would be torn up. The quality of the food at Wimbledon was even better than the service, The manager in Wimbledon approved of the scheme, The scheme had to be abandoned because it was being abused. Work in groups and discuss these questions * Could such a scheme operate in restaurants in your country? ¢ Have you ever complained (or been with someone who complained) in a restaurant? What happened? What other situations have you actually been in where you made a complaint? © What are the qualities of a good restaurant? Describe a good restaurant you have been to and a bad restaurant vou remember going to. 58 4 The passive—1 ICUs A Work in pairs. Discuss the differences in emphasis between these sentences — in some cases there is no difference: 1 I'm afraid all the cakes have been eaten. I’m afraid I’ve eaten all the cakes. 2 Arsenal beat Chelsea in the final. Spurs were beaten in the semi-finals Manchester United were beaten in the quarter-finals by Southampton. 3. He thinks people are plotting against him. He thinks he’s being plotted against. 4 The dough was rolled out and then cut into teddybear shapes. We rolled out the dough and then we cut it into teddybear shapes 5 She doesn’t think that she is being paid enough. She doesn’t think that her employer is paying her enough 6 There was nothing to do. ‘There was nothing to be done. 7 My wallet has been stolen! Someone has stolen my wallet! ‘That man stole my wallet! I've had my wallet stolen! B® Highlight all the passive verbs and passive participles in the reading text in 5.3, Why has the passive, rather than the active, been used in each case? If each example is rewritten using an active verb, what difference does this make to the tone, style or emphasis? C__ Rewrite these sentences using the passive: the subject can be omitted where it seems irrelevant or misleading. Your rewritten sentences should be compared with a partner's, 1 Someone told us that the bill would include service. understand We were given to understand that service would be included. 2. A friend told me that the college has awarded you a scholarship. 3. The crash badly damaged both cars but it didn’t cause the injury of anyone 4 After the lifeguard had rescued the bather, an ambulance took him to hospital. 5 Someone has seen an escaped prisoner, whom the police believe to be dangerous. 6 After the surgeon had operated on him, she told him to stay in bed for a week 7 Shops all over the world sell Tabasco sauce. 8. Nottingham Forest held Liverpool to a draw 9 Thousands of demonstrators may crowd into the square tonight. 10. We expected the plane to land at noon, but something has delayed it. schedule 11 ‘The rain brought about the cancellation of the tennis match. rain off 12. They had masses of requests for free samples of the new product. flood "> For more advanced uses of the passive, see 12.7 68 n of adjectives & participles A Work in pairs. Discuss the differences in meaning between the words in italics. 1 She has a talking parrot Have vou heard her parrot talking? 2. Sheis an old friend My friend is quite old. 3. All the people concerned were there. Ali the concerned people were there. 4 It wasn’t a proper meeting. The meeting proper began at 9 5. The members of staff present The present members of staff. 6 Is he the person responsible? Is he a responsible person? 7 havea friend living in London, She has no living relatives 8 He isa complete idiot. The complete meal costa mere £5 9. She has an elder brother. Her brother is elderly. 10 The film hada very involved plot. The actors involved were unconvincing. B_ Study these notes, and fill the gaps, before doing the exercise in C. The term ‘adjectival expression’ is used here to mean adjectives (tasty) and participles used as adjectives (tired or tiring), Most adjectival expressions are normally: placed before a noun or after a verb: appetising delicious delicious-looking frightened good-looking happy home-made lonely necessary refreshing similar sleeping tasty ec. He isa very good-looking man. He is very good-looking. That was a really meal. Those buns look absolutely ! A few adjectival expressions are normally placed before a noun: mere sheer complete utter total downright It took a mere hour to finish This is sheer madness. The journey was a(n) disaster. The meal was a success. A few adjectival expressions are normally placed after a verb, NOT before a noun: afloat afraid alight alike alive alofi alone asleep awake well unwell ill content Are you awake yet? I don't feel very well The fire isn't yet. Don't leave the baby all night. Shh! The baby’s ints cot. Her two sisters look A few adjectival expressions are normally placed after a noun galore mangué elect present (= attending) proper (= itself) There was food galore at the party. He is an artist mangué. The president takes office next month. A few adjectival expressions can be placed after a noun, rather than before it: concerned (= affected) responsible (= who did it) involved (= included) imaginable (after a superlative) All the people concerned have been notified. That was the most disgusting meal ! 69 ‘A few adjectival expressions can come either before or after a noun: affected available required suggested obtainable All the people affected have complained. All the affected people have complained. Work expands to take up the time / the time Most participles used as adjectives (ending in -ing, -ed, ~en) and most adjectives ending in -able and -ible are placed after a noun when extra information is given afterwards — as if in a relative clause: These are delicious buns (which have been) made according 10 my own recipe. How high are the mountains (which are) visible in the distance? I love the smell of cakes (which are) in the kitchen. The houses (which were) in the storm have been repaired. The survey by Berni revealed some unexpected information. C Insert suitable adjectives from B before or after che nouns in these sentences: 1 Do you have all the ingredients? 7 Lobject to his rudeness. 2. Don’t forget to follow the guidelines. 8 The people have all been arrested 3. Never wake a baby 9 In the sale there were bargains. 4 Pd love a glass of lemonade. 10 Can I try one of those cakes? 5. She is the nicest person 11 Some of the people fell asleep. 6 The meeting began promptly. 12. It seems to me that he is a fool. “How much do we owe you so far?” CLE aCe 5.6 Compulsive eaters A Work in groups and discuss these questions: 1 Which foods do you eat to excess? 2. Which foods do you avoid eating? Why? Do you ‘live to eat’ or ‘eat to live’? 4 Why do you think some people eat too much? B_ Read the article and then answer the questions below % «0 Fighting talk for compulsive eaters ‘OW do you spot a compulsive eater in a restaurant? No, it's not the customer who cheerily puts away a great deal more than is wise, and still Can't resist great scoops of two or three puds “just to try”. That is the sign of the merely greedy, and it’s a fair bet that all of us who read this page are that. The serious compulsive eater, according to Paulette Maisner who runs the Maisner Centre for Eating Disorders in Brighton, and has now written a book (with Jenny Pulling) on the subject, is more likely to order an omelette, toy with the food and send it away half eaten. Only then will she rush home (compulsive eaters are women more often than not} to stuff herself silly with anything she can lay her hands on. Paulette Maisner should know. Now a trim 55 kilos she was herself a 100- kilo compulsive eater until her forties. A typical binge meal as she describes it, “a couple of 500-gram Christmas wuddings, a packet of mince pies, a tin Sf condensed milk, packets of biscuits, and muesli,” brings the eater no satisfaction. On the contrary, these binges are furtive joyless affairs, likely to leave the individual lying like a beached whale, exhausted, distended and distressed. The worst of it is the feeling of a complete inability to choose or to control one’s own intake. Indeed many compulsive eaters talk in Old ‘Testament terms of being “possessed by a demon”. Though haunted by thoughts of food, most compulsive eaters sincerely want to be thin. Some achieve thinness, either by fasting between binges, purging themselves with laxatives, or inducing vomiting, ancient Roman style, after eating. Paulette Maisner What has gone wrong? It seems likely that the problem is caused by a complex interaction of physiological and emotional factors. In an ideal world we would eat when hungry, selecting a variety of nourishing foods, and stop eating when we felt full. In this way we would maintain a stable and suitable body weight, and feel good. Unhappily, while half the world has not enough food to meet its needs, the other half has eating disorders. One salient factor might be the unnaturally refined sugary foods available to us. Experimenters have allowed baby rats or recently weaned human infants to choose their own food from a “cafeteria-style” menu to discover whether they will instinctively select a balanced diet (broadly speaking they wilD: But they know that these experiments are wrecked if sweet foods are included, Both baby rats and baby humans will gorge on sweetness, Bob Boakes, an experimental ling & summary n 1 72 % % 100 psychologist at the University of Sussex who is interested in how we learn an association between flavour and calories, suspects that an innate preference for sweetness may be “hard-wired” into the brain. (For those of you who can’t remember, human breast milk tastes sweet.) An overload of sugar plays havoc with a system not designed for it, leading to a see-saw effect on blood sugar levels, more cravings, and occasionally to what has been called “western malnutrition,” where the stodge-fed body craves more food in order to make good deficiencies in essential elements. ‘Add to this the human tendency to lift eating out of its natural context of nourishment and you have a problem. After all, we first experience food in the highly charged atmosphere of parent- child interaction, and there are several theories about how this could lead to eating disorders later on. The most quoted is that of the clinician Hilde Bruch, who suggests that the baby offered food for reasons not connected with hunger (as reward, for example, or as antidote to boredom or hurt) might fail to learn to distinguish hunger from other kinds of discomfort. In later life runs this theory, distress, like hunger, will elicit eating. There is as yet no hard evidence that this is so. But we do know that consistently inappropriate responses to a baby’s needs tend to diminish the child’s feeling of competence and control over the environment. Paulette Maisner has sifted through Bruch and many other theorists, picking out whatever she finds helpful, Her own programme of “re-education” is an eclectic mix of in-depth discussion, relaxation training, 24-hour moral support if necessary, and a regime of sensible, mostly whole food, eating. Her client bingers cannot, of course come off food completely to cure their addiction, but they can learn to face up to the problem and to avoid certain “trigger foods”. The aim is to learn to be relaxed about food, and to accept it as a normal part of living. This is not as easy as it sounds, and Mrs Maisner requires considerable commitment in time and money from her clients. After completing an initial seven-day questionnaire, clients fill in daily food and mood charts, and a four-week postal course costs £65, or £120 for 10 sessions at the centre. Still, if the programme can help relieve the misery and guilt of the compulsive eater, it costs a mere 500 Mars bars. ‘The Maisner Centre for Eating Disorders, P.O, Boz 464, Hove, Bast Susser, BN3 2BN (Tel, 0273 729818), Catherine Mant Discuss these questions with a partner. Then write your answers, trying to use your own words and without quoting verbatim from the passage outer Ww What is the difference between greed and compulsive eating? What are the two basic reasons why people become compulsive eaters? What is paradoxical about Western cating habits and problems? Why do we like sweet foods so much, according to Bob Boakes? What is meant by ‘western malnutrition’ in line 8 yy do some adults eat when they are depressed, cording to Hilde Bruch? 10 15 0 0 [MH Highlight these words and phrases in the passage and explain their meanings: toy with (line 16) stuff herself silly (line 19) binge (line 25) Jasting (line 43) gorge (line 70) plays havoc (line 81) craves (line 87) highly charged (line 94) moral support (line 119) Make notes for a paragraph summarising Paulette Maisner’s methods for curing compulsive eaters Compare your notes with a partner. Then write the summary (about 30 words). stodge (line 87) antidote (line 102) distended (line 33) The Third World ou A. Work in groups. Before you listen to the recording, read this paragraph and discuss its implications: Today the Earth's finite resources are unequally shared by 5,300 million people, increasing by three people each second. The UN's lowest estimate of world population in the year 2100 is 7,500 million. This figure is unrealistically optimistic; the true figure is more likely to be between 11,000 and 14,200 million. The vast majority of these people would live in developing countries, facing crippling shortages of land, food, and water. There would also be a far greater number of older people for the working population to support. (from Save the Earth by Jonathon Porritt) You'll hear part of an interview with Fiona Bristow, who talks about the effects of food shortages on people in developing countries. Here are some key points from the interview. Fill the gaps with suitable phrases or words. 1 If you are undernourished you are more 0 diseases and find it harder to from them than people in the West 2. When sharing out food, women in developing countries put themselves at the of the within the family, and the* > isn’t large enough to feed the whole family 3. Education makes a woman more She learns how to improve the of her Fiona Bristow children’s She knows how to demand and she has more 4 According to the speaker, the key to improving the quality of life in the Third World lies in an. approach, by providing ; , > and C Work in groups and discuss these questions: © To what extent do you share the speaker's views? © What further problems were not mentioned in the interview? © How much help for developing countries should be provided by government agencies rather than charities like Oxfam, Population Concern, Caritas, etc.? © What are the responsibilities of people in developed countries to the Third World? 73 Gi SET Een A Work in pairs. Decide which of the alternatives fit into the gaps — in most cases more than one alternative can be used. 1 Ie’s important that she told the wuth is be shouldbe willbe is going to be 2. I'm sorry that you upset about this feel do feel will feel should feel ought to feel 3. This is a big problem ~ what do you think I do shalldo should do oughttodo can do 4 We were all sitting watching TV when who but Billy. arrived could arrive would arrive should arrive did arrive 5 Linsist that I my money back after such a terrible meal am given begiven was given am being given should be given B Study these examples before doing C below. Reactions When expressing reactions, using should is more formal, and sounds rather less direct than a present tense: I'm very sorry that you should feel upset. It’s a pity that she should not be on speaking terms with him. Ithas always worried me that he should feel lonely. It's disgraceful that we should have to pay extra for service. It’s interesting that they should want to visit us. Suggestions and recommendations When making suggestions and recommendations, using should tends to sound less bossy and more formal than a present tense. Be + past participle can also be used with the same effect. I recommend that he should take up cooking as a career. I suggest that she should be asked to make a speech on our behalf. I propose that she be given everything she needs. C Complete these sentences, using should or be + past participle: 1 Itis very important that you before you start writing 2 Itis absolutely essential that he his work on time. 3 [insist that the washing-up before you go to bed. 4. I's wrong that the government tax on petrol 5 It’sa nuisance that we so much homework at the weekend 6 It's necessary that 7 I'm disappointed that 8 It’s awfully sad that 9 It bothers me that 10 I propose that Jill president of the society ™ See 13.7 for the use of should in conditional sentences like these: If you should meet Tim, give him my regards Should the doors be locked, the key may be obtained from the caretaker. Orc Wr We 1 OCs AL Read this piece and then look at the notes that follow LUTHERAN PIE Oo FALL Day I went co the kitchen and gor out a bag of flour and ‘made the first apple pie I made in my life. Made it from scratch, including mixing butter with flour to make a great crust, and loaded it with sour apples and brown sugar and nutmeg, baked it to a T, and of course it was delicious. My guests for dinner were a couple who seemed to be | 5 coasting from a bad fight. We ate the pie and sat in a daze of pleasure | afterward, during which the wife said that it reminded her of pies she ate | when she was a little Norwegian Lutheran girl in Normania Township on | the western Minnesota prairie. “We had love, good health, and faith in God, all things that money can’t buy,” she said, glancing at her husband, | 10 apropos of something. “This time of year, we were always broke, but somehow we made it, We'd fix equipment, feed the animals, and sleep. My mother made apple pie. One year she made thirty in one day. My dad was sick and thirty of our neighbors came in with fourteen combines and harvested his three hundred acres of soybeans. It took them half a day to do | 15 ir, at a time when they were racing to get their own soybeans in, but out there, if your car broke down in the country, the next car by would stop. My mother baked thirty pies and gave one to everybody who helped us.” Naturally I was pleased — until it occurred to me that | would never bake another one as good, having hit a home run on my first try. (They are still. | 20 married by the way.) Garrison Keillor B__Imagine that these notes were made by the writer before he wrote the passage. Decide which style of notes might be most helpful for you if you were going to write a similar composition List the advantages and disadvantages of each note-making technique and compare your list with a partner. 1 FIRST APPLE PIE 4 father Ingredients: flour & butter = neighbours came to harvest: beans Sour apples & brown sugar &nntmeg ~ mother made 30 pies ~Tarmed. out perfect! Conclusion Guests: couple who had recently had arow Realise next pie would not be.as good Wife reminded of: as the first = pies eaten whew a.girt in Minnesota. = times of hare work and no money — helpful and friendly peopte 2 Apple pie: flour, butter, sour apples, brown sugar, nutmeg Guests: couple (recent row) Wife: childhood. in Minnesota - harduwork, no money, helpful people. Father ill: neighbours helped with harvest. - mother 20 pies Next vie not: so acod. B+ 75 76 c 5 0 flour+ butter Guests: hush Sour apples, brown sugar, nutmeg and.+ wife (recent row) Memories Next one couldnt be as good Child. in Minnesota: hard work, no money Father W.~ neighbours he Mother: 30 app ve elped with harvest: ‘Try out a note-making technique you haven't used before with this passage, as if you were going to write your own composition on the same subject. Compare your completed notes with a partner's. Hot time in the old town tonight TABASCO, the fiery pepper sauce without which a Bloody Mary would be just another yucky tomato juice, and many casseroles would be bland stews, is made on a single family-owned plantation close to the bayou swamplands of southern Louisiana. ‘The sultry climate is ideal for growing red peppers, and the Avery Island plantation, complete with a colonial-style mansion straight out of Gone With the Wind, rests on top of a huge salt dome, which provides the second key ingredient. ‘A mash of ripe peppers is mixed with salt in white oak barrels, which are sealed with perforated wooden lids beneath salt caps and left for three years while the mixture ferments. There is no cooking involved, but during the hottest weather gases and juices escape through the salt layer. The company claims that each barrel is inspected by a member of the Mecllhenny family when it is opened. But while they check for odour, texture and colour, no actual tasting is done ~ nobody could undertake that job and last longer than a week The seeds and skins are strained off, and the residue mixed with vinegar in 2,000 gallon vats, then stirred for four weeks prior to bottling. The eye-stinging atmosphere in the low-roofed shed containing row upon row of vats of pepper sauce is every bit as unpleasant as you would imagine. The family has been in the business for over 150 years and sells Tabasco in over 100 countries. There are many competing brands made nearby, but none is sold widely outside Louisiana, nor possesses anything like the same international reputation, which the Mcllhennys put down to the care they take aging the raw mash of peppers and salt. Tom Rowland {Tabasco isa registered trade mark of the Mellhenny Company. What dish have you cooked that you were most pleased with or proud of? ‘Tell your partner abou it. ‘Make notes on the process, trying out a different note-making technique ‘Then write one or two paragraphs explaining what you did and why you were so pleased or proud. Show both vour paragraphs and vour notes to a partner 5.10 Describing a process A Work in pairs. Before you listen to the recording, look at these diagrams, which show the process of margarine manufacture. As you can see, they are in the wrong order. Using a pencil, number the steps in what looks like the right order. The first and fast steps are numbered already React oll with Heat and crush Add lecithin & Deodorise by heating hydrogen to produce plant seed monoglyceride to melting point hardened ols Add skimmed milk, Add fuller’s earth Add caustic soda to Add artificial flavour, water & salt to bleach oil remove any waste as colour & vitamins soap RESULT: oti RESULT: Contaminated with RESULT: refined oil —_unemuloified RESULT: blended ols gums and resins ingredients Ly Neutralise, bleach Extrude into plastic Mix with fioh & and fitter to remove tub... and put a lid animal oile waste products onit. B_ = Listen to the recording and number the diagrams to show the correct sequence of the manufacturing process. oe oa 78 c Work in groups of four. Students A and B look at Activity 5, Cand D look at 23, Each pair has different information about the processes of brewing beer and making wine. 1 Study the information and make notes on the main points of the process, or highlight the important information, 2 Student A should join C and B should join D to form new pairs. Tell your new partner what you found out. Discuss what the two processes have in common, and how they are different. D EITHER: Write an article on wine or beer production (see Activities 3 and 23) in a similar style to the one in 5.9 C. Do this by making your own notes, and without quoting verbatim from the Activity. (about 300 words) OR: Make notes on another culinary or non-culinary process, and write a description of the process. You may need to do some research on this “Make up your minds! It's only food.”” 6 Travel and transport PA Le A Work in groups. Discuss these questions with your partners: @ Which five countries in the world would you like to visit one day? © And which five countries have you no desire to visit ever? ~ Give your reasons for your choices. B__ Fill the gaps in this description of the map, using the words on the right Seatown is asmall fishing Port ying at the centre of a sheltered , which forms a natural . The town lies in the south- east corner of a fertile separated from the north coast by a On the north coast, to the east of the is a freshwater enclosed by a and surrounded by -To the east is an impressive with high where seabirds nest. The River Trent, at whose Seatown lies, is fed by many small which rise in the hills to the north, but its is over 100 miles to the west. To the south of the town across the river the is rocky and it is possible to walk across to an offshore island at : though at the crossing should not be attempted as there are strong For those who enjoy coastal it is well worth climbing to the of the hill to the north of Seatown: there is a breathtaking from there when the is good. Seatown is a popular holiday it has a particularly mild and is renowned for the quality of its fresh bay cliffs climate coastline currents harbour headland high tide lake low tide marshes mouth plain portY range of hills resort sandbank scenery seafood source streams summit view visibility woodland 79 80 C Choose THREE words or phrases for each sentence that make sense in the gaps. 1 The Vatican in Rome is visited every year by millions of commuters holidaymakers passengers pilgrims vagrants _ travellers 2 Lenjoy visiting places abroad where the people are churlish courteous easygoing hospitable morose sulky sullen 3. Not liking crowds, I prefer going on holiday to somewhere that’s abandoned backward derelict dull godforsaken off the beaten track out of the way secluded 4 The takes up to four hours on the motorway, but it’s quicker by train. crossing drive flight journey passage travel trip voyage way 5. I’m going overseas next week and I’ll be for the rest of the month. abroad absent-minded away from home missing offshore on the run out in the country out of the country D__ Note down five countries that you have visited, or might visit one day ‘¢ What do you call a citizen of each country? © What languages do they all speak? © What are the principal cities called — and how are they pronounced? © Which nationalities are the most frequent visitors to your country, and what are the attractions of your country to them? Learning the language A Read this text and then answer the questions below THE TOWERSOF Toney I studied my Turkish phrasebook, and learned a few of the most useful ones by heart. One was about how I did not understand Turkish well, which I copied into my notebook and carried about with me. Many Turks can'e understand that anyone really does not know Turkish; they think that if they say it often enough and loud enough it will register. They did this whenever I said this phrase; it seemed to start them off asking what seemed to be questions, but I only said my piece again, and after a time they gave it up. Sometimes they said “Yorum, yorum, yorum?” as if they were asking something, but I did not know what this word meant, and I thought they were mimicking what they thought I had said This was all that happened about it for a few days, then one day when I said my piece to the porter he nodded, and went to the telephone and rang someone up, and presently @ man came downstairs | and bowed to me as I stood in the hall and said something to me in Turkish, I had better explain hete that there was a misunderstanding | which was my fault, for I discovered some time afterwards that I had copied the phrase in the book which was just below the one which | 2 Wy | meant “I do not understand Turkish,” and the one I had copied and learnt and had been saying to everyone for days meant “Please to phone at once to Mr Yorum,” though this seems a silly phrase to print in a | book for the use of people who do not know Mr Yorum at all and never would want to telephone to him. But one day this Mr Yorum turned up | | the hotel co say, andthe porter sae then what I wanted him to do, and he rang Mr Yorum in his room and asked him to come down. But | did not know then about my mistake, and when Mr Yorum spoke to me | I said again that I did not understand Turkish, and he bowed and pointed to himself. I thought he must be offering to interpret for me, | but when I cried English on him he shook his head and said, “Yok, yok,” and I could see he knew none. So I looked up the Turkish for “What can I have the pleasure of doing for you?” and said it, but of course I did not understand his answer, and chat is the worst of foreign languages, you understand what you say in them yourself, because you have looked xt up before saying it, but very seldom what the foreigners say to you, because you have not looked up that at all. So I looked through the book till I found “Who are you, sir?” and he said in reply, “Yorum, Yorum, Yorum.” | saw there was some confusion somewhere, but there is always so much confusion in Turkey that I let it go, and ordered drinks for both of us, and we drank them, then he went away, quite pleased that I had telephoned to him to come and have a drink. (from The Towers of Trebizond by Rose Macaulay) Find the answers to these questions in the passage and underline (or highlight) the relevant information there. Then write down your answers, using your own words, What did many Turks do when they encountered a non-Turkish speaker? Why was the author confused at the reaction to her ‘useful phrase’? Why was the hotel porter the first to understand her? Why did Mr Yorum point to himself when they first met? Why did the narrator think he was pointing to himself? Why didn’t the writer try to resolve the confusion with Mr Yorum? aun Work in pairs. Discuss these questions: » 95 Have you had any similar experiences with English or other foreign languages? ‘© How much of your language does a tourist in your country need to know? ‘¢ Which parts of the passage did you find amusing? ‘© What do you think happened next in the story? E@ Work in pairs. One of you should look at Activity 4, the other at 19. These Activities contain the next paragraphs of the story. Find out what happened when Mr Yorum was called down to the hotel lobby yet again. Then tell your partner about it in your own words. 81 PERC EU A Work in pairs. Discuss the differences in meaning, if any, between these sentences. 1 Pll phone him after work. I'm phoning him after work I'm going to phone him after work. ll be phoning him after work. 2. It’s still raining in Scotland It’s still going to rain in Scotland It will still be raining in Scotland. It still rains in Scotland. 3 I think I’'m going to scream I think I'll scream. 4 When are we having lunch? When do we have lunch? When are we going to have lunch? When shall we have lunch? 5 Pll work hard tonight. Tl be working hard tonight. 6 Will you be going shopping today? Are you going to go shopping today? Are you going shopping today? Will you go shopping today? Do you go shopping today? B_ These sentences all refer to the future. Fill the gaps with suitable words. In some cases various answers are possible. 1 think 1 sneeze. you give mea tissue, please? 2 able to make people understand when you Turkey? 3. Have you decided how to get there? by car or a bus? 4 Supposing your car on the way there, what do? 5 Our flight is due at 9.30, but I’m afraid it delayed. 6 By the time the plane swe waiting for four hours. 7 Vm looking forward the book, when you finished with ic 8 In the next century tourism more and more highly developed. 9 While you holiday, I in the office. I hope you a postcard 10 P'veno idea when I finished my work, 11 Assoon as I the results, I you a ring to let you know. 12 It’s time we what we this weekend. 13 hope nobody me at 8 o'clock because I still dinner then. 14 What happen at the frontier if | my passport at home? 15 What you while I across the Atlantic to New York? 16 No one knows for sure what the future us. => Compare your answers with a partner, © Work in groups and discuss these questions about the future: ‘© What are the most interesting things you're going to do during the coming month? Which are you looking forward to most? © Looking ahead ten years or so, how will your life then be different from now? ¢ How will the world be different ten years from now? => Write two paragraphs summarising the main points of your dis Compare your paragraphs with a partner's. 82 What a journey! A = You'll hear three people describing journeys they remember. Listen to the stories and decide which of these pictures accurately illustrate the events described. More than one picture may be correct for each story. B__ In these quotations from the recording, what do the words in italics mean? the thing was making very heavy weather of it Knut up front was getting more and more agitated it had got stuck teetering on the edge lo and behold from the sublime to the ridiculous I was rather bleary-eyed I found this very rickety old ladder I quickly extricated myself C Work in groups. Tell your partners about your personal experience of a memorable journey you have had, either close to home or travelling further afield D_ Write the first paragraph of your story, or maybe one of your partners’ stories. 83 CCU SHE UL SK LAs Le A Work in pairs. Decide which of these sentences sound right and which don’t. 1 We dreadfully enjoyed our holiday. We particularly enjoyed our holiday. We quite enjoyed our holid: We remarkably enjoyed our holiday. We slightly enjoyed our holiday. We very much enjoyed our holiday. 2. The weather was bitterly cold ‘The weather was deeply cold. The weather was extraordinarily cold. ‘The weather was greatly cold. ‘The weather was rather cold. The weather was utterly cold. The weather was quite cold ‘The weather was absolutely cold. 3. The food was absolutely perfect. ‘The food was fairly perfect ‘The food was almost perfect. The food was extremely perfect. ‘The food was highly perfect ‘The food was awfully perfect. The food was quite perfect The food was very perfect. => What are the differences in meaning between the sentences that do sound right? B Work in pairs. Fill the gaps with adverbs from the list below. Use a different adverb in each gap. Later, join another pair and compare answers 11 agree with what you just said 2 She resented my interference. 31 adore Chinese food. 4 We regretted what we had done. 5 It was dark and I was alone, 6 We prefer travelling by car. 7 Pve forgotten what I was going to say. 81 appreciate what you have done. 9 You really have been kind 10 Are you sure that you understood what they meant? absolutely altogether amfully bitterly completely deeply dreadfully entirely especially extraordinarily extremely fully greatly highly incredibly particularly perfectly quite (= absolutely) really remarkably simply strikingly terribly thoroughly totally utterly very much C Now fill these gaps with adverbs from the list above, again using a different adverb in each sentence. 1 Twas sorry for what I had done. 2. We decided to approach the problem differently 3. This work has been done well. 4 She is a(n) nice person, but he is a(n) nasty character. 5 Itwasa(n) unusual restaurant. 6 Have you finished? 7 He was driving dangerously 8 Tt was a(n) interesting story 9 Twas certain I had met them before. 10 We were disappointed when the show was called off. "> Which of these qualifying adverbs could you use in each of the sentences above? almost nearly pretty quite(= somewhat) rather slightly somewhat 84 D Adjectives with ‘absolute’ meanings like these aren’t normally intensified with very or extremely. But we can emphasise them with absolutely, really and quite (= absolutely) absurd appalling afl brilliant delightful enormous essential excellent furious hopeless huge impossible marvellous perfect splendid terrible vital wonderful Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable adjectives and emphasising adverbs. 1 Itsounds as though you had a(n) time on holiday. 2. We stayed in a(n) hotel 3. We had a(n) journey 4 Itwas to change our holiday booking at the last minute. 5 She is a(n) musician, but she’s terribly temperamental. 6 Her performance was E Work in groups. Tell your partners about some holidays, day trips and journeys you remember, using some of the vocabulary you've practised in this section. one A Work in groups and discuss these questions: © Have you ever flown? If so, how often? What was it like? © Are you afraid of flying? If so, why? © What would you say toa friend who refuses to travel by plane? B In this passage the writer, Jonathan Raban, is waiting at an airport in the United States for a flight to Seattle. First read the passage ~ and enjoy it. I spend a lot of time anxiously listening to the announcements over the loudspeaker system. In almost all respects, these summonses and bulletins are enunciated with extreme clarity by women speaking in the painfully slow and fulsomely stressed tones of infant teachers in a school for special-need children. It is only when they reach the flight number of the plane concerned or the name of the passenger who must immediately report to the United Airlines jonarhan Raban information desk that their voices go into misty soft focus. I keep on hearing that | am urgently wanted, but sit tight, fearing paranoia. They don’t want me. They can't want me. They want Josephine Rubin, or John A.T. Horobin, or Sean | 10 O'Riordain, or Jennifer Raymond, or Jonah the Rabbi or Rogers and Braybourne. When I first arrived here, I fed some coins into a newspaper-dispenser and took out a copy of the local broadsheet - the Post-Dispatch, the Courant, the Plain Dealer, the Tribune, the Herald, or whatever it was. It was an unhappy diversion, It, spoke too eloquently of the world one had left behind by coming here - that | 1s interesting world of Schoo! Board Split, City Cop on ‘Take, Teamsters Boss To Quit, Highways Commission Probe — Official. It made me feel homesick for reality: the only news that interested me now was the depressing stuff on the V.D.U.s. Cancelled. Delayed. Did the controllers ever get to write Crashed, Missing, Hijacked on these sereens? 2 85 86 ‘What puzzles me is that I seem to be entirely alone in my frustration and distress Almost every flight is going out late, and there must be several thousand people in airport, switching their departure gates, phoning home, putting another Scoteh- and-soda down on their tab in the cocktail lounge. ‘The men’s neckties are loosened, their vests unbuttoned. They sit with open briefcases, papers spread in front of them as if this place was a comfortable home-from-home. I watch one man near me. He's got a can of beer, a basket of popcorn, and he's two thirds of the way through a sci-fi thriller by Arthur C. Clarke. The bastard hasn't got a care in the world. His eyes never drift up to the V.D.U.; he never cocks his head anxiously when Teacher starts talking through the overhead speakers. He's on a domestic flight. He's a domestic flier. An hour and a half later it is still raining, but we're getting somewhere here ~ at least | thought so 50 minutes ago when | buckled in to seat 38F and began looking out through the lozenge of scratched, multiplex plastic at the men in earmuffs and storm-gear on the ground below. Since then we haven't budged. We've suffered faint, pastiche imitations of Scott Joplin, Count Basie and Glen Miller on the muzak system. My neighbour in 38E, who is careless of the usual rules of body space, has worked her way slowly through four pages of the National Enquirer, moving her lips as she reads. In the seats ahead, there has been a good deal of folding and refolding of copies of Business Week and the Wall Street Journal. Still no one seems much disconcerted except me. The inside of the plane is hot and getting hotter. The stewards, flirting routinely among themselves, are proof against any damn-fool questions from me. ‘The muzak clicks off. A voice clicks on. “Hi!” — and that seems to be it for a good long time. ‘Then, “I'm, uh, Billy Whitman, and I'm going to be your pilot on this flight here to...” I think I can hear Mr Whitman consulting his clipboard. “ . . . uh, Seattle this morning. Well - it was meant to be morning, but it looks to me now to be getting pretty damn close to afternoon..." He's putting on the entire cowlicked, gum-shifting country boy performance. “I guess some of you folks back there may be getting a little antsy ‘bout this delay we're having now in getting airborne . . . Well, we did run into a bit of a glitch with Control up there, getting our flight-plan sorted ...” We haven't got a flight-plan? Is Mr Whitman waiting for someone to bring him a map? “But they got that fixed pretty good now, and in, uh, oh, a couple or three minutes, we should be closing the doors, and I'm planning on getting up into the sky round about ten minutes after that. So if you all sit tight now, we'll be getting this show right on the road. Looks pretty nice up there today . .. no weather problems that I can see so far . .. at least, once we get atop this little local overcast... and I'm looking for a real easy trip today. Have a good one, now, and I'll be right back to you just as soon as we go past something worth looking out the window for. Okay?” Click. After the video and the stewards’ dumbshow about what to do in “the unlikely event” of our landing on water (where? The Mississippi?), Captain Whitman takes us on a slow ramble round the perimeter of the airport. We appear to be returning to the main terminal again when the jet takes a sudden deep breath, lets out a bull roar, and charges down the runway, its huge frame shuddering fit to bust. Its wings are actually flapping now, trying to tear themselves out at their roots in the effort to achieve lift-off. It bumps and grinds. The plastic bulkheads are shivering like gongs. Rain streams past the window, in shreds, at 200 miles an hour. ” ‘This is the bit | hate. We're not going fast enough. We're far too heavy to bring off this trick. We're breaking up. To take this flight was tempting fate one time too many. We're definitely goners this time. But the domestic fliers remain stupidly oblivious to our date with death. They go | 75 on reading. They're lost in the stock market prices. They're learning that Elvis Presley never died and has been living as a recluse in Dayton, Ohio. These things engage them. These guys are— bored. The fact, clear enough to me, that they are at this moment rocketing into eternity is an insufficiently diverting one to make them even raise their eyes from their columns of idiot print. « Somehow (and this Captain Whitman must know a thing or two) we manage to unpeel ourselves from the obstinate earth, which suddenly begins to tilt upwards in the glass. An industrial outskirt of the city shows as an exposed tangle of plumbing, there's a gridlock of cars on a freeway interchange, their headlamps shining feebly through the drizzle. The airport beneath us is marked out like a schoolbook | ss geometrical puzzle. Then, suddenly, we're into a viewless infernal region of thick smoke, with the plane skidding and wobbling on the bumpy air. It’s rattling like an old bus on a dirt road. In 38E we're deep in the miracle of Oprah Winfrey's diet. In 38F we're beginning to suspect that we might conceivably survive. My ears are popping badly. The noise of the engines changes from a racetrack | s# snarl to the even threshing sound of a spin-dryer. On an even keel now, we plough up steadily through the last drifts and rags of storm cloud and the whole cabin fills, with sudden brilliant sunshine. We're in the clear and in the blue; aloft, at long last, over America. (from Hunting Mr Heartbreak by Jonathan Raban) C Decide whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F), according to the text. Justify your answers to a partner. 1 The writer can easily understand every word of the airport announcements. 2. Reading the local newspaper fails to cheer him up. 3. He feels angry with the other passengers for not being scared, like him. 4 He observes that the men seem to feel less at ease than the women at the airport. 5. The woman sitting beside him is well-educated. 6 The National Enquirer is a business newspaper 7 The pilot seems tense. 8. The flight is going to take them across the ocean. 9. He is reassured by the pilot’s announcement. 10. They take off after taxiing all round the airfield. 11 He doesn’t usually feel frightened during take-off. 12 He realises that he is not the only person aboard who is terrified 13 As the plane takes off there is a wonderful view of the city below. D Gall Highlight tree parts of the passage that amused you. Point them out to a partner, and compare each other’s reactions. Look again at the discussion questions in A ~ what would be the writer’s own answers to the questions, do you think? E all Go through the passage highlighting the vocabulary you want to remember, But that doesn’t mean every word you didn’t know. For example, you probably didn’t know the American slang words antsy or glitch, but you can guess their meanings from the context. 87 Revision and exam practice Rewrite each sentence using the words on the right, but without altering the word in any way 1 Why on earth didn’t you tell me before? ever Why ever didn't you tell me before? 2. Itis fortunate that our tickets arrived in time. luckily 3. We went on waiting until midnight for the plane to take off. still 4 Someone told me my flight was cancelled when I got to the airport. arriving 5 [had never flown before which was why J was very nervous. having 6 Lonly want to spend the rest of my life with you. what 7 They go on holiday in the winter and in the Summer too. not only 8 We didn’t realise that our hotel was right beside the airport. little 9 I propose that we should send him a letter explaining the situation be sent 10. We were amazed about his feelings of shyness. feel 11 She always gets the right answers. never 12. We wrote several letters of complaint before we got our money back. only bod When doing this kind of exercise, first identify the structure that is required, then rewrite the sentence. Concentrate on conveying the meaning as well as getting the grammar right. Don’t change more than you have to. 88. CRMC ESCs A 5 10 5 Read this article through and then answer the questions below The naked truth about road safety VICTIMS of what a BBC television documentary last year called The Greatest Epidemic of Our Time are mostly male, mostly in the prime of life, number some 6,000 a year in Britain, 50,000 in the USA, and worldwide more than quarter of a’ million. And it's not Aids but road accidents. Some 10 million people have been killed on the roads this century. We're talking about something comparable only with natural disasters, famines, disease and war. As far as the citizens of the United States are concerned, cars have killed far more people than wars. Since 1913 nearly 3 million of them have been killed on the roads. This is three times as many as the number killed in all wars that the USA has ever fought, including two World Wars, Korea and Vietnam. Yet the daily slaughter on the roads is Recent aircraft disasters have largely ignored. concentrated our minds on air safety. Our society contemplates road UU RUE ACuLLUay 6 70 6 deaths with a remarkable equanimity which is only disturbed when a great many happen spectacularly in the same place at the same time, as when on ‘Monday 13 people died in the motorway crash on the M6. Horrifying though that figure is, it is less than the average of 16 people in Britain (136 in the USA) whose deaths every day have no memorial. Another spectacular accident occurred the previous Monday when 120 vehicles piled up on the Ml. This took place in thick fog, whereas the M6 crash was in what were described as near perfect driving conditions. Since nobody was killed in the fog crash, and 13 were killed in the other one, it is reasonable to ask what is meant by perfect weather conditions. ‘Common sense tells us that driving is more difficult when there is less daylight and more fog, and when there is less friction between the tyres and the surface of the road. Common sense also tells us to drive more carefully in such conditions, and therefore more safely. When people drive more slowly, collisions are less damaging. Even if there are more accidents, they are less serious. ‘This is confirmed by a ten-year study of traffic accidents in Ontario. The number of injuries was lowest in February, highest in August. The difference’ in fatalities was even more pronounced: just over 80 in February, nearly 200 in August. Statistics in Sweden tell a similar story. John Adams, a lecturer at University College London, speculates that “if all roads were to be paved with a substance having the same coefficient of friction as ice, the number of people killed on the roads would be substantially reduced.” If this proposal sounds a little over the top, it is far from the only one to be found in Dr Adams's recently published study of road safety regulations, Risk and Freedom. Here are some more of his thought-provoking statements, solidly documented and backed by abundant statistics. As traific increases, road accident, deaths drop dramatically. Small cars are involved in fewer accidents than big cars. Bermuda, with a speed limit of 20 mph, has a worse road accident record than’ Britain. ‘The same is true of the United States, which not only has lower speed limits than ours but also better roads. There is no convincing evidence that motorcycle helmet laws or the compulsory wearing of seat belts have saved lives. It is this last statement that Dr Adams's critics, and they are many, have found most contentious. Some of them misrepresent his views in a way which, if it is not wilful, must come from an inability to read. Adams does not deny, as some of them appear to think, that an individual in a car crash has a better chance of survival with some form of constraint (a car oceupant’s seat belt) or protection (a motor cyclist’s crash helmet). What he queries is whether compulsory seat belts, crash helmets and other safety regulations reduce the overall accident and fatality rate. He finds that though there have been reductions in fatalities in some countries in which seat belt laws have been passed, they have not been as great as the reductions that have occurred in the same period in countries in which seat belt laws have not been passed. The argument centres on what is called risk-compensation. Prevent people from taking one risk and they'll Substitute another. Adams makes the point by asking motorcyclists to imagine two sets of circumstances. In one the rider wears helmet and visor, leather jacket and trousers, gauntlets and heavy duty boots. In the other he has no helmet and is wearing a T-shirt, shorts and sandals. Anyone who has ridden a motorbike would agree with Adams's respondents, that they would drive much more’ carefully in the less protected state. The Swedish safety poster showing two motorcyclists who are naked other than for their crash helmets unintentionally makes the same point. They would drive very carefully indeed, and not because of the crash helmets. RICHARD BOSTON B_ ESD Highlight the following words and phrases in the passage and explain their meanings: in the prime of life (line 4) equammity (line 27) friction (line 50) pronounced (line 63) 78) contentious (line 94) misrepresent (line 93) thought-provoking (line 77) abundant (line wilful (line 96) % 108 110 89 C Discuss your answers to these questions with a partner. Highlight the relevant sentence(s) in the passage, then write your answers to the questions, using your own words and without quoting directly from the passage 1 What has been the effect of recent aircraft crashes? 2 What was the difference between the M1 crash and the Mé crash? 3 How does common sense lead to improved road safety? 4 What were the results of the traffic survey in Ontario? 5 How have some of Dr Adams's critics been unfair? D_ Write a summary of the points made by Dr Adams in about 80 words. A Repetition of words in a composition can distract your reader’s attention from what you're trying to say, and make your work look boring or unimaginative — unless it is deliberate and the repetition is meant to catch the reader's attention, Compare these two passages. Which do you prefer — and why? Greece receives eight million foreign Eight million people a year visit visitors a year. These foreign visitors Greece. while eleven million go spend two billion dollars a year. Greek to Switzerland. These visitors visitors to other countries spend half a spend about $300 and $450 Per head, making a contribution of two billion and five billion dollars to the Greek and Swiss national incomes. This is counterbalanced by the money spent by Greek and ‘Swiss visitors to other countries ‘of haif a billion and four billion billion dollars a year. Each foreign visitor to Greece spends about $300. Switzerland receives eleven million foreign visitors a year. These foreign visitors spend five billion dollars a year. Swiss visitors to other countries spend four billion dollars a year. Each foreign visitor to Switzerland spends about IF Sojarssespectvely. B_ Work in pairs. Look at the example before starting the exercise’ 1 Each sentence below contains some statistics about travel and tourism, Rewrite each sentence below, using opposites, synonyms, pronouns or different grammatical structures to make each sentence less repetitive. Compare each of your rewritten sentences with each of another pair's rewritten sentences. Each sentence below contains some statistics about travel and tourism. Rewrite the sentences, using opposites, synonyms, pronouns or different grammatical structures to make them less repetitive. Compare your rewritten sentences with another pair's. 2. 35% of British tourists take a package holiday, less than 10% of German tourists take 2 package holiday. 3 British people spend £500 per head when on holiday, Spanish people spend over £700 per head when on holiday 4 68% of Swedish people take an annual holiday, 64% of British people take an annual holiday, $9% of German people take an annual holiday 90 The Germans spend £24 billion per year on their holidays, the British spend £12 billion per year on their holidays. 6 Three million of Britain’s visitors come from North America, over nine million of Britain’s visitors come from Europe. 7 Heathrow Airport handles 38 million passengers a year, Frankfurt Airport handles 25 million passengers a year, Chicago handles 37 million passengers a year, Atlanta handles 46 million passengers a year, Athens handles 10 million passengers a year, Zurich handles 10 million passengers a year. 8 Inthe USA 120 people are killed in air accidents every year and 30,000 people are killed in road accidents every year Work in pairs. Look at this chart and make some notes for a short article (about 100 words), explaining the information that you think is most interesting, TRAVEL AND TOURISM Country Foreign visitors Annual receipts from Expenditure on (millions per year) tourism ($ billion) tourism ($ billion) | Austria 16 7 4 | France 36 12 8 | Germany 13 8 24 Greece 8 2 0.5 Italy 26 12 4 Japan 2 2 " Netherlands 3 2 6 Portugal 6 2 0.4 Spain 33 6 2 Sweden 08 2 4 Switzerland W 5 4 | UK 16 10 12 | usa 28 15 21 | ALLCOUNTRIES 352 150 150 “Not 10 worry, sir, most people geta little nervous the first tame they crash 91 92 6.10 The impact of tourism Listening & c we Ss e NFU % NEW, ISLANDS | EaLEOONA | 3 a FIJIISLANDS Pacric oceaN as 4 acre aceaw y (io ce, 7 Tekan == You'll hear an interview about the effects of tourism on Fiji in the South Paci Decide which statements are true (T) or false (F), according to the speaker 1A few of the islands of Fiji are uninhabited. 2. About half of the people of Fiji are of Indian origin 3 In 1970 tourism was still a relatively recent phenomenon. 4 Most of the tourists who go to Fiji are from Japan. 5 Most of the money earned by tourism does not benefit the local people. 6 New Zealand exports orange juice to Fiji 7 Fiji cannot provide enough food for its visitors because it is not fertile enough 8. Some schoolchildren in Fiji work as ‘shopping guides’ instead of going to school, 9 The Fijians are still just as friendly as they used to be 10 Tourists rarely find out anything about the local people's lives 11 One effect of tourism is that visitors and locals look down on each other. 12. The relationship between visitors and Fijians is likely to deteriorate in future, Work in groups and discuss these questions: ‘© What did the speaker mean by a ‘mature, sensible, businesslike relationshi © Did the speaker exaggerate the way that all tourists look and behave alike? If what the speaker says is true, why do people bother to travel thousands of miles just for better weather and better service than they can get at home? Should countries like Fiji discourage tourists ~ or segregate them in hotel zones to ‘protect’ the local people from them? How are foreign tourists treated in your country? How do they behave there? What has been the impact of tourism in your country? Write a newspaper article describing the impact of tourism on a place that you know in your country, or another country you know (about 330 words) Make notes before you start writing, 6.11 Come +go A. Find synonyms for the phrases in italics, or explain their meaning. Use a dictionary if necessary She was very upset at first, but she came to terms mith it eventually Lexpected my arrangements to go off without a hitch, but they came 10 nothing. Her early success ment to her head and she did no more work the rest of the year She kept teasing the dog, so it wasn’t surprising that it ment for her. How is your work coming along? ‘If you come along mith me, I'll show you.” It's no good, I've gone aff the idea. I can’t go through with it. Let's go through these points again, in case they come up in the exam. Go ahead, you can take my Swiss army knife with you — it may come in useful “Lhear that her coming of age party went off very well.’ ‘Yes, it did, and your present ment down well too.’ ‘She's decided to go it alone and start her own business.’ ‘I only hope it comes to something and doesn’t turn out to be a disaster.” ‘Don’t worry, she’s gone into al the financial forecasts very thoroughly.” eau B__ Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable phrases from the list below. You may need to change the form of the verbs 1 They the brilliant idea of taking in overnight guests. 2 When is her new book ? 3 ‘Ise that bus fares have again.’ ‘Well, they never do they?” 4. My suitcase is practically brand new but it on the luggage carousel 5. She him until he gave in and agreed to the competition 6 The day before their holiday, they both flu 7 He stays on the beach, while she water-skiing and skin-diving. 8. She took a lot of persuading but eventually she to our point of view 9 Pll wait till the matter naturally in the course of the conversation 10. P’ve just been reading that fascinating old guide book. Where did you iv come across come apart come out come round come up come up with go down go down with go in for 20 0off goonal goup C Write the first paragraph of a story using as many verbs and idioms from above as possible, beginning When | came back . . . And thank you for flying Globus Airline Or any aurline, for that master.” 7 Consumers Baek ec Sucetd ceo F SUE SEES CC with your partners: A. Work in groups. Discuss these questior © Which of the places shown above do you enjoy shopping at? Give your reasons Think of the area you live in, Which is vour favourite place locally to ger: magazines stationery books clothes tapes or CDs electrical goods * Do you enjoy going shopping? Give your reasons, 94 B__ In these sentences, THREE of the alternatives are correct and the rest are wrong. Decide which are correct and why the wrong alternatives seem incorrect. 1 Thaven’t heard of Snibbo Coffee before: is it a new ? brand ¥ category commodity make ¥ species style variety 7 2 The was thronged with shoppers on the Saturday before Christmas. boutique business kiosk mall shopping centre precinct 3. They stock a wide range of in most department stores. articles goods materials merchandise objects _ supplies 4 The goods they have on offer in the market are certainly abargain good value invaluable valued value for money worthy Complaints about goods should be made to the retailer, not the author creator inventor manufacturer supplier wholesaler 6 Consumer protection laws must be observed by every end user patron purchaser retailer trader vendor 7 Shopkeepers can be fined if they the law break contradict. contravene disregard omit 8 An electronic cash register keeps a record of every bargain contract deal negotiation purchase sale transaction 9. Manufacturers can inform the public about a new product by mail order by propaganda in advertisements in commercials on posters 10 If you want a shop to keep something for you until later, you may have to giveadiscount givearefund make adown payment open an account paya bribe payadeposit paya ransom pay cash down 11 You can get something repaired free of charge if it’s still under assurance certificate guarantee twelve months old warranty 12. Sales staff are trained to be polite and helpful to every client customer dealer merchant purchaser stockist 13 Lenjoy going to that shop because the staff are so courteous helpful humble knowledgeable lenient obsequious subservient C === You'll hear an interview with Amanda Hooper, who is a department manager in a large department store. Her department sells menswear, boyswear and sports equipment. Note down your answers to these questions: 1 What does Amanda enjoy about her job? What are her responsibilities? 3 What are the responsibilities of a sales assistant? What are the disadvantages of working in a department store? 5 What are her ambitions? => Compare your answers with a partner. Then discuss what you would enjoy about doing Amanda’s job — and the job of a sales assistant. DM Work in groups of three or four, Imagine that you are all about to start work in a shop and are pooling ideas on how to handie customers. Student A should look at Activity 2, student B at 8, C at 17 (and D at 45) for ideas to share. Decide which of the ideas seem most useful — not only for sales assistants, but also, more generally, for dealing with people in other situations too manda Hooper 95 7.2__West Edmonton Mall Gee) A Read this article and nove down which aspects of West Edmonton Mall would appeal to you, and which would not ‘Then compare your notes with a partner, and discuss your reactions to the article 96 Canada’s palace of kitsch convenience FIRST impressions of the West Edmonton Mall are numbingly familiar, especially if you enter by the cast wing. Outside, the sleet may be whipping across the flatlands of Alberta, but the processed ambience swiftly renders your senses supine in a manner well known to any visitor to Gateshead’s Metro Centre or London's Brent Cross. There is antiseptic Muzak and the glare of fluorescent lights. The concourse is decorated with indoor plants and “anchored” ~ to use the parlance of this most fanatical of service industries ~ at each end by a major department store. Wander for a day among its glass and plastic halls and discover a complex so vast that its length is three times the height of the Empire State Building. The pursuit of aimless leisure here approaches the surreal. It is not the kind of place you drop in to for a bag of jelly babies and a packet of cigarettes. When you visit West Edmonton Mall and its avalanche of attractions, there is only one thing to do — hand in your coat at the cloakroom and submit. You could go both barmy and bankrupt in this place and it wouldn’t hurt a bit, For as well as the consumer seductions of Ikea, Sears, Athletes’ World and 800 other shops, a thematic mock-up of New Orleans’ Bourbon Street containing several of the Mall's 110 eating establishments, plus a chapel, a nightclub and a bingo hall, West Edmonton Mall ofiers far more. There is Fantasyland, a full-scale children’s funfair complete with dodgems, miniature railway and stomach-churning repertoire of plunges, slides and spins; the World Waterpark, whose main pool features the Blue Thunder wave machine and a labyrinth of spiralling, high- velocity tunnel rides; the Deep Sea Adventure, an artificial oceanscape containing a replica of Christopher Columbus's ship. the Santa Maria, six mini-submarines for sub-aquatic sightseeing, a school of dolphins and an entire community of undersea life; a competition-standard skating rink, the Ice Palace; an 18-hole miniature golf course; a 19-studio cineplex and, of course, 15 banks and other financial service outlets. When the mall's public relations person reaches for comparisons, she does not trouble with the obvious competitors but talks about Disneyland. “We've created a 365-day-a-year summer environnient which provides entertainment for people. We have something for everyone. Disney has set the standard, and T like to think we match it.” Mickey Mouse himself would have to admit she has a point. West Edmonton Mall is not so much a shopping city as a fully integrated consumer fantasy that succeeds in being mindless, utterly ridiculous and absolutely out of this world. My girlfriend and I, and our two young children, meandered among the fountains and plastic mouldings in a condition of ever- increasing gormlessness, simultaneously stunned and seduced by the diabolically manufactured mechanism for parting you from your critical faculties and your cash. Everything is scrupulously designed to prolong your visit and, in the end, everything is welcome. For example, is there a Western parent alive who, in the middle of a frantic day, would not welcome the oasis of a children’s facility like Fantasyland? An hour of such blissful respite. followed by coffee and a sandwich at some glitzy pre-fab café, and we were ready once again to disappear into our consumer daze, blithely coughing up a few more dollars for a tiepin, a woolly hat or baseball pennant, pausing to peer down at the sharks which glide through the depths of the Deep Sea Adventure or to gawp swivel-eyed at the Ice Palace skaters. In its idiotic way, it’s all too wonderful for words. I like malls, partly because they usually fulfil their promise to be clean. safe and efficient, but mostly because they emit such a stupefying sensory cocktail of obsession, ostentation and overkill. At West Edmonton Mall - the world’s biggest, according to the Guinness Book of Records - these characteristics reach absurd heights. Mall-building is a precise science and this indoor panorama is nothing if not state-of-the- art, It is not that the shopping itself is so very thrilling; as ever with such malls, the stores are plentiful but ultimately banal. Rather, the pleasure is in being part of a quietly lunatic alternative universe where the thin line that divides shopping from entertainment in the late ‘twentieth century becomes almost totally erased. Entirely the product of private capital, West Edmonton Mail is owned by the Triple Five Corporation, the company of the Ghermazin family (three brothers and their father), who came from Iran to New York as rug traders, moved to Montreal and later made good with the discovery of Albertan oil. West Edmonton Mall bas been built with the proceeds, a financial investment well over the $1 billion mark. ‘As well as the World Waterpark, the Ice Palace and Fantasyland , it includes a hotel - the Fantasyland Hotel, naturally — as final confirmation, perhaps, that the mall is not just a place to pass through, but a modern day pleasure dome. Can you imagine spending your holiday in a glorified shopping precinct? Well, plenty of people do, booking in to any of half-a-dozen themed Fantasyland Hotel quarters with names like “Hollywood”, “Polynesian” and “Truck”. Others simply take in the mall as part of bigger package tours. Of the annual 20 million visitors, around nine million are tourists, including a growing proportion of Japanese for whom no North American itinerary is complete without dropping in on Disneyland, Disney World and the mall. With pilgrims descending on it from all corners of the globe, the maill enjoys a status approaching that of a sacred monument where worshippers pay homage with their credit cards. As a way to spend your time, West Edmonton Mall is as gratifyingly mind-rotting an experience as you could wish, positive proof that everyone should become a consumer zombie at least once in their lives. Dave Hill B Decide whether these statements are true (T) or false (F), according to the article. Justify your answers by finding the relevant information in the text It is closed on Sundays and holidays. Bowie ‘The writer had never visited a large shopping mall before West Edmonton Mall appeals mainly to dedicated shoppers. You can put on a wet suit and mingle with the dolphins underwater You can swim, skate and play golf all the year round there West Edmonton Mail is the second largest shopping centre in the world. The writer's family were enchanted by the Mall, but he detested it wholeheartedly. They only bought a few odds and ends. It was constructed from the profits of a carpet business. Most of the visitors to West Edmonton Mall are not Canadian. For many visitors a visit to West Edmonton Mall is rather like a religious experience. The writer seems to have an ambivalent love-hate attitude to the Mall 2 97 C G@ Highlight the following words in the article and work out their meanings from the context. The paragraph numbers (§) are given. Match their meanings to the words below parlance§ 2 avalanche 43 barmy§4 mock-up $4 meandered © critical faculnes§7 oasis §8 blithely §9 coughing up ©9 state-of-the-art 410 banal 10 proceeds 411 pleasure dome ® 12 glorified Y13- gratifvingly 914 ability to judge objectively agreeably crazy ina carefree manner jargon palace of delights plethora profits refuge repetitious and dull replica seeming more important than reality spend ultra-modern wander Now fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable words from above 1 It was a four-day camel ride before we reached the 2. They donated the of the jumble sale to charity 3. They were complimentary about my essay, but I thought it was rather Maybe their are not very sharp! 4+ He strolled into the interview room an hour late — he must be ' 3 Wehad to £25 when we lost our car park ticket 6 A shop isa ‘retail outlet’ in commercial 7 They received an of replies to the advertisement for ‘senior administrator’ ~ but I think they"re just looking for a office boy 8 The architect constructed a of the new mall to show to her clients. 9. This hi-fi system contains all the latest features 10. The stream across the plain and chen flowed into the river. VAP ee cs CPU A. Work in pairs. Discuss any differences in meaning between these sentences: 1 I didn’t have time to read the paper this morning, Thaven’t had time to read the paper this morning 2. Thad tea when Pam came in. I was having tea when Pam came in. 3. By the time we had had iunch it was 2.30. By the time we had lunch it was 2.30 4 Where has Steve gone for his holiday? Where does Steve go for his holiday? Where is Steve going for his holiday Where did Steve go for his holiday? Where has Steve been going for his holiday 5 Thad hoped you would invite me I was hoping you would invite me. I did hope you would invite me Thoped vou would invite me. 6 What are you doing? What do you do? What have you done > What have you been doing? B Fill each of the blanks with a suitable word or phrase. 1 [haven't seen Ruth for ages. I believe I last saw her at Christmas. 2 Where that nice new jumper? The colour really you well! 3. Come quickly! There an accident ~ I think someone hurt + Even though just rain, we to go cut for a walk, thinking that it last long — and sure enough the sun soon 98 The back door just painted. If you it, you paint on your hands 6 Irs high time Bill to the hairdresser’s ~ he his hair cut the beginning of term 7 Here souare at last’ We waiting for you 7.30 — where > Why you tell us that you late? You phoned us before we home, then we the beginning of the show 8 When achild I spend all my money on sweets, but now I Work in groups. Look at these photos and discuss the questions below ¢ How have shops and stores changed over the past 10 or 20 years? How has your local shopping area changed recently? What new shops have opened up? Which shops have closed down or gone out of business? Why? How has the awareness (and power) of consumers changed over the years? © Describe your own shopping habits ~ past and present. = Make notes on you! paragraphs, summarising oup’s discussion and then write a couple of he main ideas that came across. 99 Ce ee Cure es SC A Work in groups and discuss these questions: © Which of these factors are most important when buying he products below? QUALITY PRICE SERVICE PARKING CONVENIENCE FRIENDLY «Dv food clothes books electrical goods apes or CDs B_ =~ You'll need to hear the broadcast twice. As you listen f choose the word or phrase which best completes each sentence. 1 Apart from its main store, there are Mitsukoshi branches in Japan 414 40 H 2. The ‘Ladies Club’ provides, companionship discounts free lunches courses 3. The facilities offered at other Japanese department stores are to Mitsukosht identical inferior dissimilar comparable + English is spoken by of the sales stafl all most none some 3 Atopening time, the sales staff are all standing at the main entrance waiting at therr tills, ready to greet you as you enter their department handing out brochures, 6 Japanese department stores are oper every day of the week every day except Sunday every day except national holidays six days a week 7 Atone store the sales staff wear badges showing their hobbies so that they don’t need to wear a uniform you know who they are customers can relate to them as people they seem more interesting 8 Japanese department stores are in direct competition with discount stores each other mail order houses supermarkets 100 Listen to the broadcast again. Fill the gaps in these sentences. 1A ticket for a lunchtime performance at the theatre includes containing sushi, . anda 2. There is a creche for shoppers’ babies called a * babies’ and a room for older children In the food department there are hundreds of separate selling everything from to On the upper floors you can find many small In summer, you can go up to the roof garden where you can sit in a and enjoy the and a rooftop Summer in Japan officially begins on and ends on Ar the main entrance you can get a store guide and in English. The lift operators wear little hats and gloves. As you enter the lift they to you and you 9. Department stores in Japan are open from to 10 Some department stores are owned by companies. There vou can take the lift down to the where your is waiting. 11 Japanese department stores compere in terms of show much of a it is to go there, and the of goods on offer. 12 At Mitsukoshi in London, helping Japanese tourists encourages ae won Work in groups and discuss sour reactions to the broadcast. © How do Japanese stores compare with stores in your country? © Which of their facilities and services seem most attractive? © Ifyou were going to open a shop, what would you sell? What facilities and services would you offer to your customers? oe When you're doing a listening task in the exam you'll hear the recording twice. During the first listening, just answer the easier questions. Then on the second listening, concentrate on the questions you missed. If you still can’t get some answers, don’t leave a blank — trust to luck and make a guess! “Decision time, Do we want ‘The Original’ “Award-Winning” or ‘New and Improved'?” 101 VA sy ENC dura A mpound nouns can be made up of a noun + another noun: service industry department store pleasure dome credit card bur ade Or they can be made up of an adjective + a noun* central heating public relations open air indoor plants yellow pages Or they can be longer phrases: cost of living rule of thumb do-it-yourself value added tax Most compound nouns consist of two separate words. But some are hyphenated, and some are single words. There are no hard-and-fast rules about this dry-cleaning nightclub sunglasses hack-seat driver cover-up ™ Look again at the article about West Edmonton Mall in 7.2 and underline the compound nouns in the first six paragraphs. B Form compound nouns by combining words from the left-hand list with words from the right-hand list advertising air burglar common agency agent alarm attack drawing driving estate fancy benefit breakdown business clip generation greenhouse hay conditioning crossing dress heart hire income junk mail effect fever food forecast gap mother nervous package paper licence mall meter money parking pedestrian pocket road order pin purchase sense shopping show unemployment shopping tax tongue tour weather window works C Here are the first words of some common two-word compound nouns. What are the second words? In some cases there may be several possibilities inverted commas general knowledge mineral water _air-traffic price one-parent current stainless, traveller's ‘compact exclamation ten-pound swimming skating delivery jumble chain clearance wastepaper D Fill the gaps with suitable compound nouns from A, Band C: 1 People ina often spend more time than actually buying things 2. I didn’t have enough money in my to cover a cheque, so | used my 3. You can pick up some good bargains at a ora 4 Ifyou buy something from a catalogue. there's a to be added on 5. Those black stripes on the back cover of this book are its 6 If you want to buy a house go to an . but to book a holiday go to a 7 Linadvertently threw my invitation to the party into the 8 Going on holiday? Don’t forget to take your and * These are not quite the same as adjectives modifying nouns: central heating ~ the heating is central X efficient heating ~ rhe heating is efficient public relations — the relations are public Xa public place —this place is too public 7 102 BO RU Ug Lice Re RL DO ADVERTISEMENTS SOMETIMES DISTORT THE TRUTH? Th Every week hu of advertisements appear for the very firse time Nearly all of them plav fair with the people thev are addressed to. A handiul do nor. Thev misrepresent the products they are advertising As the Advertising Standard rite it is our job co make sure are identified, and stopped. WHAT MAKES AN ADVERTISEMENT MISLEADING? answer is ves, same do, sds of thousands eS a a raining course had turned a7 stone weakling into Mr Universe the ised because it had fact couk been proved. Bur a promise to build ‘vou’ into a 15 stone he-man would have us tlesing our muscles because the promise could not always be kept Makes vou wounger che a onable claim for a cosmetic Bur pledgin; co take vears otf your life’ would be an overclaim akin wo a promise of eremal vouth, Ag centre's claim thar its seedlings would produce a ‘rior of colour in just a few dave’ might be Quite contrary to loo rea the reality Such flowery prose would deserve to be pulled our by the roots. Ita brochure advertised a hotel as being '5 minutes walk to the beach’, it not require an Olympic athlete to clo icin the time, As for estate agents, if the phrase ‘overlooking the river’ translated to backing onto a ditch’, there would be nothing for it but to show their ad the door HOW’ DO WE JUDGE THE ADS WE LOOK INTO? Our yardstick is The British Code of Advertising Practice. lus 300 rules give advertisers precise practical guidance on what they can and cannot say. The rules are also a for media owners to assess che acceptability of any advertising they are asked to publish The Code covers magazines, newspapers, cinema commercials, brochures, leaflets, posters, circulars posted to you, and now commercials on video tapes. The ASA is not responsible for TV and radio advertising. Though the rules are very similar they are administered by the Independent Broadcasting Authority 50 55 65 70 0 103 104 6 100 108 110 WHY IT’S A TWO-WAY PROCESS Unfortunately some advertisers are unaware of the code, and breach the rules unwittingly. Others forget, bend or deliberately ignore the rules. That is why we keep a continuous check on advertising, But because of the sheer volume, we cannot monitor every advertiser all the time. So we encourage the public to help by telling us about any advertisements they think ought not to have appeared. WHAT DO WE DO TO ADVERTISERS WHO DECEIVE THE PUBLIC? Our first step is to ask advertisers who we or the public challenge to back up their claims with solid evidence. If they cannot, or refuse to, we ask them co either amend the ads or witless ttteen coMplere ty Nearly all agree without any further argument. In any case we inform the publishers, who will not knowingly accept any ad which we have decided contravenes the Code. If the advertiser refuses to withdraw the advertisement he will find it hard if not impossible to have it published, Last year over 7,500 people wrote to us. WHOSE INTERESTS DO WE REALLY REFLECT? The Advertising Standards Authority was not created by law and has no legal powers. Not unnaturally some people are sceptical about its effectiveness. In fact the Advertising Standards Authority was set up by the advertising business to make sure the system of self control worked in the public interest. For this to be credible, the ASA has to be totally independent of the business. Neither the chairman nor the majority of ASA council members is allowed to have any involvement in advertising. Though administrative costs are met by a levy on the business, no advertiser has any influence over ASA decisions. Actvertisers are aware (Cis ay much in their own interests as itis in the public’s that honesty should be seen to prevail. Ifyou would like to know more about the ASA and the rules it seeks to enforce you can write 10 us at the address below for an abridged copy of the Code. The Advertising Standards Authority. Ifan advertisement is wrong, we're here t0 put it right. ASA Lid, Dept. T, Brook House, Torrington Place, London WC1E THN. \ A GW Highligh: these words in the passage and then write an explanation of what they mean: a handful (line 7) weakling (line 16) pledging (line 28) ditch (line 50) yardstick (line 55) _ breach (line 84) akin (line 31) unwittingly (line 85) monitor (line 89) sceptical (line 120) levy (line 133) B__ Explain who or what is referred to by the words encircled in the quotations below. You'll need to refer back to the passage to do this. rly all of @hemplay fair with the people Ghepare addressed to (line 5) CThev)misrepresent the products (line 7) would have @)flexing our muscles (line 20) must not require an Olympic athlete to do(@))in the time (line 46) what @heyean and cannot say (line 59) any advertising (heyDare asked to publish (line 62) any advertisements Gia think ought not to have appeared (line 93) If Ghey cannot (line 101) or Withdraw Ghem completely (line 103) sceptical about (its)effectiveness (ine 120) For histo be credible (line 125) C Write your answers to these questions: 1 What examples of misrepresentative advertisements are given? 2 How does the ASA act on complaints made by members of the public? 3. How does the ASA maintain its independent status? D__ In about 80 words, describe the role of the ASA and how it operates. Make notes before you start writing. (A Ue ied CPE WMUCLE A. Fill the gaps in the sentences in this revision exercise 1 When a complaint, I prefer to be friendly and polite, instead of aggressive or rude. I found out what ingredients the product contained by the label. On that it contained artificial flavouring, I decided against it, It’s no use him, he won't take any notice of you. ‘There's no point in the book in translation if it’s available in English It's impossible to sneeze without your eves. Inaddition to this course, she spends a lot of time at home things like novels in English and with friends by letters, I’ve heard so much about you, I’ve really been looking forward you 8 I felt depressed because I’m not used alone. ute ow B_ Study these examples before filling the gaps in the exercise below: I very much appreciated their/ them coming to see me. -eryone's/everyone feeling ill after the meal. Janet/ Her arriving on time for a change was quite a surprise The possessive (their, everyone's, her) in the examples sounds more formal than a straightforward pronoun or noun (them, everyone, Janet). A possessive is not normally used when several words are involved I very much appreciated Janet and Maurice coming to see me. 105 A possessive cannot be used after verbs like see, hear, feel, notice, watch and smell: Can you smell something burning? I didn't hear you calling me. 1 Their father doesn’t approve of home late. And he doesn’t approve of television either. In fact, he insists on home before 11 and says that books will improve their minds. 2. We were all delighted to hear about Bill so well in the interview. His success is due to such a good impression on the interviewer. 3. They both smoke like chimneys, and I can’t get used to during meals, and me for a light is particularly irritating. 4 Pllnever forget that time we went for a walk with Tony and Jane. Do you remember into the river and then to save him? C Finish the incomplete sentences in such a way that each one means the same as the complete sentence before it. 1 don’t advise you to travel to London to do your shopping. It isn't worth 2. It was inconsiderate of you not to consult me beforehand. Your 3. We were upset that he forgot to inform us. We were upset about his 4 It might be a better idea to save your money, not spend it Instead of 5 She is a champion athlete and speaks four languages fluently Besides 6 He hasa job in an office and works in a shop at weekends. As well as 7 You won't find out if they're open if you don’t phone them Without 8 AsI opened the door, I heard a strange noise. While 9 He has been in love with her from the moment he first saw her. Ever since 10. Let’s do something exciting: for example, we could take up windsurfing Shall we do something exciting, like ...? 7.8 Sequencing ideas ZX The sequence in which points are made in an essay changes their impact on the reader. Some points have to be arranged in a logical order, and related ideas are often grouped together; some points can be arranged in different ways to provide different kinds of emphasis, The first point often ‘sets the scene’ for the rest of the essay, while the final point is usually perceived as the conclusion. A Work in pairs. Decide on a suitable sequence for these ideas about ‘The Green Consumer’. Discuss what difference rearranging the points in various ways makes to the strength of the argument Compare your sequence of points with the sequence used in the passage in Activity 44. Your sequence may turn out to be different from the original. 1 We must mobilise consumer power to defend not only our own health but the health of the planet More and more consumers want to buy responsible products Advertising creates false ‘plastic’ needs, often forcing out real needs Concern about effects on environment: locally & globally Concern about effects on our own health Concern about effects on Third World oasen 106 7 People increasingly concerned about what they consume 8 Green Consumers demanding more information about environmental performance of products & animal testing & implications for Third World 9 People want to know what additives their food & drink contains B_ Now write a summary of these points from The Green Consumer Guide in your own words, arranging them into a suitable order. (about 60 words) KEY ISSUES FOR THE GREEN CONSUMER In general, the Green Consumer avoids products which are likely to © adversely affect other countries, particularly in the Third World © cause significant damage to the environment during manufacture, use or disposal © use materials derived from threatened species or from threatened environments © cause unnecessary waste, either because of over- packaging or because of an unduly short useful life © consume a disproportionate amount of energy during manufacture, use or disposal endanger the health of the consumer or of others involve the unnecessary use of — or cruelty to - animals, whether this be for toxicity testing or for other purposes PGT eae ey Listen to the interview in which an expert outlines a customer's rights in Jaw when buying goods. Fill in the gaps and answer the questions below. 1 Whenever a purchase is made, the buyer and seller enter into a 2 The trader has three main obligations: a) that the goods are ‘of quality’ (this includes goods) ~e.g.a pair of shoes that after two weeks don’t meet this obligation. b) that the goods are ‘fit for any particular made known to the > ~e.g. wrong advice given by salesman fails to meet this obligation. ©) that the goods are ‘as ” by the seller or on the packet ~ e.g. frozen prawns illustrated as and (but which are in fact ) don’t fulfil this obligation. 3 What should you do if goods are faulty? Tick what the speaker recommends a) Take the item back to the shop b) Ask the retailer to collect the item ©) Accept a cash refund d) Accept a credit note e) Accept a replacement f) Agree to the item being repaired g) Return the item to the manufacturer bo00000 107 108 4 A trader is not legally obliged to give a refund ~ if you examined the goods before purchase and didn’t notice any ~if you were told of any specific = if you ~if you the item as a the seller’s advice on the the seller’s claim that he wasn’t about wanting the goods at the time of purchase of the product 5. When can a shopkeeper refuse to sell you something? 6 Why is it advisable to keep your receipt in a safe place? 7 Ifa trader refuses to give vou a cash refund, you should go to your local Cc A B. or to the T Ss Office. 8 Why is it unusual for a dissatisfied customer to take a seller to court? Work in groups and discuss your reactions to the recording: enough to offer advice © What are a customer’s rights in your country? How do they compare with the rights of a customer in England? ‘© Have you ever had to take something back toa shop? What happened? ¢ What advice would you give to a dissatisfied customer about returning goods? Fill the gaps in this newspaper article with suitable prepositions. VOLVO, renowned ......1..... its solid and reliable, if somewhat dull cars, is about to discover how well its estate cars can withstand getting run over 2. a monster truck. The Swedish car company 3....... a reputation .....4 integrity recently ran television commercials filmed ....5.... Texas which showed a row of cars being flattened ............ “Bearfoot! giant truck 7 ; Only a Volvo stood up .....8..... the cruel and unusual punishment. The advertisement depicts the contest 2 a real event, but some residents.......\0..... Austin, ‘Texas, who participated .....1! extras .......12..... what was actually a dramatisation, smelt something fishy and contacted the Attorney- General’s office ....!3..... the filming to pass on their doubts. This week Volvo’s American subsidiary was forced to admit 1... newspaper advertisements that the commercial was phoney because modifications were made 15... the vehicles. The Volvos used ....16...the filming had been reinforced .....17...... timber and steel, and some .....18...... the audience said they saw the roof supports ...!9..... other cars being sawn off Volvo's public grovelling should have been the end .....20...... the matter, but not ....21..... the Hot Rod Association, which produces car-crushing events starring powerful trucks driving .....22 mud and towing 25,000 kg sleds. Now it plans to recreate the Volvo ad, again using Bearfoot but this time the Volvo 240 estate car will be an ordinary road model. “Bearfoot is out ....28..... revenge because it was duped,” says Steve Greenberg ....24..... the HRA. Volvo officials have resigned themselves ....25...... humiliation. “We realise this is a logical extension .....26...... our ads,” concedes a Volvo official. (TEE ae A. Work in groups. Read this article and discuss your reactions to it. Then look at 2 25 pC) ess "=> Before the lesson, collect some advertisements from magazines or newspapers. each other’s ads and discuss how effective they are. CE A POSTER of a blood-spattered new-born baby emblazoned across hoardings all over Bournemouth and Poole may be banned. Complaints have flooded into the Advertising Standards Authority and to hoarding companies and at least two local posters have already been covered up. United Colours of Benetton, the fashion firm advertised, was warned against its display by the ASA. “We advised them against using it because we felt it likely it would cause considerable offence,” said ASA official Caroline Crawford. “We were very surprised to find they have been displaying it.” ‘The Authority has had hundreds of phone calls and letters from around the country ~ some from areas where it was on show outside maternity departments and even an abortion clinic. Locally, the poster is on show at several sites: in Bournemouth and ss Poole, including a hoarding near Poole Quay, close to Tower Park and at The Triangle. One hoarding — company accepting the poster, Maiden Ltd, has already blanked out two of its sites in Holdenhurst Road following complaints - but one still remains near Bournemouth Station. One has been covered up near ASDA superstore after customer complaints and one outside Nigel Newbery's butcher shop next door to the Dolphin pub in Holdenhurst Road. ‘As the hoarding was being blanked out by a workman, 32-yea old Mr Newbery explained: “I complained to the hoarding company after customers kept coming in complaining. “Personally I find it very offensive. My own ten-year-old daughter Amanda said it was horrible and even my seven-year old Nicola said it was ‘gross’. 2 8 0 109 110 55 60 % “I know that’s what new-born children look like and it’s different if you're looking at your own ~ but what's it got to do with clothes and fashion?” Round the corner in Victoria Place, 53-year-old mother of five, Sandra Gray phoned up to protest. “It's horrible. All the people I work with agree all that blood and gore is not something you want on a giant poster. It could disturb a mother-to-be.” ‘A Benetton press officer said: “At first we had a negative response, but recently the calls were equally divided between those upset and those congratulating us on its reality. We don’t come into the world as pink fluffy bundles. Many want copies and say they wish they'd photographed their children at such an exhilarating and profound moment,” she added. She continued: “Earlier, we emphasised the unity of life by showing children of different colours. This poster focuses on the unity of humanity by showing that we all enter the world the same way. The ASA has no legal powers to censor poster displays but as hoarding companies must abide by its recommendations, the poster looks doomed. @ Smaller versions of the poster sent to Benetton’s own shop in Old Christchurch Road are not being displayed because they might upset people. David Haith Look at the notes below and decide which points you would include in a 300- word essay on this topic, bearing in mind that the points must all be relevant Outline the harmful and the beneficial effects of advertising. 85 95 ~ Need created for totally unnecessary products (e.g. kitchen gadgets) = Plethora of brands of goods, different only in name (e.g. detergents) — Goods more expensive due to costly advertising budgets ~ Young people may be harmed by certain advertisements (e.g. alcoholic drink) — Ads stimulate envy among the less well-off; may lead to rise in crime rate (e.g, thefts of expensive cars) — Commercials on TV interrupt programmes — very annoying — Ads create desire for more and more material possessions — Ads lead to dissatisfaction with one's standard of living — may lead to people trying to live beyond their means — Many commercials on TV have insidious tunes that linger in the brain — Many ads are amusing and informative — often more amusing than the programmes on TV or articles in a magazine — Ads stimulate competition between companies, thus keeping prices down — Ads create consumer awareness, giving information about a range of products — Ads in newspapers and magazines keep their cost down ~ many couldn't survive without advertisements = The world would ve dull and drab without amusing and colourful ads = Add any further points you want to make to the notes above, Decide on the sequence of the points in your composition Write your composition. Include examples of particular advertisements that seem to support your arguments. 8 The press A Work in groups and discuss these questions: © Which newspapers do you read regularly? Which do you prefer and why? Which English-language newspapers have you read? What were they like? Is there a local English-language newspaper in your country? What's it like? © What current affairs programmes do you watch or listen to on the TV or radio? Which newspaper would you recommend if you were asked? Give your reasons. B Match these words and phrases to their synonyms below article circulation editorial issue magazines main story newsreader the papers reporter reviewer critic the dailies journalist lead story leader monthlies & weeklies newscaster number number of copies sold report C Here are some typical newspaper headlines. Each is explained in everyday language, with some words missing. Fill the gaps 1 Quake toll rises The number of of the has risen ‘Tories set to win poll’ Someone says that the party is to win the forthcoming by- election. 3 Premier backs peace moves in docks The says that (s)he the to reconcile both sides in the port workers? dispute. + Police name Mr Big The police have revealed the of the of the robberies. 5 Jobless total tops 3m — PM to face critics in Commons 3 million people are now The Opposition will be asking the some difficult questions in a WW 6 Key MP held on bribes charge A prominent has been because he is alleged to have bribes. 7 Washington ups arms spending The government have their defence budget. 8 £3m drugs haul at Heathrow Customs officers at Heathrow Airport have drugs £3 million. 9 HEADS UP IN ARMS OVER CUTS - TEACHERS TO BE AXED teachers are because spending on schools is to be Some teachers are going to lose 10 Fish talks in Brussels between EC ministers are to be in Brussels. EEC) ca A. Work in groups and discuss these questions: © What do you remember about the woman below? © What do you know about her fall from power in November 1990? Now read these extracts from The Economist's BRITAIN THIS WEEK column: 12 Michael Heseltine Geoffrey Howe Douglas Hurd John Major Out in the cold The Tories found themselves in crisis over their policy towards Europe. A week that began with ominous rumbles at the European Community's Rome summit produced fireworks in the Commons on Tuesday, as Mrs Thatcher asserted her opposition to economic and political union - and closed with high drama at Westminster when Sir Geoffrey Howe resigned as deputy prime minister and leader of the Commons on Thursday. After a half hour meeting between them in the early evening, Downing Street said Mrs Thatcher had accepted his resignation “more in sorrow than in anger”. NOVEMBER 9 1990 Tory torments The prime minister took an unrepentant stand over Europe in her first big speech in the Commons since Sir Geoffrey Howe's resignation. She also told Saddam Hussein “either he gets out of Kuwait soon or we and our allies will remove him by force . .. he has been warned”. After criticising Mrs Thatcher’s style and stance on Europe, Michael Heseltine retreated to his old position that he would not challenge her for the leadership. Party managers brought forward the deadline for any challenger to appear by, earnestly hoping for none. NOVEMBER 10 1990 The race is on After tantalising the Tories for months, Michael Heseltine finally challenged Margaret Thatcher for the Tory leadership. He had said he would not do this in any foreseeable circumstances; but no one foresaw this week. His platform: anti-poll tax, pro- listening to colleagues, lots of Eurovision - and better odds for Tory MPs at the next election. Having arrived at the Lord Mayor's banquet dressed in regal gown and train, the prime minister figuratively donned cricket pads and boots for her after dinner speech. “There will be no ducking the bouncers. . . the bowling’s going to get hit all round the ground. That's my style,” she said, anticipating the challenge to come. In his resignation speech to the Commons, Sir Geoffrey Howe became the sheep that roared. MPs gasped as he laid into Mrs Thatcher's attitude to Europe. She sees a continent “teeming with ill-intentioned people”, he said - and risks leaving Britain “once again scrambling to join the club. . . after the rules have been set.” Uncertainty over the Tory party's leadership knocked the pound for six. It fell almost to DM 2.88, leaving it looking the weakest currency in the ERM. Unemployment recorded its largest monthly increase for four years. NOVEMBER 17 1990 End of an era Margaret Thatcher resigned after 11'2 years as prime minister. In the first ballot for the Conservative leadership she got 204 votes, while her challenger Mr Michael Heseltine won only 152; but the margin was less than the 15% lead needed for victory. At first she said she would fight on. But her cabinet colleagues persuaded her to stand down. The pound and shares soared. Mrs Thatcher told the Queen of her intention to resign but agreed to continue as prime minister until a new leader was chosen. Two new candidates joined the race: Mr Douglas Hurd, the foreign secretary, and Mr John Major, the chancellor. Sir Geoffrey Howe, the man who precipitated the challenge, said he would not stand. The Labour party could hardly contain its delight at the Tories’ disarray. Mr Neil Kinnock proposed a motion of no confidence in the government. NOVEMBER 24 1980 A fresh start Mr John Major, aged 47, was elected as the Tory leader and on November 28th | was appointed Britain’s new prime minister - the youngest this century. With 185 votes in the second ballot of the Tories’ leadership contest, he was two short of an absolute majority. But Mr Michael Heseltine (131 votes) and Mr Douglas Hurd (56 votes) both withdrew from the race. Mrs Margaret Thatcher answered her ast question ~ her 7,450th ~ as prime minister in the Commons. Hours later, she said she was “thrilled and delighted” at the triumph of her protégé, Mr Major. After a visit to the Queen next day to hand in her resignation, she set off with Denis and the removal van from Downing Street to Dulwich, Remembering a rash quip from Mrs Thatcher, before his election, about her future as a backseat driver, and derided as Son of Thatcher by Labour, Mr Major quickly asserted his authority in shuffling names for his new cabinet. Mr Heseltine was made environment secretary, to tackle the poll tax; Norman Lamont became chancellor; and Chris Patten took on the party chairmanship, in place of Kenneth Baker, who became Home Secretary. DECEMBER 1 1990 113 114 B_ Arrange these events into the correct sequence: The first ballot of Tory MPs was held. A second ballot of Tory MPs was held. Geoffrey Howe made a public attack on the party leader. Messrs Hurd and Major decided to stand against Mr Heseltine. Mr Heseltine announced that he would stand for election as party leader Mr Heseltine became environment secretary in the cabinet. Mr Heseltine denied that he would stand for election as party leader. ‘Mr Major became PM when Messrs Hurd and Heseltine stood down. The deputy prime minister resigned. The ex-PM announced that she was standing behind the new PM. ‘The PM announced her intention to stand again. ‘The PM announced her intention to stand her ground, ‘The PM announced that she would stand down. The PM defended her stand on her European policy. ‘The PM got more votes than Mr Heseltine, who was standing against her. C Now read this article, which appeared on 28 November 1990. Note down your answers to the questions that follow To Margaret and the Tory party: a son and heir a = to utter his first words, he M blinked at first, unac- customed to the glare of the ° photographers’ flashlights. By his side, First Lady Norma clutched his hand. The Prime Minister-elect was excited by his victory. Not that his famously grey exterior expressed much 4 excitement. We only knew he had felt a bit of a thrill because he told us so. “It is a very exciting thing to be leader of the Conservative Party,” he said in such a flat voice thathe 5 AFTER a prolonged and might have just come first in painful labour, the Con- the school egg-and-spoon servative Party last night race. announced that it had given When they heard the birth to a new Prime result in committee room 14, Minister - a baby boy called Tory backbenchers banged John. their desks, and then flooded His mother, Margaret, into the lobbies and was reported to be corridors of Westminster “thrilled”. It was the son and calling his name. “Major! heir she had always wanted. Major!, MAJOR!”, they When the new-born leader shouted, the traditional cry emerged in Downing Street that declares the party is now as totally united behind By lunchtime, that its new leader as it was appeared to have exhausted behind the last one, and will Mr Major’s humour remain so until the time reserves. “I am patient,” he comes to knife him in the said, when asked how he back. thought the vote was going. 12 Tory backbenchers reeled “We will have to wait and with astonishment that they see.” That use of the Royal had elected somebody so We so soon confirmed him unknown and untested, as the natural successor to replacing the longest- Mrs Thatcher. serving Prime Minister this Both his rivals put a brave century with the youngest. _face on it. Michael Heseltine They had chosen as their gamely offered his “con- leader somebody who grew gratulations” and confirmed up in a family of circus that he was taking his entertainers and then, atthe hairdrier out of the ring. 13 age of 16, ran away to join a Douglas Hurd also made a firm of accountants. graceful withdrawal having It will take some getting been exposed, true to used to one particularly Foreign Office tradition, as amazing fact about the new the Third Man. Prime Minister. She is a _In Downing Street last man. Though so little is night, Mrs Thatcher was known about John Major, seen with her boy inside No 1, everybody will have to take 11, no doubt handing over that, as so much else, on the front door keys to trust. Number Ten. Posterity will want to And almost certainly record the words used by reminding him of her the new Prime Minister on declared intention to be “a his day of triumph. very good backseat driver”. In an effort to prove that Mr Major can expect to his greyness is only skin hear a familiar voice deep, sources close to Mr shouting directions over his 16 Major had earlier revealed shoulder: “Right! Right! that, at breakfast, the Boy Right! No U-turns!” Prime Minister had cracked There's this consolation for his first joke. History will the new Prime Minister - he remember that the suc- doesn’t have very far to cessor to Pitt, Gladstone, move. But once inside Disraeli, and Churchill told Number Ten, Mr Major will 17 the world: “I had two have to prove that the shredded | wheat this Conservative Party has not morning, and I hope to have sent a boy to do a woman's three tomorrow.” job. 8 1 How did the new PM show his excitement at being elected? 2 How did he show he had a sense of humour? 3. How loyal are the party members likely to be to the new PM? 4+ What was the delayed reaction of the MPs who had elected him? 3 What kind of family background did he come from? 6 What profession did he first take up? 7 What colour does the writer use to describe the new PM? 8 How would you describe the tone of the article and the writer’s motive? 115 D Gail Highlight these words and phrases in the article on pages 114-15 and then fill the gaps in the definitions below. labour 1 son and heir42 First Lady 3 _ clutched 43 knife him in the back §6 ran away to join§8 take... on trust §9 posterity {10 puta brave face on it $13 gamely § 13 backseat driver] 15 consolation §) 17 Normally, a son and heir is a male child who will Labour is normally associated with ‘The First Lady normally refers to the wife of A normally clutches the hand of a When you knifé someone in the back you In traditional stories, young people run amay from home to join If you take something on trust you believe it without seeing any Posteriiy is We put «@ brave face on it when 10 Gamely means the same as 11_ A backseat driver normally refers to someone who 12. A consolation is CoddsHtEn— E Work in groups. Discuss these questions: © How have other political leaders ended their careers? © How is the President or Prime Minister of your country chosen? © How important is it for a country to have a charismatic leader? “Actually, it surprises me that a man like you doesn’t hold political office.” 116 CEU Ce TUtac) A. Work in pairs, Discuss the differences in meaning (if any) between these sentences: 1 Could you finish the article? Can you carry this bo’ You can’t leave yet bon I don't need to read the paper today. I don’t have to read the paper today Thaven’t to read the paper today I haven't read the paper today 5. There could be an election this year. ‘There should be an election this year. 6 That could be Tony at the door. ‘That will be Tony at the door ‘That might be Tony at the door. Were you able to finish the article? Can you help me to carry this box? You needn't leave vet I needn’t read the paper today. I mustn’t read the paper today I shouldn’t read the paper today. Thaven’t got to read the paper today There has to be an election this year. There will be an election this year That must be Tony at the door, ‘That can’t be Tony at the door. That should be Tony at the door B__ Report each sencence in two ways: once using a modal verb and once using a longer phrase, as in the example. 1 *You must do it now.’ She said that... She said that we had to do it. She said that we were obliged to do it. or She said that it was necessary for us to do it. ‘Maybe we can help you.’ She said that ‘You can’t use a dictionary in the exam.’ He told me that {ust you be leaving so soon?” She asked me if ou mustn’t believe everything you read in the newspapers.’ He told us that ‘I daren’t dive into the swimming pool.’ She told us that ‘You need to book a table.’ He told us that ‘What time must I arrive there? She wondered 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C Rewrite each headline as a full sentence. 1 Left set to win election 2 Ban on smoking in cinemas 3 Seat belts to be worn in rear seats + 70 mph speed limit to be lifted 1000s forced to flee after quake Recession looms again ‘Non-swimmers on the up’ says sports minister 8 Rail strike stops commuters getting home D Work in pairs. Imagine that you're giving advice to a British person who is about to visit your country for the first time. What advice would you give about social customs, rules of behaviour and laws, using these modal verbs? can/can't have to/don't have to need to/don't need to/ needn't must/ mustn't should/ shouldn't | Write eight sentences, giving the most important pieces of advice. v7 Lisa Wood is a journalist on the Financial Times. Imagine that you are interviewing her, and note down the main points she makes below Name: Lisa. Wood. Occupation: journalist on the Financial Tumes What kind of stories 019 she write when she worked on @ local newspaper? — human interest: stories — Vox pop’ (finding cut what people in the street think) How does she get her stories? Why doesn’t she spend more time travelling? What dves she dislike about her work? What does she enjoy about her work? What attracted her to journalism? What kind of tensions have there been between her personal feelings and doing her job? B Work in groups. Discuss your reactions to the interview What would you not enjoy about doing Lisa’s job? What kind of personality and skills do you need to be a good reporter? © Do newspapers in your country invade people's privacy after a tragic event? What are your views on this? NEUE) All of the prefixes in this section are ‘active’ prefixes — they can be used to form new words or phrases. For example, in ‘The race is on’ on page 113, one politician is described as anti-poll tax, pro-listening to colleagues. If you don’t support a particular politician vou can describe yourself as anti-Thatcher or anti-Major. Study the examples and then add the words below to the appropriate lists. anti- (opposed to) anti-government anti-nuclear pro- (supporting) _pro-environment _pro-strike pre- (before) pre-arranged pre-Christmas _ pre-university super- (larger/greater than usual) superglue superpower super-rich half- (half) half-board half-empty half-finished half-full American brother computer cooked expect federal holiday intelligent packed school star store strike test time truth union way Study the examples and then add the words below to the appropriate lists. re- (again) recycled re-elect rewritten un- (reverse action) unbutton undress over- (100 much) overcooked over-indulge_over-react under- (too little) underdeveloped underfunded out- (more than) outlive outrun outsell appear block build capture estimate fasten fillable gro load number print simplify united usable “value vote mork Study the examples and then add the words below to the appropriate lists. self- (by or for itself/oneself) self-adjusting _ self-catering _ self-contained co- (together) co-author co-educational counter- (against) counter-attack counter-intuitive counter-productive ex- (former) ex-boss ex-boyfriend ex-colleague semi- (half) semi-final semi-precious _semi-professional sub- (below) sub-committee sub-zero automatic boxer circular defeating director educated employed extst explanatory governing heading measure official owner police officer preservation president standard sufficient title The examples above show which prefixes generally take hyphens. When pronunciation might be difficult, a hyphen is generally used: re-election (not reelection) and super-rich (not superrich) — if in doubt, use a hyphen. Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable forms of the words in italics. 1 Itsan to say that a change of leader will solve all our problems. simple 2. The minister was accused of the numbers of unemployed. estimate 3 The members were by the moderate union members. sirike vote + Itmay be to force them into making a decision, and if you upset them they're quite likely to produce react Foreign-language films may be dubbed or shown with » title » 119 120 6 Magazines devoting page after page to rey usually more serious magazines. You needn't refer to the manual: the use his began after the troops recei He went out into the snow and 8.6 The world’s most wonderful job to turn up at the ports on the lives of the and rich star sell of the camera is explain party. expect wife Christmas ived a signal. attack arrange later looking appear frozen ER uur! A. Read the article and then answer the questions on page 122. 0 A CORRESPONDENT’S LIFE Michao! Bue el of he lek, pleasures ond pain othaving the | word's mot! wonderuljob" Michael Buerk It must have been the shuffling on the landing outside the room that did i Strange how the mind works. All night gunfire had stuttered and crashed and rolled around the town and I had slept on through everything. It had, after all, been an exhausting couple of weeks, criss- crossing El Salvador, watching — from both sides and often at dangerously close quarters ~ the guerrillas as they were resolutely attempting to disrupt the national elections. We had arrived in San Vicente late in the evening after another hair-raising day in which the rebels and government troops took tums at different points on the road to push their guns through the windows of our car. We had spent half the afternoon ina ditch that marked the precise centre of a gun battle... I, scared beyond rational thought, attempting to use my face as a trowel to wriggle further into the ground, my two camera crew colleagues discussing gun calibres and overtime rates with an insouciance which did begin (along with a considerable amount of dirt) to get right up my nose There had not been much point in being choosey over where to spend the night. There was, we were told, only one place. A shabby two storey quadrangle, the room bare concrete with an iron bed, draped in grey sheets that made you scratch just co look at them. None of that had mattered. Gunfire and lice did not wake me up... it was the shuffling of those feet rolled out of bed and opened the door. Outside nearly all the other rooms was a long queue of Salvadorian soldiers waiting, with varying degrees of patience, for their turn in what, it was now clear, was San Vicente's biggest brothel. The thought was not conducive to sleep. In the itching, noisy darkness I fell to thinking about all che other strange nights I had spent in a career as a home then foreign correspondent. The night in a Turkish jail after I had been rash enough to sail a chartered fishing boat through the Turks’ invasion fleet as it prepared to invade Cyprus. A fortnight later, several hilarious nights trapped ina UN post in whar had become no~man’s—land between Turkish. and Greek-Cypriot forces. The post was manned by Danish policemen, liberally supplied with good meat and wine by the UN ~ and several thousand pornographic magazines sent by sympathetic colleagues on the Copenhagen vice squad. Thad spent nights staring at the sea as 6 0 % | I threw up over the side of a lobster boat sailing round the Orkney Islands ... a lifetime, or so it seemed, pursuing an apparently deranged Army commander through the African bush in a single decker bus. .. and, the worst ofall, a night trying to catch a scorpion by matchlight. I had found it when I pulled back the sheet of my bed in a mudwalled cell in northern Ethiopia (we foreign correspondents leam to check these chings). Bur it gave me the slip and | hunted for i all night in vain. Thave spent most of my adult life doing the world’s most wonderful job. am actually paid to go all over the world to sce the most fascinating, the most important, or the most entertaining things that might be happening. It is @ life of hasty departures, airline schedules and charter planes, satellites and deadlines. Few people wake up each morning not knowing for certain they will even be on the same continent by nightfall. Few wives would put up with it Christine is special. She used to be a journalist herself, which helps. She's tolerant, good-humoured, and capable, bur then she has had to be. Our social life is a series of gambles, our last four holidays have been disrupted. even missed the christening of our twin sons. We did have a brief period of predictability in our lives. For eighteen months my itchy feet were kept under the newsreading desk on the BBC ‘Nine o'Clock News’... job [ had thought not worthy of a grown man, let alone a trained journalist. I was wrong of course Fronting a live programme, often still being prepared as it goes on ain, is like spending half an hour on a high wire thar’s only properly fixed at one end Some nights it felt wonderful, relaxed confidence oozing through gallery and studio, Other nights only professionalism stood between tension and panic as the crew struggled to doverail late breaking news into an already complex programme. ‘You need a sense of humour’, a veteran newsreader told me once ....a memorable understatement He himself had once concluded a particularly shambolic programme by signing off: ‘If it looked a bit add to you people out there . .. you should have been where I was sitting.” It was fun. Wonderful for the ego to be recognised about the place (don't let anybody tell you otherwise). Pleasant to be treated as somebody important even though it’s a spurious importance, based only on the ability to read out loud and the technology of television which projects you into ten million living rooms each night. Ic was a seductive life. In many ways I regret leaving it. But the opportunity I had wanted for years finally came up ~ to become a proper foreign correspondent and live abroad. So we left the comfortable house in Surrey we had created out of the wreck we had recently bought. We settled in Johannesburg, wrestling with the problems of houses and schools familiar to all expatriates, and began to learn about Africa. I's a continent of paradox. So much beauty and so much ugliness. Fertility and famine. A continent of untealisable dreams and fading hope. Ir’s an infuriating place for a journalist to work, Where governments do not actively discourage what we in the west would regard as objective reporting, their bureaucracies raise endless obstacles that you have to be both tireless and ingenious to overcome. But it’s worth it. The harsh African sun shines on stark issues... . the supremacy of one race over another, of one tribe over another. Dictatorships dally with disaster. And, of course, the ultimate human issue survival itself Ethiopia proved a personal watershed for me. To experience, at first hand, suffering on such a scale is to change your life. .. of at least the way you look ati A year ago a trainee journalist asked me what was the most important advice I could give a would-be correspondent. “Don't have your injections in the bum if you've got a long flight’, I said. If I was asked that question now I would sa ‘Stay human.’ | would probably also add, ‘,.. don't tell anybody else about your job, or they'll all want to do it.” 20 106 40 165 170 121 122 Peto Write down your answers to these questions about the passage. 1 Explain the meaning of these words and phrases used in the passage: shuffling on the landing (line 1) insouciance (line 23) itchy feet (line 97) ‘fronting (line 102) dovetail (line 110) 2: Why was Michael Buerk unable to sleep in San Vicente? 3. Why were his nights ina UN post ‘hilarious’? 4 Why couldn’t he sleep in northern Ethiopi 5. Why is a correspondent’ life ‘wonderful’? 6 Why did he enjoy his time as TV newsreader? 7 How many times does the writer use ellipsis (. ..)? What is the effect of this? In one paragraph, summarise the dangers, discomforts and distress that Michael Buerk has encountered in his life as a foreign correspondent. (about 100 words) Before writing, first make notes and discuss them with a partner. When you've written your summary, compare it with a partner's. Then compare it with the model summary in Activity 6. Work in groups and discuss your reactions to the article: What would it be like to have Michael Buerk’s job? Do you envy him? Why (not)? © What difference does it make to see a TV on-the-spot report, rather than hear a newsreader give the same information? © Does a correspondent tend to give a biased version of events? GELS AROS Sie Se a r; ee See ey, “Well, that’s enough about world domination, now I'd like to talk 10 you about double glazing..." 8.7 There A Work in pairs. Rewrite each sentence using there Someone is waiting outside to see you. Most political problems have no easy answers. 1's pointless trying to explain the problem to them. Some papers give more coverage to sport than others. Luckily for us a telephone box was nearby It’s unnecessary to shout, I can hear you perfectly well. Mitsukoshi has 14 branches in Japan — and 1+ associate stores too. Come quickly! An accident has happened! Some people may be hurt! He stood in the doorway with a sheepish grin on his face. I was waiting with fourteen other students in the lecture hall. Sew cutee uc Discuss the difference in emphasis when shere is used in each sentence. Fill the gaps in these examples with suitable words 1 We expect there difficulties ahead. 2 There misunderstanding about this: you have to arrive at 7.15 sharp. 3. There a time when everyone has to face up to their responsibilities, 4 There nonsense talked about politics by people who ought to know better. 5. There more question I'd like to ask 6 There’s no that some newspapers distort the truth. 7 We were surprised/amazed/shocked at there so many people present. 8. There to be something wrong with my back, doctor. Verbs that describe actions (rather than states) can’t be used with there: There fell an apple off the tree. K Yesterday there came my friend to see me. X There arrived the train on time. X Explain the meaning of each headline in a full sentence, using there: 1 ‘Fewer than 5,000 attend peace demo’ The police say . 2 More sunshine next week The forecasters say . . 3 ‘No doubt’ about victory The England soccer manager says + ‘Too many cars cause pollution and accidents’ Environmentalists say 5 General election possible this year According to the newspaper 6 Peace moves in teachers’ dispute There. 7 Road accidents down this year There 8 150 killed in ferry disaster There Work in groups of three. Student A should look at Activity 24, student B at 36 and C at 38. There’s a short news item in each activity for you to read and then retell to your partners in your own words, using There .. . 123 PC Ue 124 You'll hear a radio news broadcast. Decide which of the following information is true (T) or false (F), according to what is reported, ‘The strike at London’s airports is over working hours, not pay. Managers do not belong to the union and are still working, Some flights into Heathrow will be landing at other airports. Flights from Heathrow will be less badly affected than flights from Gatwick. Some flights into Gatwick will be landing at other airports. ‘Twenty per cent of flights from Gatwick will be delayed by two hours or more. Flight information on Heathrow services is available on 081 795 4321. The strike at Heathrow will continue tomorrow 9 39 coach passengers were injured by a falling tree near Barnstaple on the A29. 10 Six people escaped from a cinema fire at Appledore 11 The M9 was closed at 5 p.m. yesterday because it was flooded 12 ‘The A30 and A303 are no longer closed to traffic. 13. Drivers in the South West should put off their journeys if possible 14. There were over 30 casualties when a high-speed train fell into a river in Japan. 15. Next month’s summit meeting will be attended by six Western leaders 16 Experts are surprised at the choice of the meeting place. wuAM ONS 17 Today it will be wetter in the West than yesterday 18 The weather in the East will improve during the day 19 There will be more heavy rain at the weekend. Work in groups. Which places in the world are in the news this week? What headline news has come from each of the continents during the past month? Before the next lesson, listen to the news on the radio or TV and make notes on the main points of TWO interesting stories. Then, working in groups, tell your partners about your stories. 8.9 Paragraphs —2 A. Work in pairs. Look again at the passage on The Green Consumer in Activity +4. How many paragraphs are there? Note down the reasons why the writer has chosen to begin and end each paragraph in the place she does. ‘To remind yourself how to approach this task, refer back to 4.7. B__ Decide where this story could be divided into paragraphs c Lounge lizards New Yorkers are escalating their age-old war against cockroaches by setting lizards loose in their apartments to hunt the insects down, One man interviewed by The New York Times says he resorted to a ferocious breed of gecko imported from Java and Malaysia - a nocturnal reptile with feet like suction cups — after all other methods of getting rid of cockroaches failed. Since then, he says, his home has been roach- free, “You almost never see them,” he adds, “but you'll hear them bark” - a cross between a lamb’s bleat and the yap of a Yorkshire terrier. The most popular gecko is the Tokay, which sports a bluish-green skin with orange spots, and ranges from two to eight inches long. The Times says New Yorkers don’t seem to mind falling asleep to the sound of “scurrying and crunching, scurrying and crunching”. Those who fear that the Big Apple may be too dangerous or cold for the gecko are worrying needlessly, says The Washington Post. “Lizards have been on this Earth for more than 160 million years, cockroaches for perhaps 400 million, which is a great deal more than can be said for any of us. In the distant future, long after Manhattan has fallen otherwise silent, there will probably be one sound still heard on the East Side, West Side, all around the former town ~ “Bark-bark-bark . . . Crunch-crunch-crunch.” Simon Midgley Work in pairs. Look at the compositions your partner has done since Unit 4, and comment on the use of paragraphs: © Ifany paragraph is over-long, can you suggest a suitable place to break it? @ Where should any over-short paragraphs be joined into single paragraphs? 125 CA 126 A c ics Read this poem and then discuss the questions below EPITAPH ON A TYRANT Perfection, of a kind, was what he was after, And the poetry he invented was easy to understand; He knew human folly like the back of his hand, And was greatly interested in armies and fleets; When he laughed, respectable senators burst with laughter, And when he cried the little children died in the streets. W.H. Auden (1938) Why is it that tyrants and dictators succeed in politics — and on a smaller scale in business and family life too? © What can the individual (i.e. you and I) do to stop them from succeeding? Work in groups. Which of these quotations do you agree with, and which do you disagree with? Which do you agree with up toa point? Give your reasons. ‘All men are created equal.’ — Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) “The ballot is stronger than the bullet,’~ Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) ‘No one can be perfectly free till all are free; no one can be perfectly happy till all are happy.’~ Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) ‘Nationalism is an infantile disease. It is the measles of mankind.’ Albert Einstein (1879-1955) ‘Unhappy the land that is in need of heroes. '~ Bertolt Brecht (1898-1956) ‘Politics is to0 serious a matter to be left to the politicians.’ ~ General de Gaulle (1890-1970) ‘Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun.'— Mao Tse-tung (1893-1976) ‘Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.’ ~~ John F. Kennedy (1917-1963) “There is no such thing as a free lunch." ~anon Work in groups and discuss these questions: © Which of these enterprises do you think should be under private control, and which should be run by the state or local authority? Give your reasons: postal services telephones railways motorways electricity & gas banks airlines buses hospitals & medical services radio & TV © Do you think individuals should be free to decide whether or not to do the following things ~ or should there be laws to control them? drink alcohol at any age drive at any speed take drugs have an abortion do military service immigrate into your country _ wear seat belts in cars Se Ce ek Com A The class is divided into an even number of pairs (or groups of three). Half the pairs should work out together how they would tell the story of what happened in the photos from the point of view of the person on the LEFT of each photo — the other half from the point of view of the person on the RIGHT of each photo. Then each ‘left-hand’ pair joins a ‘right-hand’ pair to tell their stories. B_ Finda news story ina local newspaper ~ it can be in your own language, not in English — preferably one involving more than one person. Alternatively, you may prefer to use a photograph instead. C Make notes on the events that occurred. Don’t attempt to translate the article into English but use your own words. D__ Discuss what you intend to write with a partner. Then write TWO accounts of the events (100-150 words each) from two different points of view ~ either from the point of view of two of the protagonists, or from the point of view of one of the protagonists and from your own point of view. 127 8.12 Bring + get A Find synonyms for the phrases in italics, or explain their meaning. Use a dictionary if necessary. 1 Talking to her really brought it home to me how important it is to bring children up in the right way. They shouldn’t be allowed to get aay mith bad behaviour. 2. Whatever brought these problems about, we must get round them somehow. 3. They hope to get over their difficulties by bringing in a management consultant. 4 Her attitude brings out the worst in me, I'm afraid. I just can’t get on mith her. ‘The whole situation’s really getting me down. His anecdote brought the house down. But I didn’t get the joke. He gets terribly upset when he thinks people are getting at him, but he usually gets over it fairly quickly. 7 T've been cheated and I want to get my own back. How can I get even with them? 8. Time’s getting on, I think we'd better get the meeting over mith 9 It was hard to get it across to them that they had to work harder. 10 What did she mean? I really didn’t understand what she was getting at 11 He’s terribly gauche and shy with strangers, he needs someone to bring him out 12 ‘Thad a terrible night: I didn’t manage to get off to sleep till 3 a.m. I was so worried about getting behind with my work.’ ‘You should have go! up and got on mith some reading. You could have got through quite a lot during that time.” au B__ Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable phrases from the list below. You may need to change the form of the verbs. 1 She's a very gregarious person and seems to everyone 2. I promised to go food shopping for them and now I can’t it. 3. Was it because they pleaded guilty that they a fine, instead of a jail sentence? Or was it because the judge had been > 4 There’s no point in having good ideas if you don’t them in writing. 5 What have the children been while I’ve been away? 6 Ifyou want to in politics you have to have the right connections and the people who matter. 7 P'msorry to the subject of politics, I know it’s a sore point with you 8. [know how to handle him, so leave it to me — I'll be able to him 9. Thaven't done the work yet and I don’t know when I'll it. 10 Thave to be at work early tomorrow, can you me at 5.30? 11 Pmsorry to this ~ I know it’s embarrassing 12. The UN intervention a peaceful settlement of the conflict. bring about bring up get at get down get in with get off with get on getonto getonwith getoutof get round getroundto getup get upto © Write the first paragraph of a newspaper report, using as many of the expressions from A and Bas you can. Begin like this: According to a survey brought out today, . .. 128 9 9.1 Happy days’ Listening & topi A c Education Co You'll hear three people remembering their schooldays. Fill these gaps with information from the recording. 1 Ishia was disappointed by her grammar school education because She was bored because she spent all her time Her school turned her into a 2. According to Mike the American high school system provides a education than the English system The main benefit Mike got from his school was 3. Christine, who went to school in Scotland, describes four phases in the way the girls viewed the boys: i) From the ages of 5 to 10 she thought the boys were ii) From 101% to 14 the girls thought the boys were iii) At 14 or 15 they admired the older boys but their contemporaries were iy) In the sixth form the boys and girls formed lovely + Christine remembers Miss Rae, who was a Pupils who made spelling mistakes were Anne Black was punished because she was and she spelt words in the way she them. Since that time Christine has always of teachers intimidating pupils. Work in groups and compare your reactions to the interviews: © Did you have any similar experiences at school? © What is the point of going to school? What should the aims of education be? @ Is it better to specialise or to have a broad education? © What should be the balance between a theoretical, academic approach and a more practical, vocational education? Work in pairs. Discuss which of these words and phrases have similar meanings, or are used in similar situations. In some cases there are various ways of linking them. Find ONE word in each list which seems to be the odd one out and which is not connected with education or training. 1 award grant loan prize reward scholarship trophy award - grant - scholarship grant - loan trophy - prize ~ award reward isn’t connected with education, unless diccussing its rewards or pleasures 2 certificate degree diploma doctorate licence recommendation reference testimonial 3 article assignment composition dissertation essay paper report thesis + law school medical school private school public school _ state school Sunday school 129 5 comprehensive school grammar school gymnasium junior school kindergarten nursery school primary school secondary school 6 electoral college further education college polytechnic technical college training centre university 7 BA bachelor BSc doctorate first degree MA master’s MSc PhD 8 credits grades marks numbers scores 9 continuous assessment evaluation examination questionnaire test 0 1 class conference lecture seminar study group apprentice contestant freshman graduate participant post-graduate pupil schoolchild student trainee undergraduate 12 associate professor business associate coach don instructor lecturer professor teacher trainer tutor 13. correspondence course degree course distance learning course evening course part-time course race course _ sandwich course 14 academic year financial year half-term holiday semester term vacation 15 cheat cram crib practise rehearse revise study D__ Look at the photos and discuss the questions below ae What are the pros and cons of the inds of schools shown? What do you remember most fondly about being in primary school? Describe your favourite primary school teacher. What did/do you enjoy most at secondary school? What did you dislike most? Which were/are your favourite subjects? Why? Describe a typical school day for a secondary school pupil in your country. 130 9.2 Describing your own education A Work in pairs. Imagine that you are attending an interview for a job or for a place on a higher education course. Describe your own education to your partner, concentrating on your achievements and the qualifications you have attained. Take it in turns to be the interviewer: Read this advertisement and imagine that you are keen to apply for it ~ note down some reasons why you would benefit from learning Japanese*. ‘Then compare your notes with a partner. SAKURA SCHOLARSHIP SCHEME Learn Japanese in Japan Sakura Scholarships offer students the opportunity of taking part in a three-month Japanese language course in the historic city of Kyoto. The Scholarship covers free accommodation, meals and tuition. Retum air fares between their country of residence and Osaka are paid, and $1,000 pocket money is also provided. ‘To apply for one of these Scholarships, you should write 300 words describing your own educational career so far, and giving reasons why you think your education would benefit from participation in the Sakura Scholarship Scheme. The closing date for applications is February 1. Applicants who have been selected for the short list will be notified by March 31. The final selection will be made on the basis of interviews held during May. Applications are open to all students, regardless of age, sex or nationality, and are also welcome from people who are not currently full- time students. Please apply to Ms Kyoko Matsumoto, Sakura Scholarship Scheme, Sakura Trading Co, 200 East Avenue, London E9 7PS. Write an appropriately dazzling application for the scholarship, together with a suitable covering letter. * Ifyou are Japanese, write an application for a similar scholarship offered by the same organisation, to learn another foreign language (e.g. Spanish or German, but not English). “H's not quite what I imagined from the prospectus.” 131 n tags and negative questions Work in pairs. Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if'any) between the sentences. 1 He used to play squash, didn’t he? Didn’t he use to play squash? He used to play squash, did he? Did he use to play squash? 2 Isn’t this a great party! This is a great party, isn’t it? This is a great party! What a great party! 3. Didn’t she do well in her exam! Didn’t she do well in her exam? She did very well in her exam Did she do well in her exam? How did she do in her exam? 4 Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education: It’s strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education. 5 So you enjoyed my talk, did you? So didn’t you enjoy my talk? So you didn’t enjoy my talk? So did you enjoy my talk? * Apart from rhetorical questions like this one, question tags and negative questions are rare in writing, except in personal letters. Add question tags to these sentences. Then rewrite | to 4 as negative questions. 1 We'd better stop work soon, ? P'm right about this, ? You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, ? Anyone can apply for the scholarship, 2 If we don’t get a move on, there won't be much time left, 2 3 4 5 6 Let’s havea rest, 2 7 8 9 0 Nobody anticipated what would happen, 2 Do try to relax, He never used to study so hard, ? ‘They ought to work much harder, ? ZS Remember the meaning of the two different intonations of question tags: 132 This is a great?” ry, 8"! = I’m sure, but I want you to agree. it! ) * =P i He used 10 Play seuash gay ® I’m not sure, but I think you know —- Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged, using a question tag at the end, as in the example. The passive is required in each one. 1 Experts are finding new ways of using computers all the time. New uses New uses for computers are being found all the time, aren't they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us. All our work I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom. Computers No one has yet invented a robot teacher. No robot teachers ‘The government should pay teachers on results. Teachers Students’ parents often support them, Students Student loans might replace grants, Grants Mousen "> Rewrite each of your passive sentences as negative questions: Aren't new uses for computers being found all the time? 9.4 My lessons in the classroom My lessons in the classroom “ ‘OU must be mad!” was the general comment of family, friends and colleagues. “Giving up a teaching post now, when there isn’t much chance of finding another one, ever! “And what about all that lovely money you're earning, and all those long holidays!” But I had already come to my lonely decision, after months of concealed suffering. I knew I could no longer continue in the teaching profession. To wake in the morning with a fear of the day ahead, to force a hasty breakfast down an unwilling throat, and then set off for work with pounding heart and frozen face had become habitual, and I had turned to tranquilizers to help me along. It had not always been as bad as this. Ten years ago I managed well enough, and the holidays for rest and recuperation used to come round just in time. But I, in common with most other teachers, am enormously self-critical, and I knew now that I was no longer “managing”. My classes were noisy, the children were not learning very much, my attempts to cope with changing teaching methods were patchy, I had run out of enjoyment and enthusiasm. It was time to stop. But was it all my own failure? In fairness to myself, I don’t think it was. I had plenty of ideas, I loved my subject, and, by and large, I liked children. Thad been idealistic. But the reality I faced was bored children, over-stimulated by video-watching the night before and tired out by a late bedtime. They were children who were given the wrong food at the wrong time, who came breakfast-less to school and then stuffed themselves with gum, crisps and sweets bought on the way; who were “high” with hunger in the lesson before lunchtime and giggled restlessly as the smell of chips from the school kitchen came wafting to all floors. There were children who absorbed all the smutty side of sex before they were 10, and were constantly teasing and titillating each other; bright, hard-working little girls who changed, under the pressures of peer group and advertising, into assertive, screeching empty-heads, with make-up in their pencil cases and a magazine concealed on their desks. Then there were the ones from difficult homes, such as Simon, whose parents had split up after many years together and who was not wanted by either — his tired eyes flickered all round when I tried to remonstrate with him privately, and his pale face never stopped twitching. But he could bring chaos to my lessons with his sniggerings and mutterings. ‘The rudeness I had to put up with, and the bad language, appalled me, I had no redress, as the only form of punishment available was a detention, which meant keeping myself in too. ‘Sometimes parents could be contacted, and their help sought, but frequently they were as bewildered and incapacitated as we ourselves. ‘A frequent image came before me, as I lay in bed after an early wakening - the maths room, after a “wet break”, chairs turned over, 133 % 105 books and orange peel on the floor. making noises: “Miss, I can’t 10 Year 10 are due for their English understand this!” And James is lesson, so I come in and attempt to quietly reading his football assert myself and restore order. magazine, Jeremy continues to tell Jeremy is telling jokes. Donnais —_jokes, more quietly now, and cackling. Andrew is standingona ‘Michele bares her gum-filled teeth 1's desk and yelling out of the window. _and urges Paul to shut his face. At one time my very presence in _T have been trying to create the the doorway would be enough to _ basic conditions in which teaching ensure a partial silence. Now they becomes possible, but I have failed, give a vague “Hello, Miss”, and and no longer have the stomach for 1% carry on. the job. And that is why P'm giving I distribute the work sheets, up. expensively photocopied, and we try to start, but two slow girls are Anne Bonsall Work in pairs, Look at the questions and decide on your answers. GH Highlight the relevant information in the passage, and make notes. 1 Why were the writer’s friends and family taken by surprise? 2. Why was the writer's heart pounding as she set off for work? 3 How well had she managed to adapt to new teaching methods during her ten years’ teaching? 4 Why did the hard-working little girls change? 5. Why was the writer unwilling to punish pupils who misbehaved? 6 Who are referred to as ‘we ourselves” in line 90? 7 How do the Year 10 English class react to the writer's entry into the room? 8 What is meant by ‘the stomach for the job’ in line 120? Write down your answers to the questions. Compare your written answers with another student. Find words or phrases in the passage that mean the same as these: beating loudly incomplete hungry tell off laughing disrespectfully may of putting things right unable to take action exercise control Iaughing shrilly Why doesn’t the writer blame her lack of success as a teacher on her own shortcomings? Work in pairs and make notes on the reasons. Compare your notes with another pair, and make sure you have only noted down the relevant information, > Then write your summary with a partner. (about 130 words) ak In the exam, when writing summaries, remember that you should try to use your ‘own words and not quote directly from the passage. Remember also that you should make sure that you only select the information that is required, and that your ‘summary is accurate and brief - not long-winded. 134 ERC Se Listenin A You'll hear an interview with Christine Massey, who is a secondary school teacher. Choose the answer which best reflects her views. If more than one answer seems ‘true’, choose the one that seems to sum up her views most effectively Christine Massey 1 What's likely to happen in any lesson is always a) unpredictable b) challenging) amusing 2. Teaching a subject should involve not only imparting knowledge but a) entertaining students) getting good exam results c) helping students to learn about life One of the downsides of teaching is that a) it can be emotionally stressful b) it is occasionally dull and unrewarding c) some students find it difficult to learn, which is discouraging 4 Good teachers appreciate students’ reactions because a) it increases students’ self-esteem and independence b) they can take on board feedback from students c) students take part of the responsibility for preparing course materials 5 She advocates a ‘partnership’ between teachers, students and a) administrators) parents c) politicians 6 When schoolchildren are asked to assess their own progress they usually a) exaggerate their achievements _b) underestimate their achievements c) do it very accurately and honestly 7 Is for teachers to be authoritarian than relaxed. a) easier b) more difficult c) important 8 A relaxed classroom leads to a) lower standards b) purposeful quality work c) sloppiness == Before you discuss your reactions to the interview in A, listen to three 12- year-olds answering the question: ‘What makes a good teacher?” Phen work in groups and discuss these ideas ‘© Compare the pupils’ views of what makes a good teacher with the views expressed by Christine. © To what extent do you agree with Christine's ideas about education? © What are the main differences between the classes described in the article in 9.4 and the kind of classes described by Christine? How do your own experiences of school compare? © What are the qualities of a ‘good student’ or a ‘good pupil’? 135 6 Abstract nouns Te STIs ICIS A. Work in pairs. Look at the examples and then form abstract nouns from the verbs and adjectives below, adding them to the appropriate list. -ation/-ion administration cooperation description destruction detention evaluation recuperation satisfaction suspicion application -ment astonishment enjoyment punishment -ness fairness happiness rudeness apply accomplish achieve acknowledge amuse careless _ clumsy concentrate contribute embarrass encourage explain half-hearted invent justify manage mischievous narrow-minded negotiate object. oppose pronounce qualify receive recommend represent selfish vary B Now look at these examples. Form abstract nouns from the words below, adding them to the appropriate list. ty anxiety humility reality senority authenticity cance annoyance brilliance insignificance intolerance ence absence intelligence presence reference ism absenteeism nationalism optimism — realism -ship apprenticeship relationship scholarship sponsorship authentic available censor companion craftsman creative diffident eligible equal extravagant extreme familiar favourite friend generous honest incompetent inconvenient independent insist insolent leader loyal prefer productive professional relevant reliable resist self-assured self-confident sportsman stable symbolic C Work in pairs. Think of two more nouns that can be added to each group in A and B, then compare your ideas with another pair D_ What adjective is each of these nouns associated with, or derived from? -dom boredom freedom wisdom - wise -th breadth filth health length stealth strength warmth wealth width -cy adequacy bureaucracy delicacy democracy efficiency fluency frequency inadequacy inefficiency redundancy urgency delight ~ delighted enthusiasm hunger hysteria pride sarcasm success E Work in pairs. Highlight ten of the most difficult nouns from A, B and D above. Then join another pair and ask them to define cach noun you've selected Like this How would you define intelligence? — Intelligence is having a lot of brains, being able to solve problems. How is it different from wisdom? — Wisdom is to do with acquiring experience — it comes with age. 136 F Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable nouns from above: They apologised for the we had been caused We were sceptical about the of the statistics he had quoted. She was full of for her job and her talk included a fascinating of a typical day’s work Contending with in government offices leads to and delays Teachers should not show to individual pupils ~ their motto should be to each child and they should encourage among their pupils. I don’t quite see the of the answer he gave and [asked him to give us some for it. His was totally convincing. Thave all the right for the job but I don’t know what the salary will be, because the advertisement says that it’s ‘subject to , 8. They want me to supply them with three character particularly interested in my qualities of as they are 9 Two qualities I appreciate in a person are and 10. Two things I disapprove of are and Organising your time ie A. Read the passage and then answer the multiple-choice questions that follow. Managing your study time Wain a student coffee bar during my first week at university soaking in the atmosphere when a lad from Oldham, of conspicuously cool and languid manner, announced calmly that he intended to get a first in classics. He would work 25 hours a week, study five hours a day on weekdays and leave the weekends free. That would be sufficient. Iwas vaguely committed to endless hours of work. I imagined that at some point I would spend weeks of intensive study. The vice-chancellor had told us in his address to freshers to look at the person on either side and note that in all probability one of us would not be around the following year. The message struck home: I ‘would turn myself into a paragon of academic virtue. I could see that the classicist in the coffee bar had got it all wrong, or was bluffing. Three years later he sailed to his first whilst other friends struggled to very modest achievements. As I discovered when sharing his lodgings, he worked more or less to the plan he had outlined. He slept late in the mornings, only stirring himself if there was a lecture to attend. He played cards with the rest of us after lunch. Then he moved to his desk and stayed there till around seven. The evenings he spent more wildly than most - hence the late mornings. Nevertheless, when I came to look back I realised he had studied more than anyone else I knew. Through sticking assiduously to a modest but well-defined, realistic plan, he had achieved a great deal. He had enjoyed work much more, too. He argued that it was not possible to work productively at intensive intellectual tasks for more than a few hours at a time. I aimed to do much more. But I was easily distracted. By the time it was apparent that stretches of a day had slipped away, | felt so guilty that I blotted studies out of my mind, comforting myself with the thought of 137 138 all the days which lay ahead. Iwas too inexperienced at looking after my own affairs to realise I was already failing one of the major tests of studenthood, the organisation of time. I thought that success in studying was to do with how brilliantly clever and original you were; I had yet to discover that one of the central challenges of adult life is time management. At school the work timetable was defined for us and teachers made sure we fitted all that was required into the school year. At university I was at sea. Time came in great undifferentiated swathes. What to do with it all? With 168 hours in a week — or 108, allowing nine a day for sleeping and eating — how many was it reasonable to spend on study? Individuals vary and different subjects make different demands. Nevertheless with a target you can plan your studies, not just stumble ahead in hope. The sketchiest of weekly timetables, setting aside 40 hours to cover all study, is an invaluable aid in defining time. Then you can divide it into segments and use it strategically, rather than let it dribble away. Defining what to do is harder. Take the booklists. How many books are students expected to read? How long should a book take? It took me so long to read just a few pages that I felt defeated when I looked ahead. Should I take notes? How many? What would Ineed them for? Twould sit in the library for a whole day, dipping into one book after another, often with glazed over eyes. What was my purpose? How would I know when I had achieved it? By comparison I went to lectures gratefully — at least I knew when they started and finished, Although my lecture notes weren't up to much, I could tell myself I had accomplished something, which would bring down my anxiety level. ‘Much later I discovered I could learn a great deal from a close reading of selected sections; that taking notes could sometimes be very satisfying and at other times was not necessary. The trick was to take control; to decide what I wanted to find out - something specific - and then work at it until Ihad taken in enough to think about for the time being. Dividing big jobs into smaller sub- tasks helps to bring work under control, allows you to set targets and check your progress. There is so much pressure to be ambitious - to go for the long dissertation, to read the huge tomes. Yet achievement arises out of quite modest activities undertaken on a small scale. The trouble with the big tasks is that you keep putting them off. Their scope and shape is unclear and we all flee from uncertainty. The more you can define your work as small, discrete, concrete tasks, the more control you have over it. “Organising tasks into the time available can itself be divided into strategy and application. It is useful to think of yourself as “investing” time. Some tasks require intense concentration and need to be done at a prime time of day, when you are at your best and have time to spare. Others can be fitted in when you are tired, or as “warm-up” activities at the start of a session. Some, stich as essay writing, may best be spread over several days. Some need to be done straight away. There are few reliable guidelines. Essentially you have to keep circling round a self-monitoring loop: plan an approach to a task, try it out, reflect afterwards on your success in achieving what you intended and then revise your strategy. Once you start to think strategically, you begin to take control of your studies rather than letting them swamp you. Andrew Northedge (author of The Good Study Guide - Open University) Choose the word or phrase which best completes each sentence 1 The vice-chancellor’s speech the writer, amused failed to convince frightened terrified 2. The lad from Oldham’s time at university was than the writer’s. less successful more fun more intellectual more strenuous While he was in the university library the writer couldn’t concentrate dozed off read books from cover to cover worked hard 4 Towards the end of his time at university the writer gave up hope organised himself better worked harder wrote a long dissertation The writer recommends studying for a short time every day finishing one task before starting another studying only when you are alert deciding when each kind of task is best done 6 ‘Circling round a self-monitoring loop’ (‘| 11) means approaching your studies in circuitous way continuing to study for a long time planning your study methods evaluating the success of your study methods GM) Highlight these words and phrases in the passage, and use a dictionary to look up the meanings of any you are unsure of. Make sure you look at the examples given as well as the definitions. Then look again at the words in context bluffing 2. assiduously €3 blotted out {3 _at sea 95 segments § 5. strategically © 5 dribble away 3 dipping into §7 glazed over§7 prime $10 swamp 12 ED Work in pairs. Highlight FouR phrases in the passage which you consider to be key phrases, Then compare your ideas with another pair and discuss these questions: © Which of the advice given in the passage do you agree with? © Which do vou already follow? Which ought vou to follow? © How does life at a British university, as described in the passage, differ from university life in your country? ‘Frankly, Mr and Mrs Rumbelom, I'ma litle worried about your William — I don’t know who he is!”” 139 140 9.8 Repo ee OE) A Work in pairs. Discuss any differences in meaning or emphasis between the sentences: 1 She said, ‘I'l be arriving tomorrow.’ She told me that she was arriving tomorrow She told me that she was arriving the next day 2. She said to me, ‘You really should spend more time reading, shouldn’t you?” She advised me to spend more time reading. She urged me to spend more time reading. 3. Everyone said, ‘That's just nonsense!” No one agreed with my idea Everyone dismissed my idea as unrealistic. 4 We doubted whether the scheme would succeed We didn’t know whether the scheme would succeed, We had no doubt that the scheme would fail He said, ‘If you phoned us from the airport, we could come and pick you up.” He said they could come and pick me up if I rang them from the airport He said they could have come to collect me if I'd called them from the airport. B__ Use these verbs to report what the people said in as few words as possible. Then compare your sentences with a partner's. assure claim congratulate deny 7 disagree insist promise regret remind reproach suggest arn ‘No, it wasn’t me. I didn’t borrow your bike.’ She denied borrowing my bike. ‘Pil let you know as soon as they get here. OK?” ‘Don’t forget: you’ve got to hand in your work this evening.” ‘It’s a shame you couldn’t make it to the party last night.” ‘Well done! I always thought you'd pass.” ‘Don’t worry, as long as you keep your head, you'll manage all right.” “You really must come and visit us next weekend!” ‘Tdon’t really think that what you said makes sense.” ‘If you park on this double yellow line, you'll get a ticket.” “You shouldn’t have behaved like that. You should be ashamed of yourself.” 11 ‘IfT had more time, I'd help you with your work.” 12 ‘Might it be a good idea if we all organised our time more efficiently?” Sew dsHeon— =] You'll hear the same words spoken in five different ways, each conveying a different attitude or mood. Select ONE adjective to describe each attitude: amazed angry depressed diffident disappointed half-hearted heart-broken hysterical impressed sarcastic shocked 1 4 2 5 3 Write five sentences summarising what each speaker said, imagining that you were the person addressed. For example: The first speaker complained that my work hadn't improved and compared it unfavourably with everyone else's. Enc 9.9 Making notes A Read this article and note down the differences between the school described and a traditional school. Looking back on 13 years of freedom ‘AREN MeDAID, at 16 years old, has attended White Lion Free School, Islington, since she was three. One of the few survivors of the free school movement, White Lion operates a set of egalitarian and democratic principles. It believes that children should be encouraged, but never forced, to take part in learning activities. The education it provides should be free of charge, and all decisions should be taken at open meetings which parents, children, and workers ‘the school’s term for teachers) can attend. Looking back to her early years at the school, Karen says: “It was just like one big family - and it still is now. Because it’s a small school with almost 50 students and nine workers, everyone knows everyone else and everything that’s going on. It seems happy. I think other schools tend to push you in one direction. Ifa teacher votes Conservative, then they push you that way. Ifa teacher is sexist, then they'll want you to be sexist too. But here you get both sides of the story. They don’t push you to just one side of it, and in the end you can come to your own decision.” For most of its first decade, White Lion led a hand-to- mouth existence relying on grants, charitable donations, and its own fund-raising Karen MeDaid events, “We used to run jumble sales and fetes,” Karen recalls. “We came close to closing quite a lot of times, but managed to survive. I can remember opening the school’s mail one day - which anyone is allowed to do —and finding a cheque for £200 in it. went running to tell everyone about it. Iwas so excited that money was coming in to help us go on.” A few years ago, a major decision had to be made on whether or not to take funding from the local authority, effectively bringing White Lion into the state school system. “People were worried we might become like state schools with headmasters and so on, but everyone agreed after discussion because we would have had to close down otherwise. The atmosphere hasn't really changed since then, although now there are stricter rules about getting VAT receipts when we buy anything. It’s difficult if you want to buy something down 141 142 the market.” Every Tuesday, the school meeting takes place. The under-fives don’t usually go but can if they want to: “Sometimes the five-to-eight year olds get a bit fidgety as the meeting goes on,” Karen says. “So we try to put the items most affecting them at the top of the agenda, to which anyone can add something. Washing-up comes up a lot because many of the children don’t like doing it, If the meeting agrees, then some can now do cleaning instead.” She can remember one decision she vehemently opposed. “It was about a boy who got expelled from the school, which had never happened before, so it was a really big decision. The boy wanted to stay. He did muck around a bit, but it wasn’t as if he'd done something very bad. I was about 13 at the time and went really mad about it. We talked and talked and talked, but he still got thrown out.” Karen feels luckier than those who attend ordinary schools. “All my friends say they hate their schools. I once went into a lesson at my friend’s comprehensive, Islington Green, and the teacher didn’t even notice that I shouldn’t have been in the class. I thought that if this was my school, they'd notice straight away. It seemed the teacher didn’t notice anyone. “The teacher didn’t seem to know what he was doing. Everyone was talking - I'd ‘expected it to be dead quiet. ‘The students learned nothing in the lesson. As I was leaving the school, the head of year came up to me bossily and demanded to know why I wasn’t in class. He was so rude. Even he failed to realise I didn’t go to that school. I just ran out of it.” From the age of 12, Karen has been organising school trips. She has learned to read, write, and do sums, she has studied the saxophone and astronomy and been potholing, skiing, and modern dancing. And a host of other things, She has just taken GCSE English language and intends entering for maths, art, and social studies, although she is opposed to exams in principle. “T don’t agree with them because it’s just about what you remember and what you're like on the day of the ‘exam. It’s not much good if you're not feeling well. But 1 they do help you get a job, which is the main reason I'm taking them.” Karen wants to become a fashion designer, and aims to go on to college. She reckons she has grown to be a better person than if she had gone toa comprehensive. “I've learned to organise things, to be independent and to be > responsible for myself. You can come to school and ask to learn about fixing plugs and mending fuses and you'll find out the answers there and then. It all helps you cope better. “Assuming I have children of my own, I'd like to send them to both a free school and an ordinary school, so then they could choose for 8 themselves. The problem with a free school is that you get so attached to it that you don’t want to leave.” Graham Wade B Decide whether these statements are true (T) or false (F), according to the text. In White Lion Free School pupils are permitted to miss lessons. White Lion is “free” in both senses of the word here are about nine pupils to each teacher at White Lion White Lion is no longer a torally independent institution She remembers a box being expelled from White Lion for gross misconduct When she visited a friend’s comprehensive school she was ordered to leave She disapproves of exams because they discourage less intelligent pupils from learning, 8 She intends to encourage her children to attend a free school, like she did 1 } ; 6 C GZ Highlight these words in the text and match them to the words and phrases below gulitanan®2 hand-to-mouth€4 fidgety (6 agendu § 6 vehemently 7 muck around $7 host #10 attached 413 almost broke devoted list of points to discuss misbehave numerous restless treating evervone as equal violently D Work in groups and discuss your reactions to the article ‘# What are your views on White Lion Free School compared with conventional schools? # Would you send your children to such a school? Give your reasons. © What features of the school described in the article ought to be a part of mainstream schools? © What are your views on progressive v, traditional reaching methods? © What are your views on comprehensive v, selective schools? E In Unit 5 we considered the process of making notes as an essential part of planning vour written work. To begin with, working in pairs, look at the notes your partner made for the composition tasks he or she has done since Unit 5. How do they compare with your own notes for the same compositions? F In this section we'll concentrate on making and using notes when writing a composition with the clock running. Keep a record of how long each of the following steps takes you 1 First, preferably working alone at home, make notes for an essay on this topic: Give your views on progressive versus traditional methods of education. (about 300 words) 2 Edit your notes: eliminate any irrelevant points, or less important points you won't have room to include, and decide on the best sequence of points. 3 Write your essay, timin yourself to see how long the whole process takes. 143 G Asacclass, or in groups, compare your experiences of what you did in F on the previous page: © How long did each step take you? © What did you find surprisingly difficult — and unexpectedly easy? ek In the exam you'll have two hours to write two compositions, but this includes the time you need to decide which topics to choose, and time to check your work through for mistakes afterwards. Ideally, though, planning (including writing your notes) and actually writing each composition should take no longer than 50 minutes. It’s not wise to allow a full hour for making notes and writing each one. “L will now explain the progressive methods by which your children are taught ~ so keep quiet, si up straight and don't fidget.” 144 10 Nature and the environment CUT LCLeach Arthur J. Elsey: ‘A tempting bait’, 1906 A. Work in groups and discuss these questions: What are your reactions to this painting? What are the implied attitudes to animals, nature and the countryside? Do you have any pets at home — or do any of your relations have them? What are your views on keeping pets in cities? Would you describe yourself as an animal-lover How ‘environmentally aware’ do you think you are? = Note down TEN vocabulary items connected with the topic of this unit that were used in your discussion. Compare your list with members of another group B_ Work in pairs and choose the word that best completes cach of the sentences. L_ Many species of animals and plants today are dangerous endangered precarious risky under danger 2. The indiscriminate use of pesticides has many rare species. abolished cancelled devastated postponed vanished wiped out » 145 3. Modern farm animals and crops are the result of centuries of selective breeding cultivation education mating reproduction 4 It took a long time for the theory of evolution to be absorbed accepted acknowledged tolerated 5 Much of our knowledge about evolution comes from the study of. artefacts fossils relics ruins tracks 6 My friend is a keen amateur natural historian naturalist naturist nationalist 7 He gets very about experiments being carried out on live animals. worked down worked out worked over worked up 8 One of the effects of acid rain is that it causes plants to contract flourish shrink thrive wither 9. Waste paper can be instead of being burnt. decomposed incinerated recycled revamped 10 There are over 850,000 named of insects on this planet. colonies families species styles varieties 11. Rabbits and mice are amphibians carnivores marsupials rodents 12 Crocodiles and alligators are crustaceans herbivores mammals reptiles 13. The oak and the beech are bushes coniferous trees deciduous trees shrubs 14 Crows and vultures are , living on carrion. parasites predators scavengers scroungers 15 The lioness lay in wait for her game lunch prey target victim 16 Rats, mice and cockroaches are usually considered to be cuddly mischievous pets vermin weeds 17. Cattle and chickens are animals. domestic domesticated house-broken obedient tame wild 18 Your cat has scratched me with its claws fangs hoofs nails paws pincers whiskers 19 We all admired the parrot’s beautiful bark coat fleece fur hide plumage 20 Many insects, such as wasps and ants, use their to touch objects. aerials antlers feelers horns whiskers 210A hatches from an egg laid by a butterfly. caterpillar chrysalis maggot moth snake worm 22 We saw a huge of birds through our binoculars. crowd flock herd pack shoal swarm 23 The that we've gathered in the woods will taste delicious fried in butter. champions leaves lichen mushrooms toadstools 24. Squirrels and rabbits are little creatures. amiable courteous delicious elegant endearing extravagant fierce "> Look again at the words that you didn’t use in the gaps. Do you know why each is wrong in the context? Highlight any of them that you want to remember. 146 10.2__Save the whales Ray Gambell A You'll hear an interview with Ray Gambell, a leading expert on whales. Before you listen to the recording, discuss with your partner what you already know about whales and about campaigns to save them from extinction ‘The first part of the interview is about research methods. Decide whether these statements are true (T) or false (F), according to the speaker. Whales are not being caught commercially at present. Individual hump-backed whales can be recognised by the colour of their tai ‘Thousands of samples have been taken from the tails of hump-backed whales. Hump-backed whales breed in the Arctic and feed in the Caribbean, In the past, research involved examining large numbers of dead whales. Using current research methods, information can be gathered much more quickly than it used to. C =~ In the second part of the interview you'll hear about different people’s attitudes to ‘saving the whales’. Answer these multiple-choice questions. 1 The Inuit peoples (Eskimos) of the Arctic a) hunt whales together for enjoyment b) would die out if they didn’t hunt whales ©) depend on whale meat and products for their survival 2. When Ray watched Eskimos hunting whales he found the experience . . ening b) fascinating c) shocking 3. To Western people today the whale represents the idea of . a) beauty b) freedom c) pleasure + For Western people, the whale is no longer thought of asa source of . a) meat b) oil c) raw materials 3. Nowadays Western people view commercial whale hunters as... a) brutal b) primitive) distasteful = 147 D_ = Inthe last part of the interview, Ray talks about why he thinks whales are exciting animals. Puta tick beside the reasons he gives: He feels an inexplicable affinity with them Their brains are large ‘They have feelings like human beings _ All whales are enormous ‘They can move in breathtakingly spectacular ways ‘They can perform tricks ‘They can communicate with each other ‘They may be on the verge of extinction Some whales are impressively large ‘They are perfectly suited to living in the sea E Work in groups and discuss your reactions to the recording: What species do you know about which are endangered? Why is it important that endangered animals and plants don’t become extinct? How can endangered species be saved? 10.3 Conditional sentences — 1 ce ineta A Work in pairs. Discuss any differences in meaning or emphasis between these sentences’ 1 Ifyou don’t leave now, you'll be late. __If' you leave now, you won't be late. If you left now, you wouldn't be late. If you didn’t leave now, you'd be late. Unless you leave now, you'll be late 2 When I have time, I’ll feed the cat. If I have time, I'll feed the goldfish. If I had time, I'd feed the ducks. If [had time, I'd have fed the birds. If T’d had time, I'd have fed the dog. When I had time, ’d feed the rabbits. 3. [feel upset when I think about the destruction of the rainforests Vd feel upset when I thought about people destroying the rainforests. T'd feel upset if I thought about the rainforests being destroyed 1 feel upset if I think about the destruction of tropical rainforests. 1 felt upset when I thought about jungles being destroyed. 4 If you're interested I'll tell you about my dream If you were interested I’d tell you about my dream. B__ Rewrite each sentence, beginning each new sentence with If, . . , keeping the meaning as close as possible to the original sentence 1 Don’t go too close to that dog in case it bites you 2. I didn’t give you a hand because I didn’t realise that you needed help. 3. The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere must be reduced, otherwise the ozone layer will be permanently damaged Forests once covered most of Europe, before they were cut down. Pollution is caused because people are ignorant about its effects on the environment. Animals can’t speak in their own defence, so we must speak up for them, Everyone should drive more slowly so that there is less pollution. Without acid rain these lakes would still have fish in them. eu dHe C Complete each sentence with your own ideas, as in the example. 1 Would you feel sick if. you had to eat raw fish? 2 Ifhe hadn’t been so generous, 148 3 If you aren’t careful, 4 If'she doesn’t phone me by Friday, 3. If everyone cared more about the environment, 6 If any species becomes extinct, 7 Ifhuman beings became extinct, 8 Unless the governments of the world cooperate, Work in groups and discuss these questions. Then write a paragraph summarising your discussion. Compare your summary with another group, © What might happen if global warming continues? © What might happen if everyone voted for the Green Party? ‘¢ What might happen if everyone stopped eating meat and fish? ¢ What might have happened if the world’s population hadn’t grown so large? Changing the climate ANTONIO Ibafiez is under siege. Since a Spanish TV crew visited his laboratory, outside Barcelona last year, he has fielded inquiries from all over the world. Libya, Morocco, Algeria, Mauritania, Brazil, Peru, India, Australia and Saudi Arabia are all interested in what could prove to be a way of turning tracts of desert into cultivatable land. They want to try Tbaner’s plastic palm "The spark for Tbafiez’s invention was hearing of widespread frosts in desert areas at night. How, he wanted to know, could that water be prevented from evaporating rapidly when the sun rose. He decided to look for a natural solution - and copy it. His plastic palm tree is a passive device, designed to be planted on a grand scale — thousands of them — and left to get on with it “Basically, the trees do two things,” says Thafez. “They lower the temperature and raise humidity.” Cooler air tends to encourage clouds to move in, increasing moisture and lowering temperatures. Tiny capillaries in the trees’ trunks and Jeaves absorb water, while polyurethane layers of differing densities in the trunk retain water and release it slowly during the day. The temperature-sensitive foam leaves open to inerease water absorption at night and close to reduce evaporation during daylight. ‘The roots are pumped into the ground in liquid form to a depth of 25 metres, where the non-toxic polyurethane quickly sets. The roots then absorb water from the soil fee A Read this passage and then answer the questions on the next page. and anchor the tree against the violent winds that can sweep desert zones. In an artificial plantation, the trees’ height varies from eight metres in the centre to five metres at the edge, to force wind to blow harmlessly over any life growing in the gaps between the trees. Itis under the canopies and between trees that a new microclimate will start to form, Ibafiez believes. It will be a cooler, humid zone with a daytime high of 22°C, rather than the hostile 70°C of before. At night, rather than temperatures of about -5°C, the air could be a life-supporting +5. Once a stable microclimate has been reached, says Ibanez, very gradually the plastic trees can be replaced by natural ones - and the synthetic frontline moved on. “In this way we can win back kilometres of desert,” he says. It is not just desert areas that could benefit, he suggests, but rainforests too. ‘Somewhere in Libya, his theory is being put to the test. Packed into a couple of hectares of desert are 30,000 of Ibariez’s trees. The plantation is “working,” he has been told, but the details are “top secret”, Plantations are also planned for Morocco and the Canary Islands. But sceptics remain. Jorge Wagensberg, director of Spain's Museum of Science, doesn’t believe the trees will work at all. “The designer ignores the distance between an idea and its practical application.” To hope to change the climate 149 10 with a few trees, he says, is wildly His palm trees, if they prove effective, optimistic. could make him a rich man. All he wants, Thafiez agrees his idea won't workona though, he says, is money tobuildacentre 11 small scale. “To change an area with one —_for scientific investigation, “It’s sad, but the tree is impossible, but with thousands it can government isn't interested in funding it” bedone: Rupert Widdecombe Choose the word or phrase which best completes each sentence. 1 Ibafiez’s idea was inspired by the a) climate in desert regions) demand from many desert countries c) knowledge that moisture is present in deserts d) way in which desert peoples find water 2. The plastic leaves a) open at night and close during the day) are always closed ©) are always open) close at night and open during the day 3. The roots of the plastic trees are .. a) thin b) thick c) short d) porous 4 Which illustration represents a plantation of plastic trees? PRET ET Te Pape pt Toth eee 5. Trees in desert regions are vulnerable to a) damage caused by grazing animals b) thunderstorms ©) high winds) sand storms 6 Eventually the plastic trees will a) be planted elsewhere b) disintegrate c) no longer be needed d) replace real trees, 7 Thaitez’s scheme is currently being tried out but a) he doubts whether it will be successful ) he doesn’t know for certain if it is successful ©) further tests are needed to discover if it is successful 4d) he will not reveal whether it is successful 8 Ibaiiez’s ultimate aim is to a) become a wealthy man b) influence the climate of desert areas ©) set up a research centre 4d) persuade the government to set up a research centre B__ Find words in the passage with similar meanings to these words and phrases: deal with§1 large area\ secure§ 3 unvarying {7 use 9 excessively 49 x When answering multiple-choice questions like the ones above, it’s sometimes easier to eliminate (and cross out) the wrong answers first, and then decide what the right answers might be. Be careful though: sometimes it's the least likely-looking answer that is actually right - especially if the writer holds unconventional views, or if you're reading about an unfamiliar topic! 150 10.5 Different styles A How would you describe the style of each of these sentences: formal, colloquial or neutral (i. neither stiffly formal nor very colloquial)? 1 do like little kittens and puppies ~ they're ever so sweet, aren't they? I consuder young kittens and puppies to be the most endearing creatures. Small kitiens and puppies are delightful, [ think. Ibatiez agrees that his idea will not function satisfactorily on a small scale. Ibaiiez agrees that his idea won't work on a small scale, He doesn't think his idea's going to work — not on a small scale at any rate. EQ) Look at the article about plastic palm trees in 10.4 and highlight some examples of neutral style B__ Rewrite these colloquial sentences in a more neutral (i.e. more formal but not stiffly formal) style 1 It’s lot better to use renewable energy ~ not fossil fuels like coal, gas and oil Renewable energy resources are preferable to fossil fuels, such as coal, gas and oil. How’s your dad? Is he OK again yet? Well, she hit the roof when they broke it to her that she'd got the sack ow organic fruit and vegetables they don’t use artificial fertiliser, you know. We were ever so scared when this huge great dog came bounding up to us. For pity’s sake, mind what sou’re doing with that knife! ‘There's no point in testing cosmetics and shampoo on animals ~ and it’s cruel to0. Why on earth didn’t vou turn the light off when you left the room? Hey, it looks as if it’s going to rain pretty soon. 10 Don’t throw litter in the street ~ put it in a bin or something, for goodness sake. Mau ee C_ Rewrite these formal sentences in a more neutral, less formal style: 1 Ivis unwise co bathe here due to possible contamination of the water. It's not advisable to go swimming here because the water may be polluted. 2. Meteorologists maintain that the rate of increase in the global warming process is accelerating, 3. Itis conceivable that a slight rise in temperature would have a dramatic effect on the ice in polar regions. 4 Discarding cans and bottles leads to excessive consumption of energy and materials. It is preferable to recycle them. The service of luncheon commences at noon. Passengers are requested to exercise caution when alighting from the train. To whom was the recommendation submitted? We regret that the playing of personal stereos and musical instruments is not permitted on the premises 9 Whilst all vegetarians eschew meat, vegans consume neither fish nor dairy products. 10. Icis regrettable that the government is not willing to provide financial support for scientific investigation, wrtay 151 D_ Work in pairs. Write a paragraph giving your views about being economical with energy (turning off lights, driving slowly, etc.) in the style you'd use in an informal letter to a friend. Pass your paragraph to another pair, who should rewrite it in a more neutral style. 30k When writing a composition in the exam it’s best to aim for a fairly neutral style, rather than a style that is over-colloquial or stiffly formal. However, a personal letter should be written in a friendly, colloquial style. Contractions (isn’t, it’s, etc.) are often used in a neutral style. In the exam you wouldn't be penalised for using them, but it may be safer to stick to full forms. In academic essays or job applications contractions should not be used, 10.6 Charles Darwin A. Read the passage and write your answers to the questions that follow. Do this on your own, without using a dictionary. Remember to highlight the relevant parts of the passage, and make notes before you start writing anything =>} Time how long it takes you to do this exercise Charles Darwin 1309-82 In 1832 a young Englishman, Charles Darwin, nwenty-four years old and naturalist on HMS Beagle, a brig sent by the Admiralty of London on a surveying voyage round the world, came to a forest outside Rio de Janeiro. In one day, in one small area, he collected sixty-eight different species of small beetle. That 5 there should be such a variety of species of one kind of creature astounded him. He had not been searching specially for them so that, as he wrote in his journal, ‘It is sufficient to disturb the composure of an entomologist’s mind to look forward to the future dimensions of a complete catalogue’. The | conventional view of his time was that all species were immutable and that | 10 each had been individually and separately created by God. Darwin was far | from being an atheist — he had, after all, taken a degree in divinity in Cambridge — but he was deeply puzzled by this enormous multiplicity of | forms. During the next three years, the Beagle sailed down the east coast of South 15 America, rounded Cape Horn and came north again up the coast of Chile. ‘The expedition then sailed out into the Pacific until, 600 miles from the mainland, they came to the lonely archipelago of the Galapagos. Here Darwin’s questions about the creation of species recurred, for in these islands 152 he found fresh variety. He was fascinated to discover that the Galapagos animals bore a general resemblance to those he had seen on the mainland, but different from them in detail The English Vice-Governor of the Galapagos told Darwin that even within the archipelago, there was variety: the tortoises on each island were slightly different, so that it was possible to tell which island they came from. Those that lived on relatively well-watered islands where there was ground vegetation to be cropped, had a gently curving front edge to their shells just above the neck. But those that came from arid islands and had to crane their necks in order to reach branches of cactus or leaves of trees, had much longer necks and a high peak to the front of their shells that enabled them to stretch their necks almost vertically upwards, ‘The suspicion grew in Darwin’s mind that species were not fixed for ever. Perhaps one could change into another. Maybe, thousands of years ago, birds and reptiles from continental South America had reached the Galapagos, ferried on the rafts of vegetation that float down the rivers and out to sea. Once there, they had changed, as generation succeeded generation, to suit their new homes until they became their present species. The differences between them and their mainland cousins were only small, but if such changes had taken place, was it not possible that over many millions of years, the cumulative effects on a dynasty of animals could be so great that they could bring about major transformations? Maybe fish had developed muscular fins and crawled on to land to become amphibians; maybe amphibians in their turn had developed water-tight skins and become reptiles; maybe, even, some ape-like creatures had stood upright and become the ancestors of man, In truth the idea was not a wholly new one. Many others before Darwin had suggested that all life on earth was interrelated. Darwin’s revolutionary insight was to perceive the mechanism that brought these changes about. By doing so he replaced a philosophical speculation with a detailed description of a process, supported by an abundance of evidence, that could be tested and verified; and the reality of evolution could no longer be denied. Put briefly, his argument was this. All individuals of the same species are not identical. In one clutch of eggs from, for example, a giant tortoise, there will be some hatchlings which, because of their genetic constitution, will develop longer necks than others. In times of drought they will be able to reach leaves and so survive. Their brothers and sisters, with shorter necks, will starve and die. So those best fitted to their surroundings will be selected and be able to transmit their characteristics to their offspring. After a great number of generations, tortoises on the arid islands will have longer necks than those on the watered islands. And so one species will have given rise to another. ‘This concept did not become clear in Darwin’s mind until long after he had left the Galapagos. For twenty-five years he painstakingly amassed evidence to support it. Not until 1859, when he was forty-eight years old, did he publish it and even then he was driven to do so only because another younger naturalist, 2 28 8 © 6 6 153 Alfred Wallace, working in South East Asia, had formulated the same idea. | 5 He called the book in which he set out his theory in detail, The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. Since that time, the theory of natural selection has been debated and tested, refined, qualified and elaborated. Later discoveries about genetics, molecular | 19 biology, population dynamics and behaviour have given it new dimensions. It remains the key to our understanding of the natural world and it enables us to recognise that life has a Jong and continuous history during which organisms, both plant and animal, have changed, generation by generation, as they colonised all parts of the world. | 7 (from Life on Earth by David Auenborough) How did the primary purpose of the HMS Beagle’s vovage differ from Darwin What astonished Darwin in Brazil? What is the meaning of ‘immutable’ in line 10 What is meant by ‘Darwin was far from being an atheist’ in line 11? What first intrigued Darwin about the Galapagos animals? What is meant by ‘recurred? in line 19? How did the tortoises on each Galapagos island differ? How did Darwin suggest the animals had found their way to the Galapagos? What is the meaning of ‘insight’ in line 48? What was revolutionary about Darwin’s ideas? 11 What are ‘hatchlings’ (line 54) 12, How quickly did Darwin publish his theory? 13 What made him publish his book when he did? 14 How have modern discoveries changed ideas on natural selection? SocwmiudsHnponn 15 Summarise Darwin’s innovative description of the process of natural selection. (70-100 words) After you have compared your answers with a partner, work in groups or as a class and discuss these questions: © How long did it take you to do this section? © What did you find most difficult about doing the exercise while timing yourself? What did you do when you didn’t know (or couldn't find) an answer? @ Inan exam do vou read the questions through before vou read the passage? Or is it better to read the passage through first (to get the gist) and then read it more carefully, searching for the answers? Give your reasons 154 ak Although this passage is about twice the length of the one you'll have to read in the exam, the amount of writing you'll have to do is about the same. In the exam you should aim to do the Questions and Summary in Paper 3 in about 50 minutes. This time includes reading the passage through, making notes, and checking your work through for mistakes at the end. If this exercise took you much more than an hour, you should try to speed up your performance. Uses of the past Work in pairs. Discuss the differences in meaning (if any) between these sentences 1 L wish that dog would stop barking, I wish that dog had stopped barking. I wish that dog didn’t bark. I want that dog to stop barking. 2 Ir’s time for you to do the washing-up. It’s time you did the washing-up. 3. Ifonly it were Friday! If it were only Friday Only if it was Friday If it’s only Friday 4 Would you rather I didn’t help you? Would you rather not help me? Would you prefer it if I didn’t help you? Would you prefer me not to help you? 3 Iwas going to phone her tonight 1 intended to phone her tonight. Tam going to phone her tonight. I was to have phoned her tonight. 6 I wish I knew the answer I wish to know the answer, Fill each gap with suitable words or phrases Sow sutene I do wish you me when I'm trying to study It’s high time something industry from polluting the environment. You're very late! I'd prefer a little earlier next time. If only people the dangers of global warming 20 years ago! L wish ride a horse I wish there to save the whales. We and see you on Sunday but there wasn’t enough time. What a noise youre making! Pd rather a bit more quietly Well, it’s 9.30, do you think it’s yer Isn't it time the cat ? It looks very hungry 155 10.8 Showing your attitude 156 A The writer of this passage (a zoologist who runs a 200 himself) wants to convince the reader of his views on zoos and safari parks. GG) Work in pairs. Read the passage and highlight the words and phrases that show the writer's feelings, attitude and passionately-held opinions, T must agree with you (if you are anti-z00), that not all 200s are perfect. Of the 500 or so zoological collections in the world, a few are excellent, some are inferior and the rest are appalling. Given the premises that zoos can and should be of value scientifically, educationally and from a conservation point of view (thus serving both us and other animal life), then I feel very strongly that one should strive to make them better. I have had, ironically enough, a great many rabid opponents of 200s tell me that they would like all zoos closed down, yet the same people accept with equanimity the proliferation of safari parks, where, by and large, animals are far worse off than in the average 200. An animal can be just as unhappy, just as ill-treated, in a vast area as in a small one, but the rolling vistas, the ancient trees, obliterate criticism, for this is the only thing that these critics think the animals want. It is odd how comforted people feel by seeing an animal in a ten-acre field. Safari parks were invented purely to make money. No thought of science or conservation sullied their primary conception. Like a rather unpleasant fungus, they have spread now throughout the world. In the main, their treatment of animals is disgracefuul and the casualties (generally carefully concealed) appalling. I will not mention the motives, or the qualifications of the men who created them, for they are sufficiently obvious, but I would like to stress that I know it to be totally impossible to run these vast concerns with a knowledgeable and experienced staff, since that number of knowledgeable and experienced staff does not exist. I know, because I am always on the look-out for such rare beasts myself am not against the conception of safari parks. | am against the way that they are at present run. In their present form, they represent a bigger hazard and a bigger drain on wild stocks of animals than any zoo ever has done. Safari parks, properly controlled and scientifically run, could be of immense conservation value for such things as antelope, deer and the larger carnivores. But they have a long way to go before they can be considered anything other than animal abattoirs in a sylvan setting, I feel, therefore, that one should strive to make zoos and safari parks better, not simply clamour for their dissolution. If Florence Nightingale’s sole contribution, when she discovered the appalling conditions in the hospitals of the last century, had been to advocate that they should all be closed down, few people in later years would have praised her for her acumen and far-sightedness. My plan, then, is that all of us, zoo opponents and z00 lovers alike, should endeavour to make them perfect; should make sure that they are a help to animal species and not an additional burden on creatures already too hard pressed by our unbeatable competition. This can be done by being much | 4 more critical of zoos and other animal collections, thus making them more critical of themselves, so that even the few good ones will strive to be better. (from The Stationary Ark by Gerald Durrell) B Gall Here are more examples of words and phrases which show a writer's attitude. Highlight the ones that you would like to remember 1 Itis that animals are kept in captivity. appalling disgraceful dreadful frightful shocking terrible absurd incomprehensible odd ridiculous strange ironic 2. Some zoos are but most of them are admirable excellent fine praiseworthy appalling atrocious disgraceful dreadful frightful shocking 3 something must be done as soon as possible Clearly Obviously Quite frankly There is no doubt that Undoubtedly Without a shadow of doubt As far as 'm concerned I feel very strongly that I would like to stress that It seems to me that Personally My view is that You must agree that It is generally agreed that 4 . there is a straightforward solution to this problem Ironically enough Strangely enough Oddly enough Actually In fact Inspite of this Mind you Nevertheless Still 51 good zoos but I bad ones. am all in favour of advocate applaud approve of favour support am against. condemn strongly disapprove of _ object to reject the idea of C__ Fill these gaps with words or phrases you highlighted above 1 leis that most safari parks are simply money-making enterprises. 2 there are some zoos which are run to make a profit, but not all. 3 , some z00s are absolutely 41 zoos as such — enjoy a day at the zoo. 3 hunting animals is a(n) leisure activity 6 there is nothing wrong with people having pets, keeping a large dog in a city apartment is D_ Write a couple of paragraphs, giving your own views on any one of these topics which you feel strongly about: Using animals in laboratories for testing cosmetics ‘* Shooting animals for ‘sport? © Keeping large, fierce dogs as ‘pets’ ‘@ The destruction of the rainforests © Training animals to perform in circuses © Eating meat 157 Save the Eartl A. Work in groups. Look at the ideas on these pages and discuss your reactions. ‘According to the experts: ] — Between 1990 and 2000 10% of the estimated 30 million species of plants and animals | will be lost forever. By 2030 another 20% are Lkely tobe lost. The extinction of one | plant species can cause the loss of 30 dependent organisms. | — By 1990 half the world’s rainforests had already been destroyed Of the remaining | half, one third will disappear between 1990 and 2000 and another third by 2030 Between 1990 and 2000 the average temperature will rise by 1° C. By 2100 it will ise | by 3° C to 5° C. This will have unpredictable effects on local weather pattems. The sea level is likely to rise between 10 cm and 2m — There were 600 million motor vehicles in 1990. By 2000 there will be 750 million, and by 2030 1,100 million. — The total world population in 1990 was 5,300 million. By 2000 there will be 6,000 million, and by 2030 there may be 8,000 to 10,000 million mouths to feed and by 2100 11,000 to 14,000. (information from Save the Earth by Jonathon Porritt) 'This is what you should do: love the Earth and sun and the animals, despise riches, give alms to everyone that asks, stand up for the stupid and crazy, devote your income and labour to others, hate tyrants, argue not concerning God, have | patience and indulgence towards the people, take off your hat to nothing known, or unknown or to any man or number of men . . . re-examine all you have been told at school or church or in any book, dismiss what insults your own soul, and your very flesh shall be a great poem.’ Walt Whitman If the Earth were only a few feet in diameter, floating a few feet above a field somewhere, people would come from everywhere to marvel at it. People would walk around it marvelling at its big pools of water, its little pools and the water flowing between, People would marvel at the bumps on it and the holes in it. They would marvel at the very thin layer of gas surrounding it and the water suspended in the gas. The people would marvel at all the creatures walking around the surface of the ball and at the creatures in the water. ‘The people would declare it as sacred because it was the only one, and they would protect it so that it would not be hurt. The ball would be the greatest wonder known, and people would come to pray to it, to be healed, to gain knowledge, to know beauty and to wonder how it could be, People would love it, and defend it with their lives because they would somehow know that their lives could be nothing without it. If the Earth were only a few feet in diameter. Joe Miller 158 at CO RU yd A First, read this ‘fill the gaps’ passage through, just to get the gist. Teis not....1.... to.....2..... an unknown animal. Spend a day in the tropical forests | of South America, turning over logs, looking beneath bark, sifting through the moist litter of leaves, followed by an evening .....5,.... a mercury lamp on a white screen, } and one way and another you will ......4..... hundreds of different kinds of small creatures. Moths, caterpillars, spiders, long-nosed bugs, luminous beetles, harmless. | butterflies .....5...... as wasps, wasps shaped like ants, sticks that walk, leaves that open wings and fly - the variery will be... 6... and one of these ...7....._ will almost certainly be undescribed by science. The difficulty will be to find ...8 who know enough about the groups ....9..... to be able to single out the new one. No one can say .....10.... how many species of animals there are in these | greenhouse-humid dimly lit jungles. They contain the... 11... and the most varied assemblage of animal and plant life to be found anywhere on earth. Not only are there many categories of creatures ~ monkeys, rodents, spiders, hummingbirds, butterflies, but most of those types ......!2... in many different .....!3.... , There are over forty different species of parrot, over seventy different monkeys, three hundred hummingbirds and tens of thousands of butterflies. If you are not ....14..... , you can even be ....!5..... by a hundred different kinds of mosquito B Work in pairs. Decide which words are most suitable to fit in each of the kok When doing an exercise like A in the exam (without B to help you!), you should bear numbered gaps — some are grammatically or stylistically unsuitable 1 difficult hard ¥ problematic X strenuous X tricky X 2 comeacross discover find identify meet 3 lighting pointing reflecting shining 4 collect’ discover gather glimpse identify pick up 5 disguised dressed masquerading posing 6 ample big enormous huge immense 7 8 9 10 animals creatures insects things types experts friends guys people specialists characteristics concerned themselves there almost exactly just nearly precisely quite sincerely 11 best biggest deepest richest strangest thickest wildest 12 are become exist happen remain survive 13 forms manners types ways zones 14 asleep awake careful cunning fortunate unlucky 15 attacked bitten poisoned stung threatened ™> Where you ticked more than one answer, which is the one you feel is the best? in mind the context, the sense of the passage, and its style. In the exam some of the gaps will require grammatical words: prepositions, articles, conjunctions, etc. 160 eit euy Ue 8 A. Which of the following would be preceded by PUT pressure on someone a trap for someone your teeth on edge two and two together someone at their case a question to someone astop to something a good example someone in the picture fire to something your watch pen to paper _ the scene ind which by SET? B Find synonyms for the phrases in italics, or explain their meaning. Use a dictionary if necessary I think I put my foot in it when Lasked her what the matter was Having the car fixed set me back £250! That’s put paid to my holiday plans. Keep your options open: don’t put all your eggs in one basket If you take a flash photo while he’s playing the violin you may put him off. Her bad performance in her flute exam can be put down to nerves. Let’s hope it doesn’t put her off playing altogether You've let her get away with being late too often: it’s time you put your foot down The bad weather has set the building programme back by several weeks When they set up the scheme they sel oud to make it as innovative as possible, You're always putting me down! Put yourself in my shoes and imagine what it feels like. Don’t you realise that it puts both of us in a bad light? 10 wouldn't put it past him to have made the whole story up. be er C Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable phrases from the list below. You may need to change the form of the verbs. 1 Itwasn’t her idea — someone else must have her it 2. They were going out together for five years before they house together. 3. He has tremendous ideas but he’s not very good at them 4 Idon't want to you , but I've got nowhere to stay. Can you me for the night? 3 It doesn’t take much encouragement him gossiping. 6 Ifyou don’t like the situation, you'll just have to it, I’m afraid. 7 You can’t stand in the way of progress: you can’t the clock 8. The room was in such a mess that he immediately tidying everything up. 9 Holidays are expensive: you can save up by a little money each month 10. They won't turn on the central heating until the really cold weather 11 5,000 words! You must have a lot of hours on this work. 12. Inher book she to examine the wide variety of species in the world put across/over put aside/put away/set aside pe put back putin” putout put up put up 10 put up with set about sel in set off set out set up 161 11 A good read 162 ENO aeken == You'll hear three people talking about reading and why they enjoy it. Tick the boxes beside the TRUE statements, according to what they say. Christine’s mother used to take her to the library every week. She likes stories where you want to know what happens next It once took her three months to read a P.D. James novel She and her father are avid readers Jilly is interested in the style of the books she reads. She enjoyed A Year in Provence by Peter Mayle more than Cider With Rosie or As I Walked Out One Midsummer Morning by Laurie Lee. 7 Vinee likes humorous fiction 8 Both David Lodge and Malcolm Bradbury write about similar topics. 9 He has laughed out loud while reading Malcolm Bradbury 10. Garrison Keillor writes about city life in the USA. autene IL Vince believes that reading stimulates vour imagination. 12 Christine vicariously shares other people's feelings by reading novels. 13. She often wants to read on to find out how a conflict or problem is resolved 14. She forgets the real world when she is reading. 15. At New Year she resolved to read more and has found time to do so. ooo0o0e8 00000 400000 Work in groups and discuss these questions: ‘© Which of the people interviewed do vou identify with most? ‘¢ What enjoyment do you get from reading for pleasure? ‘© What kinds of books and magazines would you like to read if you had more time? ‘¢ Name one fiction or non-fiction book you've enjoyed. What did you particularly enjoy about it? About how many books do you read in English during a year, and how many in your own language? In these sentences THREE of the alternatives are correct and the rest are wrong. 1 As 1 prefer fiction to non-fiction I often read best-sellers biographies memoirs thrillers whodunits 2. Before buying a book it’s a good idea to read the bibliography blurb contents dustjacket sleeve 3. The opening page of a book often has a(n) appendix dedication foreword index preface 4. I've just read the reviews of a newly-published of poetry album anthology book collection gathering 5 The plot of a popular romantic novel is not usually very complex intricate involved mixed multiple 6 It wasa very long book and it took me ages to through it. flip get struggle thumb wade 7 Her books not only have exciting plots but are also very gripping readable thought-provoking thrilling well-written 8. The language she uses can be interpreted literally or descriptively figuratively illustratively metaphorically _ symbolically 9 Although the book has a serious . itis very accessible and witty author message plot purpose satire side 10 The contents page of'a book usually gives the titles of all the init. chapters excerpts extracts passages sections units D These abbreviations are found in non-fiction books and footnotes, as well as in reports and articles. Rewrite each one as 2 complete word or phrase. cg. forexample etc. and soon / and so forth / etcetera ie cf ff pp. ibid. viz. sic © NB 11.2 Setting the scene... eerie rer nu QO" DAVID LODGE Nice WORK Here are the opening paragraphs of three best-selling British novels. Read each extract carefully before you discuss the questions below with a partner. | On the morning Vera died I woke up very early. The birds | had started, more of them and singing more loudly in our | leafy suburb than in the country. They never sang like that outside Vera's windows in the Vale of Dedham. I lay there 1 | listening to something repeating itself monotonously. A thrush. it must have been, doing what Browning said it did and singing each song twice over. It was a Thursday in August, a hundred years ago. Not much more than a third of that, of course. It only feels so long | In these circumstances alone one knows when someone is going to die. All other deaths can be predicted, | conjectured, even anticipated with some certainty, but not | to the hour. the minute. with no room for hope. Vera would die at eight o'clock and that was that. I began to feel sick. I lay there exaggeratedly still, listening for some sound from the next room. If I was awake my father would | be. about my mother I was less sure. She had never made a secret of her dislike of both his sisters. It was one of the things which had made a rift benween them, though there they were together in the next room, in the same bed stil. | 163 People did not break a marriage, leave each other. so | | lightly in those days | I thought of getting up but first 1 wanted to make sure | where my father was. There was something terrible in the | idea of encountering him in the passage. both of us dressing-gowned, thick-eyed with sleeplessness, each seeking the bathroom and each politely giving way to the other. Le (from A Dark-Adapted Eye by Barbara Vine, 1986) What do we find out about Vera? Why is she going to die? How many times is the word ‘die’ or ‘death’ used? What is the effect of this? What do we find out about the narrator's parents? ‘What do we find out about the place and time that are described? bene Monday January 13th, 1986. Victor Wilcox lies awake, in the dark bedroom, waiting for his quartz alarm clock to bleep. It is set to do this at 6.45. How long he has to wait he doesn’t know. He could easily find out by groping for the clock, lifting it to his line of vision, and pressing the button that illuminates the digital display. But he would rather not know. Supposing it is only six o’clock? Or even five? It could be five. Whatever it is, he won’t be able to get to sleep again. This has become a regular occurrence lately: lying awake in the dark, waiting for the alarm to bleep, worrying. Worries streak towards him like enemy spaceships in one of Gary’s video games. He flinches, dodges, zaps them with instant solutions, but the assault is endless: the Avco account, the Rawlinson account, the price of pig-iron, the value of the 2| pound, the competition from Foundrax, the incompetence of his Marketing Director, the persistent breakdowns of the core blowers, the vandalising of the toilets in the fettling shop, the pressure from his divisional boss, last month’s accounts, the quarterly forecast, the annual review In an effort to escape this bombardment, perhaps even to doze awhile, he twists onto his side, burrows into the warm plump body of his wife, and throws an arm round her waist. Startled, but still asleep, drugged with Valium, Marjorie swivels to face him. Their noses and foreheads bump against each other; there is a sudden flurry of limbs, an absurd pantomime 3| struggle. Marjorie puts up her fists like a boxer, groans and pushes him away. An object slides off the bed on her side and falls to the floor with a thump. Vic knows what it is: a book which one of Marjorie’s friends at the Weight Watchers’ club 164 hhas lent her, and which she has been reading in bed, without much show of conviction, and falling asleep over, for the past week or two. (from Nice Work by David Lodge, 1988) What do we find out about Victor Wilcox? What do we find out about Marjorie? What do we find out about the place and time that are described? How many of Victor’s worries are listed in the second paragraph? What is the effect of this? 5. Howis each paragraph different in content and style? fone I live on Brazzaville Beach. Brazzaville Beach on the edge of Africa. This is where I have washed up, you might say, deposited myself like a spar of driftwood, lodged and fixed in the warm sand for a while, just above the high tide mark. “The beach never had a name until last April. Then they christened ic in honour of the famous Conférengia dos Quadros that was held a few years ago in Congo Brazzaville in 1964, No one can explain why but, one day, over the laterite road that leads down to the shore, some workmen erected this sign: ‘Brazzaville Beach’, and written below that, Conférengia dos Quadros, Brazzaville, 1964. Icis an indication, some people say, that the government is becoming more moderate, trying to heal the wounds of our own civil war by acknowledging a historic moment in another country's liberation 3) struggle, Who can say? Who ever knows the answers to these questions? But I like the name, and so does everyone else who lives around here. Within a week we were all using it unselfconsciously. Where do you live? On Brazzaville Beach. It seemed entirely natural. 1 live on the beach in a refurbished beach house. I have a large cool sitting-room with a front wall of sliding meshed doors that give on directly co a wide sun-deck. There is also a bedroom, a generous bathroom with bath and shower, and a tiny dim kitchen, built on to the back. Behind the house is my garden: sandy, patchy grass, some prosaic shrubs, a vegetable plot and a hibiscus hedge, thick with brilliant flowers. (from Brazzaville Beach by William Boyd, 1990) What do we find out about the narrator? How many other characters are mentioned? What is the effect of this? What do we find out about the place and time that are described? How many times is the word ‘beach’ used? What is the effect of this? How is each paragraph different in content and style? whens Work in groups and discuss these questions: © What do you think is going to happen in each of the stories? © Which of the three novels would you like to read more of, and why? ‘© Which seems to have the most readable or attractive style? 165 11.3 Conjunctions and connectors 166 A Ga Study these examples and highlight the expressions you want to remember. because /andso —_EXPLAINING RESULTS AND REASONS because since as the reason why consequently therefore as a result of this but/although CONTRASTS, UNEXPECTED RESULTS nonetheless nevertheless all the same however though even though and yet still on the other hand but not MENTIONING EXCEPTIONS apart from except with the exception of and also MAKING FURTHER POINTS moreover whatismore yet besides furthermore not only... but also especially EMPHASISING in particular above all particularly chiefly primarily eg. GIVING EXAMPLES “for example suchas for instance like ie. CLARIFYING in other words that is to say which means that anyway RESERVATIONS, QUALIFICATIONS atleast atany rate in any case etc. NOT MENTIONING FURTHER EXAMPLES and so forth and so on as well as other similar things/ books Rewrite these sentences using expressions you highlighted above. 1 He likes reading but he doesn’t have much time for it He doesn’t have much time for reading even though he enjoysit a lot. Many blockbusters, e.g. James Mitchener’s ‘Alaska’, are over 1,000 pages long. She enjoys reading biographies ~ especially ones about politicians. Science fiction is an acquired taste ~ anyway that’s what sci-fi fans say She prefers reading non-fiction books, i.e. biographies, history books, e¢c. ‘The book contained a lot of explicit sex and violence and so it was a best-seller. She reads thrillers but she doesn’t read much else Reading is an inexpensive hobby and it is enjoyable. wudsHren B_ Fill cach gap with a suitable expression, but without using and or but. 1 Allof E.M. Forster’s novels, A Passage to India, are set in Europe. 2 Jane Austen’s novels were popular in her day; they are still widely read. 3. Katherine Mansfield’s short stories are brilliant examples of the genre; rd recommend the ones she wrote later in her life. 4 Pve never appreciated D. H. Lawrence's work he’s supposed to be a great English writer — I think he’s rather overrated. 5. Charles Dickens's novels, Oliver Twist, were published monthly as serials, each new instalment was eagerly awaited by readers. 6 Mary Ann Evans was an independent, free-thinking woman; all her novels were written under a male pseudonym: George Eliot. Kingsley Amis’s Lucky Jim is his best work - that’s what I think. Anne, Charlotte and Emily Bronté all wrote novels which are well worth reading — Emily's Wuthering Heights and Charlotte's Jane Eyre. won C The phrases listed opposite are frequently used in essays and academic writing, but less so in narratives and in an informal or neutral style. Looking at the three extracts in 11.2, how many buts can you find? How many times is and used to connect clauses? How many of the phrases listed in A are used in the extracts? 11.4 Agood beginning A. Read this article about first lines and first novels and then compare your reactions to it with a partner. Sifting the nodders from the shakers “J WAS gazing out beyond Last week’s Whitbread prizegiving Beachy Head contemplating _will have awakened in a thousand the ruins of my life.” This, in the unpublished authors that sense of Jargon of book publishing, is a Knowing they have a book worth 5 shaker, a complete no-no as an publishing. After all, Paul Sayer won 5 opening line. Unless the author the Whitbread two years ago with his performs some miracle in the next _first novel. And the 1990 prestigious couple of paragraphs, the publishing Prix Goncourt was awarded in company’s reader will fiick tothe November toa first novel from Jean 0 next chapter and, if there’s more of _ Rouaud, a French newspaper seller. «0 the same, cast the manuscript aside, And if we're in any doubt writing similar fate awaits books that schools assure us we are all begin: “The day after my husband uncapped springs of literary genius; died”; “Picking up the pieces was __just filln the coupon to find the 15 never going to be easy” or, what one Tolstoy lurking within. Novelist and 4s publisher describes as the Enid poet Marge Piercy says: “The real Blyton* opener: “Peter and Bob writer is one who really writes,” But decided to go to the market in Leeds the truth is that deep in our that day”. These are all shakers (as commercial hearts we believe the 2 inhead-shakers) of the first order. _real writer is one who is really % On the other hand, the first line of published. Tolstoy's Anna Karenina—“All happy Mass literacy and the premise that families resemble one another, but “everyone has a book in them” each unhappy family is unhappy in _causes thousands of unsolicited 2 its own way”-is what another manuscripts to thud on to the 5 publisher describes as a nodder, in _doormats of publishers and literary the sense that it makes you thinkyes, agents every week. Nearly all are there’s something I recognise in that. rejected. One agency calculated that For the unpublished author, the first all but 0.001 percent are sent back. x line or paragraph is all-important. Stephen Burgen * Enid Blyton wrote lots and lots of story books for boys and girls. She wrote in a very easy style like this. B_ Work in pairs. Look at the first lines of the passages in 11.6 on pages 171-2, and the passages in Units 12 and 13. Choose five that are ‘nodders’, in your view — and any that you think are ‘shakers’, Compare your findings with another pair. @ 167 168 c Look at these first lines of some students’ compositions on the topic ‘The effect of tourism on a place in my country’ (which you tackled in Unit 6). Which of them make you want to read on? The erst Live Ceatnte to Virwice ot sing racing ret guile cdatey, 4 rercencber 6 p04 December anot 10 there were not mony eure arent, That’ a he pery time pun howe to Hae — o he pnietalle & wrirter alta ib G Proreg, anee soggy. Switzerland naa veen traditional a Very fadons country fr turin. But having a huge number g tris every Year Camis A lor oF prsylen fev A oma Country Uke Switzerland . ‘The canton of Ticino 1 one of the most attractive areas of Suitzedand and is Sitwaked. in the Tkalion Past in the extreme South. In Ticino tourism is estenkiok becamoe ik represents the second mast impertant source of income of the: Canton after banking and geacrakes many obs Groves 2 a wag beautifur vilage vi the Sowth # France Hes meditvak Weviaes Me nT a cif, Aoveed dom pom by a Cluwd. “The view 0 en over ProveWdee 5 broathtakuig: Bn endlerd Landscape AWandler Aiotds, vuie And Poplar: Vomishing ike Ahe dirt tw a clin A ae. Verice has alnays boon atomist reso ond peel own pill bests. in Sowce Gp iname. freer Venice itolf pas Conceited a a Fount leStination al “therefore. 1s. ingprssible. yo ‘ag re it Ober eavioun via the Camavy Islands bas had a great vapact orn the Ww thre local W and on de sen “slmuds Efe Younis. boca ove of the estes of vacoms for the islands, most of the people lured four agriculture cmd fislung The sun ia during. Far Ute dagt now it has been exbemedy hot = How could you improve each one, particularly the very first sentence of each? Look at the first lines of your own recent compositions. Which do you think are ‘nodders’ and which are ‘shakers’? Write improved opening lines for the ones you're not satisfied with. =} Show your improved versions, together with the original first lines, to a partner and ask for comments. E (= You'll hear an interview with a publisher's reader, talking about her work. Fill the gaps in this summary. 1 Karen’s job involves reading manuscripts, manuscripts from representing authors, and manuscripts by authors. 2 She writes a report on the manuscript it, it or suggesting that someone else it, Reading a new manuscript by a writer she admires is a , but the report she would write on it is only for 3. Most of the unsolicited manuscripts she reads are . There’s a saying that ‘everyone’s > — but it may not bea one! 4. She says that a good book must have a strong . The writer is trying to say something and the style is and 5 She talks about the work of Abdulrazak Gurnah who comes from. His first manuscript was accompanied by a letter, 6 In Memory of Departure he describes his experiences in East Africa 7 His novels are very different from most novels. What has happened to him has been rather and this is, in his fiction. He deserves to be more than he has been. 8 Which of these pleasures of reading does she mention? Being able to read at your own speed (] Being caught up ina story [] Being transported to another world [] Choosing a book ina bookshop [] Just holdinga book [] — Re-reading passages you have enjoyed [] ‘Learning information [[] Seeing the world through other people’s eyes. [] Cet LLCs A _Insome fixed, idiomatic phrases words go together like . . . salt and pepper, fish and chips, sweet and sour, or Marks and Spencers. Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1 Isearched high and low. for my wallet. 2 Can we discuss the of your proposals later on? 3. Can you show me the to support your argument? 4 She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the of the party. 5. They get on quite well together, even though they have their little 6 You gain some things and you lose others: it’s a case of 7. The police are responsible for maintaining 8 I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s 9 It was whether the rescuers would get there in time, 10 They've shared a lot of experiences: they've been through together. 11 You can’t claim on insurance for , only for damage. 12 Ineed another £100 the amount I've already saved up. 13. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are 14 A pendulum swings 15. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his 16 After all their adventures, they reached home bread and butter facts and figures few and far between high and low law and order life and soul over and above pros and cons safe and sound spick and span swings and roundabouts thick and thin toand fro touch and go ups and downs wear and tear 169 B Look at the examples and then match the words in the lists below together: a swarm of bees a bag of flour a box of matches a tank of petrol @ pair of scissors a pair of binoculars a pair of sunglasses a pair of tights @ basket bucket bunch Of beans bother bread carafe cup flight flock gust cake cards cattle equipment herd item jug loaf pack flowers fruit helpers hills pair piece pot puff range honey luggage milk potatoes sack school slice spoonful sheep smoke socks stairs sugar spot team tinorcan tube tea tights toothpaste tweezers water wind wine or water whales C Fill these gaps with suitable expressions from B 1 We want to help us to redecorate our flat 2 Ifyou give your hostess , she'll be very pleased 3. How many are you allowed to check in for this flight? 4 Ifyou’ve got , we can play poker. 5 I’ve gota splinter in my finger; have you got I can borrow? 6 Inthe distance we could see and beyond that a snow-capped mountain. 7 Pmhaving with my work, could you help me? 8 Don't be so silly! There’s no need to be scared of 9 Twent down and came to a locked door. 10. There was a sudden and her umbrella blew inside out. D Match the two halves of these idiomatic expressions: muscular — He’s as strong as . a bat short-sighted ~ She's as blind as... a cucumber hard of hearing He’s as deaf as . a feather stupid ~ She’s as thick as a fiddle unemotional ~ He’s as cool as .. gold tough — She’s as hard as... a hatter self-effacing — He's as quiet as... a horse/an ox healthy — She’s as fit as... a mouse crazy — He's as mad as nails attractive ~ She looked as pretty as a picture well-behaved ~ The children were as good as... a post very slim — She's as light as two short planks “They've kept very close to the book.” 170 RSC eu ie ed Een A These are the opening paragraphs of the first chapter of three well-known novels. Read them through before vou answer the questions in B on the next page. To the red country and part of the grey country of Oklahoma the last rains came gently, and they did not cut the scarred earth. The ploughs crossed and recrossed the rivulet marks. The last rains lifted the corn quickly and scattered weed colonies and grass along the sides of the roads so that the grey country and the dark red country began to disappear under a green | § cover. In the last part of May the sky grew pale and the clouds that had hung in high puffs for so long in the spring were dissipated. The sun flared down on the growing corn day after day until a line of brown spread along the edge of each green bayonet. The clouds appeared, and went away, and in a while they did nor try any more. The weeds grew darker green to | 19 protect themselves, and they did not spread any more. The surface of the | earth crusted, a thin hard crust, and as the sky became pale, so the earth became pale, pink in the red country and white in the grey country. In the water-cut gullies the earth dusted down in dry little streams. Gophers and ant lions started small avalanches. And as the sharp sun struck | 18 day after day, the leaves of the young corn became less stiff and erect; they bent in a curve at first, and then, as the central ribs of strength grew weak, each leaf tilted downward. Then it was June, and the sun shone more fiercely. The brown lines on the corn leaves widened and moved in on the central ribs. The weeds frayed and edged back coward their roots, The air | 20 was thin and the sky more pale; and every day the earth paled. In the roads where the teams moved, where the wheels milled the . We drove past Tiny Polski’s mansion house to the main road, and then the five miles into Northampton, Father talking the whole way about savages and the awfulness of America — how it got turned into a dope-taking, door-locking, ulcerated danger-zone of rabid scavengers and criminal millionaires and moral sneaks. And look at the schools. And look at the politicians. And there wasn’t a | § Harvard graduate who could change a flat tyre or do ten push-ups. And there were people in New York City who lived on pet food, who would kill you for a little loose change. Was that normal? If not, why did anyone put up with it? ‘I don’t know,’ he said, replying to himself. ‘I’m just thinking out loud.’ Before leaving Hatfield, he had parked the pick-up truck on a rise in the road, and | 10 pointed south. ‘Here come the savages,’ he said, and up they came, tracking across the fields from a sickle of trees through the gummy drizzling heat-outlines of Polski’s barns. ‘They were dark and their clothes were rags and some had rags on their heads and others wide-brimmed hats. They were men and boys, a few no older than me, all | 15 of them carrying long knives. Father's finger scared me more than the men did. He was still pointing. The end of his forefinger was missing to the big knuckle, so the finger stump, blunted by stitched skin folds and horribly scarred, could only approximate the right direction. 2» “Why do they bother to come here?” he said. ‘Money? But how . 71 172 In the late summer of that year we lived in a house in a village that looked across the river and the plain to the mountains. In the bed of the river there were pebbles and boulders, dry and white in the sun, and the water was clear and swiftly moving and blue in the channels. Troops went by the house and down the road and the dust they raised powdered the leaves of the trees. The trunks of the trees too were dusty and the leaves fell early that year and we saw the troops marching along the road and the dust rising and leaves, stirred by the breeze, falling and the soldiers marching and afterwards the road bare and white except for the leaves. The plain was rich with crops; there were many orchards of fruit trees and beyond the plain the mountains were brown and bare. There was fighting in the mountains and at night we could see the flashes from the artillery. In the dark it was like summer lightning, but the nights were cool and there was not the feeling of'a storm coming. Sometimes in the dark we heard the troops marching under the window and guns going past pulled by motor-tractors. There was much traffic at night and many mules on the roads with boxes of ammunition on each side of their pack-saddles and grey motor-trucks that carried men, and other trucks with loads covered with ... B__ You'll need to refer back to the three extracts to answer these questions. Work in pairs or groups — or discuss your answers in pairs later. I 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 Which extract conveys an impression of time passing? Which extract conveys an impression of movement? Which extract conveys an impression of a degenerating, violent world? 5 How are these impressions conveyed? What stylistic devices are used to create the impressions? Which extract uses the fewest modifying adjectives? Which extract uses the simplest grammatical structures? Which extract uses the style of spoken conversational English? Which extract uses repetition to achieve its effect? What do you think might be the theme of the book each extract comes from ? What might come next in the story? Which of these books do you think the extracts come from? a 4 = z a i a x 1939 Pale A CODE Uren ed Oecd ee Work in pairs. Discuss the differences in emphasis between these sentences. 1 Did Jane Austen write Emma? Was Emma written by Jane Austen? Was it Jane Austen who wrote Emma? Was it Emma that Jane Austen wrote? Was Jane Austen the author who wrote Emma? Was Jane Austen the author of Emma? 2. What I enjoy reading is thrillers. T enjoy reading thrillers, Thrillers are what I enjoy reading. It’s thrillers that I enjoy reading. 3 Itwas me who borrowed your book. I borrowed your book. I was the one who borrowed your book. It was I who borrowed your book. Fill these gaps with suitable words or phrases. 1 Itwas that they managed to of the mountain. 2 Is it Valentina or Lorenza who Venice? 3 Irs that vou me about the danger. 4 It’s not because he s it’s because he that he can’t make friends. 3 Itwasn't before we what a big mistake 6 Why that my friends are so unpunctual and on time? 7 Ifyou call the office I expect it John the phone. 8 Itused my sister the great reader in our family, but now it the most books. Rewrite these sentences using an It... . construction to emphasise the words in italics. 1 Lwent to bed early because I was feeling worn out. It was because 2. A strange noise woke me up in the early hours. It 3. heard the noise at half past four in the morning. It 4 Lrealised what had happened when I looked out of the window. It 5. Then | found I couldn’t get back to sleep. It 6 finally did get to sleep at about eight o'clock. It 7 I didn’t wake up until lunchtime. Tt wasn’t 8 She finished reading the book only yesterday. It 9 Do you enjoy the humour of her stories? Is it 10 Did you read ‘Emma' or ‘Persuasion’ recently? Was it Verbs and adverbs of manner can’t be used with /t's. .. that X It’s fall over that he did. X It was fast that he ran X It was well that she did. ak In the exam, if one of your compositions is too short you'll lose marks. And if one of your compositions is too long, it’! probably contain more mistakes - and writing the extra words will take up more of your time. Do you know how many lines of your handwriting are equivalent to 100 words? And how many lines are equivalent to 350 words? To check how long a composition is: count the words in 10 lines, divide by 10 (to get the average number of words per line) and then multiply the answer by the total number of lines. 173 11.8 Writing novels Ta . DETR Abdulrazak Curnah A Before you listen to the interview with the novelist Abdulrazak Gurnah, discuss how, as a professional writer, he may have answered these questions: ¢ How do you go about writing a book? Do you wait until the inspiration come: © What do you enjoy about writing? © What motivates you as a writer? Do you set yourself targets? | Decide if these statements are true (T) or false (F), according to the speaker: 1 Memory of Departure is about a journey from Africa to England, The protagonist of Pilgrim's Way is overwhelmed by his difficulties. Pilgrim’s Way is about Africa as well as England. Some of the characters in Memory of Departure are people he actually knows Events that really happened form the basis of Memory of Departure. Only a person who has had a lot of experiences can become a good writer. ‘The process of writing involves a lot of painstaking and dull work Itis impossible to say what the practical purpose of writing a book is. He believes that his writing has a purpose, but he can’t explain what it is. 10 It becomes increasingly difficult for him to get ideas for new books 11 Before embarking on a new project he makes very detailed plans. 12. His principal pleasure comes from expressing his ideas effectively in writing. 13 Reading a good novel combines the pleasures of getting involved in ideas, language and a well-told story Cou auten C Work in groups and discuss these questions: © What do you think you might enjoy /not enjoy about Abdulrazak’s novels? © Who is the most famous living writer in your country? What do you know about her/his life and works? © What is the most famous classic book written in your language? Describe it © Who is your favourite British and who is your favourite American writer? What do you know about their lives and works? ek Exam questions focus on some, but not all, of the information given. If you study the questions first, you'll know what to listen out for. 174 Interview pr "> If you're preparing one of the prescribed texts for the exam, start with the questions in section A. If not, start with section B. Imagine that one of you is the ‘examiner’ and the other the ‘candidate’, changing roles halfway. Work in pairs and discuss these questions: © What is your impression so far of the prescribed book you're reading? What do you find appealing about it? What do you find difficult about it? @ Isit the kind of book you'd normally read for pleasure? Is it a book that you ‘can’t put down’, or is it heavy going? © How relevant does it seem to your own tastes, experiences and concerns? What are your reactions to its style? And to its plot? And to its characters? © Can you give some examples of things you've found particularly interesting, moving or amusing? Read out an extract to illustrate this, if possible => If there’s still time, look at B and discuss the more general points there. Work in pairs and discuss these questions ‘© How much reading do you do? How much time do you spend each week reading books, and how much time reading newspapers or magazines? How much do you read in English, rather than in your own language? ‘© What kinds of books do you enjoy reading? Do you choose different sorts of books for different occasions (journeys, holidays, reading in bed, etc.)? * Ifyou could choose between reading a book or seeing the same story as a film, on video or on TV, which would you prefer? © Who are your favourite authors? Describe the kinds of books they write. © Describe one book you have particularly enjoyed reading recently. What did you like about it? What were its faults? Are there any books you'd like to re-read one day (or have re-read)? What are the qualities of such a book? © Is there any particular book you'd recommend to your partners? What do you think they'd enjoy about it? Work in pairs. Make notes in preparation for a composition of about 350 words on ONE of these topics: Either: Describe a book you have particularly enjoyed reading, making it sound as appealing as possible. or: Explain what you find particularly striking or moving about the prescribed book you are reading. = Try to cover the following aspects of the book: Theme Plot Characters Style Message Relevance to your life Show your completed composition to a partner and ask for comments. 175 12 How things work 12. Science and technology A. Work in pairs and discuss what each photograph shows. "> The photos show some relatively recent inventions. What other 20th century inventions or scientific breakthroughs have changed our lives as much, or even more than the inventions shown? B Work in pairs. Choose oNE answer to complete each sentence 1 Technology deals with the of science apparatus application empiricism _ practicability 2 is one of the phy sical sciences. anatomy botany meteorology sociology 3 is one of the life sciences. archaeology astronomy astrology zoology 4 is one of the social sciences. anthropology chemistry geology physics 5 Many solutions to technical problems are discovered by experience hit and miss rule of thumb trial and error 6 Albert Einstein was the most brilliant mathematician of his, class country generation year 7 The highest academic degree that a scientist can be awarded is a(n) BSc DP MSc PhD 176 10 a 12 A scientific hypothesis is tested in a series of experiments. controlled limited supervised theoretical ‘The success of her research can be attributed to 10%. and 90% hard work. common sense effort greed inspiration ‘The government is spending $3.3m on anew research laboratory. setting in setting out setting over setting up The budget for R & D has been by the company’s board. elevated lifted raised risen His ideas are invariably criticised as by fellow scientists. imaginative impractical ingenious theoretical A food processor has become an indispensable piece of in the home. contraption device equipment gadget The designer has applied for a for her new invention copyright patent royalty trade mark It must have taken a genius to this complicated apparatus. think of think out think through think up Water isa chemical made up of hydrogen and oxygen. compound element mixture solution A substance that causes a chemical reaction is a(n) addition additive catalyst enzyme This appliance has to be plugged into a(n) to make it work cable inlet plug socket An electrical circuit is protected from overloading by a(n) adaptor flex fuse _ transformer All the information required to operate the machine is stored in a tiny console control panel dashboard microchip If the warning light should come on, turn the red toorr. button dial knob lever ‘The amount of fuel remaining in the tank is shown on the petrol gauge indicator pump signal Most motor vehicles have a pressed steel body mounted on a rigid steel axle base chassis _ undercarriage The person in charge of this construction site is a qualified civil builder engineer mechanic servant You've got to = it’s a brilliant piece of design! giveittoher handittoher take it toher take it from her V7 AMS cS ed oa) 178 Time to crack that timer YOU ARE not alone if the Luddite in you is roused by wrestling with the complexities of the timing system on your video recorder. A 1 survey by an American company revealed in 1987 that 70 per cent of people admitted defeat when confronted by their video timer’s buttons. Tomorrow, a new six-part series of The Secret Life of Machines on Channel 4 tries to bridge this and other infuriating gaps between man and his understanding of modern machines. Presented by cartoonist and engineer Tim Hunkin, the programme sets out to demystify the workings of everyday objects, from cars to watches. Hunkin believes that a short-trousered enthusiasm for taking machines apart to see how they work has been lost because of their increasing dependence on electronics Rather than being put off by inscrutable layers of circuitry, however, the programme encourages viewers to mend their own machines. “Electronics is just a veneer,” he says. “Most of the objects in the series have their roots in a time before electronics was invented.” By conducting experiments, such as constructing a simple radio receiver from a 5 5p piece, Hunkin illustrates the basics on which they work and, in the process, tries to make modern machines less intimidating. Although “technophobia” is not a recognised clinical condition, like fear of 6 insects, the inability to come to grips with everyday pieces of technology can cause anxiety. The greatest modern “techno-fear” is the computer, which increasing numbers of people have to get to grips with in their Jobs. “What you call ‘technophobia’ often 7 ‘stems from peer group pressure,” says Dr John Hall, a consultant adviser in clinical psychology to the Chief Medical Officer. “People feel that if they fail to grasp a 2 Tim Hunkin technical task, then they're no good.” Japanese technology has been quick to help consumers suffering from “button fatigue” — that inability to set a video or operate a word processor. Home products are now marketed on the strength of “fuzzy logic”, a computer control system which makes the difficult decisions for you Instead of battling with the switches of domestic technology, a washing machine with fuzzy logic will gauge the dirtiness and weight of a clothes load and set the wash programme itself. Although psychologists have encountered few cases of true “technophobia” ~ that is, people who are paralysed with anxiety when confronted with new technology - Dr Neil Cossins of London's Science Museum believes the malaise exists in the milder form of an instinctive disregard for and distrust of innovation. “There is a deep-seated cultural antipathy to industry and its scientists, technologists and engineers,” he says. Indeed, in a Daily Telegraph survey last summer 28 per cent thought that the overall influence of science and technology on everyday life over the past 50 years was negligible, positively harmful or even disastrous. Hunkin hopes the series will help to assuage fear or ignorance of technology by looking at the frustration of ownership and the human stories of the inventors. Andrew Marshall A. Find words and phrases in the passage which mean the same as the following: someone who hates or fears machines give up make less mysterious puzzling come across faced with facade medical learn how to use derrces from their friends’ opinions understand lack of interest suspicion antagonism alleviate 8 0 B_ Choose the word or phrase which best completes each sentence: 1 Tim Hunkin believes people are mystified by machines because they a) are basically very complicated b) contain so many electronic components c) have never taken them apart d) haven’t been trained as engineers ‘Fuzzy logic’ is used in domestic appliances to a) encourage people to scrap their old appliances b) help humans to make decisions ©) make advertisements for them more appealing d) take decision-making away from humans At work, someone who can’t understand computers or technology a) is embarrassed to admit it b) is made to feel inadequate by their colleagues ©) is unwilling to ask their colleagues for help d) may become mentally ill 4+ Dr Cossins says that many people are when faced with new technology a) depressed) resentful c) terrified d) uneasy Which of these features will Tim Hunkin’s TV series contain? a demonstration of how to programme a video recorder (] demonstrations of how various machines work [] explanations of the basic principles underlying each machine C] information about inventors’ lives 2] information about new technology from Japan 1) interviews with inventors [)_ interviews with psychologists. CJ showing the kind of problems people have with machines 1 simple experiments C] c Work in pairs. One of you should look at Activity 9, the other at 26, You'll each have some information by Tim Hunkin about the workings of a refrigerator and a vacuum cleaner. A Grammar re\ iew ZN These are the only prepositions used with the verbs in A, Band C about for from in on outof 10 with (and by in passives only) A. Some verbs are normally always followed by a preposition: Who does that white coat belong to? You must be confusing me with someone else Where do you come from? Fill in the missing prepositions in this list: combine something compare something concern yourself contrast something deal depend dispense engage impose something invest lean mistake it/them part reason refer him rely separate something stem 179 180 B Some verbs can be used with a prepositional phrase (but they needn’t be) D I think ke applied last week. Yes, but what did he apply for? Who did he apply to? When did he apply? He applied to hus father’s company for a job Add the missing prepositions, The verbs in bold italics can be used with two prepositional phrases (like apply in the examples). agree epologise approve bargain care decide despair experiment hope insist interfere intrude look negotiate object quarrel resign retire smell struggle succeed suffer talk vote ‘match worry Some verbs normally followed by an object can be used with prepositional phrases, She accused someone. Yes, but what did she accuse them of? He borrowed something. Yes, but who did he borrow it from? Add the missing prepositions: accuse them admire him cheat them congratulate him convince them cure him punish him rescue them thank her threaten them deliver it respect her blame her borrow it consult her mention it take it use it warn him Gd Highlight Tex verbs + prepositions you want to remember from A, B and C. Write sentences using them E Filleach gap in this news article with a suitable preposition. Computers are being given elocution lessons so that they can announce the comings and goings French trains regional accents. Computer-controlled synthesised voices are said to be more reassuring passengers than man-made announcements......... railway staff. According ........ a survey, travellers bristle when they —_ hear announcements the refined tones adopted airports. What they like best is a deep voice ........ a touch... regional homeliness, even when they know it comes... an electronic throat. Apparently, not even the voice the stationmaster can produce the effect as well as computers. Experiments to find the perfect electronic announcer were started two years ago when the station ..... the Champagne town of Rheims was used tests. Those were considered a success but......... Lying out the voice other stations it was found that the reassuring effect was increased if regional accents were added. The generalised use........ synthetic announcers will be put effect the next few months but the reason is not entirely psychological. ‘The synthesiser is considered more reliable and flexible. It will not depend recorded messages: the announcements will be put together computer keyboards just before they are needed. the meantime, the voices are being put......... service elsewhere, including information offices. Already, travellers Paris-Austerlitz can consult an experimental audio-visual information robot that chats away four languages. Ticket offices are also to be equipped automatic dispensers that respond travellers’ oral commands because half the system’s passengers are said to prefer talking 12.4 Ocean City A an inanimate object that does not answer back or go... strike, But there are no statistics available the train drivers’ reaction electronic voices. Some drivers mainline services are now getting their instructions ........ robot voices, linked centralised computers who nag them when they go too fast. Paul Webster = = You'll hear a broadcast about a plan to build a city in the Pacific Ocean. Fill the gaps in this summary with facts and figures from the recording. 1. The population of Japan is sq km isinhabitable, 2. Kiyohide Terai and his team want to build a huge new city . million people, accommodate .. million. Only 3. Fill in the missing details in this diagram: Distance between Top deck: SOCKS! secsssestneees fm 2nd deck’ 3rd deck: Lowest deck: 4 It would be supported by 5 Each cylinder would contain ... . .. hollow steel cylinders, each .. apart - not resting on the sea Ded, but... , the level of which would be constantly .. by computers to keep the city level. 6 It wouldn't be affected by ... Or .. because of its size and .... 7. For residents the advantages of living in Ocean City would be: 1 No to pay 2 Mainland-style leisure facilities = not like an ocean 3 Lots of "activities 4 Warm and pleasant weather ~few and low 5 No risk of unlike mainland Japan) B Work in groups and discuss these questions: 1 What would be the advantages and disadvantages of living in Ocean City? 2 Do you think this scheme will ever be realised? Give your reasons. 3. What would it be like to live in such a place? % of its land area of .. km offshore to metres C Work in groups. Design your own ideal city of the future, What facilities would it have? How would it be constructed? How large would it be? "Give a short presentation of your ideas to another group or to the whole clas: Suffixes Wea suru Suffixes can be used to form nouns from verbs, or from abstract nouns: ver adviser computer employer examiner gangster office cleaner reviewer timer tranquilliser_ vacuum cleaner -ee absentee addressee employee trainee -or impersonator inventor juror operator perpetrator supervisor -ist_ environmentalist scientist technologist terrorist A Work in pairs. Look at these pairs of words ending in -er, -ee and -or: * How are they different? What do they have in common ~ if anything: ‘© What abstract noun or verb is associated with each noun — or does a phrase have to be used instead? astrologer ~ astronomer Both an astronomer and an astrologer study the stars. Astronomers look through telescopes but astrologers work out horoscopes. ~ Astrology and astronomy. administrator — dictator attacker ~ hijacker _ bartender ~ moneylender commuter —computer councillor ~ counsellor demonstrator ~ spectator designer —diner employer ~ employee fortune-teller ~ storyteller housebreaker - heartbreaker landowner — loner _ messenger ~ passenger miner—minor moonlighter—ghostwriter_ pawnbroker — stockbroker payer payee persecutor ~ prosecutor photographer ~ choreographer picnicker —drug-trafficker plumber —latecomer predecessor — successor researcher ~ searcker rioter ~ proprietor shareholder — householder synthesiser — sympathiser_ troubleshooter ~ troublemaker Now do the same with these nouns ending in ~ist archaeologist ~ meteorologist cartoonist ~ humorist chauvinist — feminist conservationist ~ philanthropist guitarist ~ telephonist opportunist — humanist pharmacist - perfectionist psychologist ~ psychiatrist scientist ~ technologist B These suffixes can be used to form verbs from adjectives and nouns: -en dampen ripen harden -ise/-ize* modernise advertise popularise Form verbs from these adjectives and nouns, using -ise /-ize or -en: context deaf emphasis familiar general glamour hard loose moist national ripe sharp straight strong subsidy summary sweet sympathy synthetic thick tight victim visual wide * These verbs can be written English -ice is usual ize or -ise (as you prefer} in British English — but in American 182 CE) Highlight the words you'd like to remember — and any spellings you find troublesome, Use a dictionary, paving particular attention to the examples D Work in pairs. Write a short exercise with gaps and give the sentences to another pair to do. e.g. Aperson who is sent for to deal with problems is a Robots (troubleshooter) eee A. Read the article below and answer the questions on the next page in writing. 0 2s Coming soon - a robot slave for everyone IE HUMAN brain contains I am told, 10 thousand million cells and each of these may have a thousand connections. Such enormous numbers used to daunt us and cause us to dismiss the possibility of making a machine with human-like ability, but now that we have grown used to moving forward at such a pace we can be less sure. Quite soon, in only 10 or 20 years perhaps, we will be able to assemble a machine as complex as the human brain, and if we can we will. It may then take us a long time to render it intelligent by loading in the right software or by altering the architecture but that too will happen. I think it certain that in decades not centuries, machines of silicon will arise first to rival and then surpass their human progenitors. Once they surpass us they will be capable of their own design. Ina real sense they will be reproductive. Silicon will have ended carbon’s long monopoly. And ours too, I suppose, for we will no longer be able to deem ourselves the finest intelligence in the known universe. In principle it could be stopped. There will be those that try but it will happen none the less. The lid of Pandora's box is starting to open. But let us look a little closer to the present: by the end of this decade manufacturing decline will be nearly complete - with employment in manufacturing industries less than 10 per cent in Britain, The goods are still needed but, as with agriculture already, imports and technical change will virtually remove all employment. The Japanese are aiming to make computers dealing with concepts rather than numbers with thousands of times more power than current large machines. This has triggered a swift and powerful response in the American nation, There is a large joint programme of development among leading US computer companies, and IBM, though it says nothing, may well have the biggest programme of all. These projects are aimed at what are loosely termed fifth-generation computers, These are really a new breed of machine entirely and will be as different from today’s computers as today’s computer is from an adding machine. ‘The simple microprocessor provides sufficient intelligence for current assembly line robots. As robots learn to see and feel, their brains will grow. Eventually, and not too far in the future, they will make decisions on the production line currently delegated to a supervisor. Outside the factory we employ men’s .ds in two principal ways; as founts of knowledge and as makers of decisions. The former of these attributes is now falling prey to the machine with the development of “expert systems” whereby the acquired knowledge of a man, an expert in mining for example, is made to repose in the memory ofa computer. The transfer of data from human to machine mind is neither easy nor swift but once attained it may be copied at will and broadcast. A formerly scarce resource can thus become plentiful The ability to reach wise conclusions, as we expect of a doctor or lawyer, from much or scant data will long remain man's monopoly - but not always. Fifth-generation computers will share this prerogative. Tomorrow we may take our ailments to a machine as readily as to a man, In time that machine will be in the house, removing the need to journey to the doctor and providing a far more regular or 45 80 183 184 9% monitoring of the state of health than it is now economic to provide. The computer as surrogate teacher may bring even more benefits. Today, and as Jong as we depend on humans, we must have one teacher to many pupils. The advantage of a tutor for each child is clear and if that tutor is also endlessly patient and superhumanly well-informed we may expect a wonderful improvement in the standard of education. What, though, is the purpose if, in this imagined future, there are no jobs? Curiously we can find analogies in the past. Freemen of Periclean Athens led not such different lives as we might live, for where we will have the machines, they had slaves who served both to teach and as menials. Thanks perhaps to their fine education, the freemen of Athens seem not, to have found difficulty in filling their time. Just as they did, we will need to educate our children to an appreciation of the finer things of life, to inculcate a love of art, music and science. So we may experience an age as golden as that of Greece. As the intelligence of robots increases to 110 emulate that of humans and as their cost declines through economies of scale we may use them to expand our frontiers, first on earth through their ability to withstand environments inimical to ourselves. Thus, «1s deserts may bloom and the ocean beds be mined. Further ahead, by a combination of the great wealth this new age will bring and the technology it will provide, we can really 12 begin to use space to our advantage. The construction of a vast, man-created world in space, home to thousands or millions of people, will be within our power and, should we so choose, we may begin inearnest the 2 search for worlds beyond our solar systema and the colonisation of the galaxy. Sir Clive Sinclair 1 Explain the meaning of these words and phrases used in the passage: daunt (line 4) progenitors (line 19) ween deem (line 24) Jounts of knowledge (line 63) falling prey (line 63) How will it be possible for machines to become more intelligent than humans? How will Britain's need for manufactured products be satisfied? What is meant by an ‘expert system’ (line 67)? How will teachers be threatened by computer: triggered (line 43) surrogate (line 87) Using information from the article, and from this letter prompted by it, write a paragraph of about 80 words explaining how our home lives are likely to change in the future. Chip thrills Sir, Struggling through Sir Clive Sinclair's ruptured syntax (April 24) it appears that what he and IBM have in store for us is a life of sitting around in long flowing robes drinking wine and eating kebabs, discussing Art, Science and Philosophy and all that stuff while just out of eye and earshot there are these silicon machines gliding effortlessly around waiting to fulfil our slightest needs in our huge tastefully furnished machine-designed drawing rooms. . .. A treacherous thought intrudes however: if these machines are going to be so damned smart, why won't they be the ones sitting around discussing all the really interesting stuff while the little carbon- based squirts like Sir Clive and me scuttle around doing the housework? ~ Yours, Peter Smee “And when you ve finished cleaning upstairs, you can gave me a hand in the kitchen.” 12.7 The passive —2 Advanced grammar A. Fill the gaps in these examples from earlier in this unit, using the verbs below 1 TIME TO CRACK THAT TIMER The TY series by cartoonist and engineer Tim Hunkin Most modern machines have their roots in a time before electronics Some people to feel inadequate by their colleagues ELECTRONIC ANNOUNCERS. Experiments to find the perfect electronic announcer two years ago when the station at the Champagne town of Rheims for tests After trying out the voice at other stations it that the reassuring effect if regional accents The synthesiser to be more reliable and flexible. ‘The use of synthetic announcers will into effect in the next few months. In the meantime, the voices are into service elsewhere ‘Ticket offices are also with automatic dispensers. 3. ocEAN city Only 18% of Japan’s land area can for living space Ocean City wouldn’t by typhoons or storms. If Ocean City is a success, more similar cities could ‘The only thing that would need to in would be food It would by an off-shore fund: tax benefits would to investors. add affect build equip finance find find increase invent make offer present put put ship start use use "=> Try rephrasing each sentence in the active. What is the effect of using the passive in each example? B Look at these examples and then make up ten sentences about real people or events using the same patterns with any of the verbs in italics: Marie Curie was. thought. to be. the greatest scientist of her generation She is known. to have succeeded where all others had failed It used to be said that she owed her success to her husband, Pierre. acknowledged alleged believed claimed considered feared felt imagined known reported said supposed thought ‘understood Ir was taken for granted. that they would be getting married in the spring it could never be explained. why/how the accident happened admitted agreed announced assumed confirmed denied disclosed explained mentioned pointed out realised regretted revealed C Rewrite each sentence using the passive, starting with the words on the right. 1 You'll have to get rid of all those old magazines. ‘Those old magazines 2. Everyone looks down on her and she’s fed up with it She’s fed up with 3. The children’s grandparents looked after them. ‘The children . 4 My assistant is dealing with this matter. ‘This matter 5. They have accounted for all the survivors of the accident All the . 6 Customers must pay for any breakages. All breakages 7 You can’t rely on Tony to finish the work on time Tony can’t a 185 8 I'll get someone to see to the repairs right away. The repairs 9 Someone had broken into her apartment during the night. Her apartment 10 People often look on scientists as experts. Scientists 11 Someone pointed out to me that I was wearing odd socks. It 12 People might refer to him as ‘technophobic’ He 13. Without permission for a new runway they can’t expand the airport. Until permission . 14. Electronics might intimidate some people, but not me Some PPA ee Ua Ce Var A. Read the passage through before looking at the questions below Over the years I have fumbled my way through life, walking into doors, failing to figure out water faucets, incompetent at working the simple things of everyday life. “Just me,” I would mumble. “Just mechanical ineptitude.” But as I studied psychology and watched | s the behavior of other people, I began to realize that I was not alone. My difficulties were mirrored by the problems of others. And we all seemed to blame ourselves. Could the whole world be mechanically incompetent? 0 The truth emerged slowly. My research activities led me to the study of human error and industrial accidents. Humans, I discovered, do not always behave clumsily. Humans do not always err. But they do when the things they use are badly conceived and designed. | 15 Nonetheless, we still see human error blamed for all that befalls society. Does a commercial airliner crash? “Pilot error,” say the reports. Does a Soviet nuclear power plant have a serious problem? “Human error,” says the newspaper. Do two ships at sea collide? | 2 “Human error” is the official cause. But careful analysis of these kinds of incidents usually gives the lie to such a story. At the famous American nuclear power plant disaster at Three Mile Island, the blame was placed on plant operators who misdiagnosed the problems. But | 2 was it human error? Consider the phrase “operators who misdiagnosed the problems”. The phrase reveals that first there were problems - in fact, a series of mechanical failures. Then why wasn’t equipment failure the real cause? What about the misdiagnoses? Why | # didn’t the operators correctly determine the cause? Well, how about the fact that the proper instruments were not available, that the plant operators acted in 186 | ways that in the past had always been reasonable and | proper? How about the pressure relief valve that failed | | to close, even though the operator pushed the proper | button and even though a light came on stating it was | closed? Why was the operator blamed for not checking | two more instruments (one on the rear of the control panel) and determining that the light was faulty? | « (Actually, the operator did check one of them.) Human error? To me it sounds like equipment failure coupled with serious design error. And, yes, what about my inability to use the simple things of everyday life? I can use complicated things. I | am quite expert at computers, and electronics, and complex laboratory equipment. Why do I have trouble with doors, light switches, and water faucets? How come I can work a multimillion-dollar computer installation, but not my home refrigerator? While we all | 50 blame ourselves, the real culprit - faulty design — goes undetected. And millions of people feel themselves to be mechanically inept. It is time for a change. (from the Preface to The Psychology of Everyday Things by Donald A. Norman) Work in pairs. Go through the passage and answer these questions. 1 GH Highlight three sentences that seem to sum up the writer's message. Look at the cases where he uses /, me or my and underline them — what is the effect of this? How many times does the writer use we or ourselves? How many times does he use you or your, addressing the reader directh How many times does he use imperatives, addressing the reader directly? How many questions does the writer ask? What is the effect of this? Put a ring round all the question marks: How many answers does he give? How many questions are unanswered? How well does the writer succeed in involving the reader? What kind of reader does the writer seem to have in mind? To what extent are vou that kind of reader? 10. How does the kind of reader he has in mind affect: a) the content of the passage? b) the style of the passage: v aut ost Work in pairs. Think of another subject you feel strongly about and which you have some personal knowledge of (traffic problems in your city, bureaucracy, energy conservation, etc.) and make notes on your experiences and your views. Then write a paragraph in a similar style to the passage, using the first person and answered or unanswered questions. 12.9 Airport design and convenience A [E The first part of the broadcast is about airport design. Note down your answers to the questions: AIRPORT DESIGN Describe (or draw) the layout of a ‘conventional’ airport. What are the two problems that all airport architects have? Why do some airports have two terminals? Why do passengers get confused at Heathrow Airport? Label each of these diagrams. The airports shown are: Onene ATLANTA SOUTH ATLANTA NORTH LONDON GATWICK MUNICH PARIS CHARLES DE GAULLE 1 PARIS CHARLES DE GAULLE 2 RIYADH WASHINGTON sthyy yftth 4%, 8% 2 ey Ee BS + ate, pcaary Gas Gomes) + A B %y Se A TF NE we oat | Fae Ht os we 4B HH ae oe | ley Sut Fae) seth ahs Rassemessameseamesenad Bk. hs ha BIS. BOSS. ZO. 1 Match the information given in each column. Airport Distance to city Surface connection to city centre Atlanta 35 km taxi or limousine to major hotels Gatwick \18 km fast bus Munich 70 km rapid transit train or bus Paris 45 km direct train Riyadh 40km direct train Tokyo (Narita) 30 km direct train (30 mins) Washington 25 km direct coach or shuttle bus and train 2. Whyis it less convenient to get from Central London to Heathrow than Gatwick? 3. What's the quickest way of getting from London to Paris? 188 C Work in groups and discuss these questions: ‘® Which of the information in the broadcast interested or surprised you most? © Describe the design and convenience of your local airport ~ perhaps comparing it with another airport you've visited or flown from. ¢ If you've flown a lot, which is the nicest airport you know ~ and the worst? © What do you like and dislike about visiting an airport? And about flying? Poon pA Ch sa) Discus: A. Work in groups of three and discuss these questions © Which of the things shown above look easier to use? Why is this? © Can you programme a video recorder to record a TV programme? Have you ever set one wrong? Was it vour fault or the designer’s? Ed Now one of you should look at Activity 11, one at 27 and one at 40. You'll have some more questions to ask each other about the design of everyday equipment (based on the ideas of Donald A. Norman ~ see 12.8) pend some time researching and thinking about the ideas you discussed carlier, and looking at the way you interact with doors, watches, switches, numbers, etc. Work in groups and find out about each other's ideas and experiences. Discuss how you will organise and sequence your ideas in an essay on this topic: Modern design does not pay enough attention to the average user. a 189 C Write your essay in about 300 words, giving examples you discussed in B and discovered in your research. Make notes before you start Show your completed essay to another student and ask for comments. 12.11 Give + take Verbs & idio A Which of the following would vou Give and which would you TAKE? aphotograph advice to someone an answer _an explanation an interest in something encouragement evidence issue with someone a liking to someone or something part in something _ permission pity on someone pride in something someone a kiss someone a lift someone aring someone a shock someone some help your time over something B__ Find synonyms for the phrases in italics, or explain their meaning. 1 Don’t sake it for granted that everything’s going to be easy: you should be prepared to take the rough with the smooth when you take up a new job. 2 When we criticised him I half expected him to take offence, but he (ook it in good part, and in the ensuing discussion he gave as good as he got. 3. She was quite aken aback when I took her up on her offer. 4 They were quite taken with each other on their first meeting. 5 She nearly rook us in, but she gave herself aay when she started giggling 6 There was so much information that I couldn't ake it all in 7 [know you're annoyed but don’t fake it out on me — take it up with the people who were responsible. 8 Cheer up! Why don’t you take him out for a meal, it may take you out of yourself. 9 She can take off her father’s voice and mannerisms brilliantly ~ especially the way he takes off his glasses when his patience is about to give out. 10 He took exception to the fact that she was starting to take him for granted. C Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable phrases from the list below. You may need to change the form of the verbs. The sight was so beautiful it her breath Iremember the message but I've forgotten where I put it. About 75% of the land area of Britain is agriculture You really should insurance before you travel. You've more work than you can manage and it seems to be it of you. Why don’t you a few days > L apologise. I all those things I said about your new hairstyle. I'm feeling a bit tired of driving, would you mind for a while? T used to go jogging but now I it Perhaps I'll swimming instead. give over to giveup takeaway take back take down take off take on take out take out take over take up UeON wet D Write the first paragraph of a story, using as many of the expressions from above as you can. Begin like this: knew | had to give up but... 190 13 Relationships A Work in pairs. Look at the photos and discuss these questions: © Whar seems to be the relationship between the people? © What do you think has just happened? What are they saying now? What is likely to happen next? You'll hear five people talking about ‘best friends’, Answer these true/false questions: At school, Anne frequently dropped one friend and took up with another. ‘The schoolfriend she still knows well wasn’t one of her best friends at school. Mike's friend Buzz was aggressive and tough. ‘Mike and Buzz always shared the same political views. Rupert and his family do sometimes have rows. Elaine and her friend laughed at the same things. Elaine's friend now lives in Austria David thinks that people who are too alike don’t get on well together. Ic sounds as if David’s enemy at school was a bully David sometimes can’t be bothered to make an effort to like certain people. a 191 192 Work in groups and discuss these questions: Which of the experiences you heard about in B struck a chord with you? © Describe the person who was sour own best friend as a child ~ how has your relationship changed since you first got to know each other? © What do you appreciate about the friends you have now? Explain why you get on well with them, # Isicbetter to have just one or two close friends, or quite a few friends you don't know so well? Work in pairs and discuss the relative importance of the following in a friendship or a relationship. What important qualities are missing from the list? cheerfulness commitment communication compassion compatibility considerateness enthusiasm generosity good looks honesty intelligence kindness loyalty optimism passion patience politeness punctuality realism reliability responsibility _ sincerity thoughtfulness trust And how important are the following in a friendship or a relationship? age family background mutual interests sense of humour social class shared attitudes to religion, politics, etc. similar personalities ™> Which FIVE features from the two lists are the most important and why? Which are the five least important features? <= You'll hear the same words spoken in different ways: Well, good. evening. Thank you both for getting here. on time and. for waiting so patiently. Everyone else seems to be rather Late, or maybe they haven't been able to make it. Anyway, we'LL make a. start | think, and Lf any of the others do come we can always Fillthem in on nat's happened sofar... Decide which word from the list below best describes each speaker's mood or tone. wk 6 annoyed anxious businesslike despondent eager impatient jaded patient’ sarcastic tomd ™ Discuss how each speaker's tone of voice conveyed their mood. Consider their speed of delivery, the amount of hesitation, the pitch of their voice, the way they emphasised words, the way they sighed or laughed or made other noises, etc 13.2 Family life Rea A Read the three extracts and discuss the questions that follow. THIS is the story of a five-year sojourn thar | and my family made on the Greek island of Corfu. It was originally intended to be a mildly nostalgic account of the natural history of the island, but I made a grave mistake by introducing my family into the book in the first few pages. Having got themselves on paper, they then | 5 proceeded to establish themselves and invite various friends to share the chapters. It was only with the greatest difficulty, and by exercising considerable cunning, that I managed to retain a few pages here and there which I could devore exclusively to animals. Thave arcempted to draw an accurate and unexaggerated picture | +0 of my family in the following pages; they appear as I saw them. To explain some of their more curious ways, however, I feel chat I should stare that at the time we were in Corfu che family were all quite young: Larry, the eldest, was twenty-three; Leslie was nineteen; Margo eighteen; while I was the youngest, being of the | 15 tender and impressionable age of ten. We have never been very certain of my mother’s age, for the simple reason that she can never remember her date of birth; all I can say is that she was old enough to have four children. My mother also insists that I explain that she is a widow for, as she so penetratingly observed, you never know 2 what people might think. . I did not kill my father, but I sometimes felt I had helped him on hi way. And but for the fact that it coincided with a landmark in my own physical growth, his death seemed insignificant compared with what followed. My sisters and I talked about him the week after he died, and Sue certainly cried when the ambulance men tucked him up in a bright red blanket and carried him away. He was a frail, irascible, obsessive man with yellowish hands and face. T am only including the little story of his death to explain how my sisters and I came to have such a large quantity of cement at our disposal In the early summer of my fourteenth year a lorry pulled up outside our house. I was sitting on the front step rereading a comic, The driver and another man came towards me. They were covered in a fine, pale dust which gave their faces a ghostly look. They were both whistling shrilly completely different tunes. I stood up and held the comic out of sight. I wished I had been reading the racing page of my father’s paper, o the football results. | ‘Cement? one of them said. I hooked my thumbs into my pockets, moved my weight to one foot and narrowed my eyes a little. I wanted to say something terse and appropriate, but I was not sure Thad heard them right. I left it too long, for the one who had spoken rolled his eyes towards the sky and with his hands on his hips stared past me at the front door. It opened and my father stepped out biting his pipe and holding a clipboard against his hip . Br 193 194 Iwas born poor in rich America. yet my secret instincts were better than money: and were for me a source of power. I had advantages that no one could take away from me — a clear memory and brilliant dreams and a knack for knowing when T was happy 3 L was at my happiest leading two lives. and it was a satisfaction amer or the sneak ~ I kept to me that the second one- of the hidden. That was how I spent my first fifteen years, Fifteen was young then and I knew this: The poor don’t belong. But one summer out of loneliness or impatience my second self did more | 10 than wake and watch, and more than remember. He began to see like a historian, and he acted. I have to save my life. I used 10 think. Early that summer I was walking down a lovely crumbling litle street lined with elms. called Brookview Road. The city of | 15 Boston, with its two tall buildings. was visible from one end of the read looking east. Work in pairs. Discuss these questions and note down your answers. 1 Which extract comes from which of these books? AND ‘OTHER ANIMALS Which of the extracts makes you want to read on? Give your reasons. What do the extracts have in common? What are the main differences between the three extracts? What kind of young person does each narrator seem to be? In the first extract, how did the narrator's family ‘invite various friends to share the chapters’? And what does he mean by ‘their more curious ways"? In the second extract, why do vou think the narrator was ‘rereading a comic’ did he ‘wish he had been reading the racing page of his father’s paper"? 8 In the third extract, what is meant by ‘The poor don’t belong’? 9 What do we learn of the relationship between the narrator and his family in each extract? outen Why Join another pair and compare your answers to the questions. Then discuss which of the qualities you discussed in 13.1 D are most important in relationships between parents and children, and between sisters and brothers. Decal 13.3 _As the saying goe: A These sayings and proverbs all have something to do with relationships. Rewrite each one by filling the gaps in the incomplete sentences, keeping the meaning as similar as possible to the original sentence. (This exercise revises some of the points covered in the grammar review sections earlier in the book.) 1 There’s no such thing as strangers — only friends vou haven’t met yet The world is full of people who could become your friends one day. 2 A friend in need isa friend indeed. Someone who is a true friend, 3. Ictakes ovo to make a quarrel. When there , both parties 4 Our of sight, out of mind, Absent friends 5. Absence makes the heart grow fonder. When people they each other more, 6 One good turn deserves another. After someone i's in return. 7 Actions speak louder than words. What really do, not say 8 Ittakes all sorts to make a world. The world is people. 9. Live and let live. I believe in tolerant and what they want to do. 10 Where there’s a will there’s a way If you want something , you'll find a way 11 Many a true word is spoken in jest. 4 remark that jokingly hidden truth: 12 Ir’s easy to be wise after the event, You couldn’t happen. 13 Blood is thicker than water. Family other relationships. 4 Like father like son, A son tends father 15 Love is like the measles, we all have to go through it Sooner or later everyone , but they eventually B__ Discuss which of the sayings you agree with, comparing them with your own experiences. A . YX Proverbs should be used sparingly in conversation, and they can sound very odd when used inappropriately We can soften their effect by adding. . . as the saying goes or... as they say: ‘Well, it’s easy to be wise after the event, as the saying goes.’ ARRAGE) yee ICE ‘ Ls “And another thing, T hate his stupid grin.” 195 13.4 Husbands and wives 196 A. Read this passage through carefully, preferably before the lesson. \ Whenever Henry Wilt took the dog for a walk, or, to be more | accurate, when the dog took him, or to be exact, when Mrs |, Wilt told them both to go and take themselves out of the house so that she could do her yoga exercises, he always took the same route. In fact the dog followed the route and Wilt followed the dog. They went down past the Post Office, across the playground, under the railway bridge and out on to the footpath by the river. A mile along the river and then under the railway line again and back through streets where the houses were bigger than Wilt’s semi and where there were large trees and gardens and the cars were all Rovers and Mercedes. It was here that Clem, a pedigree Labrador, evidently feeling more at home, did his business while Wilt stood looking around rather uneasily, conscious that this was not his sort of neighbourhood and wishing it was. It was about the only time during their walk that he was at all aware of his surroundings. For the rest of the way Wilt’s walk was an interior one and followed an itinerary completely at variance with his own appearance and that of his route. It was in fact a journey of wishful thinking, a pilgrimage along trails of remote possibility involving the irrevocable disappearance of Mrs Wilt, the sudden acquisition of wealth, power, what he would do if he was appointed Minister of Education or, better still, Prime Minister. It was partly concocted of a series of desperate expedients and partly in an unspoken dialogue so that anyone noticing Wilt (and most people didn't! | might have scen his lips move occasionally and his mouth curl into what he fondly imagined was a sardonic smile as he dealt with questions or parried arguments with devastating repartee. It was on one of these walks taken in the rain after a particularly trying day at the Tech that Wilt first conceived the notion that he | would only be able to fulfil his latent promise and call bis life his own if some not entirely fortuitous disaster overtook his wife Like everything else in Henry Wilt’s life it was not a sudden decision. He was not a decisive man | (from Iii: by Tom Sharpe) Answer these questions with just one word or with a short phrase. 1 Who decided what time Clem should go for a walk? 2. Who decided on the route for the walk? 3. What do you think a ‘semi’ (line 10) is? 8 ee 4+ Why did Clem feel more at home where the houses were larger? 5. Why did Wilt feel uneasy there? 6 What did Wilt do during the rest of the walk? 7 What were the three directions in which his thoughts took him? 8 How do you think Wilt fared in arguments in real life? 9 What do vou think Wilt does at ‘the Tech’? 10 What might ‘some not entirely fortuitous disaster’ be? LL Why aren’t we told Mrs Wilt’s first name? 12, Why is Henry Wilt referred to as ‘Wilt (rather than Mr Wilt or Henry)? Now compare the passage opposite with this one: Henry Farr did not, precisely, decide to murder his wife. It was simply that he could think of no other way of prolonging her absence from him indefinitely. He had quite often, in the past, when she was being more than usually irritating, had fantasies about her death. She hurtled over cliffs in flaming cars or was brutally murdered on her way to the dry cleaners. But Henry was never actually responsible for the event. He was at the graveside looking mournful and interesting. Or he was | coping with his daughter as she roamed the now deserted house, trying not to look as if he was glad to have the extra space. But he was never | 10 | actually the instigator. Once he had got the idea of killing her (and at first this fantasy did not seem very different from the reveries in which he wept by her open grave, comforted by young, fashionably dressed women) it took some | time to appreciate that this scenario was of quite a different type from |1s the others. It was a dream that could, if he so wished, become reality. One Friday afternoon in September, he thought about strangling her. The Wimbledon Strangler. He liked that idea. He could see Edgar Lustgarten narrowing his eyes threateningly at the camera, as he paced out the length of Maple Drive. ‘But Henry Farr’ Lustgarten was saying, | 2 | ‘with the folly of the criminal, the supreme arrogance of the murderer, had forgotten one vital thing, The shred of fibre that was to send Henry Farr to the gallows was ~ What was he thinking of? They didn’t hang people any more. They wrote long, bestselling paperback books about them. 3s (from The Wimbledon Poisoner b: el Williams) Work in pairs or groups and discuss these questions: © Which parts of the two passages amused you? Can you explain why? (If neither passage amused you at all, what did you find annoying about them?) Both books were written by men — but what kind of readers were they written for? Would they appeal more to men or women, or to both? © What do the two passages have in common? And how are they different? Look at the first sentences: Are they both ‘nodders’ (see 11.4)? © What do you think is going to happen in each story? Will either of the Henries actually suceed in murdering his wife, or not? 197 Some words have particular associations with other words and ideas. Look at these examples from the extract from Ilr yoga exercises a semi (semi-detached house) Rovers and Mercedes an itinerary 4 pilerimage parried the Tech (technical college) Sulfil his latent promise "= What concepts or underlying meanings does the writer expect the reader to associate these phrases with? Some words have pejorative or uncomplimentary associations: That’s a stupid mistake! She's a very fussy person Some describe the same idea but don’t have such pejorative associations: That's a silly mistake! She's a very discriminating person, Decide which of these words seem to have more pejorative associations: cooperative ~ obedient dreamer ~ idealist gullible ~ trusting ads ~ brats light-hearted — frivolous naive ~ inocent oversight — mistake solemn ~ servous stubborn ~ resolute tease ~ mock careful — cautious difficult ~ challenging frank = sincere humble ~ modest aid back — lac; moody ~ depressed optimistic — practical realistic ~ pessimistic spy’ ~ intelligence agent studious — hard-working Associations very much depend on the context in which words are used - and the tone of voice that’s used. Words that are normally complimentary can be disparaging when used in a sarcastic or ironic way: That us very clever of vou! or Thanks, you've been a great help! Work alone. Choose five of the following ideas and write down five words that you associate with each of them. Pick words that reflect your feelings ~ as in the examples Being at home - security predictable reassurance mother warmth Away from home ~ freedom danger excitement interesting cold Being with a friend Meeting a stranger Being alone Parents Marriage Children Taking an exam Learning English __ Using your English Earning a living Holidays School Shopping Reeding Television Music "> Join a partner and compare your ideas. Which of the words you wrote down seem to have negative associations and which have positive associations? D A It's often hard to differentiate between associations and collocations ~ as this pseudo-Freudian word association game may show Work in pairs. Take it in turns to say the first word or phrase that comes into your mind, like this: ‘Word’ ‘association’ football’ ‘referee’ ‘whistle’ ‘flute’ “violin” ‘bow’ ‘arrow’ ‘question’ ‘ansmer’ and soon IF you perceive no connection, ask your partner to explain why she or he said that word ‘Why “question “There's a question after the ™ in section A opposite.” “Ah 13.6 The narrator Read the passage and then discuss the questions below with a partner. | I a ae My career has always been marked by a strange mixture of | confidence and cowardice: almost, one might say, made by it. | Take. for instance. the first time [ tried spending a night with eg a man ina hotel. I was nineteen at the time, an age [MUU | appropriate for such adventures, and needless to say 1 was MODEST not married. I am still not married. a fact of some significance, but more of chat later. The name of the boy, if 1 remember rightly, was Hamish. I do remember rightly. [ really must try not to be deprecating, Confidence. not cowardice, is the patt of myselt which I admire. after all. 10 Hamish and I had just come down from Cambridge at the end of the Christmas term: we had conceived our plan well in advance, and had each informed our parents that term ended a day later than it actually did, knowing quite well that they would not be interested enough to check. nor sufficiently au fait to | 15 ascertain the value of their information if they did. So we arrived in London together in the late afternoon, and took a taxi from the station to our destined hotel. We had worked everything out, and had even booked our room, which would probably not have been necessary. as the hotel we had selected was one of those large | 2 central cheap-smart ones. specially designed for adventures such as ours. I was wearing a gold curtain ring on the relevant finger. We had decided to stick to Hamish’s own name, which, being Andrews. was unmemorable enough, and less confusing than having to think up a pseudonym. We were well educated, the two | 2% | of us. in the pitfalls of such occasions, having both of us read at one time in our lives a good deal of cheap fiction, and indeed we Tt 199 both carried ourselves with considerable aplomb. We arrived. unloaded our suitably-labelled suitcases, and called at the desk for | our key. It was here that I made my mistake. For some reason 1 | was requested to sign the register. | now know that it is by ne means customary for wives to sign hotel registers. (from The Millstone by Margaret Drabble) What kind of person does Rosamund, the narrator, seem to be? Find an example of the narrator poking fun at herself. How would you describe the tone or style of the passage? What do you think is going to happen in the rest of the novel? What clues are given in the passage? Why is it called The Millstone do you think? fone B_ The author wrote the story in the first person. Why do you think she did this? What would be the effects of changing the pronouns to the third person? Look again at 13.4, If the extracts from Ile and The Himbledon Poisoner were in the first person, what effect would this have on them? If the extracts in 13.2 were in the third person, what effect would this have? © Work in pairs. Think of an embarrassing, amusing or memorable experience you have had (or imagine yourselves having). Write TWO versions of the ‘opening paragraph of a story about the experience, one in the first person (using 1/me/ my), the other in the third person, as if you're writing about a ‘character > Compare your paragraphs with a partner. Discuss which version was easier to write and which was most convincing 4 Ifyou choose to write a narrative in the exam, using the first person can make it easier for you to identify with your protagonist - even if the personality of the protagonist is not like you at all really. A fictional or semi-fictional narrative can be easier to handle than one which sticks strictly to the truth. WILL YOU STILL LOVE ME WHEN | FIND YOU BORING AND CONCEITED? 200 13.7 Conditional sentences eu A Work in pairs. Discuss any differences in style or meaning between these sentences: If it weren’t for the children they would have split up by now. If it wasn’t for the children they would have split up by now. Were it not for the children they would have split up by now. If they didn’t have children they would have split up by now. If you should see Terry could you give him my regards? When vou see Terry could you give him my regards? If you happen to see Terry could you give him my regards? If you see Terry could you give him my regards? Should you see Terry could you give him my regards? If you wouldn’t mind waiting I’ll let them know you're here, If you don’t mind waiting I'll let them know you're here. If you wait I'l] let them know you're here. + Had it not been for your help, J couldn't have done it. Without your help I couldn’t have done it, If it hadn’t been for your help I couldn’t have done it. If you hadn’t been so helpful I couldn’t have done it. I'm glad you helped me, otherwise I couldn’t have done it. > There are no commas in most of the above sentences — which of them would be easier to understand if they were to have commas? ish the incomplete sentences in such a way that each one means the same as the complete sentence before it Please do take a seat and I'll bring you some coffee. Ifyou Their relationship was doomed because of their incompatibility. Had I might miss my connection, if so I'll try to call you to let you know. Should They didn’t get married because their parents were against it But You probably won't have time — but I'd like you to come and see us. If There was such a lot of traffic: that’s why we're late. Had She could tell him she’s leaving, but it would upset him. Ie. They have a wonderful relationship, and have decided to get married. Were She’s very patient and loyal, that’s why she hasn’t left him If it If you don’t work hard at a relationship it’s not likely to last. Without Sownautune C Work in pairs. Write five sentences about your own friends and relations, and your relationships with them using the following structures: Had... If it weren't for... Were... Should. Without Join another pair and compare your sentences. 201 13.8 Points of view TRE Edvard Hopper: ‘Nighthawks’ 1942 (detail A. Work in pairs and discuss these questions about the picture ‘© Where are the people? Who are they? How do they feel? ‘© What has happened earlier, what's happening now and what's going to happen? ‘© What have they said to each other earlier? What are they saying now? What are they going to say? What is their relationship? ‘© How does the picture make you feel? Would you like to be one of the people? Give your reasons. B E@ Work in pairs. One of you should look at Activity 12, the other at 29 You'll each have another picture to look at and describe. Ask each other questions to find out how the picture illustrates the relationships between the people. C Choose any oe of the three pictures you have discussed. Imagine that it shows the first scene in a novel or short story Write TWO openings to the story (about 150 words each) — one from the point of view of one of the characters (using /, we, ete.) — the other as a conventional narrator (using he, she, they, etc.) tk One of the composition topics in the exam may require you to put yourself into the position of two different people. For example, you might have to write two people's statements to the police about an accident or a robbery, or two speeches about an 202 14 Earning a living Work and business A. Work in groups and discuss these questions about the photos: ‘© What are the pros and cons of each person’s job? ® Which of the jobs would you prefer to have? Give your reasons. © What would be the ideal jab for you, and why? B Fill the gaps with suitable words from the list below, using plurals as necessary. 1 A large company is owned by its ..shareholders.., who may be individual or major financial . but itis controlled by a board of 2. Universal Studios and Columbia Studios are of Matsushita and Sony respectively, both of which are companies with their in Japan National airlines used to have a of European air routes, but now there is between different airlines, 4 Cars are by putting together the various onan In marketing , people often refer ta ‘the 4 Ps’: Marketing consists of providing the customer with the right p at the right P , and ensuring that the goods are available to the customer in the right Pp through appropriate channels of distribution, as well as p. (including packaging and advertising). 6 The selection of new staff is the responsibility of the department. They are also responsible for the and of 7. Sales representatives are paid a monthly but they also receive travelling and may earn a on the sales they make, 8 When the company went all the workers in the were made assembly line bankrupt commission competition component director employee expenses headquarters institution investor jargon manufacture monopoly multi-national personnel place plant price product promotion redundant salary shareholder subsidiary training welfare 203 ic 204 DT CET CE A Read the article through, preferably before the lesson, before answering the 2 % questions on the next page GX) Begin by highlighting the first mention of each of the women interviewed Million dollar dealers he young man shouts “Eighty- eighty-eight dollar yen!” as he hurls the telephone receiver at his desk. A few feet away, a fat man with a moustache rears up from his seat. He glares across the table. “What is going on?” he demands. His colleague cowers. “What have you got?” “94:98.” “94:96? “One at 96.” “Forget it, Why don't you listen?” The fat man is angry because he has just lost a multi-million pound deai. His colleague’s mind wandered for a moment and he got hit by another dealer somewhere on the other side of the world. The dollar- mark table at Foreign Exchange Brokers R P Martin is extremely volatile. Prices shift hundreds of points a day. Get it wrong and you can let five million pounds slip through your fingers. All around there are likely lads called Gary and Ron and Glen who are Screaming into colour-coded telephones and stabbing at computer keyboards. The game they are playing is fast, furious and hellishly complicated. “Forex,” as itis called is the riskiest and sexiest in the City. The object is to put buyers and sellers in touch with each other before someone else can beat you to it, Like market places everywhere, the dealers shout their prices. Most of them react with outbursts of theatrical aggression. They're shouting so loudly, in fact, it's easy to overlook the trio of females lurking among them. ‘Teresa Caira wears a dark suit as sombre as her male colleagues. But, while they bellow, she murmurs calmly into her telephones. Her hushed tones are deceptive. At 28, her boss describes her as the best Gee 2 3 co oa spot (instant deab lira broker in London, Nevertheless, she is one of only three female Forex dealers he employs. Women may be gaining ground elsewhere in the City, but only about a dozen have entered the jungle of Foreign Exchange. “You have to be thick-skinned in this job,” Teresa explains, juggling a handful of telephone receivers. “A woman has to be firm without appearing masculine. It’s tricky to get the balance right. You must be extrovert and get yourself noticed but not as a woman.” These additional stresses certainly don’t attract many women recruits. Half of all trainees fail to make the grade, Vacancies are not advertised, Most women have never even heard of the job. How do the men react to women brokers? “Well, they test you out at first to see how far they can push you. They want to know if you're going to burst into tears. It’s no advantage to play on your femininity. But you can’t be one of the boys either - drinking and swearing as much as they do. 1 think of myself as ‘quietly confident’,” says Teresa. Across the table, a young man catches her eye. “Ineed spaghetti* for Dusseldorf, 85:90.” “Give you one,” says Teresa. “Mine at one.” In just five seconds, she’s earned herself more commission to top up her salary and team bonus. “The salary’s pretty good if you don't spend it all living it up,” she admits “Ltry to put a bit by. I hope to invest in property or start my own business after Ieave here. Forex brokers don’t do it for life. The official retirement age is 55 but most of them are burnt out by 40. Nobody is taken on over the age of 25. It’s a young person’s game.” Teresa left school at 16 to work ina bank. She has the same kind of East End accent as most of the lads. The pace and excitement suits anyone from ex-cab drivers and bookies to university graduates. “I like to be busy,” says Teresa, “when things are * spaghetti: lire quiet it gets boring. Ifyou relax you make mistakes. They don’t carry passengers here. You have to keep up.” It's a long day. Trading starts before eight and can go on until past seven at night if the market is still “frothy” “The responsibility does worry me sometimes,” says Teresa. “You must admit it when you've made a mistake. Ifyou try to cover it up it gets even more expensive. People have very low tolerance here because they are under so much pressure. You get screamed at all the time. But you can’t be a tearful little woman. You have to fight back without seeming to. I suppose I'm a sort of honorary man,” As if to prove her point one of the blokes yells out in triumph: “[ hammered 'im, Teresa!” Teresa smiles back at him like a perfect gent. Behind a hardboard partition on their Forward Dollars desk, Jackie Taylor, 20, is still working on acquiring that kind of self-possession. She joined the firm a year ago straight from school. A trainee like her earns about £10,000 a year. When. she qualifies this should shoot up to £40,000 and above. It all depends on how well she serves her collection of banks. “You have to get your clients to trust you,” she explains, “you ought to be working together.” On the other hand, all the banks she represents are vying with each other. In a way, she is competing with herself. A lot of lunchtime wining and dining of elderly bankers is required to resolve that contradiction. “That’s one area,” she smiles, “where hopefully I have an advantage over the men.” But she has no illusions about the popularity of women brokers. “When I first started here I was called every name under the sun.” She was also warned she'd become unfeminine, She's certainly got a lot louder. The trouble is there just aren’t enough ‘women in the job yet. One or two can’t hope to challenge the gung-ho 105 v9 138 130 & “0 15 160 205 206 180 170 185 macho atmosphere and support one another. If more women realised how exciting and profitable it was, she says, things would improve “Men stil think women aren’t interested in making money. But we are.” A football crowd roar greets another victory over at dollar-yen. Jackie frowns, “I see the worst side of the men who work here,” she says. “I couldn’t possibly be married to one of them now I know what they're like. It’s a purely male atmosphere and they like their own company. They still believe a woman's place is behind a sink or changing nappies. Pm staying single while I’m here. You can't be a married woman in the market. And children would be impossible.” She knows Teresa manages with a child-minder for her nine-year-old son. But, well, Teresa is special. On the other side of the partition the third member of the female trio is a sun-tanned woman in her twenties. Highlight each of these phrase: two meanings in italics below is correct. slip through your fingers (line 24) Susie McEiney is a tough nut to crack and she doesn’t mind who knows it. “The men’s crude comments never upset me,” she insists. “I give as good as I get.” She was brought up by her father and brothers and attended a boys’ public school. “I'm used to being surrounded by men,” she says witha grin. “Ineed dollar yen here,” she shouts suddenly in a harsh voice. “P'm ready for you!” booms back a masculine voice. “Five at 85!” screams Susie, waving her phone receivers. “Are we going to give it to these people, lads?” challenges a second male. “80:75 I give,” bellows Number One. “Thank you, guys,” says Susie, another deal richer. Five million dollars have just changed hands. “It you thought in millions, you'd never do this job,” she adds, fingering the modest clutch of diamonds at her throat. Helen Chappell the passage. Then decide which of the a) get lost’ b) be difficult to deal with thick-skinned (line 57) a) insensitive b) not easily hurt fail to make the grade (line 67) a) don’t perform well enough in their work) don't pass their exams ‘They don’t carry passengers a) You have to pull your weight vying with each other (line 143) (line 106) b ) They are ruthless employers a) competing with each other b) cooperating with each other wining and dining (line 145) a) taking them out for an expensive meal b) preparing a meal for them the gung-ho macho atmosphere (line 158) a) marlike male-dominated atmosphere) brave manly atmosphere atough nut to crack (line 186) a) difficult to deal with b) not easily dominated changed hands (line 208) a) been bought and sold) been lost the modest clutch of diamonds a) discreet diamond necklace (line 211) b) small diamond brooch C Choose the best alternative to fill each blank: 1 The purpose of foreign exchange dealing is to bring buyers and sellers together buy and sell currency 2 There are about female foreign exchange dealers in London 3.6 12 28 3. Most Forex dealers don’t go on working after the age of 25 40 55 4 To become a Forex dealer you well-educated and highly qualified. should be don’t need tobe mustn’tbe can’t be must be 5. In foreign exchange dealing large sums of money are made ina few seconds after a lot of careful planning 6 Forex dealers go on working till after 7 p.m always usually sometimes never rarely 7 Forex dealers easily get angry with each other _are tolerant of each other’s mistakes 8 Asingle Forex dealer acts on behalf of one bank several competing banks several collaborating banks 9. Female dealers are better than their male counterparts when entertaining business clients for lunch because they don’t drink heavily are less forceful _can be more charming 10 Women brokers are by their male colleagues. well liked not well liked ignored pursued 11 Susie McElney doesn’t get upset by her male colleagues because she has a good sense of humour she has lived among males all her life 12. The most experienced woman broker at R P Martin is Jackie Teresa Susie D Work in groups and discuss the pros and cons of: © working as a foreign exchange dealer © husbands and wives working together © being a single parent, having to earn a living and raise a young child © working as a woman ina man’s world — or as a man in a woman’s world ‘¢ making money as an investor on the stock market or the money market Work in pairs. One of you should look at Activity 7, the other at 46. You'll cach sce an advertisement for a scheme to make you rich — rich beyond your wildest dreams! "> Explain to your partner how the advertised scheme works, Decide why the claims are preposterous: What are the flaws in the reasoning behind each ad? 207 iL! Word order: phrasal verbs iets A Study the examples and fill the gaps in the sentences. Highlight any phrasal verbs that you’re unfamiliar with and look them up. 1° Some phrasal verbs are intransitive (they don’t take an object): When we challenged him to justify his point of crew he backed down, He wasn't being serious, but 1 didn't catch on until he started smiling. But not: | didn't catch immediately on. X check up climbdown cool off close in die out fall apart _ fall behind pass away pay up ringoff settledown settle up shop around speak up standout stay on stop over wear off a) If you want to save money you should before making a purchase. b) The effects of the wine by the next morning. c) After a few moments’ silence, one of them and asked a question 2 With most transitive phrasal verbs (i.e. verbs that take an object) the object can come in various positions, but not if the object is a pronoun’ They've brought the meeting forward They've called the meeting off. They've brought formard the meeting. They've called off the meeting. They've brought it forward. They've called it off. The meeting's been brought forward. The meeting's been called off. But not: They've brought forward it. X They've called off it. x carryout cutback dream up drive out explain away follow up hand in leave behind pay back ripoff send up sortout think up tonedown trade in tryout use up win over write out a) Thanks for lending me the money, I promise I'll on Friday. b) Everyone was by the force of her arguments ©) The little boy was very upset because his mother 3 With some transitive phrasal verbs the object must come immediately after the verbs The twins look so alike that I couldn't tell them apart. I couldn't tell the twins apart They tried to catch me out by asking me a trick question. They tried to catch the interviewees out by asking them trick questions, Butnot: | couldn't tell apart them. X They tried to catch our me. X call back countin cutoff give up invite out order about see out show around start off tear up a) When they left I went downstairs with them and b) Pam is a new student, could one of you . please? ©) L wanted to on Friday night, but she said she was washing her hair. 4 Some phrasal verbs can be followed by a preposition: L was trying to catch up on the work I'd missed. I’ve missed a lot of work and I’m trying to catch up. He was annoyed at having to clean up after his guests. He was annoyed at having to clean up. 208 He was annoyed at having to clean everything up. tidy up after check upon crack down on creep upon miss out on play along with wait up for a) I wasn’t invited to the party and I was afraid I might be the fun. b) I’m just interested in how you're getting on — I’m not 5 Some three-word phrasal verbs must be used with a preposition: You shouldn't talk down to children. She finds it hard to live up to her mother’s expectations. come up against talk someone out of face up to grow out of lead up to stick up for a) When they set up their new business they a lot of problems. b) She was being unusually polite to me and I wondered what it was all 6 The object of a verb + preposition (see 12.3) must come after the preposition: We were counting on her to help us. We were counting on Liz to help us. Liz didn’t realise she was being counted on But not: We were counting her on. X We were counting Liz on. X account for bank on call for deal with dispose of long for look after look into part with provide for stand for stem from a) If you tell me what the problem is, 1 promise to b) He's very mean and always hates to c) The abbreviation ple public limited company sal verb from 1 to 5 above. B Fill each of the blanks with a suitable phi If you've got a parking ticket you can’t just — you'll have to It was clearly my fault but I was able to an excuse to He was threatening to his notice, but I managed to and persuade him to T'm relying on you to if there's any trouble. She used to bea very sulky little girl, but she eventually. If you already have a car, you can when you buy a new one. I'm going to be back very late tonight - don’t He eventually after we'd presented all the arguments Customs officers have been people who are over the duty free limit. Let’s hope you aren’t by this last question! Soon st “The job may interest you now, Mr Harvey, but do you hones the interest would be sustained? 209 210 DOO on cnt A Read this article and then answer the questions that follow in writing JANE McLOUGHLIN No job to go to EVERY weekday, Dick Derwent (which is not his real name) is driven out of bed by the alarm clock he leaves outside the bedroom door. Stopping its din means he must get up first, not simply turn it off and settle back to sleep. He brings his wife Jean a cup of tea, dresses in his office suit while she makes toast and a sandwich which he packs in his brown briefcase. He leaves the house at precisely 7.55 am to walk the half mile to the station to catch the 8.15 suburban stopping train to town. The routine hasn't changed in the 25 years since he and Jean first moved to their neat little house in a Lego-built street in a suburb of a London suburb. Dick sees the same people on the platform every morning ~ by now he even nods to one or two. The only difference is that until two years ago he used to buy a paper from the kiosk outside the station and now he picks one up ifa fellow passenger discards it on the journey. ‘Two years ago, Dick was fired. He no longer has a job to go to with the others in the pin-stripe tide rushing out of Waterloo to go to the office. He starts an eight hour day doing nothing. His wife doesn’t know. He couldn't tell her he'd lost his job, so he simply carried on as though he goes to work. He believes she believes the elaborate myth he has created round his working day. His boss objects to private telephone calls, so please don't ring him at work: the other blokes at work come and go these days, he doesn’t really know them well enough to talk about them at home; if he’s lucky and picks up a Standard in the afternoons, he can pretend that he had the kind of day that Bristow* had at work, and she’s so bored she doesn’t want to hear. Two of his ex-colleagues did drop by his home one weekend, and he rushed them down to the pub. He told Jean they'd both been fired so it was nice to see them after so long, to explain the way they greeted him. They mentioned afterwards to his friends that Dick and Jean seemed to have very little furniture around, and they said they'd given up the television because there was so much rubbish on these days. The furniture? Oh, they were going to redecorate, so they'd sold the old stuff and Jean would go to the sales when they'd got the new decor. She must know. There's no way of finding out without asking her, and that’s the one question no one can ever ask. Dick pays for his season ticket out of the fast-dwindling redundancy money he put in the bank. He takes £1 a day spending money and collects his dole weekly from the DHSS office near his old workplace. He gives Jean the same money he always did, but the bills for rates and gas and electricity he grabs up on his way out in the morning and stuffs in a wastebin near the station. When they go to cut him off, Jean gives them a cheque, thinking he has forgotten, so he doesn’t really know the state of his bank account. He told her he took a * Bristow: an office worker in a cartoon strip (see page 212) Muu % 0 15 18 pay cut last year because the firm was in trouble, “She doesn't actually think I've forgotten; she thinks I've been on a drinking spree again,” he says. His days are a precarious triumph over mind by matter, or lack of it. A typical day starts at Waterloo, when you've no idea how hard it is to hold back to his slow pace as the commuters stampede from the platform to an imperative march. “No, no tea. It’s too expensive, and it’s a waste of your resources because there’s no chance of a return on investment, At lunchtime, if you get in the bar early and buy someone a drink, that’s the first round, and when his friends come in they include you in their rounds. You've got to piek your moment to get out, of course.” He grins sideways at you and puts a lot of energy into the’ height of his steps rather than their length. We walk slowly along the river by the National Theatre and the Festival Hall. The wind is in the wrong direction and it’s very cold. From behind, Dick's valiant old suit shows its age in the daylight and you notice how scuffed his shoes are, You can see people hurrying by, trying to avoid catching his eye. “They think Pll ask for a handout. They can smell something off me.” He sits in the park after a while, and two women on the seat break off their conversation, fidget, and loudly ask each other the time. They've got to go; never knew it was so late. “T don’t like dogs, you know, but after what I've seen I'd never speak against them. They make friends for you, for people on their own. Everyone will talk to someone with a dog in a park” There’s something which happens gradually as the hours drag by; wherever he loiters, it seems to be with intent. He can’t window shop or watch the people go by without feeling that people are wondering what he’s doing. During the day, we go into a public library to read the papers. He used to take the Times at home, now he reads the Sun first. It makes no demand, and provides some form of comfort in its simplistic attitudes. “It's really irritating reading those papers where people seem to take themselves so seriously. Same goes for the magazines.” It’s the contrasts that make Dick’s misery worse. It had been his slowness in the morning; and all through the morning it was having nothing to do when everyone else seemed to be busy and intent. Except the down and outs, who wouldn’t speak to him. “Perhaps they think I'm a copper,” he joked. At lunchtime, his drinks trick didn’t work. He sat through opening hours with a half pint, a black hole among the noise and camaraderie. “I remember what it was like. You don’t want some guy in trouble to bring you down when you’re having a good time.” But after lunch his spirits pick up. The worst is over. He finds a park bench, or tramps back to Waterloo on a rainy day and takes out his sandwiches. He has pet pigeons. “It's nice in the summer. You can sit out in the Embankment Gardens near Charing Cross and watch everyone. All sorts of stories going on day after day. It’s like Coronation Street, down there.” We walk past his old workplace. He does it every day. “The odd time, someone I knew comes out and thinks T'm just passing, so we have a chat. I always say I'm doing fine - it doesn’t do to let people know the truth; it frightens them away from you, as though your wife had died’ or something.” He says you get used to spending 9 to 5 deliberately doing nothing. “What you miss is feeling you belong Somewhere. That’s why I go to the same places. If I didn’t go one day, someone might notice.” ‘One day, he’d spent 50p on a horse, sitting in the betting shop getting quite excited about the race. He’d won £5. The next day, he'd spent a wet afternoon watching a dirty movie near ‘Trafalgar Square. “At 6 pm sharp everyone there got up and hurried up to Charing Cross. Home to their wives, that was it. Didn’t want them to know they hadn’t got jobs any more. I'm not alone, you know.” 145 155 160 165 170 175 185 190 198 2 B [a@) Highlight the following words and phrases used in the article and explain their meanings in a short phrase: din (line 5) suburb of a London suburb (line 18) discards (line 25) elaborate myth (line 36) season ticket (line 69) _fast-divindling (line 70) dole (line 72) a precarious triumph (line 88) simplistic attitudes (line 140) camaraderie (line 157) C Look at the article and explain who or what is referred to by the words in italics in these quotations from the passage: He told Jean they'd both been fired (line 52) They mentioned afterwards to his friends (line 54) they said they'd given up the television (line 57) When they go to cut him off, Jean gives them a cheque (line 79) they include you in their rounds (line 101) They think V'll ask for ahandout (line 113) They've got to go (line 121) They make friends for you (line 125) Perhaps they think (line 152) it frightens them away (line 179) Didn’t want them to know (line 197) they hadn't got jobs any more (line 197) D__ Describe a typical day in the life of Dick Derwent (about 120 words) Before you start, make notes and compare them with a partner E Work in groups and discuss these questions: ‘© What was your reaction to the passage? © Could you ever behave like Dick Derwent? Why did he behave the way he did? © What are the best ways of coping with being unemployed? Sumer yQJMPI xyones Wen. BESTOW poner * er 2 Hot, Sea) 's ? mp! *Omp) gout ype am Sea) VF ec LTHUMP I BURiay os} ye Sing oe 5. 4 a ‘0, 212 Collocations: verb phrases Pree ay MUS his section deals with only a small portion of a vast topic. The only way to learn collocations of this kind is by reading and listening carefully — and by referring to a dictionary to check up when necessary. A Work in pairs. Which of the following things break? And which can change? waves traffic lights aboy’s voice astorm the weather your mood day B Which of the following things can you break? And which can you change? Some can be used with either verb, with different meanings.) apromise a world record an appointment a tablecloth crockery direction gear money someone's heart the bed or the sheets a habit the ice the law the news tosomeone the silence the subject trains your clothes or your shoes your leg or your arm your mind And in what circumstances might you break or change each of them? C Which of the following things can you follow? And which can you lose? (Some can be used with either verb, with different meanings.) an argument a line of argument a route or directions a story a trade or profession advice or instructions control over something someone's example or their lead an idea face heart a football team a football match interest in something the fashion or a trend the thread ofa story track of something weight your job your nerve your temper your voice if you havea cold your way or bearings And in what circumstances might you follow or lose each of them? D “ill the gaps in these sentences with suitable words from the list below, changing the form of the verb as necessary. 1 Cant you a favour? I'd like you to me a hand with this heavy package. If you want to a bank account, they may ask you to references. Td like to the order which I last week — ve my mind, Always careful attention to what the interviewer says. You should answer clearly but there’s no need to your voice above the normal level. Don’t reply 100 quickly: give yourself time to your thoughts. 3 When he me the chocolates, I couldn’t the temptation to them even though I was trying to weight. 6 Although she a very busy life, her own business, she tries to a balance between the demands of her work and her private life 7 She tried to light on the situation by our attention to the fact that we would have to the costs of the scheme 8 Noone any objection when we the decision to the next meeting on Sunday accept ask bear cancel change collect draw hold lead lend lift lose offer open pay place raise raise reach resist run strike supply throw 213 14.6 Agood ending ian) A. Work in pairs. Which of these students” endings to a job application letter are most effective? Which encourage the reader to look favourably on the application? Dear Sirs, Referring to your advertisement in the Cambridge Evening News on Monday 9th September | wish to apply for the job as a commercial banker. In order to improve my English skulls 1 would like to work for about two years in England and I think the position as a junior commercial banker would fit with my imagination. | am ready for further discussions. Give me a ring or write to me. Yours faithfully, Dear Sirs, I would like to apply for the post of International Corporate Finance Manager, advertised in 2| last Tuesday’s Daily Telegraoh I have a good knowledge of English and German, and I am learning Spanish I enclose my curriculum vitae and will be available for interview any day after September 1. My present position is subject to one month’s notice I look forward to your reply Yours faithfully Dear Sir or Madam, | should like to apply for the post of assistant manager in your Sales Development Department, Far East, advertised recently in the Financial Times. Besides my mother tongue, German, | can also speak English and Japanese fairly well. If you feel that my qualifications meet with your requirements, | shall be pleased to come for an interview. Please find enclosed a curriculum vitae, educational reports and certificates of training. Yours faithfully, Dear Mr Barnwell, I ama 24 year-old ei your advertisement for the job 4| advertised in yesterday's ne 214 with people and I am a willing and responsible person. I am very interested in the job you are offering and reckon myself to be the right person for it. I look forward to hearing from you, Yours sincerely, Work in pairs. Look at the final paragraphs of the passages in 9.4, 9.7, 9.9, 12.2, 12.6, 14.2 and 14.4, taking account of the very last sentence in particular. ¢ Doshort sentences seem more effective than long, complex ones? Why (not)? B Discuss these questions: ‘© Which one has the least effective ending? ‘¢ Which one has the most effective ending? Why? ‘¢ Why isa good ending important? c @ Which of them are you most pleased with? Why? Now look at the final paragraphs of your own recent compositions: Which of them could be improved? Rewrite the last sentences of these with your partner’s help. PEANUTS Featuring “Cood) of” CharlieBroea War eb Beals oY QS The last car drove away. It began to rain. > Bes And so our hero's life ended as it had begun... a disaster. “1 never got any breaks,” he had always complained. co 3 ce OD. He had wanted to be rich. He died poor, He wanted. friends. ‘He died friendless. Ee q & i H le He wanted to be loved. He |He wanted applause. He received , died unloved. He wanted | [boos Re'wsbhed Eamete use | | (= tian laughter He find only tears. | [oly obscurity He wanted 2006 Hs lanswers. He found only questions, Seheia 215 ion and exam practice These exercises revise grammar and vocabulary points covered in earlier units. Finish the incomplete sentences in such a way that each one means the same as the complete sentence before it. 1 Ifyou're lucky you might get the job you have applied for There 2. He said, “Arrive on time for the interview tomorrow.” He reminded .. 3. I didn’t know I had to write my name in block capitals I wish .. 4 FACTORY ‘TO CLOSE SAYS MANAGER According to 5. Noone ever explained why she was asked to leave. It was 6 [read about the closure of the factory only yesterday. Ite. 7 The factory could not have been built without a government subsidy. Had ... 8 I believe the company may well make a profit this year. Twouldn’t be ok When doing a transformation exercise like the one above, make absolutely sure that you've included all the information given in the original sentence, and that you haven't inadvertently changed the meaning or emphasis of the sentence. B Fill each of the blanks with a suitable word or phrase. 1 Apart highly qualified, she has plenty of in doing this kind of work 2 no doubt that she got the job she hadn't her nerve in the interview. 3. They promised me that the job unless my qualifications 4 Foreign exchange dealers to be under a great deal of pressure: if their minds they losing millions of pounds. 5. The world of business is sometimes as dull, but this is a 6 his cowardice, Dick Derwent told his wife that he his job. 7 some time before I that I couldn't his line of argument, so in the end I interest and gave up. 8 [’d rather you make so much noise, it’s time the children sleep. + Usually several points are being tested in sentences like these. Both grammar and vocabulary may be involved, so check your work carefully. If you can think of more than one way of filling a gap, decide which seems the best in the context. 216 Looking for a job tion (=2] You'll hear part of a seminar for job-seekers. Listen to the recording and tick ( 7 ) only the advice and information that the speakers actually give. APPLICATION FORM 1 Photocopy it and practise filling in the copy first. 2. Write your final version neatly and clearly. 3. Use a separate sheet for any extra information you want to give oo00 4 Personnel officers read application forms very carefully. 5. Use words that show you want to be successful. 6 Mention any unusual hobbies or jobs. ‘THE INTERVIEW 7 Be confident. 8 Avoid answering questions about your leisure interests 9 Do some research into the company’s competitors. 10 Ask the interviewer to explain what his or her company does. 11 Expect to be surprised. 12, You may have to have lunch with the interviewer. 13. The interviewer may insult you. 14 Remain calm whatever happens. 15. Arrange to participate in some mock interviews beforehand. 16 Tell the interviewer that you are sensitive and clever. ‘CREATIVE JOB SEARCHING’ 17 This technique is better than applying for jobs in the conventional way. 18 Get in touch with employees working in companies in your chosen field. 19 You will get a job if you are persistent enough. 20. If you're personally known toa company you stand a better chance. go0og ooooo0o0o0o0o ooo Work in groups and discuss these questions: © Which of the advice given do you disagree with? © From your own experience, what other advice would you give to job-seekers? © If you were looking for an employee, what qualities would you be looking for? © How many job interviews have you been involved in? Describe one of them. = What do you find most difficult about exam interviews? What aspects of your performance would you most like to improve? Write a composition on one of these topics: 1 Find an advertisement for a job you find attractive, or which is suitable for someone with your talents, experience and qualifications. Write a letter of application, describing yourself and explaining why you are the ideal person for the job. (about 300 words, not including the address, etc.) oR 2. Write an account of a job application you were involved in, starting from the time you found out about the vacancy and ending with the time you heard whether you got the job. (about 350 words) Work in pairs. If you wrote C 1, role-play the interview following your job application, taking ic in turns to be the interviewer and interviewee. If you wrote C2, imagine that you have applied for a job and role-play the interview. In questions like C 1 and C2 in the exam, there is no need to be completely honest. it may be easier and more interesting to embroider the truth a little by using your imagination. Ina real job application, it is advisable to tell the truth, however! 217 14.9 Good & bad A Find synonyms for the phrases in italics, or explain their meanings. Refer to a dictionary if necessary “What do you enjoy most about your work? ‘That's a good question!” Iknow it’s a very old car but I think it’s still good for a few more years. Lasked him to apologise and he did so, but mith bad grace. I made 10 photocopies and then one more for good measure. Don’t do someone a good turn in the hope of getting something in return. Have you finished in the shower, or are you planning to stay in there for good? I’m not myself today ~ I had rather @ bad night. Is it bad manners to read while you're eating a meal? After that things ment from bad to worse. 10. I didn’t get the job, but it’s all to the good because it wasn't really right for me. 11 He can’t be trusted: he’s good for nothing and a thoroughly bad lot 12. ‘Work hard and play hard? is an old saying that still holds good today Cet auEene B Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable phrases from the list below. 1 You can as a foreign exchange dealer. 2. She used to take time off work, but then the boss gave her and since then her attendance has been exemplary 3. Make sure you arrive for the interview — that usually 4 She promised to phone me first thing today and she was 5. There has been between Tony and Liz since Liz was promoted. 6 T've had the machine overhauled and serviced ~ now it’s 7 can’t run because I’ve got 8. The company is : more staff are being made redundant. 9. The service here is terrible 1 complain to the manager. 10 I know the managing director personally, so I'll you, 11 Ltook the machine to pieces but found it impossible to fix ~ in the end I 12. Things may go wrong if we continue, I think we should stop now 13 We made the offer and didn’t expect these problems would arise. 14 You can’t expect him to hurry ~ he'll do the work 15 Lunchtime already! It’s I brought some sandwiches. abad leg/ankle/knee a good job as good as new a good deal of as good as her word bad blood earn good money a good talking to give up as a bad job have a good mind to ina bad way in good faith in good time in his own good time make a good impression put in a good word for while the going’s good 218 15 Arts and entertainment SU Work in groups and discuss these questions: What kind of film is each of these stills from? Which film would you prefer to see and why? Have you seen any silent movies? Describe one of them. Do you prefer modern films or old ones? Give your reasons. Do you consider films as ‘art’, or as entertainment? What is the difference? B Read the passage and then answer the questions that follow. Talk to people who saw films for the first time when they were silent, and they will tell you the experience was magic. The silent film, with music, had extraordinary powers to draw an audience into the story, and an equally potent capacity to make their imagination work. They had to supply the voices and the sound effects, and because their minds were engaged, they appreciated the experience all the more. The audience was the final creative contributor to the process of making a film. The films have gained a charm and other-worldliness with age but, 219 220 inevitably, they have also lost something. The impression they made when there was no rival to the moving picture was more profound, more intense; compared to the easily accessible pictures of today, it was the blow of a two-handed axe, against the blunt scraping of a tablekmife. The films belong to an era considered simpler and more desirable than our own. But nostalgia should not be allowed to cast a sentimental quaintness over the past, for it obliges us to edit from our mind the worst aspects of a period and embrace only those elements we admire. The silent period may be known as ‘The Age of Innocence’ but it included years unrivalled for their dedicated viciousness. In Europe, between 1914 and 1918 more men were killed to less purpose than at any other time in history. In America, men who stood out from the herd ~ pacifists, anarchists, socialists - were rounded up and deported in 1919, and were lucky to avoid being lynched. The miseries of war culminated in the miseries of disease when the Spanish flu swept Europe and America and killed more civilians than the war had killed soldiers. With peace came the Versailles treaty — collapse and starvation in Central Europe - the idealism of Prohibition — gangsterism in America. The benefit of the moving picture to a care-worn populace was inestimable, but the sentimentality and charm, the easily understandable, black-and-white issues were not so much a reflection of everyday life as a means of escape from it, Again and again, in the publications of the time, one reads horrified reactions against films showing ‘life as it is’. You did not leave the problems of home merely to encounter them again at the movies. You paid your money, initially, for forgetfulness. As the company slogans put it: ‘Mutual Movies Make Time Fly’ . . . ‘Selznick Pictures Create Happy Hours’. And if the experience took you out of yourself and excited you, you talked about it to your friends and fellow- workers, creating the precious ‘word of mouth’ publicity that the industry depended upon. You may have exaggerated a little, but the movies soon matched your hyperbole. They evolved to meet the demands of their audience. Gradually movie-going altered from relaxation to ritual. In the big cities, you went to massive picture palaces, floating through incense-laden air to the strains of organ music, to worship at the Cathedral of Light. You paid homage to your favourite star; you dutifully communed with the fan magazines. You wore the clothes they wore in the movies; you bought the furniture you saw on the screen. You joined a congregation composed of every strata of society. And you shared your adulation with Shanghai, Sydney and Sentiago. For your favourite pastime had become the most powerful cultural influence in the world — exceeding even that of the Press. The silent film was not only a vigorous popular art; it was a universal language - Esperanto for the eyes. (from Hollywood, The Pioneers by Kevin Brownlow) Why did the audiences of silent movies appreciate them so much? 2 What do modern audiences find attractive about silent movies? Why do modern audiences appreciate silent movies less than their original audiences did? Why is ita fallacy to consider the days of the silent movies as ‘innocent’? 4 5 Why did people go to the cinema in the days of silent movies? 6 What did they prefer not to see in a film? 7 What was the most effective publicity for a film? 8 What were large city cinemas like? 9 What influence did silent movies have on their fans’ lives? 10. Which social classes did silent movies appeal to most? 11 Why is the power of Hollywood weaker nowadays? 12. Whois being referred to as ‘you’ in the last two paragraphs? What is the effect of this stylistic device? C Work in groups and discuss these questions: ‘© What are the writer’s feelings about silent movies — and about modern films? ‘© Why do people go to the cinema nowadays? Has the ‘magic’ been lost? © To what extent do you share the writer’s feelings? ek Inthe Reading Comprehension paper there are multiple-choice questions to answer, but you'll have to answer questions like the ones in B in the last section of the Use of English paper. You should always try to answer such questions in your own words, unless you are specifically instructed to quote from the passage. SEP RL oy A. Work in pairs. Before you listen to the recording, discuss what you already know about the role of the following in film-making: the director the producer the writer the extras _ the cast afinancier a major Hollywood studio a film studio AMERICAN Pramsine, < Steve Abbott =] In the first part of the interview Steve Abbott explains what is involved in producing a film. Tick only what he says that he has been responsible for: having overall responsibility for the film and its budget employing the managing director employing all the people who will work on the film making sure the film is completed raising finance making sure that the terms of the contracts are fulfilled buying the option to make a film from a successful book partly financing the film with his own money employing someone to write the script marketing the completed film CovauEtune oooooo0bo0o0o0 =| In the second part of the interview, Steve talks about his best-known film. Tick the boxes beside the TRUE statements A Fish Called Wanda John Cleese did not want any money to pay for the development of the film, ‘One of the actors was also the director of the film, ‘The four stars were not paid while the film was being prepared By the time MGM saw the script it had been through 10 or 11 drafts. Which of these are given as reasons for the success of the film’ a) Meticulous preparation b) Parts of the film were changed for the American market ©) The film was pre-tested on European audiences 4d) Americans appreciate British humour ©) MGM gave it a lot of publicity f) It got alot of word of mouth publicity g) The stars were well-known box-office attractions h) Good marketing waREne OoOoo0on000 oooo0 D_ [£3] Inthe next part of the interview, Steve talks about two other films he has worked on. Fill each gap with ONE word American Friends 1 By Hollywood standards the film's budget was , by British standards 2 It obviously wasn’t going to be a blockbuster, because it didn’t contain any , or 3. Itwasa film, set in and Justa love story. 4 Its only was Michael Palin, who was best known for his roles, not as a serious actor 5. Hollywood and the film world are not interested in making any 6 It was very to raise the money to make the film: the producers approached everyone for money, apart from the major 7 Inthe end it was made for than £24 million. Blame It On The Bellboy The exteriors were shot in and the in England. The film is now ready, apart from the ee 222 E [© Inthe last part of the recording, Steve talks about the rewards of his work and looks into the future, Note down: © what Steve enjoys — and what he doesn’t enjoy what he wants to do in the future © the reasons why he might decide to stop working in the film industry => Compare your notes with a partner. Then discuss your reactions to the whole interview. CEM Sy In this section you'll be asking each other questions — playing the part of examiner and candidate. A one-to-one examination interview lasts 15-20 minutes, but this practice is likely to take longer. Don’t work with the same partner for every part of this section. A Photographs Work in pairs. One of you should look at Activity 16, the other at 33. You'll each have a picture to describe and discuss. Take it in turns to be the ‘examiner’ and the ‘candidate’. B Passages Work in pairs. One of you should look at Activity 14, the other at 31. You'll each have two short passages to look at. Comment on their source and intention, as well as your reactions to them. You may quote from them, but don’t read them aloud. c Tasks Work in pairs. One of you should look at Activity 15, the other at 21. You'll each have some questions to ask your partner about his or her tastes in entertainment and the arts. Take it in turns to be the ‘examiner’ and the ‘candidate’ ck In the examination interview, candidates are assessed on their: fluency pronunciation of individual sounds grammatical accuracy interactive communication pronunciation of sentences _vacabulary resource ‘kk In the exam, don’t be the passive partner — take the initiative just as you would in a normal conversation. If you're reticent, it may be quite difficult for the examiner to find out how well you speak English. Remember that it’s how you communicate that’s being assessed, not whether your answers are correct, intelligent or sensible — or even true! A cheerful, confident manner is also very helpful in the interview. If you're feeling nervous the examiner will try to put you at your ease by asking you a few things about yourself before you have to speak about the photograph(s). 223 224 AF are used more than once. ill the gaps in these sentences with suitable prepositions ftom the list. Some above at before below beside besides by during for from in into infront of next to on ontop of opposite over ‘to under with 1 There's a free seat me here ~ sit me and keep me company. 2 The temperature the South Pole winter is usually 50 degrees zero. 3. The Mona Lisa, which is the Louvre Paris, was painted well 400 years ago. 4 Would you prefer to go car, the bus or foot? 5 The Odeon is directly the bus station, a few metres the square. If you're approaching it the west, turn the left when you see universi your right 6 ‘Try to arrive time future,’ he said to me a whisper. 7 Icouldn’t see very well because someone a big hat was sitting me the cinema. And I couldn’t hear the soundtrack because some people were talking loud voices the film. 8 painting lovely pictures she’s very good sculpture. 9. Gcomes F the alphabet, and H. 10 He was working the painting five weeks the spring. I1_ Instead of keeping his money the bank he hides it the carpet. He keeps his small change a biscuit tin the wardrobe. 12, When they walked the room hand hand, they saw her sitting an armchair the window a big smile her face. B_ Work in pairs. Look at the pictures opposite and discuss with your partner how the optical illusions are created, using suitable prepositional phrases: an at the top of on the other side of etc. 1d adjectives: horizontal vertical diagonal parallel curved etc. For example ‘The box in the topleft-nand corner Looks three -dimensional, but it isn't really. If you-look abit closely, you'll see that it's composed of one-dimensional lines, not two-dimensional ides. It looks asifit has an open lid. but it's net clear whether the lidis stightty open and pointing towards us, or open a Long way and pointing away from us... Work in pairs. First draw a simple sketch without letting your partner see. Then turn the sketch upside down. Explain to your partner how to draw the same sketch as if it is an abstract drawing, by referring to the positions and shapes of all the parts, not what they represent (i.e. a large oval not a fice, a semi-circle not a smile, etc.) 225 iE Composing music A Before you listen to the interview, discuss these questions: © What kinds of music do you like to listen to? ‘© What pleasure do you get from listening to music? © What kind of person becomes a composer or songwriter? © What kind of person becomes a pop musician? Or a classical musician? B_ [2 Listen to the interview and answer these multiple-choice questions. 1 How did it come about that Vince Cross became a composer? a) Because he is not a particularly good keyboard player b) Because keyboards are important in most modern music ©) Because of his education and training 2. Vince composes pieces of music a) and then tries to sell it to clients b) for clients who want music for children ) when a client commissions him 3. Vince says that he Vince Cross a) is an innovative composer ) is good at copying any style of music c) sometimes uses other composers’ tunes 4 Why does Vince consider himself to be fortunate? a) Because everything is going well at the moment b) Because he makes a good living ©) Because his work is his hobby 5 Unlike an employee, Vince a) doesn’t have to work very hard b) has to rely on getting commissions himself to earn ¢) has to work long, unsocial hours living 6 Asasongwriter, Vince a) depends on well-known singers to inspire him 'b) has no time for writing songs for his own satisfaction c) gets ideas for songs irregularly 7 Vince would like to write a musical one day when he a) can afford to take a break from commissioned work b) has become very rich 6) has plenty of free time 8 The feeling Vince gets from composing music is almost like the feeling . . a) a poet might feel b) a sculptor or carpenter might feel ©) a good teacher might feel 9 Like many musicians, Vince is obsessive because he . a) enjoys his work so much b) has to practise many hours a day ©) isa perfectionist 226 C Work in groups and discuss these questions: © What do you think is the ‘downside’ that Vince mentions of combining his hobby with his job? © What aspects of Vince’s way of life do you envy? Why would you like / not like to lead the same kind of life? ‘¢ How important is it to enjoy your job? How much of a perfectionist are you? © How much attention do you pay to the kind of background music (in films or TV commercials) that Vince composes? What is the purpose of this kind of music? Pe UN en) A. Section A of the Reading Comprehension paper consists of 25 multiple-choice questions. These may focus on vocabulary or grammar, or both Look at these annotated exam-style questions and then do the remaining ones unaided. 1 The review didn’t actually say that it was a terrible film but that was what was by the sarcastic style A implicated B implied YC inferred D hinted + at ina crime ‘the reader infers 2. She's avery writer ~ she publishes three books a year A fertile B fruitful € copious D prolific 7 imagination .,.collaboration ...notes COLLOCATION 3 you wish to see the play, tickets can be obtained at the box office. A ShouldY B Did C Were D Had + past inaquestion ...youintending GRAMMAR 4 Professional musicians are not to enter for the music competition. A enabled B capable C permissible D eligible / =giventhe of —ing ‘permitted’ opportunity would be OK 5. The building of the new theatre is gaining the support of local people A thanks to B responsible for dependent on D reliant on ‘was built doesn't really not very good, but *.. the support’ thanks to the make sense the ‘least bad’ answer would be OK support would be OK 6 Tilenter the competition if you A would B should C will D shall 7. He was so convincing that we were completely taken by his lies. A along Bin C about D down 8 Before the performance the actors spent many hours A repeating B rehearsing C practising D training 9. The art gallery couldn’t survive without a from the government. A subsidiary B subsidy C subsidence D subscription 10. The performance will begin at 7.30 unless indicated on your ticket. A further B differently C below D otherwise 227 tok In the exam it’s a good idea to put a pencil mark beside the questions you can’t answer and come back to them later. It's usually best to eliminate the answers you know to be wrong first, then if you're still unsure you may have to guess. It’s better to make a wild guess than not to answer at all. 228 Question 4 in the Use of English paper also tests both vocabulary and grammar. Look at the annotated answers to the first questions and then do the rest unaided For each sentence, write a new sentence as similar as possible in meaning to the original sentence, using the word given. The word must not be altered in any way. 1 Asit was raining the only thing we could do was go to the art gallery. alternative As it was raining our only alternative was to go to the art gallery. — meaning changed As it was raining there was no alternative but to go to the art gallery. — ‘we’ omitted We had no alternative but to go to the art gallery. — ‘rain’ omitted There were no alternatives to going to the art gallery as it was reining. —word changed As it was raining we had no alternative but to go to the art gallery. H In the rain we had no alternative but to go to the art gallery. / 2. remember very few things about the film. scarcely 1 (can) scarcely remember a thing about the film. —brackets not advisable 1 can scarcely remember the film. — meaning changed 1 can scarcely remember anything about the film. / 1 scarcely remember anything about the film. 1 can scarcely remember a thing about the film. / 3 A silent movie can’t be compared to a modern film. comparison 1 can’t make a comparison between a silent movie and « modern one. — ‘I added It’s difficult to make a comparison between « modern film and « silent movie. — meaning changed Comparisons between a silent movie and « modern one are difficult to make. —word altered There’s no comparison between a silent movie and a modern film. / 4 Not many people are expected to attend the show. poorly 5. You can’t possibly expect me to pay for the tickets. question 6 Before he made American Friends, Steve Abbott produced 4 Fish Called Wanda previous 7. It was stupid of her to turn down the offer of free tickets for the opera. fool 8 never thought of taking up painting as a hobby. occurred 4k In questions like the ones opposite there are often several possible ways of rewriting the sentences. Make sure you have included all the information and not changed any of it. Questions of this kind often rely on collocations and common phrases - you should look out for these in your reading WTOC) A. This passage describes Pablo Picasso’s Guernica, which was painted after the bombing of a Basque town during the Spanish Civil War. The painting itself is nearly eight metres across, but the reproduction below gives an idea of what it looks like and will help you to follow the description in the first two paragraphs. = Before you read it, discuss your reactions to the picture with a partner. | Guernica is the most powerful invective against violence in modem art, | but it was not wholly inspired by the war: its motifs ~ the weeping woman, the horse, the bull - had been running through Picasso’s work for years before Guernica brought them together. In the painting they become receptacles for extreme sensation - as John Berger has | 5 remarked, Picasso could imagine more suffering in a horse’s head than Rubens normally put into a whole Crucifixion. The spike tongues, the rolling eyes, the frantic splayed toes and fingers, the necks arched in spasm: these would be unendurable if their tension were not braced against the broken, but visible, order of the painting . . ‘0 it is a general meditation on suffering, and its symbols are archaic, not historical: the gored and speared horse (the Spanish Republic), the 229 230 bull (Franco) louring over the bereaved, shrieking woman, the paraphernalia of pre-modernist images like the broken sword, the surviving flower, and the dove. Apart from the late Cubist style, the only specifically modern elements in Guernica are the eye of the electric light, and the suggestion that the horse’s body is made of parallel lines of newsprint like the newspaper in Picasso’s collages a quarter of a century before. Otherwise its heroic abstraction and monumentalized pain hardly seem to belong to the time of photography and bombers. Yet they do: and Picasso’s most effective way of locating them in that time was to paint Guernica entirely in black, white, and grey, so that despite its huge size it retains something of the grainy, ephemeral look one associates with the front page of a newspaper B GB Highlight these words in the description above and explain their meanings: invective (line 1) motifs (line 2) receptacles (line 5) archaic (line 11) bereaved (line 13) paraphernalia (line 14) ephemeral (line 23) C Now read the continuation of the passage and write your answers to the questions that follow, using your own words as far as possible. Guernica was the last great history-painting. It was also the lest modern painting of major importance that took its subject from politics with the intention of changing the way large numbers of people thought and felt about power. Since 1937, there have been a few admirable works of art that contained political references — some of Joseph Beuys’s work or Robert Motherwell’s Elegies to the Spanish Republic. But the idea that an artist, by making painting or sculpture, could insert images into the stream of public speech and thus change political discourse has gone, probably for good, along with the nineteenth-century ideal of the artist as public man, Mass media took away the political speech of art. When Picasso painted Guernica, regular TV broadcasting had been in existence for only a year in England and nobody in France, except a few electronics experts, had seen a television set. There were perhaps fifteen thousand such sets in New York City. Television was too crude, too novel, to be altogether credible. The day when most people in the capitalist world would base their understanding of politics on what the TV screen gave them was still almost a generation away. But by the end of World War Il, the role of the ‘war artist’ had been rendered negligible by war photography. What did you believe, a drawing of an emaciated corpse in a pit that looked like bad, late German Expressionism, or the incontrovertible photographs from Belsen, Maidenek, and Auschwitz? It seems obvious, looking back, that the artists of Weimar Germany and Leninist Russia lived in a much more attenuated landscape of media than ours, and their reward was that they could still believe, in good 8 2 & faith and without bombast, that art could morally influence the world. Today, the idea has largely been dismissed, as it must be in a mass | media society where art’s principal social role is to be investment capital, or, in the simplest way, bullion. We still have political art, but we have no effective political art. An artist must be famous to be heard, but as he acquires fame, so his work accumulates ‘value’ and becomes, ipso facto, harmless. As far as today’s politics is concerned, most art | aspires to the condition of Muzak, It provides the background hum for power. If the Third Reich had lasted until now, the young bloods of the Inner Party would not be interested in old fogeys like Albert Speer or Amo Breker, Hitler’s monumental sculptor; they would be queuing up to have their portraits silkscreened by Andy Warhol. It is hard to think |e of any work of art of which one can say, This saved the life of one Jew, one Vietnamese, one Cambodian. Specific books perhaps; but as far as one can tell, no paintings or sculptures. The difference between us and the artists of the 1920s is that they thought such a work of art could be made. Perhaps it was a certain naiveté that made them think so. But it is | certainly our loss that we cannot. (from The Shock of the New by Robert Hughes) 1 Before 1937, when Guernica was painted, how did artists believe that they could make political statements? 2. How do people in the West nowadays form their political opinions, according to the writer? 3. Why did it become meaningless to paint scenes of war during World War I? 4 What is the function of art in the modern capitalist world? 5. What is the role of art in politics nowadays? In one paragraph, using your own words as far as possible, summarise the changing role of art in Western society between the 1920s and the present day (about 60 words). First make notes and compare them with a partner. Work in groups and discuss these questions: © To what extent do you agree with the writer’s views? © What do you think is the purpose of a work of art? ‘© What influence could a painting, or any other work of art, have on your own feelings and attitudes? © Does critic like Robert Hughes perform a useful function in explaining works of art as well as evaluating and interpreting them? © Does the same hold good for a film critic, a music critic, a TV critic or a sports writer? 231 "> Discuss these exam tips with a partner. Which of them might work for you? Are there any other tips you can add? tok 1. Section B (Question 5) of the Use of English paper is worth 40 to 45% of the marks for the whole paper. Aim to spend about 40 minutes on it and don’t spend too Jong on it at the expense of the other questions. 2 Do the easier questions in Section B first and come back to the harder ones later. 3 Use a highlighter or a pencil to help you to see all the vocabulary in context in the passage. 4. Make notes before you put pen to paper - space is limited and there may not be enough room for extensive corrections later. 5 You might prefer to do Section B before the other questions, when you feel fresher, rather than later when you're more tired — or make your notes for the answers earlier and then write them out later, when you've had time to mull them over. 6 If time is running out, give some answers in note form and don’t leave any blank spaces. 7 Your answers have to be ‘coherent and relevant’ so check for any irrelevancies in your answers, especially in the summary. 8 Inthe summary, try to rephrase some of the information in your own words, but don’t waste too much time trying to think of a synonym for every word just avoid direct quotation as far as possible! 232 US UCU CLe Replace the conjunctions in these sentences with the words given. 1 Idon’t know much about art but I know what I like. Despite 2. Not only does she paint in oils, but she also paints watercolours Besides 3. You won't get seats for the show if you don’t go to the box office to Unless 4 The performance was cancelled because the tenor and soprano were both ill Due to 5 like all kinds of music but I don’t like jazz. Except for 6 He was missing his wife and he was missing his children too, As well as 7 You didn’t enjoy the film, and neither did I Like 8 The soloist gave a wonderful performance, otherwise I wouldn’t have enjoyed the concert But for B Fill each of the gaps in this passage with a suitable word or phrase from the list below (some are used more than once). Critics should never imagine that they are powerful, ...1.... it would be culpable of them not to realise that they are bound to be influential. There is no reason, .....2....., to be crushed flat by the | responsibility of the job. Itis,.. 3... , a wonderfully enjoyable one, 4... at its most onerous. The onerousne: 5... , springs more from the fatigue of trying to respond intelligently than from the | necessary curtailment of one’s night-life. Television critics soon get used to being asked about how they can bear the loss of all those dinner parties. Don’t they pine for intelligent conversation? The real answers to such questions are usually too rude to give, .oou8..... the interrogator is a friend. Formal dinner parties are an overrated pastime, barely serving their function of introducing people to one another, ...7..... nearly always devoid of the intelligent conversation they are supposed to promote. Most people severely overestimate their powers as conversationalists, ... 8..... even the few genuinely gifted chatterers tend not to flourish when surrounded by bad listeners, The talk on the lite screen is nearly always better than the talk around a dinner table. For my own part, I hear all the good conversation I need... §.... lunching with drunken literary acquaintances in scruffy restaurants. In London, the early afternoon is the time for wit. At night, it chokes in its collar. What I miss in the evenings is not dinner parties but the opera house. ...19.... ] finally give up reporting the tube, it will probably be ...11.... the lure of the opera house has become too strong to resist, .... 12... sitting down to be bored while cating is an activity I would willingly go on forgoing. The box is much more entertaining a fact which even the most dedicated diners-out occasionally admit, ....13.... from time to time it becomes accepted in polite society that dinner may be interrupted in order to watch certain programmes. It was recognised, ...!4...., that The Glittering Prizes* might justify a collective rush from the dinner table to the television set, 15... I confess that ....16... my own inclination was to rush from the television set to the dinner table. Clive James after all although and because But but even for example however inthis one case inctdentally since unless When when while * The Glittering Prizes: a TV serial about university life 233 C Look at these phrases that are used when making generalisations: asarule broadly speaking everyone would agree that generally speaking in many cases in most cases in some cases it is often said that it is recognised that it is sometimes said that many people believe on the whole some people believe toa certain extent to some extent and giving exceptions: apart from but but all the same but every so often but now and then but in other cases but in this one case but there are exceptions to every rule except for however on the other hand Fill the gaps and write a continuation for each of these sentences using the phrases above. ‘Some people say that, modern art is overrated and I do agree, but artists lead a good life: their hobby is their profession, but Hollywood movies are ephemeral, you see one you can’t forget. watching television is rather a waste of time, politicians are honourable, dedicated people, . reading is a wonderful source of pleasure, people work because they have to, not because they want to, Tenjoy all kinds of music, eI Aue “For heaven's sake, Harry! Can't you just relax and enjoy art, music, religion, literature, drama and history, without trying 10 tie it all together?” 234 Styles A. Look again at the passages in 14.4, 15.1, 15.7 and 15.8B. Which of these phrases best describes the style of each passage? learned, very formal erudite, witty, flamboyant neutral, straightforward informal, journalistic very long paragraphs long paragraphs short paragraphs medium length paragraphs long, complex sentences Jong and short sentences short and medium length sentences _ short sentences "> Look at two of your own recent compositions: which of the phrases above best describes their style? B Decide which of the passages uses the kind of easy-to-read style you could emulate under exam conditions. Read that passage again and highlight at least five phrases or structures which you could use in your own compositions Compare what you have highlighted with a partner, = Discuss this exam advice for Paper 2 with a partner, ‘© Which tips might not work for you? ¢ Can you add any other guidelines to this list? 4k 1 Follow the instructions exactly. If the instructions say ‘Write a letter to a friend’, for example, your work must look like a personal letter and Nor like a business letter! This may sound obvious but it’s easy to overlook important instructions when you're in a hurry. 2 If in doubt, use a straightforward neutral style — generally this is preferable to an extremely informal or extremely formal style. 3 Make sure you understand the instructions for each question. If you don’t fully understand a particular question, it’s best not to answer it. Answers that ‘wantonly misinterpret the question’ are penalised. 4. Decide which of the questions are the easiest for you to answer ~ maybe cross out the ones you don’t want to do and then choose between the ones that remain. 5 If you enjoy writing stories, choose the narrative question - in a story you can decide what is relevant. 6 Make notes for both questions. If at this stage you find you haven't got enough ideas on one of them, there may be time to choose another one. 7 Check if any particular grammatical structures seem to be needed for the subject: conditionals, modal verbs, past/present perfect, etc. 8 Allow enough time at the end for editing your work and checking it through for spelling mistakes, grammatical errors and slips of the pen. 235 15.10 Writing a narrative fo ok The narrative-writing question in the exam often tells you how you must begin or how you must end your story - you have to supply the rest. It may be difficult to restrict your ideas to a mere 350 words. Most narratives include dialogue: make sure your punctuation is correct. A Work in pairs and discuss these questions: What are the qualities of a “good short story”? © Which of these opening sentences look promising for the kind of 350-word story you could write under exam conditions? And which don’t look promising? 1” fune a faa -qor- that 4 what goo are /" tatot guistin, ows owe yor Bat 2 Rachel left the Lose ancl set Off down the Cad, pacsuigadtie Cones 10 take @ last Icon. Theu, afiera womerct, she smiled to herseif, auc set off for te station 3 She Plt depremed as she dyt te rouse on Te way t We stalin . She 4 New aya Wold he Jee Vey ddd) gnnting , CAG fates Newor Agar weld OVE hear theiv laughing voiees. Never. 5 She Kae She Would miss then all, bub after alt this hme, she Kawa it was the end. The tnd? No, puhaps a nu beginning. A new beginning and a ned stat in life. Yer, that Wao whak it was And. ... 6 The wate dvom Rachels home we Ge Station hovmatly beow her Enonty murutes, but: Chak day iv evo Longer. SKE. 7 “There weve ston clouds ua the sky and Ub war just stowtung to vain who Rachel - 8 This Son is abort what hipeeres qe Kachel on tre cy she |e Pr home. ard family. Le... "} Write the next two lines that might follow the best five of these openings. 236 Work in groups of three. Student A should look at Activity 18, student B and C at 42. You'll each have a different part of a story to tell. Decide together what the first sentence and the last sentences in your story are going to be, and write them down. at3 Write your version of the story in Activities 18, 35 and 42 (about 350 words), using the opening and closing sentences you agreed on earlier. What are the examiners looking for in Paper 2? 1 The quality of your composition and how well you have fulfilled the task set: the relevance and organisation of your composition as a whole, as well as the quality of the individual paragraphs. 2 The quality of the language you use: the range and appropriateness of vocabulary and sentence structure; the correctness of grammar, punctuation and spelling. 3. Your ability to display a breadth of experience or background knowledge, and your use of illustration and allusion. 4 A'balance between accuracy and imagination’ in each composition: the examiners try to give equitable treatment to compositions which are ‘pedestrian but accurate’ and those which are less accurate but ‘lively and imaginative’. 5 The five questions provide five different tasks: each demands different responses and techniques. 237 16 Mind and body Eu) i a Rock your way toa firmer stomach with Abdomenisert Abdomeniser is the safer. more effective alternative to conventional sit-ups. It will give you a firmer tummy in weeks! Developed by a Canadian chiropracter, Abdomeniser's unique contoured shape and rocking action is designed to cushion your spine, and help you achieve the perfect pelvic tilt that isolates abdominal muscles without putting sirain on your lower back. Three different hand positions let you work oa different | | This English made Back Chair stomach muscle groups. Save £4.95 when you can actually help you sit more buy two. comfortably, siice the position Back Chair Abdomentser £14.95 SP797 you adopt is surprisingly ‘Abdomentser (Pair) £24.95 SP738 comfortable, with all parts of sour body in perfect balance. mL Because you sit with a straight spine (see diagram). your ‘muscles are in a comfortable position, relieving Pressure on your lower back and preventing you from | Slouching. Fully upholstered with fire retardant foam. this Quality chair is constructed in sturdy tubular steel with an) adjustable height: and has castors for easy manoeuvrability Flat packed for home assembly. Available in Black (illustrated, or White. Adjustable Back Chair (Btack) £49.95 SC270D, Ae ‘Back Crate (White) £49.95 SC385B, A Work in groups and discuss these questions: @ What do you think of the products shown above? What are their pros and cons? How do you stay healthy and fit? What kind of exercise do you take? Are you careful about your diet? What special precautions do you take against falling ill? B_ Choose the three best answers to fill the gap in each sentence. 1 [fhe still feels ill after taking this treatment, he should see a consultant GP midwife quack — specialist 2. He will have to go on a diet because he is getting buxom dense flabby plump robust stout 3. She needs to put on some weight after her illness because she is too fragile lean light skinny slender slim thin 238 10 a 12 13 4 15 Many illnesses today are related to grief sadness stress suffering tension worry What treatment should be given to someone who has fainted lost consciousness passed away passed out passed through Pm a bit worried about the I’ve been having in my back. ache agony pain suffering twinges wound Illness can be stopped before it happens by means of after care healthy living preventive medicine therapy vaccines The nurse made her take to help her sleep better. alotion anointment a pain-killer a sedative a tranquilliser Take two of these three times a day after meals. capsules drugs pills placebos sweets tablets Everyone hoped that he would after the operation. get better getup get well pullout pullover pull through You really must see a doctor about that blister inflammation pimple rash scratch swelling Keep away from other people if you have a disease that is antiseptic catching catchy contagious infectious Once a year it’s a good idea to go to the doctor for acheck-up an examination a medical an operation a post-mortem She had to go to hospital when she broke up fractured her wrist hada break pulled a muscle sprained her ankle Medical experts take the claims of medicine more seriously nowadays alternative complementary conventional fringe mainstream orthodox In these sentences, only one of the four alternatives given is correct. Choose the correct alternative. 1 2 10 > An illness that is caused by the mind is known as a illness, pschyosamatic pschyosomatic psychosamatic psychosomatic Before che operation the patient was given a general anaesthetic anasthetic anesthaetic anisthetic ‘The doctors examined the patient and came to the conclusion that he was aloony off his rocker silly unbalanced Hayfever is a very common type of allergy antagonism symptom therapy Realising that she was probably pregnant she consulted a gynaecologist osteopath pathologist pediatrician We realised he must be ill when he threw down threw in threw out threw up Malaria is by the female anopheles mosquito broadcast sent transmitted transported ‘Smallpox, once responsible for millions of deaths, has been completely abolished erased eradicated exterminated ‘The consultant operated on the patient when she complained of pains in her insides paunch stomach tummy He has a morbid fear of going outside his home, known to doctors as agoraphobia arachnophobia claustrophobia xenophobia Justify your answers for Band C to a partner, explaining if necessary why you rejected certain alternatives. 239 240 Cra A 0 2 2% ks of the trade Read the passage and answer the multiple-choice questions on the next page. Simple secrets and tricks of the trade j h BODY AND SOUL MY thoughts these days are often with those BMA® persons who've been chosen to investigate the claims of Alternative Medicine. Almost as often they are with the persons whose alternative practices are being examined. What happens if their treat- ments win the BMA seal of approval? With the loss of their claim to be Alternative will they lose their attraction for icono- clastic devotees? ‘And will the BMA examine some of the practices still indulged in in the name of orthodox medicine? It’s not only alternative medicine that attracts venal practitioners prepared to exploit our natural gullibility to make themselves rich. I suppose it's too late for the BMA to duck out and pass these questions to the new professor of para-psychology in Edinburgh. But it might not be too late to ensure the investigative team includes not just scientists but professional magicians, History suggests they are more effective detectors of fraud than professional scientists. Gullible scientists told us that Uri Geller had — strange psychokinetic powers that could change the physical properties of metal (which he turned to such socially useful purposes as bending teaspoons). Less gullible magicians revealed him as one of their own. Anyone who, as a child, possessed a Junior Conjuror’s Set will have learned two simple lessons about magic. Audiences long to be deceived and are invariably disappointed when they are told how the trick is done. ‘The Magic Circle adjures its members not to reveal their secrets not just because there is a limited number of “magical” devices but because, when the secret of a trick is revealed, it nearly always disappoints. ‘The great magicians are those who, using this mundane trick- ery beneath a camouflage of showmanship and misdirection, ean convirice an audience it has witnessed something that defies rational understanding. Conjurors’ instruction leaflets first descripe The Effect which is what the audience thinks it sees happening. Under The Method they describe what actually does happen - a bit of bare-faced deception from which the audience's attention is diverted, often by exploitation of its longing to be deceived. When scientists examine phenomena that are beyond our compre- hension they tend to concentrate on The Effect, analysing it, dissecting it, hypothesising about it A professional magician, out of * BMA = British Medical Association — the doctors’ professional union “ & 0 fee 0 105 110 1. habit, goes straight for possible ‘Methods and is unimpressed by anecdotal evidence of Effect. Magicians are also better than scientists at persuading audi- ences that deception has taken place. ‘They can reproduce the same Effects as fraudulent operators by using the simple devices of their trade and announce not how the trick was done - which would merely disappoint - but that it was no more magical than the other illusions in their stage acts. Audiences find these demon- strations more convincing than intellectual arguments. Harry Houdini used them to expose fraudulent “mediums” in the days when seances were more fashionable than they are now. The Amazing Randi still uses them to challenge tricksters more likely to be found on television chat shows than in back rooms in Brooklyn. A few years ago I learned just how effective the magician’s method of exposure can be. In the days when “psycho- kinetic metal bending” colonised much time on television and much space in scientific journals, I persuaded one of Britain’s best science writers to re-examine his new-found belief in this form of “psychokinesis”. And I persuaded him not by intellectual argument but by performing a mundane card trick that I learned when I was a member of the Magic Circle. The trick had nothing to do with metal bending or psycho- kinesis and he still doesn’t know how I did it, but the fact that such “magic” could be performed by an ignorant oaf like me re- established the sense of scepti cism he had temporarily mislaid. And scepticism is essential when evaluating treatment. Most people who seek cures are not interested in arguments about schools of thought and logic. They are interested in results. And the most impressive way to present results is in the form of testimonials from satisfied customers. ‘Yet anyone who's done any sort of service job knows just how easy it is to acquire flattering testimonials. When I was a GP, I had drawersful of grateful letters from patients who had survived my ministrations thanks more to their luck than my judgment. And anyone who treats patients can earn similar tributes thanks to the body’s vigorous powers of self-healing. ; In conjuror’s terms testi- monials relate only to The Effect. ‘That's why I hope the BMA will get some magical advice when considering The Method. Michael O'Donnell 135 145 1 The writer wonders whether Alternative Medicine practitioners who are approved by the British Medical Association will a) attract more patients as a result. b) attract fewer patients as a result. ) attract patients from orthodox medicine. d) stop attracting patients altogether. 2. He suggests that some orthodox doctors a) are successful in curing their patients. b) are honest with their patients. ©) deceive their patients. d) cannot cure their patients. 3. He suggests recruiting magicians to the BMA investigative team because they a) are less easily deceived than doctors. b) are more scientific than doctors. c) understand alternative medicine beiter than doctors. d) have been around longer than doctors. 241 242 10 i Magicians’ audiences. a) like to discover magicians’ secrets. _c) do not like to be deceived, b) cannot be easily deceived. d) like to be deceived. Scientists tend to behave in the same way as a) magicians. ) magicians’ audiences. b) doctors. d) each other. A real magician is interested in finding out about . . a) the Effect. c) the Method. b) both the Effect and the Method. d) neither the Effect nor the Method. Audiences will usually believe . a) a magician’s explanation. ©) a magician’s demonstration b) a rational explanation. d) a scientific explanation. In deciding whether medical treatment works one must be a) inexperienced. ©) gullible. b) incredible. @) mistrustful. A patient is more likely to believe that practitioners can cure them if they have a) a good bedside manner. ©) comfortable consulting rooms. b) letters from cured patients. d) framed diplomas. The writer’s own patients recovered, he suggests, because . a) he cured them. c) they trusted him, b) they were not really ill, d) their own bodies cured them. ‘The writer himself was once a. . a) practitioner of alternative medicine. c) magician. b) scientist. 4) scientific writer Work in groups and discuss these questions: Do you agree with the writer’s views? Do you usually consult a doctor if you're unwell, or do you let your body cure itself? Have you ever used (or do you know someone who has used) alternative medicine: acupuncture, chiropractic, osteopathy, herbalism, homeopathy*, faith healing, hypnotherapy, ete,? What was your/their experience? * You can find out more about homeopathy by listening to the interview in 16.4 “L know what you have but Tt be darned if I can remember the name of it.” UR eee A Work in pairs. Discuss any differences in meaning or style between these sentences: 1 The person to whom I spoke on the phone said you were in a meeting. The person I spoke to on the phone said you were in a meeting. 2. The doctor I spoke to yesterday told me not to worry. he doctor, whom I spoke to yesterday, told me not to worry. he doctor, who I spoke to yesterday, told me not to worry, The doctor to whom I spoke yesterday told me not to worry. 3. She told us about the treatment, which made her feel better. She told us about the treatment that made her feel better. hey operated on the first patient who was seriously ill. ‘They operated on the first patient, who was seriously ill B Fill the gaps with who, whose, which or that. Add commas where necessary ‘The Californians have come up with a device for people have their own small swimming pool should transform their lives as much as those indoor exercise bikes were so popular in the 1970s did Swimming is recognised to be one of the best ways of keeping fit is impractical in pools are too small for serious swimming. But the Hydrofler is a new device can keep swimmers in the same spot and still allow them to do all the strokes. It consists of a plastic bar is attached to the side of the pool by two lines and to the swimmer by a waist belt. The swimmer legs are protected from the lines by the bar remains stationary while swimming. It sounds like an activity is only suitable for people desire to keep in shape helps them to ignore the taunts of neighbours happen to spot them in the pool. C Complete each sentence with suitable words — and add commas wherever they are needed 1 She's the only person I know ten kilometres a day before breakfast 2. I swam twenty lengths me a long time. 3. He has two sisters both doctors. The younger of the two Jane qualified last year, He also has two brothers neither know anything about medicine. 4 One of the children must have swallowed the pills left in the bathroom. 5 all people say about hospitals are true 6 She loves talking about her operation us all feel ill 7 The matron is the is in overall charge of the nursing staff 8 Taking a degree in medicine longer than most other university courses is the only method ‘one can become a doctor. 243 16.4 Homeopathy sci) Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843) isten to the report on the history and application of homeopathy and answer these multiple-choice questions about it 1 Homeopathy was discovered by Samuel Hahnemann . . a) early inthe 19th century.) late in the 18th century b) in the mid-19th century d) early in the 20th century 2. The ‘provers’ that Hahnemann used were . a) animals b) drugs c) people he knew d) his patients 3. The purpose of ‘proving’ was to a) test his technique of dosage b) see the effects of taking different substances on people ©) get doctors to accept his theories. d) cure his patients. 4 Homeopathy depends on . a) giving patients small doses of poison. b) patients believing in the treatment. ©) patients getting worse before they get better. d) the similarities between symptoms and the effects of various substances. 5 Inthe ‘single blind” procedure patients . .. a) are blindfolded. b) are not given any medicine ©) don’t know if they have been given the medicine. d) and experimenters don’t know who has been given the medicine. 6. The effectiveness of a homeopathic remedy a) decreases if its strength is reduced b) does not change if its strength is reduced ) fluctuates if its strength is reduced. d) increases if its strength is reduced. 7 Ibis remarkable that even a) dangerous substances can be used in homeopathy b) ineffective substances can be used in homeopathy ©) insoluble substances can be used in homeopathy d) unknown substances can be used in homeopathy. 8 Homeopathic treatment can be used a) only by qualified doctors. ) only by patients themselves. c) by anyone with a basic knowledge of homeopathy 4) only by doctors or specialists 244 9. A homeopathic remedy must be suited to a) the patient’s personality. c) the patient’s illness. b) the patient as well as the illness. d) the patient’s medical history. 10 A homeopathic remedy is a) not as safe as aspirin ) safer than aspi b) more effective than aspirin. d) just as safe as aspirin. 1] Match the following homeopathic remedies to the conditions they treat. (Some of the conditions are not mentioned.) ACONITE SEPIA SAND GOLD PETROLEUM TORACCO compulsive eating travel sickness migraine a cold fear of failure depression lack of confidence learning difficulties pregnancy flu => Compare answers with a partner. Then discuss your reactions to the report. ak In the exam you'll normally hear each recording twice, with some seconds of silence before each playing for you to read the questions through and check your answers. Answer all the easy questions during the first listening and make a pencil mark beside the ones you can’t get, and listen carefully for them during the second jening. Don’t leave any blanks ~ make a guess if you really don’t know an answer. Beware of distractingly plausible answers and don’t rely on what you already know. Concentrate on what the speakers actually say, not what you'd say if you were talking about the same topic. “In my opinion, what lies at the root of all your problems is that you inhabit a fantasy world.” 245 246 US) TESS A Read the passage and answer the questions in writing. B Look at these annotated answers and then do the rest un: Fee floating STRESSED executives used to unwind with a few cigarettes and a pint of lager No longer. Fear of the two big Cs cancer and corpulence ~ has encouraged them to take to more exotic therapies The big hit of the moment is floating about in tanks of salt water. Today only slobs smoke and slurp; sensible people float and free-associate The idea behind floating is simple deprive the body of physical sensations and you free the mind for medication. The fad started 20 years ago in California. While he was investigating the side-effects of sensory-deprivation, a neuro-physiologist called John Lilley had the bright idea of immersing his assistants in tanks of salt water. They emerged euphoric, jabbering about inner peace and mystical visions. A Ken Russell film, “Altered Staces”, helped turn a scientific curiosity into a national fad. The first British tank was set up six years ago in a seedy bit of south London. There are now more than 40 of them open to the public and almost as many private ones ~ a tank can be yours for just £2,000 ($3,400). They have even found ‘their way into night clubs. Seasoned floaters report a recent surge in interest. “Neighbours”, a television soap-opera, has featured it; Jason Donovan, a pop star, has discovered it; even the medical profession has put in a good word for it. Floating is certainly a weird sensation. The tank is a light-proof and sound-proof closed shell about the size of a small sauna. You lie (alone) in the darkness, with your head resting on a floating pillow and your body suspended in ten inches of warm water, salted about as heavily as the Dead Sea. For the first few minutes you listen to a tape of warbling flutes and twittering birds. Then everything falis silent. At first, you concentrate on the physical sensation of floating. Next, you start to worry about unpaid bills and unfinished jobs. Finally, you drift off into a meditative limbo - the middle-zone, the cognoscenti call it Snatches of music and exotic images - some of them startlingly vivid - drift in and out of your mind. Floaters usually lose track of time, unaware of whether they have been in the tank for five minutes or five hours. Not so the proprietors: after your alloted hour, a tape of bellowing whales and crashing waves summons you out of your reverie. Even in the new age, time is money, Floating leaves you feeling spaced- out without the physical side-effects of chemicals or the mental tedium of meditation. But beware the lure of salt water. The contrast between the womb- like security of the tank and the bustle of the street sends the pulse racing and the senses reeling- and undoes the benefits of an hour in less than ten minutes. Frequent floaters go to ever greater lengths to attain nirvana: some float for up to eight hours a day. And none of this comes cheap: an hour in the tank will set you back £20. ETUC 6 8 6 70 % (from The Economist) led. 1 What does the writer mean by ‘unwind’ (line 1)? not wind — this looks Bke a guess and it certainly doesn't show any understanding remove thread from a reel — not the meaning in this context relax take time to recover from the stresses and strains of daily life — fine, but a one-word answer may not convey the meaning adequately - fine What does the writer mean by ‘corpulence’ (line 4)? 4 disease affecting executives — it's not a disease (this looks like a guess) the condition of being overweight — fine, not too long or short being plump or chubby —OK, but these words seem rather too informal fat —not bad, but ‘fatness’ might be better What does the writer mean by ‘fad’ (line 13)? fashion — OK, not bad craze — fine, thisis exactly tight desire to take part in this form of relaxation or therapy looks ike a guess, but better to bluff ike this than not anewer the question at all! crazy idea —thisis wrong and looks like a guess too What does the writer mean by ‘euphoric’ (line 19)? feeling extremely happy — fine: good, straightforward answer ‘exhilarated — good ancwer, but it depends on knowing this word glad — too weak, doesn’t convey the meaning adequately ‘full of euphoria — this may be true, butt doesn't show any understanding EQ) Now highlight these words in the passage and explain what they mean, in the context of the passage: seedy (line 25) seasoned (ine 31) surge (line 31) _ snatches (line 54) vivid (line 55) chemicals (line 67) tedium (line 67) bustle (line 70) C Look at these annotated answers and then write your answers to the remaining questions unaided: How, according to the writer, did stressed executives ‘unwind? before ‘floating’? They used to unwind with a few cigarettes and a pint of lager. —a direct quotation from the passage They smoked and slurped. another direct quote They found that smoking and drinking helped them to relax. —good answer They relaxed drinking and smoking. — fine: good idea to reverse the sequence What is the principle underlying floating? Deprive the body of physical sensations and you free the mind for medication. ~ don’t quote verbatim from the passage, and if you do, don't misquote! If the body can’t feel anything, the mind can do nothing but meditate. — OK When your body is deprived of feelings, your mind can be freed to meditate. ~ changing the structures is good, but the vocabulary hasn't been changed If you take away the body’s sensations, the mind can meditate without restraint. — fine: there aren't really any suitable synonyms for ‘sensations’ and ‘meditate’ What does a tank look like: How do the owners of tanks help to put their clients in the right mood? What happens to people once they have been floating for some time? How do floaters know it’s time to stop meditating and ‘wake up’? What are said to be the disadvantages of taking drugs and meditation? Why might floaters feel worse after a session in the tank? nv wee D_Summarise the history of floating. (about 80 words) 247 ASS eT ue 248 A. When telling a story or describing your experiences, the use of illustration and allusion can help to make your writing more vivid, especially if you can give personal examples or make interesting comparisons. Work in pairs. Look at these examples and decide which of the alternative endings sounds more vivid 1 The weather was so hot that . .. arriver of sweat was pouring off him. «he was sweating like a pig. he felt very uncomfortable. 2. They were so unfriendly that. I wished I had stayed at home. - I regretted having left home. 1 felt unwanted and unwelcome, as if I was an outsider. 3. The lecture was so dull that we found it hard to concentrate. we could hardly keep our eyes open. we all started to nod off. 4 Lwas so looking forward to the holidays that... I couldn’t keep my mind on my work. I was very excited, .. Lcouldn’t sit still, 5 ‘There was such a lot of rain that . . .. we were soon soaked to the skin. we soon looked like drowned rats. we got extremely wet 6 She was so beautiful that he kept on looking at her. he couldn’t keep his eyes off her. his heart skipped a beat every time he looked at her. B_ Work in pairs. Decide how to fill the gaps in this story about ‘A visit to the doctor’. When you've finished, compare your ideas with another pair. I woke up feeling as if my head was throbbing and my joints mere aching so much that . And I felt so dizay that : I called the doctor to make an appointment. Over the phone the receptionist spoke to me as if but when I walked in she smiled at me as if I found a seat in the corner of the waiting room, which looked like . Sitting there waiting for my turn among the other patients reminded me of Looking round, my eyes came to rest on a young man smoking a cigarette, who looked as if He had such a bad cough that it sounded as if With him was a little girl who looked so unhealthy that By the time my name was called I was feeling rather better — it seemed as if . I stepped into the doctor’s room “hat seems to be the trouble? asked the doctor in a such a voice that I I described my symptoms to her, feeling a bit like . “You've just got the flu,” she said. “Go home, go to bed and don’t waste my time.” I felt so foolish that Look at two or three of your own recent compositions. How many times have you used phrases like the ones illustrated in A? Can you find any places where you could have used such phrases ~ or are they better without such phrases? In these idiomatic expressions, match the words in the two columns: drink too much alcohol — He drinks like . wildfire drive fast ~ She drove like... cat and dog havea row —‘They fought like... asieve forgetful — [have a memory like .. afish run fast — She ran like a fish sleep well —Islept like... a house on fire extravagant — He spends money like the wind swim well ~ She swims like the wind be good friends — We got on like alog very quickly -'The news spread like .. water Ilustration and allusion are less common in formal writing, such as essays, reports and formal letters. Overuse may scem strange ~ as in the story in B. Synonyms Cee Tucis You'll hear the same words spoken in different ways — pay attention to the underlying meaning conveyed by each speaker's tone of voice: Ah, there you are. |was wondering where you'd got to. Luckily ‘had some work to get on with so] wasn't bored. Anyway, evert ifthe film has started by the time we get there, | don't think iLL matter, do you? Decide which word from the list below best describes each speaker's tone: 5 6 7 8 amused bored cross friendly furious. kind sad _unemotional = Listen to the recording again and note down at least one other adjective (or phrase) to describe the tone of each speaker. Compare ideas with your partners. 249 a Synonyms are useful in the summary-writing section of the Use of English paper, where you are expected to use your own words as far as possible and to avoid quoting directly from the passage. And in your compositions you can avoid repetition or an over-simple style by choosing suitable synonyms. Look at these words and match them with their synonyms below amazed annoyed clever confused cured depressed determined different disappointed dull encouraged exciting frightened glad respected revolting shocked upset’ morried worrying admired anxious astonished better bewildered delighted despondent disgusting disillusioned distressed disturbing diverse dreary heartened horrified indignant persistent. scared talented thrilling Replace each adjective in italics with a suitable synonym which might impress the examiners more than simple words — or which can help you to avoid repetition. You may have to rewrite the whole sentence in some cases. 1 Surfing can be dangerous, but hang-gliding is much more dangerous. There are many good ways of keeping fit — jogging is very good. I was happy to meet my old friends again. It was good to talk about old times. P'm sorry that you were umell esterday. You look all right today Tt was kind of you to offer to help, but the work wasn’t difficult. We went for a nice walk at the weekend, ending up at a mice restaurant. The original novel was interesting, but the film they made of it was boring. The meal we had last night was good, but the wine wasn’t good. Keeping in shape is important and keeping your weight down is also important, 1 like going to the cinema but I like going to the theatre more. BeooudsHseon 1 Replace the verbs in italics with suitable phrasal verbs. (This exercise revises some of the phrasal verbs you have come across in previous units.) I withdraw that remark I made about you If you have a pain in your back you'll just have to endure it Would it inconvenience you if I stayed for dinner? Thope you aren’t delayed in the rush-hour traffic She invented the whole story and she deceived us all! His suitcase disintegrated on the luggage carousel He had the brilliant idea of immersing his assistants in salt water Having heard all the arguments I’ve decided to support your idea I find that stress at work often causes a headache. I couldn’t make them understand that I wanted to go to bed early and this really depressed me Bowusntene ak When you're writing, and you can’t think of a suitable synonym on the spur of the moment, leave a gap (like this: }, oF pencil in the word you want to replace, and come back later to fill in the gap or change the word. You may get inspiration by the time you come back! 250 Was Freud a fraud? [== In the recording Professor Carl Abrahams is talking about Sigmund Freud. Tick a box to show whether the statements are true or false, according to what Prof. Abrahams says, Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Freud was a genius. Some patients get worse after psychoanalysis. Professional psychiatrists misunderstand Freud’s ideas, Freud’s own patients did recover after he treated them. ‘The ‘wolf man’ dreamt he was a werewolf and killed people at night Freud’s own account of the ‘wolf man’ case was falsified Although Freud misdiagnosed the ‘wolf man’s’ illness, his treatment of the patient was a success. 8. Freud was a good writer. 9. Freud asserted that pleasure and sexuality were directly related. 0 An innocent slip of the tongue is commonly believed to betray a speaker's concealed secret desires 11 Freud wanted people to think he was undervalued, 12. Freud’s books got bad reviews when they first came out. 13. Freud invented the concept of the ‘unconscious mind’. 14 Freud’s technique of “free association’ was not an original idea. 15. Practically all of the ideas Freud claimed to be original were in fact used by others before him Ouro I 16 The popularity of Freud has hindered research into mental disorders. 17. People who consult psychoanalysts are being deceived by them. 18 The myths surrounding Freud and his work will soon be discredited. Work in pairs and discuss these questions: © How would you describe Prof. Abrahams’ attitude during the interview? Write down three descriptive adjectives to characterise your impression of him. © To what extent were you convinced by what he said? Z go000 o0000 000 oon00G ES O 00000 o00 ooo0000 a oO © How can a psychiatrist (or psychoanalyst or psychotherapist) help someone with their problems? © What is the difference between a psychologist and a psychiatrist? 251 16.9 Exam techniques e of A. Question 2 in the Use of English paper tests both grammar and vocabulary Look at the annotated answers to the first questions and then do the rest unaided, Finish each of the following sentences in such a may that it means exactly the same as the sentence printed before it 1 Tonly found out about my exam results when I returned from my holiday Not until Not until 1 got back from my holiday was | told about my exam results. — not quite the same meaning Not until I got back from my holiday | found out about my exam results. — grammar wrong Not until after my holiday did | find out the result of my exam. not quite the came meaning Not until I returned from my holiday di) | find out about my exam results. 2. She works better when she is pressed for time. The less The less pressure of time there is, the better she works. — not quite the same meaning The less time she has, the better her work is. —not quite the same meaning The less time there is, the better she works. / The less time she has, the better she works. 7 3 It is quite pointless to go to the doctor if you only have a cold ‘There's no There’s no need to go to the doctor with « cold. - not quite the same meaning There’s no need for a doctor if you only have « cald — not quite the same meaning There’s no point in going to the doctor’s unless you have something more serious than a cold. — too many words There’s no point in going to the doctor if you only have « cold. J 4. It was her determination which enabled her to get better so quickly It 5. His chances of qualifiying as a doctor are small Iris not 6 It took a long time for the patient to recover completely from his illness. Only after 7 Jane doesn’t take any exercise, which is why she is so unfit. Jane’s unfitness 8 He thinks that all nurses are women, but he’s wrong. Contrary 252 Question 3 in the Use of English paper tests mainly grammar. Look at the annotated answers to the first questions and then do the rest unaided. In these items there is usually only one possible correct answer: Fill each of the blanks with a suitable word or phrase. 1 She is not used contradicted. She is not used to be contradicted. — grammar wrong She is not used to being a person who is contradicted. — grammar OK, but nonsense She is not used to being contradicted by anyone. —words added unnecessarily She is not used to being contradicted. / 2. The party was great: you really come. The party was great: you really have to come. — meaning changed The party was great: you really must have come. — doesn't make sense The party was great: you really had to come. — doesn't make sense The party was great: you really must be sorry that you didn’t come — OK but probably not what the examiners wanted! The party was great: you really should have come. J The party was great: you really ought to have come. / 3 Twish Jet me know sooner that you wouldn’t be joining us for dinner. 4 You'd be better off buying a new cassette player the old one repaired 3 I's about handed in your work. 6 “Lm sorry to have forgotten your birthday.” “That's all right, it atall.” 7 It Martha who forgot to programme the video, mustn’t it? 8 Ifwe'd known what we would have stayed at home. ak When doing these questions in the exam, make sure you double-check each answer, paying attention to spelling as well as grammar. Don’t spend a long time puzzling over individual items - come back to them later, maybe after pencilling in a tentative answer. Be prepared for a ‘new’ kind of exercise in the Use of English paper. Read the instructions carefully and look at the example before you commit yourself in writing. “Lknow it doesn't make you feel any better, Mr Pendleton, but it makes my job fore infinitely more bearable.” 253 A Crs AL Read the passage and answer the questions opposite. Now and again I have had horrible dreams, but not enough of them to make me lose my delight in dreams. ‘To begin with, I like the idea of dreaming, of going to bed and lying still and then, by | some queer magic, wandering into another kind of existence. As a | child I could never understand why grown-ups took dreaming so | 5 calmly when they could make such a fuss about any holiday. This still puzzles me. I am mystified by people who say they never dream and appear to have no interest in the subject. It is much more astonishing than if they said they never went out for a walk. Most people, or at least most Western Europeans, do not seem to | 10 accept dreaming as part of their lives. They appear to see it as an irritating little habit, like sneezing or yawning. | have never understood this. My dream life does not seem as important as my waking life, if only because there is far less of it, but to me it is important. As if there were at least two extra continents added to | the world, and lightning excursions running to them at any moment between midnight and breakfast. Then again, the dream life, though queer and bewildering and unsatisfactory in many | respects, has its own advantages. The dead are there, smiling and talking, The past is there, sometimes all broken and confused but | occasionally as fresh as a daisy. And perhaps, the future is there | too, winking at us. This dream life is often overshadowed by huge mysterious anxieties, with luggage that cannot be packed and trains that refuse to be caught; and both persons and scenes there are not as dependable and solid as they are in waking life, so that | Brown and Smith merge into one person while Robinson splits into two, and there are thick woods outside the bathroom door and the dining-room is somehow part of a theatre balcony; and there are moments of desolation or terror in the dream world that are worse than anything we have known under the sun. Yet this other | life has its interests, its gaieties, its satisfactions, and, at certain rare intervals, a serene glow or a sudden ecstasy, like glimpses of another form of existence altogether, that we cannot match with open eyes. Daft or wise, terrible or exquisite, it is a further helping of experience, a bonus after dark, another slice of life cut |» differently for which, it seems to me, we are never sufficiently grateful. Only a dream! Why only? It was there, and you had it. ‘If there were dreams to sell,’ Beddoes inquires, ‘what would you buy?’ I cannot say offhand, but certainly rather more than I could afford. © (from Delight by J. B. Priestley) 254 1 The writer’s parents . a) became very anxious at holiday times. b) couldn’t understand his dreams. ©) spoke calmly about their dreams. 4d) weren’t interested in hearing about his dreams. Most people the writer knows . a) are irritated by their dreams. b) do not enjoy their dreams, ©) are bored by hearing about his dreams. d) wish they didn’t dream 3. Brown, Smith and Robinson are a) dead friends of the writer. ») living friends of the writer. ©) people you or I might know. 4d) people who were well-known when the piece was written. 4 In our dreams we experience a) deeper anxiety and unhappiness than in our waking lives. b) greater fear, despair and joy than in our waking lives, c) more interesting events than in our waking lives. 4) premonitions of future events. The writer reproaches people who belittle dreams because . . a) they are daft and don’t understand how important dreams are. b) they think dreams are less important than their waking lives. ©) they don’t agree that dreams are just as important as being awake. d) each dream is a tangible part of our experience. Work in groups and discuss these questions: © To what extent do you agree with what the writer says about dreams? Do you have vivid dreams? Do you remember a nightmare you have had? = Think ofa dream you've had recently and describe it vividly to your partners — or make one up. The others should guess whether you really had that dream, ak In the exam read each passage twice: once quickly to get the gist and again more carefully to find the answers. Each correct answer gains two marks. Some of the alternatives are designed to be tricky and distract you from the right answer - so. don’t jump to conclusions. Use a highlighter or pencil to mark any questions that you're still unsure about. It may be best to come back to them later on, rather than reading the passage again straight away. 255 CEU cd A. Work in pairs, Discuss the notes below and add your own views to them Decide which of the points you'll include and which you'll leave out ina composition on this topic: We are constantly bombarded with advice from experts on ways of staying healthy and surviving to a ripe old age. Which aspects of their advice do you think it is practicable to follow? (about 350 words) High fibre intake -> better digestion +less disease. . connected with digestion Reducedsaltintale -> Lower blood, pressure Reduced fat intake ~» les heart disease Reduced sugar intake > less booth decay + control of weight Sufficient vitamins > higher resistance to infection Awell- balanced. diet > control of weight EXERCISE” higher resistance to infection lower susceptibility to heart disease, muscular pains, arthritis, ebe control of feeling of well-being and. physical fitness HABITS: Cigarette smoking 2 cancer, bronchial disease Hcohok liver disease, addiction Stress at work & 3 heart disease + stress-related. home. illness (migraine, mental (Uness, depression ete HEREDITY Parente medical history passed. on to children B Make your own notes before writing the composition, => Show your completed composition to your partmer and ask for comments 256 OU ATC a A _ Find synonymous words or phrases to replace the phrases in italics, using a dictionary if necessary She gave me her word that she would pay me back the next day. Being insured costs a lot of money but it gives you peace of mind. I was so annoyed that I couldn’t resist giving him a piece of my mind. Don’t expect him to spare your feelings: he always speaks his mind. She’s so indecisive: she can never make up her mind what to do. We were in tivo minds whether to phone you or not. He's so garrulous that you can’t get a ord in edgemays Ir'lall end in tears, mark my words! I can still see the whole scene in my mind's eye. 10 L’m sorry I didn’t post the letter, it slipped my mind, I'm afraid. 11 Their new car is the last word in luxury. 12. ‘No, you can’t stay out all night.” ‘Is that your last word? ‘Yes.’ CoudsHurune B Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable phrases from the list below. You may need to change the form of the verbs. 1 Icouldn’t think what to do, then suddenly I had a 2. You're an expert on this subject, would you mind if I > 3. She’s usually so trustworthy, she’s the last person I'd expect to 4 Actors have to be before they go on the stage. 5 Sit down, listen to some music and try to your problems. 6 Pmso angry about the way I was treated that I write a letter of complaint. 7 Idioms like these can’t be translated into another language. 8 Who are you going to believe? We both denied responsibility so 9 You look preoccupied, as if you 10. Many English jokes depend on a 11 Ifyou about coming with us, just give me a call 12 Twas but I couldn't solve the problem. brainwave change your mind go back on his/her word have a good mind to have something on your mind take your mind off word for word word perfect it's his/her word against mine pick your brains play on words rack my brains => Can you think of any more phrases using mind, brain or word? Write them down and compare them with a partner 257 17 The past LSC) A Work in pairs. Before you listen to the recording, look at this list of events which happened in 1974, 1976 and 1978, Pencil in any information you already know IN THE WORLD: Emperor Haile Selassie was in Ethiopia Gerald Ford became US President Greece became a and the monarchy was abolished Isabel Peron ousted in coup in Argentina Jimmy Carter elected President of the USA Presidents Sadat and Begin shared Nobel Peace Prize US President Nixon after Watergate tapes scandal Pope John Paul li became first non-Italian pope since 1542 DEATHS: Agatha Christie, age 85 Aldo Moro murdered, age 62 Duke Ellington, age 75 Juan Peron, age 78 Mao Tse-tung, age 82 Georges Pompidou, age 62 SPORT: Austrian driver Niki Lauda crashed in German Grand Prix Olympic Games in Montreal Winter Olympics in Innsbruck West Germany beat 2-1 in Soccer World Cup Argentina beat Holland 3-1 in Soccer World Cup OSCARS FOR BEST FILM OF THE YEAR The Deer Hunter Rocky The Godfather Part 2 TECHNOLOGY & MEDICINE: First commercial flight of Concorde First operation Many killed when poisonous gas escaped at Seveso, Northern Italy IN BRITAIN: First opened in London The musical Evita opened in London | Very hot summer: Minister for appointed 258 (9) You'll hear two people giving a talk about historical events that happened in the years they were born: 1974 and 1976. Fill in the missing years and missing information opposite, but be careful: some of the events happened in 1978 Do some research on the events that happened in the year (or the month) you were born. Then give a short talk to the members of your group. Work in pairs. Discuss which word or phrase makes best sense in these quotations: 1 ‘History repeats itself; historians repeat > (Philip Guedalla) history lies themselves dates 2 ‘History is little more than the register of the crimes, follies and of mankind.’ (Edward Gibbon) achievements mistakes events misfortunes 3 ‘Our chief interest in the past is as, to the future.’ (W. R. Inge) awarning anomen aguide a signpost 4 ‘What experience and history teach us is this — that people and governments never have history, or acted on principles deduced from it.’ (Hegel) benefited from forgotten paid attention to learnt anything from 5 “The past is a foreign country: they do things there.’ (first line of The Go-between by L.P. Hartley) similarly differently again earlier 6 ‘No great man lives in vain. The history of the world is but the of great men,’ (Thomas Carlyle) history biography achievement success Work in groups and discuss these questions: © Which of the quotations above do you agree with? Give your reasons. © Why do we hear about so few women in history? Who are the most famous women in your country’s history ? Name three significant events in your country’s history. Why are they memorable? © What was the most significant world event of the last ten years? © What do you think is the point of studying history? “This could be great! They could do all the ‘menial jobs no one else will do.” 259 UPR le a 260 A. [= 3) Read these poems before you look at the questions on the next page. THE SOLDIER If I should die, think only this of me; That there is some corner of a foreign field That is for ever England. There shall be In that rich earth a richer dust concealed; A dust whom England bore, shaped, made aware, Gave, once, her flowers to love, her ways to roam, A body of England’s breathing English air, Washed by the rivers, blest by suns of home. And think, this heart, all evil shed away, ‘A pulse in the eternal mind, no less Gives somewhere back the thoughts by England givens Her sights and sounds; dreams happy as her day; ‘And laughter, learnt of friends; and gentleness, In hearts at peace, under an English heaven. Rupert Brooke FUTILITY Move him into the sun — Gently its touch awoke him once, At home, whispering of fields unsown, Always it woke him, even in France, Until this morning and this snow. If anything might rouse him now ‘The kind old sun will know. ‘Think how it wakes the seeds, — Woke, once, the clays of a cold star. Are limbs, so dear-achieved, are sides, Full-nerved ~ still warm — too hard to stir? Was it for this the clay grew tall? — O what made fatuous sunbeams toil To break earth’s sleep at all? Wilfred Owen THE GENERAL ‘Good-morning; good-morning! the General said When we met him last week on our way to the Line. Now the soldiers he smiled at are most of ‘em dead, ‘And we're cursing his staff for incompetent swine. “He's a cheery old card,’ grunted Harry to Jack As they slogged up to Arras with rifle and pack. But he did for them both with his plan of attack. Siegfried Sassoon B Work in pairs. Discuss which of the alternatives you consider best reflects the meaning and mood of each poem. 1 In Rupert Brooke’s The Soldier, the poet is praising . England’s brave soldiers. England’s scenery and people. England’s free and democratic society. 2. The England described in the poem is England during peacetime. in spring or summer. during the poet’s youth, 3. If ke dies the poet is sure that . he will be remembered England will remain unchanged. his Englishness is immortal 4 If the idea of ‘England’ were replaced in the poem by ‘Germany’ or another country. the poem would no longer make sense. the poem would still mean the same. the poem would have a different significance. 5. The tone of The Soldier is sentimental optimistic pessimistic 6 In Wilfred Owen's Futility, the soldier described . has only just died has been dead for a long time. is sure to die soon. 7 According to the poem it is pointless that any man should die in war a dead man should be moved into the sun. aman should grow up to die in this way. 8 The tone of Futility is resigned sardonic lyrical 9. In Siegfried Sassoon’s The General, the smiling general is . insincere incompetent happy 10 ‘Herry and Jack’ are... two typical private soldiers. two now-dead friends of the poet. two young officers. 11 The soldiers who marched past the general last week . disliked him respected him liked him 12. The tone of The General is serious humorous sarcastic 261 C EA Work in groups of three. Student A should look at Activity 10, student B at 37 and C at 43. You'll each have some information about each poet's life and death to share with your partners. Then discuss: © To what extent does knowing more biographical information about each poet influence your response to the poems? ‘® Which of the poems made the greatest impact on you? Give your reasons. ‘© Which poems or works of literature came out of wars that your country has been involved in? © Why is it that people find reading (and seeing films) about war fascinating? ‘kok When tackling a reading passage in the exam, you may prefer to read quickly through it to get the gist before looking at the questions — or to look at the questions first and then read the passage through. Some of the alternatives given in the questions may be tricky or deceptively plausible, which may distract you from the best alternative - so don't jump to conclusions, Be ready to eliminate the wrong answers and find the right one by a process of elimination. Read carefully through the passage to find the answers, highlighting any relevant parts so that you can find them again quickly later. In the exam each correct answer gains two marks. 17.3 The end of the war Read this extract, which describes the last months of the First World War, as seen from one young man’s point of view. Then answer the questions that follow Nancy's brother, Tony, had also gone co France now, and her mother made herself ill by worrying about him. Early in July he should be due for leave. I was on leave myself at the end of one of the four-months’ cadet courses, staying with the rest of Nancy's family at Maesyneuardd, a big | Tudor house near Harlech. This was the most haunted house that I have | ever been in, though che ghosts, with one exception, were not visible, | except occasionally in the mirrors. They would open and shut doors, rap on | | | | 5 the oak panels, knock the shades off lamps, and drink the wine from the glasses at our elbows when we were not looking. The house belonged co an officer in the Second Battalion, whose ancestors had most of them died of drink. The visible ghost was a little yellow dog that would appear on che lawn in che early morning co announce deaths. Nancy saw ic through the window chat time ‘The first Spanish influenza epidemic began, and Nancy's mother caught it, bue did not wane to miss Tony’s leave and going to che London theatres | 1s with him. So when the doctor came, she took quantities of aspirin, reduced 0 262 her temperature, and pretended to be all right, But she knew that the ghosts in the mirrors knew the eruth. She died in London on July 13th, a few days iater. Her chief solace, as she lay dying, was that Tony had got his leave prolonged on her account. I was alarmed at the effect chat the shock of hee death mighe have on Nancy's baby. Then I heard chat Siegfried had been shor through the head that same day while making a daylight patrol through long grass in No Man’s Land; but noc killed. And he wrote me a verse-letter from a London hospital (which I cannot quote, though I should like to do so) beginning: Td timed my death in action to the minute... Ic is the most rerrible of his war-poems. Tony was killed in September. I went on mechanically at my cadet- battalion work. The new candidates for commissions were mostly Manchester cotton clerks and Liverpool shipping clerks — men with a good fighting record, quiet and well-behaved. To forget about the war, I was writing Country Sentiment, a book of romantic poems and ballads. In November came the Armistice, I heard at the same time of the deaths of Frank Jones-Bateman, who had gone back again just before the end, and Wilfred Owen, who often used to send me poems from France. Armistice- night hysteria did not touch our camp much, though some of the Canadians stationed there went down to Rhyl to celebrate in true overseas style. The news sent me cut walking alone along the dyke above the marshes of Rhuddlan (an ancient battlefield), cursing and sobbing and thinking of the dead. Siegfried’s famous poem celebrating che Armistice began: Everybody suddenly burst out singing, And | was filled with such delight As prisoned birds must find in freedom . . . But ‘everybody’ did not include me. (from Goodbye to All That by Robert Graves) 1 According to the writer, the invisible ghosts .. . a) really did not exist. b) really did exist. ) were visible only to Nancy. d) were the ghosts of soldiers who had died at the Front. 2. The doctor who came to see Nancy’s mother . a) knew she was dying b) did not realise she was very ill ©) gave her tablets to bring down her temperature d) did not examine her thoroughly. 3. The writer mentions the deaths of .. a) five people he knew well. b) four people he knew well. c) three people he knew well. d) two people he knew well. % 0 6 263 4 The writer, at the time, was a) fighting at the Front. b) training new recruits, c) training soldiers who wanted to be officers. 4) training would-be officers, fresh from school 5. When the Armistice was announced the writer a) was overjoyed. ¢) became hysterical b) had mixed feelings. __d) was overwhelmed with grief. 6 The tone of the writing in the extract seems . a) emotional. b) cynical. c) detached. d) careless. " Discuss your reactions to the passage with a partner. A. Work in pairs. Discuss the differences in meaning between the adjectives in these sentences. What (or who) might if or them refer to in each sentence? 1 Drink up: it’s good for you She is very good at it. He was very good about it. She was very good to them. 2. She was angry with them. He was angry about it. 3. Iknew I was right about them. ‘The choice was right for them. 4 We were pleased with them, We were pleased for them, He sounded pleased about it 5. She was sorry for them, He was sorry about it 6 She was very popular with them. He became popular for it. B_ Work in pairs. Decide whether of or to is used after each of these adjectives: accustomed ahead allergic ashamed aware capable comparable conscious courteous critical cruel devoid devoted envious equivalent guilry hurtful identical impolite indifferent inferior intolerant irrelevant. kind loyal preferable proud scared sensitive short similar superior susceptible unfaithful unworthy wary weary © Which of these prepositions are used after these adjectives? vague consistent , sceptical absen moves bewildered compatible " apprehensj arable conversant responsible sive comp: “we pation, Gbout for from on with 4 fr curt lependent jevel Keen intent gussy ubiovs ° famous indignant guile : ee familiar far ™> Look up any words you're unsure of, and study the examples in the dictionary 264 D_ Fill each gap with one word only, chosen from the exercises opposite: 1 We felt about the reception we might get, even though we knew that we'd be forgiven when we explained how we were for being late. He is to his children and feels of them, but he does get with them if they are ever 10 people. Usually he feels about this afterwards, even though he knows it is for them. I know I'm being of your staff but P’m not to being treated in this way. Who is the person who is for this? She pretended to be to our sarcastic remarks, but in fact she’s quite to being made fun of. Personally ’'m .. about the effectiveness of sarcasm and I'm of the fact that it can be very .. to people. Although he’s usually on getting his own way, he didn’t seem to be of convincing anyone at the meeting — on this occasion I felt quite for him, but I was of telling him so. 17.5 The emigrants q A 2 You'll hear part of a seminar about emigration. Listen to the recording and fill the gaps in questions 1 to 4, and choose the best alternatives in 5 to 10: v e - 1 In the 19th century the emigrants were escaping from: in Ireland; in Russia; in industrial areas; in agricultural areas. 2. All the emigrants had one thing in common: they had... 0 3. But the streets were not ‘paved with the reality was more work in the sweat shops of or hunger on a barren farm in The present-day mixture of people in the New World was established in the 18th century 19th century early part of the 20th century 6 The total number of US immigrants between 1821 and 1920 was 30 million 33 million 130 million 133 million 7 German and Italian are still spoken by South American citizens who have recently arrived. are the descendants of immigrants. cannot speak Portuguese or Spanish. 8 One can deduce the origins of American citizens of European origin by noticing their foreign accents. _ looking at the colour of their skin looking through a telephone directory 9 According to the speaker, more recent immigrants form large, permanent communities in some countries send money home to their families are unlike immigrants in the past 10. The speaker implies that immigration has contributed to prejudice against immigrants. a rich mixture of different cultures. the loss of immigrants’ cultural heritage. OE eros kx In the exam, you should read the whole passage through before filling in the blanks. If you can’t think what to put in some of the gaps, leave them blank and allow yourself enough time to come back to them later. If you are unsure of an answer, write it in pencil and come back to it later. Make sure the words you choose not only make sense in the context but are grammatically correct and that you spell them correctly. Fill each gap with one suitable word Between 1815 and 1914 Europe thrust out into the world, impelled by the force of its own industrialisation. Millions of Europeans poured overseas and into Asiatic Russia, seeking and finding ......1.... opportunities in the wider world. Between 1880 and 1900 Africa, a continent four times the ....2...... of Europe, was parcelled out among the European powers. ‘And when in 1898 the United States of America, following the European ...3... annexed Puerto Rico, the Philippines and other islands of the Pacific, and asserted a controlling voice in Latin American affairs, it seemed as though European expansion was turning into the 4... of the white... 5..... over the coloured majority. But expansion carried with it the seeds of its own......6....... Even before European rivalries plunged the continent into the 1..... of 1914-18, the beginnings of anti-European reaction were .....8...... in Asia and Africa, and no sooner had the United States occupied the Philippines than they were met by a nationalist .....9..... under the great Philippine leader, Aguinaldo. Today, in......10...., we can see that the age of expansive imperialism was a transient 11..... of history; while it lasted, it left a European.......12.... on the world. The world in 1914 was utterly different from the world in 1815, the ....13..... of change during the preceding century greater than previously during whole millennia. Though industry in 1914 266 was only beginning to Africa was still regulated by age-old ....15 14..... beyond Europe and North America, and life in Asia and , the nineteenth century inaugurated the 16 of transformation which dethroned agricultural society as it had existed through the 17... and replaced it with the urban, industrialised, technocratic ....18 spreading ~ for good or for ...19 AUR ce Te Se like 20 (from The Times Atlas of which is through the world today. orld History) A. Work in pairs. Decide which of this information you would certainly include, and which would have to be omitted in a 350-word essay on this topic: Describe the life and achievements of a famous historical figure. Napoleon Personal 1769 born in Corsica 1796 married Josephine Beauharnais 1810 divorced Josephine as she had borne him no son 1810 married Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria 1811 birth of son 1821 death on remote island of St Helena in Atlantic Political Lit 1799 appointed First Consul of France 1800 reorganised political and educational system in France 1804 Napoleonic legal code introduced (basis of French and many other countries’ legal systems, even Japan's) 1804 crowned Emperor of the French 1814 abdicated and sent to Island of Elba 1815 escaped from Elba ~ ruled again as Emperor for 100 days, 1815 exiled to St Helena Military Victories 1797 against Austrians at Riv (Northern Italy) 1806 against Russians and Austrians at Austerlitz 1806 against Prussians at Jena 1807 against Russians at Friedland 1809 against Austrians at Wagram 1812 against Russians at Borodino = Moscow taken, but in flames “French foreos not personaly commanded by Napoleon Military Defeats 1805* by British at Trafalgar (confirming British naval supremacy) 1812 retreat from Moscow (only 100,000 of the original 600,000 strong army survived) 1813 by Russians, Prussians and Austrians at Leipzig 1814* by British at Vitoria - French driven out of Spain 1814 Paris taken 1815 by British and Prussians at Waterloo B Make your own notes and then write a composition on the same topic, not about Napoleon but about a historical figure from your country. 267 268 AL Which of these sentences look right — and which are wrong? They were extremely pleased with my work. It was very delightful to have met you. It is extremely important to read the question carefully. It is very essential to make notes before you start writing. It is extremely vital to check your answers for slips of the pen. Work in pairs. Tick the adjectives and participles that are ‘gradable’ (i.e. they can be intensified by words like very or extremely’) and put a cross by the ones that are ‘non-gradable’ or ‘absolute’ (and are not usually intensified by very’) livid X - indignant /_ absurd - preposterous - improbable genuine - believable intelligent - sensible - brilliant happy - euphoric identical - similar priceless - valuable amazed - surprised - astounded interesting - fascinating worthless - futile - inexpensive delightful - pleasant - magnificent - enjoyable vital - essential - important fatal - hazardous - deadly - harmful - hurtful _ terrifying - frightening B Fill each gap with a suitable modifier from the list, but without repeating the same one in the same sentence. absolutely badly considerably deeply exceptionally extraordinarily fully highly perfectly quite really reasonably remarkably ‘seriously thoroughly totally unexpectedly utterly widely 1 He was determined to succeed, and he was disappointed when he didn’t. We were amused, but pretended to be sympathetic 2 Many people were injured in the accident, which was reported in the press 3. The amount of work that is required is greater than we expected, and we'll have to make a(n) great effort to finish it on time. 4 We were delighted to hear he was getting married, especially to such a(n) nice woman. 5. He was feeling depressed after his illness, but he made a(n) quick recovery, and was cheerful after that. 6 We felt we had been let down when they told us the application had been rejected. We were embarrassed because we'd told all our friends 7 Pmsure her business will be successful, as she is a(n) capable person, even though it’s true that most new businesses don’t succeed. 8 It was a(n) wonderful film and I thought the performances were moving. It was different from any other film I’ve ever seen. 9 They made a good job of the report and we were pleased with it. 10. The role of women in history is not recognised by many historians, who tend to be traditional in their attitudes. C For each sentence, write a new sentence as similar in meaning as possible to the original sentence, using the word given but without altering it in any way. 1 Some people simply can’t remember historical dates. impossible 2. We should be very happy indeed to accept your invitation delighted 3. Ivhappened so long ago that no one remembers it at all now. forgotten 4 There’s no point at all in asking him to be tactful. futile 3. She was very angry indeed when she found out. livid 6 There is no likelihood of his succeeding. improbable 7 You must remember to check your work through for mistakes. essential 8 We were extremely interested in the lecture. fascinating UU a CT ek Checking your work Look carefully for any mistakes or slips of the pen you may have made, like the ones illustrated here: Its important to emphasise that... Perhaps it should pointed out that... Historie can be a facsinating subject. Rarely it is possible to. . - 1 decided to do a long journey . . . We enjoied the peformance. By now you're probably familiar with the kind of ‘silly mistakes’ that you make yourself when you're under pressure. As long as these are spotted and corrected before your work is handed in, there's nothing to worry about - but make sure you do allow yourself enough time for this! fala Look back at two or three of your most recent compositions and highlight any ‘silly mistakes’ you made. Make sure you check your work for mistakes like these in the exam. Prepare and write one of these composition exercises, allowing yourself 60 minutes only. This hour includes: time to think, to make notes and, afterwards, to check your work through for mistakes. Do this without using any reference books. 1 How useful is it to teach history in schools? (about 350 words) 2. Write a report of a historical event in the style of a modern newspaper article. (about 350 words) 3. Write a first-person narrative about a historical event, as if you were one of the people present at the time, ending with the words: “... only then did I realise that I had been involved in a historic moment in history.” (about 350 words) 269 Ta eae A Photographs In this n a to comment on one o photo; but 3 ‘ a m in detail This is intended Work in pairs. Discuss these questions about the first photograph: ‘© What's happening in this picture? What kind of people are they? What would it have been like to be a member of this family, do you think? © What might they be talking about? # Describe a typical Sunday lunch in YouR family or with YOUR friends. How is it different from the family meal shown in the photo? © How have eating habits changed in your country during your lifetime? ‘Then discuss these questions about the second photograph © What’s going on in this picture? What would it have been like to be a member of the class? © What kind of lives could these girls look forward to? ¢ How has life for young women changed since that time? Passages In this part of the interview you are asked to comment on the content, style and source of one or more passages. You aren’t expected to read the passage(s) aloud, though you may quote a line or two if you wish FEA Work in pairs. One of you should look at Activity 13, the other at 28. Communicative activity _In this part of the interview you take part in an activity, to show how well you can communicate in different situations Work in pairs. Both of you should look at Activity 20. Take it in turns to play the role of the examiner — or do this as a discussion in pairs xk If you're doing the interview as an individual (one-to-one with the examiner) the whole interview lasts 12-15 minutes. If you do the interview in pairs (with another student) it lasts about 20 minutes, or about 25 minutes if you do it in groups of three. in the exam the photographs and passages may be connected, and you may have to comment on the differences between them. Before the exam, spend some time doing practice interviews from Cambridge Proficiency Examination Practice Books - with a partner playing the role of ‘examiner’. This will help you to feel more confident about the procedure for the “Come along, dear, we've off now.” 2 18 Modern life Vocabulary and usage iz A. Choose the word or phrase which best completes this sentence. In the exam (Paper 1 Section A) questions like these are answered on the ‘MULTIPLE-CHOICE ANSWER SHEET”, 10 uN 12 272 HOWTO HOW TO CHANGE ANSWER YOUR ANSWER bo = use an HB pencil ~ rub out any answer you wish to change DONT ~ use any other kind of pen or pencil = use correcting fluid ~ make any marks outside the boxes Every member of the community has their own personal to make, A announcement B contribution C donation D endowment In this very poor neighbourhood many youths belong to A bands B gangs C groups D packs At the end of the match the went wild with excitement. A audience B congregation C witnesses D spectators We're looking for new blood to join our dynamic A circle B clique C set D team Ler’s together after work and thrash this out between us. A come B gather C get D meet Someone who prefers not to join in with everyone else is a(n) A deviant B individual C loner D pervert I didn’t take up his recommendation, as he sounded so about it A half-baked B half-hearted C half-timbered _D _half-witted had the thieves entered the bank than the police arrived A Scarcely B Hardly C Nosooner D Rarely To enter a skilled trade a new recruit may have to serve a(n) A apprenticeship B education C initiation D training He turned to a life of crime he had had a normal, happy childhood ‘A aslongas B despite C eventhough D provided that, Society on laws to regulate the behaviour of its anti-social members. A exists B depends C trusts D is organised Ifyou a crime being committed, you ought to report it to the police. A areseeing B hadseen C should see D were to have seen 14 15 16 V7 19 20 21 22 One person ten will commit a crime at one time in their lives. A from B in C of D over Technically speaking, anyone who the law is a criminal ‘A could have broken B has been breaking C. has broken D may have broken Even if you kill someone in self-defence you may be charged with A bumping him off B homicide C lynching D manslaughter Supposing 1 to tell you how much I admired you, what would you say? Aam B could C were D would The louts who mugged two old ladies have been convicted of A arson B assault’ C looting D vandalism A prisoner serving a life sentence may eventually be released on A bail B leave C parole D probation ‘The defendant was found guilty by the jury and given a suspended A conviction B fine C sentence D verdict Some people say that all mentally ill people should be A locked in B locked out C putaway D putup The judge the witness for his frivolous attitude. A abused B commended C prosecuted D reprimanded Most members of society are perfectly citizens like you and me. A law-abiding B legal C legitimate D obedient Don’t give in to the of cheating in an exam — you may get caught! A allure B inducement C provocation D temptation Ina multiple-choice exercise it’s sometimes easier to the wrong answers before choosing the correct one. A dismiss B eliminate C obliterate D omit And it’s always better to make an educated than to leave a blank A attempt’ B endeavour C chance D guess Work in groups. Discuss these questions: What do you each find most difficult about answering multiple-choice questions? Is there any advice you can offer each other? What tips from previous units do you try to follow when doing this kind of test? Do you prefer to read all the questions quickly through first, before going through marking your answers on the Answer Sheet? Ea ch of the multiple-choice questions in Paper 1 Section A is worth one mark, making a total of 25, but the fifteen questions in Section B are each worth two marks making a total of 55 for the whole of Paper 1. You should aim to get at least 33 marks (about 60%). abe Section B is likely to take a few minutes longer than A. Don’t spend longer than out 25 minutes on either Section, allowing time to come back later to any questions you were unsure of, tok Practice in doing tests like these from one of the Cambridge Proficiency Examination Practice Books will help you to develop your speed, and give you practice in making educated guesses. 273 18.2 Rea 274 g comprehension (ee Read each passage and choose the answers that fit best, according to the passage. There are three passages, with 15 questions in all, There are discussion questions on all three passages in D. A FIRST PASSAGE There is nothing that man fears more than the touch of the unknown. He wants to see what is reaching towards him, and to be able to recognize or at least classify it. Man always tends to avoid physical contact with anything strange. In the dark, the fear of an unexpected touch can mount to panic. Even clothes give insufficient security: it is casy to tear them and pierce through to the naked, smooth, defenceless flesh of the victim. All the distances which men create round themselves are dictared by this fear. They shut themselves in houses which no one may enter, and only there feel some measure of security. The fear of burglars is not only the fear of being | robbed, but also the fear of a sudden and unexpected clutch out of the darkness. The repugnance to being touched remains with us when we go about among people; the way we move in a busy street, in restaurants, trains or buses, is governed by it. Even when we are standing next to them and are able co watch and examine them closely, we avoid actual contact if we can. If we do not avoid it, it is because we feel attracted to someone; and then ic is we who make the approach. The promptness with which apology is | offered for an unintentional contact, the tension with which it is awaited, our violent and sometimes even physical reaction when it is not forthcoming, the antipathy and hatred we feel for the offender, even when we cannot be certain who it is ~ the whole knot of shifting and intensely sensitive reactions to an alien couch ~ proves thar we are dealing here with a human propensity as deep-seated as it is alere and insidious; something which never leaves a man when he has once established the boundaries of his personality. Even in sleep, when he is far more unguarded, he can all too easily be disturbed by a couch. It is only in a crowd that man can become free of this fear of being rouched. Thar is the only situation in which the fear changes into its opposite, The crowd he needs is the dense crowd, in which body is pressed to body; 2 crowd, r00, whose physical constitution is also dense, of compact, so that he no longer notices who it is that presses against him. As soon as a man has surrendered himself to the crowd, he ceases to fear its touch. Ideally, all are equal there; no distinctions count, not even that of sex The man pressed against him is the same as himself, He feels him as he feels himself. Suddenly it is as though everything were happening in one and the same body. This is perhaps one of the reasons why a crowd seeks to close in on itself: it wants to rid each individual as completely as possible of the fear of being touched. The more fiercely people press together, the more certain they feel that they do nor fear each other. This reversal of the fear of being rouched belongs ro the nature of crowds. The feeling of relief is most striking where the density of the crowd is greatest. (from Crowds and Power by Elias Canetti} 1 People fear burglars because they .. A arrive suddenly and unexpectedly B attack people in the assumed safety of their homes C grab you in the dark. D steal your most treasured personal posse: 2 In public, according to the writer, we ‘A always avoid contact with people B do not object to someone attractive touching us. C feel most vulnerable. D try not to be touched. 3 If, by chance, someone does touch us we feel A disgusted by this. B hostile to them: C shocked by this. D surprised by this. 4 The way we feel when in a crowd is presented as a(n) . A absurdity B logical conclusion C opposite D paradox 5. Once formed, crowds alw stend to. A become uncomfortable B contract C expand D split up B SECOND PASSAGE COMMUTERS People do not travel for pleasure on the roads and trains leading into cities on weekday mornings; they are commuting. Commuters represent the antithesis of Robert Louis Stevenson's view of travel- ling that ‘For my part, I travel not to go anywhere, but to go. I travel for travel’s sake.’ Commuters travel because they have to; the destination is the only thing that matters. Commuting is modern, Up until the 1950s most workers lived in the shadow of their workplace and within earshot of its whistle or hooter; people walked or cycled to work, even going home for their lunch. As cities grow and as the pressure on city centre property increases, so ever more people have had to move further away from their place of work. The suburbs grow and this results in the horrendous rush hours, many of which tail back to the suburbs themselves. To ease the commuter congestion city governments build new roads, especially:ring roads, but these generate more traffic, adding to the traffic jams and bad health. San Francisco introduced BART to take the pressure off its roads, but after an initial positive response the scheme was over- taken by the sheer magnitude of commuter growth, Trains and subway systems are little better. In Tokyo ‘pushers’ are employed to squeeze commuters into carriages, in London and New York the underground systems are near capacity and unpleasant to ride. In Paris petty crime on the Metro is rife. In Soweto the trains are so crowded that commuters hang on to the outside of the “black only’ trains. The associated health hazards are rivalled by those caused by traffic accidents and the stress-related diseases created by the tension in all forms of commuting, The bigger the city, the larger 275 276 the daily commuting public and the longer the distances travelled Many commuters see neither their house nor their children in day- light for almost six months of the year. In a large city like London the average daily time spent commuting to and from work is almost two hours. As a working day is eight hours or less, this means that the average commuter really ‘works’ in excess of a six day week. Cities which try to alleviate the lot of the commuter are those which are most worth living in, but it is a hard and uphill task to do anything constructive. Special ‘Kiss and Ride’ metro stations surround Washington, but are as little used as the ‘Ride-On’ buses. People appear to prefer the traffic jams on the Beltway, Although most people dislike the unpleasant ‘dead time’ of commuting, some people tum it to | their advantage. J.M. Keynes wrote his General Theory en route from London to Cambridge, and there are classes in French, business studies, bridge and chess (among other topics) on commuter trains | i into the London main-line stations. Other people, especially those who can afford the comfort of first-class tickets, catch up on their reading, do the preparation for the day's work, use their computers or the train telephones, or listen to music Others take the view that commuting should make you fit. They walk, run, cycle, row, sail, skate and skate-board into work. (from Cities Fit To Live Jn by Barrie Sherman) 1 San Francisco’s Bay Area Rapid Transit scheme . A could not cope with the numbers of passengers. B has been a resounding success. C took a long time to become successful. D was eagerly awaited. 2 Asa solution to the rise in the number of commuters, trains and subways are . A more effective than new roads. B notas effective as new roads. C rather more effective than new roads. D scarcely any more effective than new roads. 3. Itis more pleasant to live in cities which A are small enough for people not to need to commute. B encourage commuting, C have efficient public transport systems. D improve conditions for commuters. 4 Washington’s metro trains are . A as popular as its buses. B as unpopular as its buses C less popular than its buses. D more popular than its buses. 5. The majority of travellers A don’t enjoy wasting th time commuting. B make the most of the time they spend commuting C keep fit while commuting D exercise their minds while commuting. C THIRD PASSAGE Public Enemy No 1 PICTURE the scene. Dozens of theatregoers leave for their cars after an enjoyable evening watching Evita, There’s a gentle buzz of conversation as couples praise or criticise the show. A smartly- dressed group heads towards the multi-storey car park where a couple of hours earlier they left their vehicles with a paid-for ticket stuck on the windscreen. And then it grips them ~ that Clamping Feeling. For this particular party the experience was too much to bear. They had been clamped for allegedly parking in spaces reserved for others. Finding the clampers still at work, the motorists vented their frustration, reportedly setting about the clamper and his 22-year-old female assistant with a fury that took even the hardened victims by surprise. What the incident confirmed is that car clampers have taken over the role of Public Enemy No 1 once held by traffic wardens. While most small businesses talk of recession, there is a boom in the number of clamping firms being hired by owners of private land and car parks. There are, of course, many respectable firms operating for councils and police forces, de- mobilising cars in city centres and charging a set fee for freedom. And although it can be argued that the very act of immobilisation leads to greater traffic jams and more public annoyance, there is no doubt that clamping has an immediate impact on the-car owner which a parking ticket does not. But it is the explosion in private clamping which is causing most friction The distress felt by readers of Auto Express who had fallen victim to the clampers prompted us to investigate the tactics and legality of the private firms. We found that clamping was generally carried out by small outfits which could obtain a franchise for as little as £115 The firm involved in the Evita incident has a large network of franchise holders. It charges them a joining fee of £46 plus £11.50 for a sign to erect at the site. They must buy six signs when they join up. ‘The company sets its de-clamping fee at £46 and operators must pay back £8 for each “hit”. This means they are in profit after 15 clampings - and from then on have the potential to make a small fortune. We approached the firm for a job managing one of its franchises. Our reporter said he was an out-of-work security guard who had been in prison for three years after being convicted of theft and that he was a big, aggressive, bullying type. It did not put them off. “We'd only turn you down if you've been inside for rape or murder,” was the reply. ‘The most worrying aspect, as far as the motorist is concerned, is that the growing breed of operators are working in a twilight legal world. Our investigation revealed that there is no law regulating the operators or the often exorbitant fees they charge. Andrew Bordiss 277 278 1 Why were the people who had been to Evita clamped? A For blocking an entrance or exit. B For displaying their tickets in the wrong place. C For not paying enough for their car park tickets. D For parking in unauthorised spaces 2 Before clampers, the most disliked people in the country were A car park attendants B estate agents. C politicians. D waffic wardens 3 If their cars are clamped, motorists have to pay A a fixed amount of money B asum equivalent to the cost of a parking ticket. C at least £46. PD £11.50, 4 Clamping is effective because it ‘A causes embarrassment. B costs more to have a car freed than a parking ticket C is more inconvenient for motorists than a parking ticket. D leads to more annoyance for other drivers. 5 Operating a clamping franchise is a very A enjoyable occupation. B hazardous occupation. C profitable occupation D unpredictable occupation Work in groups and discuss your reactions to the first two passages. © Have you ever been robbed or had your pocket picked? How did you feel and what did you do about it? © How long does it take you to get from home to the place where you work or study? What are the pros and cons of living in the suburbs and commuting? Before discussing the third passage, read the article below and compare your reactions to it. © Have you ever been given a parking ticket or had your car clamped: © How effective is clamping as a way of controlling unauthorised parkin In what circumstances is it justifiable to take the law into your own hands? Wheelclamper carried away by vengeful forklift driver THE motoring public tends to come off worst in encounters with wheel- clampers: yesterday the boot was on the other wheel. A West Country wheelclamper was swept 10 feet into the air, complete with his Fiesta van, on the end of a forklift truck. At this point Alan Pearman struck lucky. The forklift driver had intended to dump him into Torquay harbour, but the lift jammed. ‘The trouble began when Mr Pearman spotted a Saab car on the harbourside, belonging to Steve Carter, a crane driver. It had a parking permit, but it also had a tide table on the dashboard, obscuring the expiry date. Mr Pearman rang his boss at Al ‘Securities, and followed the advice to go ahead and clamp. 1 Retribution immedi-ately followed, in the form of Mr Carter’s boss, John Thompson, driving a fiery forklift truck. “He lifted me up twice,” Mr Pearman said. “The first time it was about 4% feet in the air. Then he dropped the van suddenly on to the concrete on the harbourside. Then he went back a couple of feet, rammed me, and lifted Two compositions me up again, this time a lot higher. I don’t mind telling you it was pretty frightening.” The firm said the van was considerably damaged. Mr Thompson, who insists the Saab was legally parked in a company space, was interviewed by the police, but told he would not be charged. Maev Kennedy Write two of the following composition exercises in 2 hours. Allow enough time to make notes before you start writing and to check your work through before you hand it in. Describe the aspects of living in your city, suburb, town or village that give you ‘most personal pleasure. (about 350 words) “The punishment should fit the crime.” To what extent do you agree with this well-known saying? (about 350 words) Write a short story beginning or ending with the words: “Free at last!” 350 words) (about You have been sent the following cutting from a newspaper in your country. Prepare a suitable document that can be handed to visitors and tourists arriving at airports and frontiers. (about 300 words) Reports in the foreign press THERE have been a growing number of reports in newspapers abroad that there is a “crime wave” in this country. The Minister of Tourism fears that this may cause concern among foreign visitors, who may assume they are likely to be robbed once they set foot in the country. What is needed is a short, persuasive handout warning tourists of the dangers of pickpockets and thieves but which does not alarm them unduly. It should offer advice on how to minimise the risks by taking the right precautions A prize will be given to the originator of the material used. 5 Basing your answer on your reading of the prescribed text you have studied, answer ONE OF THE FOLLOWING. (about 350 words) a) Describe and give examples of the way in which the writer builds up a sense of excitement and tension as the plot unfolds. b) What makes the text stand out as a ‘work of literature’ above the common run of popular fiction (or drama)? ©) “Any good work of fiction has just the same ingredients as a detective story.” To what extent is this view applicable to the text you have read? ok Marking 40 marks are given for Paper 2 - 20 for each composition. The examiners’ first priority is to assess your efforts at communication and give you credit for that, including the clarity and organisation of your composition. Questions 1 to 3 allow for a variety of approaches, including personal reminiscence and anecdote, dialogue and humour. If you fail to answer the question, there are penalties for reproducing ‘blatantly irrelevant material learned by heart’ and for ‘grossly or wantonly misinterpreting the question’. Length For Questions 1, 2, 3 and 5 this is usually 350 words, but ‘exceptional candidates may provide excellent answers using fewer words or they may substantially exceed this number without becoming dull or repetitive’. But you don’t get credit for extra length, which anyway will probably increase the total number of inaccuracies in your work. Question 4 In this directed writing task, structured information is provided and a shorter length is specified — highlight the number of words required, so that you keep it constantly in mind. You have to respond to a clearly-defined task and the appropriateness of your response and style and register are particularly important. If there are two tasks, a single combined mark is given out of 20. If you only do one of the two specified tasks, it is normally marked out of 10. Question 5 In Question 5 you have to stiow that you have read and enjoyed a set text and can demonstrate this in an appropriately illustrated description and discussion. Credit is given for breadth, development and relevance of argument, and for the abundance and appropriateness of illustration and quotation. Sa So 1 Cloze test Fill each gap with one word only There are few se-seu (1) Which can guarantee a conversation in a bar or railway carriage, but sex, the weather, beer and the dreadful (2) of the city’s traffic are among them. City traffic has (3) a standing joke (or a running sore) in most cities, as roads (4) for past eras try to cope with today’s cars, bicycles, taxis, buses and lorries. Traffic is a most difficult (5). Traffic jams are 6). Being passed by old ladies pushing squeaky prams is an indignity .. (7) drivers welcome. Traffic jams are a waste of everyone's time. Yet every morning M4 commuters into London know that just past London Airport, and all the .. (8) into town, will be an (9) jam. The remedies are not (10); indeed they may be counterproductive. Building new roads generates more traffic; one-way (11) try to squeeze a quart into a pint pot; providing off-street parking .... (12) even more traffic; disincentives (narrowing roads, clamps) do not deter, they s-vune (13) infuriate, and pedestrian .. (14) damage trade. "Florence has jUSt jn. (15) the car from its centre because of the pollution, Whether it works or not will be (16) watched, but to 280 (17) no one has died from withdrawal symptoms. But in cities like London or New York this would not (18), because the traffic jams in the periphery and the (19) are as bad as they are in the centre. Tinkering will not (20). Florence's solution will work for smaller cities, but ideas for larger ones are needed. Transformations Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged 1 We'll always remember these days together at our meerings in the future. Whenever 2 Tadmire her achievements a great deal but as a person I loathe her. Much 3 It’s because he was reprimanded that he is feeling so upset. if 4 You should admit that you're to blame, not try to conceal it. Pd rather 5. The realisation that I had been swindled came later. Only 6 The police are advising vigilance as there have been more robberies lately. Due to 7 Itis fairly unlikely that he will be convicted of the offence. There 8 I’m sorry that my story sounded so unconvincing. I wish Fill the gaps Fill each gap with a suitable phrase or word. 1 Difficult I was able to answer most of the questions. 2 ‘She said she'd kill me!” ‘My word, she awfully upset then.” 3. We look forward to receiving your donation, it may be. 4 Never in my life such a monstrous crime! 5. The robbers were locked up ina top security prison. they succeeded from it 6 ‘So you both found it hard to get used in a foreign country?” ‘No, not at all. I didn’t find it at all difficult and my friend.” Use the word given Write a new sentence as similar as possible in meaning to the original sentence, using the word given. This word must not be altered in any way. 1 Without the cooperation of the public, the work of the police would be impossible depends 2. She was afraid to scream because she didn’t want to wake up the neighbours. fear No one is to blame for the accident. fault 4 Their flat has been broken into twice this year. had She has a one-hour journey to work every day. takes = 281 6 They may not arrive on time because of the heavy traffic. doubtful He may not be as dependable as you think rely 8 hate the stresses and pressures of modern life. what ke& Do the easier questions first. Double-check each answer for grammatical accuracy and spelling. Make sure you haven't unwittingly changed the meaning. Return to any difficult ones later (mark them in pencil so that you don’t overlook them) — you may have got inspiration by then! 5 Questions and summary Read the following passage, then answer the questions that follow it A first in Cambridge THE university city of Cambridge _ business. could be the first in Britain to The road-pricing scheme is the introduce road pricing. A meeting brainchild of the county surveyor, of the county council on November Mr Brian Oldridge, who has been s 20th is expected to give the go- working with technical help from ahead in principle to “congestion- Newcastle University. The organ- metering”. The idea is to charge all _isers would provide a meter, free of motorists who enter the city for the charge, to all vehicles in the area. © congestion their cars cause. The The meters would be switched on 10 money raised would help pay for a automatically by a set of beacons super-tram line from the north to around the perimeter of Cambridge the south of the city. as a vehicle entered the city. The Cambridge should be.a good driver would then be charged in «5 test-bed for road pricing. It is a direct proportion to the congestion ‘8 compact place, with little urban he encountered. (The meter would sprawl — so the boundaries of the identify congestion by the stop- city centre are easily defined - and _start-stop pattern of driving.) many people commute by car. The This sounds unfair. Why should 9 city’s traffic has become as a driver be penalised for encoun- 20 congested as London's, after rising tering a jam? The theory is that by 47% in the past decade. It is jams are caused by all the vehicles expected to go up by another 40% in them, so their drivers should all in the 1990s, partly because the city pay. The system would thus pro- ss hopes for another 25,000 jobs vide an incentive for drivers to 2s during them. The council fears that, avoid jams, for example by travel- unless it reduces congestion, the _ ling in off-peak periods. traffic bottleneck could strangle the Drivers would pay by a “smart commercial expansion which is card”, which would carry a fixed supposed to bring those jobs. But number of pre-paid units like a 2» any new roads would risk ruining phonecard. One feature may not a9 the city’s character and undermining its booming tourist appeal to Cambridge folk. Once the card’s units have been used up, the 70 meter would cut off the petrol supply on the next occasion when the engine was switched off; so it would be impossible to restart a car until a new card had been inserted. That could mean lots of pay-as-you- jam motorists fuming behind the stalled cars of the forgetful If the council agrees, further research will be carried out; then there would be a pilot scheme; then Parliament would have to approve a private bill, and the system could be in operation by 1995. Enthusi- asts think it could be a model for the rest of Britain's cities. % (from The Economist) What is meant by ‘give the go-ahead in principle’ in line 5? Why is Cambridge considered such a ‘good test-bed for road pricing’? Why is such a scheme needed so urgently in Cambridge? Why can’t new roads be built in the city? What is meant by ‘brainchild’ in lin 2 What is the justification for making motorists suffer for getting in a jam ? How much will local motorists pay to have their cars fitted with meters? What, according to the article, is the most inconvenient aspect of the scheme? What steps would be necessary before the scheme could be fully operational? ES ecousutun— How will motorists from out of town be made to pay? In 80 to 100 words, explain how the Cambridge scheme would work. tok This Questions and summary exercise is shorter than the one you will encounter in the exam, You should do further practice using tests from one of the Cambridge Proficiency Examination Practice Books. Do these against the clock, spending no more than 50 minutes on the section. Look again at the exam tips on page 232. “The jury finds the defendant guilty ~ and advises him to get a better lamyer next time.” 283 284 Ay tening comprehen: (=) =a) Your teacher will play each part twice, allowing vou time to read the questions through before each playing. (There are discussion questions on all three passages in D opposite.) RULES AND VALUES Listen to the interview with a sociologist and answer the questions. 1 ‘Rules’ are different from ‘laws’ in that A there is no threat of punishment involved. B rules are more powerful C rules are not understood by people. D rules are not recorded. Society has rules in order to. . A control how people spend their time B regulate people's behaviour C give guidance on how to behave. D maintain political stability 3. A parent or teacher is in a similar position to that of a ‘A chess player. B criminal C judge. D policeman. 4 Most of us would never break the law because we A want to be the same as everyone else. B are afraid of being caught. C are afraid of being punished. D would feel embarrassed. 5 If the members of a society did not share the same set of rules A anew set of rules would soon evolve B there would be no more crime. C there would be social harmony D no one would know how to behave. 6 Our circle of friends consists of people who A like what we like B obey the same rules. C share the same values. D think the same way as we do 7 Inthe United States many people drop out of society because they A are black or Hispanic. B cannot achieve success. C don’t share the same values as anyone else. D take drugs. 8 When a society’s values are challenged ‘positively’ by rebels A society's rules and values may change. B a social revolution may follow C criminal values may be substituted D the rebels are persecuted feral B ANEW YORK COP Listen to the interview and fill each gap with the exact word the speaker used. Write your answers in the boxes on the right Many of the people a cop deals with are mentally People don’t call a cop unless there’s a A cop sees the side of society On the whole, a cop’s job is very stressful, but some of the situations you are in, as a cop, are very . He remembers the two occasions when he ababy, which was an experience that him. 6 He has never had to a life. Cops represent without law you would have 8 In law everything is black and white, but when dealing with people there are areas, C ABRITISH POLICE OFFICER You will hear an interview with a senior police officer. For each question, tick one ‘box to show whether the statement is true or false. Ww bene TRUE Fi RU Britain has a single country-wide police force, divided into six regions. Police work in a rural area is entirely different from that in an urban area. C] Women who join the police now start in the policewomen’s department. C] Kate joined the police because there was no work for a customs officer in the area, Most of a police officer’s time is spent dealing with people and their problems. A good police officer should try not to be sympathetic or compassionate. A police officer is expected to deal with distressing events without feeling upset. 8 Police officers do have bad dreams about very unpleasant experiences 9 Some police officers don’t want to talk to their family about a horrific experience. 10. In general, members of the public are mistrustful of the police. 11 Most people feel uneasy if'a police officer comes to their door. 12 Members of the police force have a strong feeling of fellowship. SO ow fENe oO oO f oO goog o8 ao co ooo} oo D_ Work in groups and discuss your reactions to the interviews © Why do people commit crimes, in your opinion? How can they be deterred from this? How should they be punished, or what treatment should they be given? © What is the attitude of the general public in your country to the police? @ Do you like to watch or read crime stories? Give your reasons. kk The complete listening comprehension test in the exam lasts about 30 minutes ~ make sure you remain alert during the second listening, even if the recordings are not particularly interesting to listen to. Practise doing exam-style tests by using the cassettes that accompany one of the Cambridge Proficiency Examination Practice Books. 285 TATA AST AC LC For each part of this section, work in pairs, taking turns to play the roles of ‘examiner’ and ‘candidate’ A Introductory phase MINER: Welcome the candidate, and ask a few general questions: © Where are you from? # How long have you been studying English? © What do you do? Tell me something about yourself, B Photograph EXAMINER: The candidate should be invited to discuss these questions: © How would you describe the people, the setting and what is going on? What has happened and why? How would you feel in this situatio What are your views on traffic in cities How is illegal parking dealt with in your country? What is the role of the police in modern society? 286 Passages EXAMINER: The candidate should be invited to: comment on the source of one of the texts © comment on its register (style) comment on the content and discuss any issues arising from it | WARNING ! PRIVATE PROPERTY VEHICLES PAR IT AUTHORITY MPED. FAILURE TO COMPLY WILL RENOER YOU LIABLE TO PROSECUTION, HAVE YOUR VEHICLE TOWED AWAY & IMPOUNDED, RELEASE FEE £90 CLAMPOOWN SECURITY BOURNEMOUTH $299 Prd HEAD OFFICE (0202) 429162 Private clampers have no special __On public highways the position permission or licence to ply their is clear cut. Police are authorised trade. Instead they work under to clamp vehicles and local obscure laws designed to stop authorities can pass bye-laws sheep straying, which date back to enabling them to do so or private the Middle Ages. contractors to do so on their behalf. 3 I was absolutely furious. This was the first time it had happened to me. I’d only left it for ten minutes and when I got back ... well, you can imagine how I felt. Anyway, I phoned the number on the sticker and about an hour later along came this white van, driven by a very tough- looking man in some sort of uniform. £35 plus VAT — and, yes, they do take pl c, believe it or not tok In the examination the examiner will be awarding you marks for: FLUENCY GRAMMATICAL ACCURACY PRONUNCIATION OF PROSODIC FEATURES (Stress, rhythm and intonation) PRONUNCIATION OF INDIVIDUAL SOUNDS INTERACTIVE COMMUNICATION VOCABULARY RESOURCE Try to give a good impression of your spoken English. Don’t just wait to be asked questions ~ behave and speak as you would in a real conversation. Each part of the interview is based on the same general topic, but you won't lose marks if you go off at a tangent, D_ Communication activity 4 EXAMINER: Ask the candidate to discuss which of the measures listed below are DOs and which are DON'Ts for rich people who want to stay safe Which of the Dos are most important and which DON'Ts are the most risky? Give your reasons. One of the problems about being successful is that you may become rich and famous and thus become a target for kidnappers, who may take you hostage and demand an enormous ransom for your release... HOW NOT TO BE KIDNAPPED. Travel in isolated areas Keep to a set routine at work or on holiday Keep a low profile Make reservations in your own name Carry identification documents and medical details Park in protected areas Carry luggage with your name and address on it Stop at the same bar/restaurant/park on your way home Tell family and friends where you are going Vary your route to and from the office Arrive early for appointments Arrive exactiy on time at airports and stations Arrange covert signals to use with family on phone Be suspicious of everybody you don’t know Think it could never happen to you Find out about ihe politics of any country you visit Ignore the possibility of danger to your family 2 EXAMINER: Ask the candidate to discuss these questions ‘Just supposing you or a member of your family were kidnapped and the criminals/bandits/terrorists demanded far more money than you could possibly pay, what would you do? ¢ What punishment would you recommend for a convicted kidnapper? How can would-be kidnappers be deterred from perpetrating such a crime? One last word: | do hope you've enjoyed using Progress to Proficiency and I'd ike to wish you the best of luck in your examination. Best Wishes, (os Jame Communication Activities 1 This is the first part of the article: At first light my tent collapsed examine my motives. around me; blown out of the Before I'd set out, I'd accepted ground by a Force 9 gale. I that walking a long distance crawled out to find summer had footpath wouldn't be a normal disappeared for good, kicked in holiday. Imean, I wasn’t doing it the teeth with aboot thathad _for the girls, the glamour and the flattened everything from night life. In fact P'd convinced insects to trees. In minutesI _ myself a journey like this would was drenched and there was awaken Senses in me that years nothing I could do but start of travelling by motor ear had walking. blunted. I had a lightweight tent Tkept going all day; so did the and sleeping bag, a little stove storm. That afternoon totally and some waterproofs, and I was despondent, I trudged into set for a week or two of getting Newport and took shelter ina _back to basics. launderette. I sat there in socks and shorts and tried to re- It was only after P'd completed the path ten days later that I came to realise how, on a walk of any distance, the bad times are as frequent as the good, and the sense of achievement at the journey’s end is, more often than not, the result of some hard work. Certainly, the postcards I sent from that North Coast all read like suicide notes - “I can’t take it any more, I've had enough ... ete.” ~ and all I gained from those first few days was a strange discoloration of the toes, which I could only diagnose as trenchfoot and the knowledge that there’s no truth in the term “waterproof”. Using body language If you want to seem friendly and cooperative, look at the other person's face, smile and nod when they are talking, have open hands and uncrossed arms and legs, lean forward slightly or move closer to them. If you want to appear confident, look into their eyes, don't blink, keep your hands away from your face, stay still and don't make sudden movements. If you want to appear thoughtful, tilt your head to one side, stroke your chin or pinch the bridge of your nose, lean forward to speak and back to listen and keep your legs still. (from So you think you can cope with customers? — A Video Arts Guide) 289 ty ee or oe 4 Find out about your partner’s photo by asking questions: What's going on in your photo? What's going to happen next? How would you like to be doing the same thing? = Before you begin your conversation, note down THREE MORE questions to ask. 290 This is the next paragraph of the story in 6.2: |The hotel people began to be more pleased with me t00, 60 I thought Mr Yorum must be quite an important man. Several more times on other days [ told them I didn't understand Turkish, and each time they rang Mr Yorum and he came, and sometimes I paid for the drinks and | sometimes he did. He and the hotel staff must have thought I had taken | a great fancy to him or else that I was working up to some deal I wanted to do with him. The fourth time he came I had a bright idea that I would give him one of the missionary manuals that aunt Dot had left behind in) her rucksack, because I thought each manual which I got rid of would lighten the rucksack. How red wine is made Ingredients: grape juice, grape skins and stems 1 After the grapes have been picked they are taken to the winery where they are put into a machine which crushes them and removes the stems, but not the skins and pips*. This end product is called must. It takes 3kg of grapes to make one bottle of wine. 2 The must is emptied into tanks or vats. The grape skins have their own natural yeasts which ferment with the sugar in the grape juice to produce alcohol and carbon dioxide. During fermentation, the skins and pips form a thick layer on the surface. 8 Fermentation stops after a week or so. The new wine is drained off and the residue of skins and pips is pressed to extract another 20%. 4 Wine for everyday drinking is stored in glass-lined cement or stainless steel tanks: the secondary fermentation takes place, making the wine softer and rounder before it is ready to be bottled. Quality wine is often aged in oak casks, which imparts a special flavour to the wine. 5 During ageing the wine is racked - treated with egg white or another substance to carry the sediment to the bottom of the cask. 6 The wine is bottled, capped and labelled by machine. Quality wines can be further aged in their bottles, but everyday wine is ready for drinking right away. * To make white wine, the juice is immediately separated from the skins and pips. It is separated after a day or less to make rosé wine. Model summary for 8.6 B: Although he claims to have ‘the world’s most wonderful job’, Michael Buerk seems to have had some awful experiences. In Bl Salvador, for example, he was caught in the middle of a gun battle and had to crouch in terror in a ditch - compared to this a night in a Turkish jail and being seasick in a lobster boat seem almost luxurious! He says that his worst experience was a sleepless night in northern Ethiopia searching unsuccessfully for a scorpion in his room. In Ethiopia, again, he witnessed terrible human suffering - an experience which changed his way of looking at the world. 291 7 Describe the scheme advertised here to your partner. You should do this in your own words, but feel free to quote the odd line if you wish mm Or. PNG Me A Nabi hs 292 | Your behaviour creates an impression People gain a general impression of you trom a combination of your facial expression and head movements, your gestures with your hands and arms, and the rest of your body including your legs. | They will tend to see you as defensive if you avoid looking at them, | clench your hands or cross your arms, keep rubbing an eye, ear or | your nose, lean away from them, cross your legs or Swivel your feet | towards the door. They will tend to see you as anxious if you blink frequently, lick your lips, keep clearing your throat, put your hand over your mouth while you are speaking, tug at your ear, fidget in your chair or move your feet up and down. (from So you think you can cope with customers? ~ A Video Arts Guide) 9 Study these diagrams, then explain the process to your partner *& THE REFRIGERATOR x EVAPORATION & COOLING Connensee rire EyAnpannce, }o'R Liquio, WHE ATOMS ¢ mocéCua ae DNeie pen gu He Arora ee ——) Pee Seon edule = Sache nfeoen ve oeacot a Inne FORCES TAT ATTRACT THE [ATOMS & MOLECULES TOGETHER.LT a Ty this ENERGY) IN THE FORM OF Cc HEAT. THAT IS EXTRACTED FROM THE 5) eesTRicriOn, SURROUNDINGS PRODUCES THE Coon EFFECT OF EVAPORATION, VALVE , GAS 4 t Berteren crea jd THE FRIDGE CYCLE TRE GAS 15 PIPED BACK TOA, sce eneatun Pure, WHERE IT Gers THE UQuIO UNDER PRESSURE Waeseeo & MEMTED. Qe ees reste ce CaroESSED & wEASED RESTRICTION VALVE. TRE GAS, Wow Hor, COOLS & AS IT EVAPORATES TO GAS CONDENSES BACK TO A LIQUID, THE APES GET VERY COLD, STILL UNDER PRESSURE, INSULATION ALL FRIDGES ARE SURRDUNDED gr A i Tick. BLANEY OF INSULATION USUALLY A PLASTIC FOAM OR FIBREGLASS, TRC PRINCIPLE OF THESE MATERIALS ITO TRAP _AS Pues AiR RS POSSIELE BECAUSE AIR Is A BETTER INSULATOR THAN ALAOST ANY SOUS MATERIAL. ro PREVENT ANY OUD AIR LERKING Jour, FRIDGES HAVE M FLEXIGLE MAGNET STRIP INSIDE THE REBER DOOR SEAL. TH'S PULLS THE RUBEER INTO CONTACT LTH THE FRAME [10 FORM AN RIRTIGHT SEAL ALL JC IAY ROUNDS 1Q Rupert Brooke (1887-1915) became an officer a the outbreak ofthe First World War in 1914. He died of blood poisoning from a mosquito bite on his way to the Turkish front by ship, and never saw active service. He was buried on the Greek island of Skyros. His best-known poems are patriotic and romantic, contrasting with the bitterness of Owen and Sassoon Rupert Brooke 293 11 Study these ideas and then ask your partners the questions: Taps and showers Think of the hot and cold water taps you have used How do you know which is which? Which side is hot? Is it always that side? ‘Think of the showers you have used: * How do you know how to turn it on? How do you know how to make it hotter? How do you know how to increase the flow? © Do they all follow these conventions? increase/more | “4 reduce/less $ _* © Have you ever been scalded in a shower? Was it your fault or the designer's? Sounds Sounds can provide feedback © What noise does a zip make? If a zip was silent, what difference would it make? ‘¢ How can you tell ifa car door isn’t closed properly ~ does the driver have to look or can you hear the rattle? ‘¢ What other sounds can you think of that provide feedback when you're using a piece of equipment? 12 294 Describe this picture to your partner. Find out about your partner’s picture by asking the same questions as you discussed in 13.8 A. Edward Hopper: ‘Suntight in a Cafeteria’, 1958 13 Ask your partner these questions about his or her passage: © Where do you think the passage comes from? Who was it written for? @ What is it about? ¢ What is your reaction to it? = Then answer your partner’s questions about this passage: IF YOU are comfortably settled in your beach-chairs, give a sigh of gratitude, and a guilty start, that you were born when you were Seventy-five years ago this August summer's day your grandfathers were marching off to what they did not know would be the Great War, the smashing of the world the nineteenth century had created. Fifty years ago your fathers were pulling on their ammunition boots in preparation for an even greater war, because of the demons unleashed by the first one. On this double anniversary - of 1914 and 1939, look around your holiday beach for the ghosts of the myriad unborn, whose would-be fathers and grandfathers never had the chance to give them life. 14 Ask your partner to tell you about the two passages he or she has: Which seems the better film and why? What kind of publication does your partner think the passages came from? => Then answer your partner’s questions about these passages: MIDNIGHT RUN French/Portuguese Staring Rober De Niro, Charles Grodin Jock Walsh (De Niro), a private detective, is offered 100,000 dollars tofind and retum “Duke” Mardukos {Grodin}, accountantio the mob, who has jumped bailin Los Angeles candled to New York Catching the Duke seems simple unt Walsh realises the accountant hos aphobia ol fying and must be transported back overlond. What's more, thereisc sting of Fi agents cond gangsters who want the Duke as desperately os he does, ond wil stop otnoting to gethim DeNiro displays a new comic side fois acting whichis o perfect match io Grodin who gives the best performance ofhis coreerin this comedy adventure WORKING GIRL 110 mins Storing Melanie Grifith, Horison Ford, Sigouney Weaver Tess MeGil(Griith] sa sheet smart working gid who's demonstrated the Use of her brains and talento pull herselfout ofthe secretarial pool cond into the upper echelons of New York brokeroge industry ‘When her high powered boss, Katherine Parker (Weaver, is hospitalised, Tess has the perfect ‘opportunity fo step up the corporate. ladder and even finds herself doting herboss's ex-fiance —Jack Trainer (Fore, But Parkerisnever far oway ‘ond proves to be avicious enemy when she realises whatis going ont 295 15 Find out about your partner's tastes in music, entertainment and the arts by asking these questions: © Who are your favourite painters? Why do you enjoy / not enjoy looking at painting © What are your favourite operas? Why do you enjoy / not enjoy opera? What are your favourite pieces of classical music? Why do you enjoy / not enjoy listening to classical music? Who are your favourite popular singers or groups? Why do you enjoy / not enjoy pop or rock mus Who are your favourite film stars? Why do you enjoy / not enjoy the cinema? What are your favourite TV programmes? Why do you enjoy / not enjoy watching television? = Then answer your partner’s questions about your own tastes. 16 296 Study this still in silence for a few moments, so that you can describe it in detail to your partner, What appears to be happening? What might have happened earlier and what might happen later? What kind of film is it from? "> First of all, ask your partner the same questions about his or her picture 17 Handling customers well The benefits of handling customers well are two-fold. Firstly, your job becomes more rewarding, as you are developing your techniques while using them and thus feel your job is really worthwhile. Secondly, your customers go away happy, which underlines your pride in becoming more competent. Satisfied customers don't just come back to your firm again, they tend to look for you personally and they also tell their friends to seek you out. (from So you think you can cope with customers? — A Video Arts Guide) 18 Look at this reproduction of a Victorian ‘narrative painting’, Tell your partners what you think is the story behind this picture. Their paintings show different parts of the same story. Then work out how the three scenes fit together and what events must have happened in between each scene. Decide on a suitable title for each of the paintings, and for the complete story 297 19 Your partner has the previous paragraph to this one: So I went and gor this manual, which was called “Why I belong to the Church of England”, and was slightly translated into Turkish, and I gave it to Mr Yorum, who thanked me and looked at it with surprise, and it must have dawned on him that I was a missionary and was trying to convert him and that this was why I kept sending for him. After that he must have told the hotel staff not to ring him for me again, for when I said please to telephone him at once they shrugged and threw out their hands and looked at me despisingly. Soon after this I looked at my phrasebook and saw what I had been saying all the time. 20 298 Imagine that you are part of a team planning a new series of history books for schools in your country. Which of the following topics would you want to teach children about? Which are the most important? Which did you learn about yourself at school? 20th century history Recent history — up to the present day The two World Wars Ancient history (Greek and Roman times) Prehistory The good things that happened in history Famous women in history Historical events seen from a woman's point of view, and as they affected women at the time Historical events seen from children's points of view, and as they affected children at the time International events seen from the point of view of your country, and as they affected your country at the time Inventions and discoveries Learning dates, and the names of kings, queens and presidents Projects on local history, encouraging pupils to do their own historical research Significant events in Asia, Latin America and Africa, Significant events in Europe and North America Significant events in your country's history The relevance of historical events to current affairs Understanding the causes of historical events, and their consequences 21 First answer your partner’s questions about your own tastes in music, entertainment and the arts. => Then find out about your partner’s tastes by asking these questions: © Who are your favourite composers? Why do you enjoy / not enjoy classical music? © Who are your favourite stage actors? Why do you enjoy / not enjoy going to the theatre? © Who are vour favourite film directors? Why do you enjoy / not enjoy the cinema? © What are your favourite musical shows? Why do you enjoy / not enjoy musicals? © What are your favourite ballets? Why do you enjoy / not enjoy ballet and dance? © Who are vour favourite sportsmen and women? Why do you enjoy / not enjoy watching sports 22 Find out about your partner’s photo by asking questions : © What's happening in your photo? What happened before the photo was taken? ‘¢ How are the people feeling do you think? "> Before you start the conversation, note down THREE MORE questions to ask 299 23 How beer is brewed Ingredients: water, malted barley, hops and yeast 1 Barley is germinated under controlled conditions, which brings out its sweetness, and then baked: the longer it is baked the darker and more caramelised it becomes. This malt is then milled and sent to the brewery. 2 At the brewery the malt is mixed with water and boiled. 3 The liquid, called the wort, is strained off and piped into another container where hops are added and it is boiled again in a kettle. Hops add flavour and bitterness to the product, 4 The liquid is strained and cooled and then piped to a fermenting vessel, where a special yeast is added. Fermentation takes place, turning the natural sugar in the mait into alcohol and carbon dioxide. This takes about five days. 5 The beer is filtered and piped into cold sealed tanks where secondary fermentation takes place, improving the flavour of the beer and giving it ‘character’. 6 The beer is strained off and then bottled or piped into metal casks or kegs ready to be delivered. 24 300 Retell this news story in your own words, beginning: There was Hang-glider and eagle in Alpine air battle The Italian Alps when he spotted an were recently the eagle circling above scene of an eerie air him. But before he battle between an could dodge it, the eagle and an bird came for the unfortunate hang- glider slashing its glider who had wings with its beak strayed into eagle and claws. The eagle territory. attacked four or five Fabio Valentini, times as Signor aged 30, was sailing Valentini struggled over the Dolomites to escape. 25 cli-ché /*kli:fer; US kli:tfer/ n (a) (C) phrase or idea which is used so often that it has become stale or meaningless: a cliché-ridden style. (b) [U] use of such phrases: Cliché isa feature of bad journalism. irony /'ararant/ n 1 (U] expression of one's meaning by saying the direct opposite of one’s thoughts in order to be emphatic, amusing, sarcastic, etc: ‘That's really lovely, that is!" he said with heavy irony. 2(U, C) situation, event, etc that is desirable in itself but so unexpected or ill-timed that it appears to be deliverately perverse: the irony of fate © He inherited a fortune but died a ‘month later; one of life's little ironies. pro-verb /'provsib/ n short well-known saying that states a general truth or gives advice, eg ‘It takes two to make a quarrel’ or ‘Don't put all your eggs in one basket’: the Book of Proverbs, ie one of the books of the Old Testament containing the proverbs of Solomon. sar-casm /'sa:kaezom/ n (U) (use of) bitter, esp ironic, remarks intended to wound sb’s feelings: ‘her constant sarcasm about his poor work. © sar-eastic /sa:'keestik/ (also infml sarky)adj of or using sarcasm: a sarcastic person, tone, remark. sar-cast-ic-ally /-klt/ adv. slo-gan /'siaugan/ n word or phrase that is easy to remember, used as a motto eg by a political party, or in advertising: political slogans © ‘Power to the people’ is their slogan. (from the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary) 26 PAPER ACTEAS A FILTER RAPPING DIRT GAT LETTING AiR PRSS (Finns 18076 OF finan vine g unc TINCT RIRSUTURROS og CUMS eur nes TO CHANNEL IT 6ACK TD THE MIDDLE AGAIN: Study these diagrams, then explain the process to your partner. w&THE VACUUM CLEANER & iA SUCKED ROUGH MIDDLE OF MoTOR ITO OMOR UNITS $0, THEY 0 TEND Tp LAST LESS LONE THAW MOST OTHER SORTS or meron, 301 27 Study these ideas and then ask your partners the questions: Doors Most doors have to be pushed or pulled: © Isit necessary to have PUSH written on every door? The design can clearly indicate what to do, e.g. an easily visible handle to pull on one side and No handle on the other side. Watch people going in and out of some modern buildings: do they make mistakes with the doors? ¢ Have you ever pushed instead of pulled? Was it your fault or the designer's? © Some doors open both ways, but how can you tell? Revolving doors: © If they aren’t already moving, how do you know which way to push? Do they always go round clockwise or do they go anti-clockwise? ‘And what about automatic doors: # How do people know that a door is automatic and doesn’t need pushing? If it's ‘obvious’, why is this so? Have you ever pushed an automatic door? Clocks and watches Think of the digital watches or clock-radios you have used. © How many different functions do they have? * Can you make them do everything they’re supposed to do? Or do you have to consult the instruction booklet? © Have you ever set the alarm wrong? Was it your fault or the designer's? 28 302 Prepare to answer these questions about the passage: © Where do you think the passage comes from? When was it write © Whatis it about? © What is your reaction to it? In 1652 Daniel Edwards, an English merchant, opened the first coffee-house | in London. Others soon followed. Before long coffee-houses became centres | of political intrigue. Indeed, their political influence grew so strong that in 1675 Charles Il tried to suppress them. Closed down by Royal Decree, they | were re-opened after only ten days as a result of a public outery. In these | coffee-houses there were boxes on the floor for gratuities to waiters. Such boxes used to be labelled “To insure promptness”, the initial letters of which | are believed to be the origin of the word ‘tip’. | By the beginning of the 18th century there were some 2,000 coffee- | houses in London alone. Most famous of all is that of Edward Lloyd, from | whose clientele - predominantly marine underwriters — grew Lloyd’s world- | famous insurance business. | - a "> Then ask your partner the same questions about his or her passage. 29 Find out about your partner’s picture by asking the same questions as you discussed in 13.8 A. Describe this picture to your partner. Edward Hopper: Conference at night’, 1949 30 Colocation | kola'kerfan||,ka:! n tech 1 {U] the way 'm which some words regularly collocate with others 2 ‘Cla habitual combination of words which sounds nat ural: “Strong coffee" is a typical collocation in English Dut “powerful coffee” is not. — see next page irony ;‘axarani/ m1 [U] use of words which are clearly ‘opposite to one's meaning, usu. either in order to be amusing oF to show annoyance (eg. by saying “What charming behaviour” when someone has been rude) compare sarcasm 2 (C:U] a course of events or & condition which has the opposite result from what is ex pected, usu. a bad result: We went on holiday so Greece Ddecause we thought the weather was certain to be good, and it rained almost every dav: she irony of itis, that at the same time there was a heat-wave back at home! com- are PARADOX; See also DRAMATIC IRONY Jar-gon /*dso:gon}-0:r- -za:n) n (C.U] often derog dif cult or strange language which uses words known only to the members of a certain group: computer jargon|the Jargon of the advertising business platitude ;‘pleitju:dii-tu:d/ n derag a statement that 1s true but not new, interesting, or clever: a very unin- spiring speech full of platitudes compare cLicié, COm- MONPLACE’ —¢udinous /,plat!Hjurdines\-"tu) adj Proverb 'provs:bi'pra:va:rb/ na short well-known, supposedly Wise, saying usu. in simple language: "Don’t ‘put all your eg in one basket” is a prover’, (from the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) 303 31 120 mins Starring Sigourney Weover In 1966 Dione Fossey, orelatvely edresearcher, accepts 0 inexperi ‘post in the Congo to study the endangered mountcin gorile of centro! Arco, Ignoring all previous advice to observe from ofar, she actualy infiltrates the gorila group ‘ore data on pes than any other researcher before her and avickly becomes on Intemational celebrity through the Notional Geographic mogazine. condi able to col Twice forsaking comantic interests, she gives her wholelile1o the gorllos using every means at her dispose! to protect them from ppoachersand entrepreneurs, ulimately losing her ie inthe process. Answer your partner’s questions about these passages: GORILLAS IN THE MIST resultin Oscor nominations for Sigourney Weaver. TWINS 108 mins Starring Amold Schwarzenegger, Danay DeVito A genetic experiment designed io produce he ulate superior infant hason unexpected outcome when notone baby's bom, but wo! The ‘wins ore separated ot bith and only re-united mony yeors later. Julvs| {Schworeenegger] and Vincent (DeVito) —the unlkeiest wins ever— tembark on a joumey to nd the mother they never knew. Schwworzenegger proveshe's more thon just beelcake and DeVito tums in another hilarious performance. Enthraling drama which should => Then ask your partner to tell you about the two passages he or she has: Which seems the better film and why? What kind of publication does your partner think the passages came from? 32 My big mistake was to walk the path from North to South right into the teeth of the gale. Nights, Ispent clinging to the tent poles and days, plodding along the monstrous cliff tops, where waves hit the rocks below with such force I was sprayed with foam thirty metres up. The wind was ridiculous, it blew a gap between me and my rucksack and forced me to walk at an angle of 45 degrees, just to keep upright. Meanwhile, walkers heading in the other direction sailed past with a shout anda wave, unable to keep up with themselves. Finally, just before St David's Head, a gust of wind blew me This is the middle part of the article: uncomfortably close to the edge and like the many exhausted sea birds ’d seen along the way, I too, decided to turn inland. They took refuge in the woods and rocks on the headland; I opted for the back room at Mrs Thomas's, ‘The Gables, St Davids. B&B £12.50, Bath 50p extra. Toast cooked on one side only. St Davids is supposed to be the smallest city in Britain; indeed, it’s no bigger than a village and was a pleasant place to rest up and weather out the remainder of the storm. Next day I strolled around the streets hearing snippets of Welsh conversation in the shops and wondering if all Cities were once as pretty as this, until in the afternoon the sun finally made an appearance and I headed back towards the coast, feeling a lot happier. After the table-top bleakness and struggle of the North, the West Coast had a serendipitous quality that was wonderfully refreshing. I began to round headlands and find off-shore islands, basking, and breathtaking beaches, such as ‘Marloes Sands, curving away into the distance. Villages, like Little Haven and St Brides Haven would appear tucked into hillsides, and I'd come across tidal inlets, where all I could do was sit on a rock and wait till it. was possible to wade across. 304 33 Study this still in silence for a few moments, so that you can describe it in detail to your partner, What appears to be happening? What might have happened earlier and what might happen later? What kind of film is it from? ™ Ask your partner the same questions about his or her picture. 34 For three days the walking was a joy, as I strode around St Brides Bay and the Dale Peninsula. The nights, too, were peaceful and I found some really wild places to camp. Then early one morning I rounded St Ann's Head and came into Milford Haven; as I did so the sun went in. Nelson once called this harbour the finest he'd ever seen. Twenty-five years ago, the major oil companies came to the same conclusion and built the second largest oil refinery in Europe on its shores. Jetties ‘This is the last part of the article: and pipelines snake far out into the deep-water channel, collections of oil tanks sit on the hillsides iike caravan sites, and the horizon is broken with the dark silhouettes of refineries and power stations. It's a sort of industrial Disneyland, and I walked through it for a while, awestruck. But after a mile or two it seemed a bit daft, and in the end I caught a bus. Not until the path turned South again, past West Angle Bay did it recapture its cragey beauty, but soon after that the restricted military area around Castlemartin caused a lengthy diversion inland and it was St Govan’s Head before I was able to rejoin the coast By then the rain had returned and T saw little of the last stretch as I walked head down, until I bumped into Tenby. There, chil- dren in school uniform queued at bus stops with holidaymakers ~ the surest sign that summer is over. [had a cup of tea ina beach café and pressed on to the walk’s end at Amnroth Ithad taken me 11 days to travel 300 kilometres; five hours later Iwas back in London. 305 Look at this reproduction of a Victorian ‘narrative painting’. Tell your partners what you think is the story behind this picture, Their paintings show different parts of the same story. Then work out how the three scenes fit together and what events must have happened in between each scene, Decide on a suitable 35 title for each of the paintings, and for the complete story 36 306 Retell this news story in your own words, beginning: There was Rat runs amok on jumbo A PET white rat running loose aboard a Boeing 747 en route from New York to Athens caused confusion and alarm among 400 passengers yesterday. The rat, named Spiro, was asleep in its owner's travel bag for most of the flight but awoke while breakfast was being served and made its escape down the aisle. Spiro’s owner eventually managed to cateh the rat, but sadly, on the orders of the captain, Spiro was confiscated for the rest of the flight and later destroyed. Conveying live animals on flights contravenes inter- national regulations. 37 Wilfred Owen (1893-1918) served for three years in Flanders as an officer. He was killed by machine-gun fire on November 8th 1918, just a few days before the Armistice. Owen’s poems on the futility and horror of modern warfare were not published until after the war. Wilfred Owen 38 Bird brained A YEAR-long search by a British naturalist, Dick Watling, in Fiji for a bird thought to be extinct, ended when it crashed on his head. The bird, known as MacGillivray’s petrel, was recorded Retell this news story in your own words, beginning: There mas for the first and last time 129 years ago. Mr Watling lured one in at night from the sea using flashlights and recordings. It crashed on his head and after examining the bird he let it go. 39 cliché /kiiser/, clichés; also spelled ellche. A cliché is an idea, expression, or way of behaving has been used so much that it is no longer ‘original or effective; used showing disapproval, xo -sentimental clichés about ‘peace’ and ‘the open air. How true is the old cliché that trouble shows us who our friends really are?...1 wanted to get right away from the usual clichés of bistorial films. collocation jkols’ker/>n/ is the way that some words occur regularly whenever another word is used; a technical word in linguists, Jargon /dsage'n/ is language containing words that {are used ih special or technical ways, Jargon is used {o talk about particular subjects or by particular ‘groups of people. so She could explain it without Tecourse 10 the jargon of psychoanalysis. 1 have endeavoured (0 avoid boring legal jargon in this book TFlattuoe words Language, parance Platitude /pletyjzd/, platitudes. A platitude isa ‘statement which is considered boring and unsatistac- tory because it hes been made many times before in similar situations; a rather formal word. ae Given his liking for platitudes, he might well have added that, ita job was worth doing, it was worth doing well. empty platitudes about democracy. sarcastic /sa:kwstk/. Someone who Is sarcastic ‘uses words to mean the opposite of what they seem fo say in order to mock or insult someone. a Although she had been crying earlier, she seemed her usual sarcastic self at dinner.» used of a person's ‘speech of actions. ws Her remarks can at limes be Ditterly sarcastic. He twwrned to me with a superior ‘and sarcastic smile. ¢ sarcastically. a ‘Do you mind if ake notes?’ said Stuart sarcastically slogan /sizugs’n/, slogans. A slogan is a short, auy-remanered pareve which sed macverti= ing and by politcal peres and other groups who stant peopl'to remember what they ae saying oF Selling, wo 1 read wit) horror the racist slogans Scratched on walls throughout. the city. EF Schumacher coined the Slogan ‘smalls Deaitu weet, be salty porwr Piel 9 aay us (from Collins convitn English Language Dictionary) 307 AQ) Study these ideas and then as your partners the questions Switches and knobs: Think of the electrical equipment you use: © How easy was it for you (and the other members of your family) to learn to use each piece of equipment? © Can you still make them do everything they’re supposed to do? Or do you have to consult the instruction booklet? * Do you have to look at the labels, or can you intuitively see which switch does what? Do they all follow these conventions: increase/more f “® reduce/less } \_* © And what about the ON switch? Which way does it go: } or _# or f or or or + ? Does it make a helpful click or not? Have you ever used the wrong switch? Was it your fault or the designer's? Numbers Make a list of all the numbers you have to remember, or need to look up quite often, e.g. post codes, other people’s birthdays, passport number, etc © How many are there? How many can you remember without looking them up? ¢ Have you ever got any of these numbers wrong? Was it your fault or was it a completely unmemorable number? © Do you have a special technique for remembering numbers? 4.1 Thssearemodel answers to the questions in 34 Before 1803 it was not against the law for a woman to have an abortion. Before 1832 some women were allowed to vote, but then a law was passed disenfranchising all women. Before the 1831-72 Factory Acts there was no control over the hours that women worked in factories or over the conditions they had to work under. Moreover, there were no limits on night working. Before 1882, if a woman was married, she didn’t have right to own property, Before 1918 women couldn’t vote in elections During the wars, women were needed in the factories, and they took over men’s jobs and were given more responsibility. Nurseries were provided so that mothers could enter the workforce. After the wars, when the men returned from fighting, women had to return to low-status jobs or to the home as the men reclaimed their old jobs. The nurseries were closed down and women were now asked to believe that their children would suffer if they went out to work. 308 4.2 Look at this reproduction of a Victorian ‘narrative painting’ Tell your partners what you think is the story behind this picture. Their paintings show different parts of the same story. Then work out how the three scenes fit together and what events must have happened in between each scene. Decide on a suitable title for each of the paintings, and for the complete story Siegfried Sassoon (1886-1967) served as an officer on the Wester front in Flanders throughout the war. He survived the war and hi collected poems include many written during the Second World War too. He collected and published his friend Wilfred Owen’s poems 1920, A.A, Thisisthe passage on which the note in 7.8 A are based THE GREEN CONSUMER As we rush towards the end of the century, we are all more concerned about how we live, what we eat, what we consume in all senses of the word. We are concerned about the effects our consumer lifestyle is having on our own health, of course. But we are also concerned about the knock-on effects of what we are doing on the local environment, on people in the Third World and on the planet itself. One of the liabilities of living in a free society, where almost anything can be advertised and sold, is that false, ‘plastic’ needs very often force out real needs. But many consumers are no longer prepared to accept this situation: they want to buy responsible products and they want to buy them from responsible companies. The new breed of Green Consumer is leading this groundswell. They are demanding more information about the environmental performance of products, about the use of animal testing and about the implications for the Third World. They want to know the story behind what they buy. They want to know how things are made, where and by whom, And more and more people are joining their ranks. We have already seen the effect of concerned consumers on the food industry. People today want to know what is in what they eat and drink. Now the time has come to mobilise consumer power to tackle an even more important set of problems. This time it is not simply a question of our own personal health, but of the health of the planet itself. (from the Foreword by Anita Roddick to The Green Consumer Guide by John Elkington & Julia Hailes) 45 Don’t use aggressive behaviour People will tend to see you as aggressive and overbearing if you stare at them, raise your eyebrows in disbelief, look at them over the top of your spectacles, or smile in a ‘heard it all before’ way; or if you point at them, thump your fist on the table, stride around or ‘stand while they are seated; or, if you are seated, lean right back in your chair with your hands behind your head and your legs splayed. (from So you think you can cope with customers? — A Video Arts Guide) 310 AG _ Desztibe the scheme advertised here to vour partner. You should do this in your own words, but feel free to quote the add line if you wish. Turn your IDEAS “inlo- elds aye : th sell Poca oreo lyse 208 OFT an nnn inventor ‘Want tokoow how tO ER? : ae Well, it elt Topeens one Yoyo wan etiting reading a book in my tounge at home In'Dollis: ‘Hil, London. ‘ _ ‘was happily: engrotsed in Chapter 3. when suddenly the - 311 Acknowledgements he author and publishers are grateful to the authors, publishers and others who have given permission for the use of copyright material identified in the text. It has not been possible t identify the sources of all the material used and in such cases the publishers would welcome information from copyright ow ners, The Guaridian for the use of the following articles, all © The Guardian: 1.2 David Stafford (4.8.91); 3.1 Margaret Horsfield (24.91); 7.10 Mark Tran (9.1.90); 8.2 p.114 Andrew Rawnsley (28.11.90); 9.7 Andrew Northedye (24.9.91); 9.9 Graham Wade (244.91); 10.4 Rupert Widdecambe (16.8.91); 11.4 Stephen Burgen (28.1.91) (adapted); 18.2E Maev Kennedy (3.1.92); the following journalists and correspondents whose articles and letters, appeared in The Guurdin: 14, CAL, CA32, CAM, Mark Wallington, 5.6 Catherine Mant, 6.8 Richard Boston, 12.6 Sir Clive Sinclair and Peter Smee. 14.2 Helen Chappell, 14.4 Jane McLoughlin, 16.2 Michaet O'Donnell; 1.6 Guy Hodgson and The Independent on Sunday, 7.2 Dave Hill and The Independent on Sunday 8.9 Simon Midgley and The Independent, 2.1 review by Maureen Cleave reproduced by permission of Pinch; 2.4 Jonathan Cape Ltd and the estate of Peter Fleming, for the extract from Brazilian ldventure by Peter Fleming; 3.4 Rogers, Coleridge and White for the extract from Women's Rights: A Practical Gunde by Anna Coote and Tess Gill; 3.9A. James MacGibbon, the executor, for the poem from The Callected Poems of Stevie Smith (Penguin 20th Century Classies) © 1972 Stevie Smith. Stevie Smith: Collected Poems of Smith, copyright © 1972 Stevie Smith, reprinted by permission of New Directions Publishing Corporation; 3.9A, 4.4(2) Tessa Sayle Agency for the poem *Epitaph’ bby Christopher Logue and the extract to the Introduction to his book New Vumbers; 4.2 Hodder & Stoughton Educational J.td for the extract from Language Made Plain by Anthony Burgess; +4(1) extract from the Preface to Communication in Face Face Interaction edited by John Laver and Sandy Hutchinson (Penguin Books, 1972}, Selection copyright © John Laver and Sandy Hutchinson,1972, Invroduction and Notes copyright © Joha Taver and Sandy Hutchinson, 1972; 44(3) extract from the Introduction to The English Language by David Crystal (Penguin Books, 1988) copyright © David Crystal 1988; 4.6 and 16.1 Innovations International Ftd; 5.3 article by James Allen © The Daily Telegraph ple. 1989 312 5.9C article by ‘Tom Rowland © The Daily Telegraph ple, 1989; 12.2 article by Andrew Marshall © The Dail) Telegraph ple, 1991; 5.7 and 10.9 Dorling Kindersley for the extract and information from Suve the Earth by Jonathon Porritt: 5.9 extract from “Lutheran Pie’ reprinted by permission of Garrison Keillor trom We are Still Murned (Viking Penguin, 1989), copyright © by Garrison Keillor, 6.2, CA4, CAI9 extract from The Tuirers af Trebizond by Rose Macaulay reproduced with the permission of the Peters Fraser and Dunlop Group Ltd. and © Futura, an imprint of HarperCollins Publishers T.td; 6.6 the estract from “The Eriendly Sky from Hunting Mr Hearthreak by Jonathan Raban by permission of Harvill, an imprint of HarperCollins Publishers Ltd, excerpts from Hunting Mr Heartbreak by Jonathan Raban copyright © 1991 by Jonathan Raban, reprinted by permission of HarperCollins Publishers; 7.6 The Advertising Standards Authority: 7.8 and CAd4 Victor Gollancz Lid, John Elkington and Julia Hailes for the extract from The Green Consumer Guide and Anita Roddick for the introduction to the same book; 7.11 The Baurnemouth Advertiser: 8.1. The Guardar, The Economist, The Independent, The Sun, The Times, The Mirror for the mastheads: 8.2, 16.8, 18.43). CAL3 The Economist: 8.4 The Financial Times for the sthead; 8.6 Michael Buerk for the article from Airport magazine: 9.4 M.A. Uden for the article which first appeared in The Times; HarperCollins Publishers L.ul for 10.6 and 10.10 extracts from Life on Earth by David Attenborough, 10.8 extract from The Ark by Gerald Durrell, CA39 extract from Co COBUILD English Language Dictionary, 10.9 Joe Mitler for the use of his poem ‘Ifthe Earth were ..°: 11.24 extract from 4 Durk-ldupted Eye by Barbara Vine by permission of the Peters Fraser & Dunlop Group Ltd; 11.2B Martin, Secker & Warburg for the extract from Nice Mork by David Lodge, reproduced with permission of Curtis Brown Ltd, London, on behalf of David Lodge. Copyright © David Lodge 1988; 11.2C extract from Brazzaville Beach by William Boyd by permission of William Morrow & Co. Copyright © 1990 by William Boyd; 11.6(1) William Heinemann Led and Viking Penguin for the extract from The Grapes of HW nuth by John Steinbeck. Copyright 1939, renewed © 1967 by John Steinbeck. Used by permission of Viking Penguin, a division of Penguin Books USA Inc: 11.6(2) Aithen & Stone tor the extract from The Mosquito Coast by Paul Theroux; 12.8 excerpt from The Psychology af Things by Donald A. Norman, Copyright © | Donald 4. Norman. Reprinted by permission of Basic Books, a division of HarperCollins Publishers; 13.2 Rupert Hart-Davis, an imprint of HarperCollins Publishers for the extract from My Family and Other Animal reprinted with permission of Curtis Brown Ltd, London on behalf of Gerald Durrell. Copyright © Gerald M. Durrell 1956; Random Centu:y and Georges Borchardt Inc. for the extract from The Cement Garden by Ian McEwan, reprinted by permission of Georges Borchardt Inc. on behalf of the author, copyright © 1978 by Ian McEwan; Hamish Hamilton Ltd and GP. Putnams Sons for the extract from My Secret History by Paul Theroux. Reprinted by permission of the Putnam Publishing Group, Copyright © 1989 by Cape Cod Scrivener’s Company; 134A Martin Secker & Warburg for the extract from Hilt by Tom Sharpe; 13.-4C Faber and Faber Ltd, Nigel Williams Ltd, Judy Daish Associates Ltd and Faber & Faber Inc. for the extract from The Wimbledon Poisoner by Nigel Williams; 15.1 extract from Hollywood, the Pioneers by Kevin Brownlow reprinted by permission of the Peters Fraser & Dunlop Group Ltd; 15.7 this extract is reproduced from The Shock of the New by Robert Hughes with the permission of BBC Enterprises Ltd; 15.8B Jonathan Cape and the Peters Fraser & Dunlop Group Ltd for the excerpt from Visions before Midnight by Clive James; 16.10 William Heinemann Ltd and the Peters Fraser & Dunlop Group Ltd for the extract from Delight by J.B. Priestley; 17.2 ‘Futility’ by Wilfred Owen is reprinted from Wilfred Owen. The Complete Poems and Fragments edited by John Stallworthy and published by Chatto and Windus; 17.2 George Sassoon and Penguin USA for ‘The General’ from Collected Poems by Siegfried ‘Sassoon. Copyright 1918, 1920 by E.P. Dutton. Copyright 1936, 1946, 1947, 1948 by Siegfried Sassoon. used by permission of Viking Penguin, a division of Penguin Books USA Inc.; 17.3 A.P, Watt on behalf of ‘The Trustees of the Robert Graves Copyright Trust for the extract from Goodbye to All That by Robert Graves; 17.6 extract from The Times Atlas of World History reproduced by kind permission of Times Books; 18.1 University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate for the answer sheet instructions; 18.2A Victor Gollancz Ltd and Crossroads/Continuum for the excerpt from Crowds and Power by Elias Canetti; 18.2B, 18.4, CA9, CA26 Channel Four Television for ‘Commuters’ and ‘Traffic’ from Cities Fit co Live in by Barrie Sherman, and ‘The Refrigerator’ and ‘The Vacuum Cleaner’ by Tim Hunkin from The Secret Life of the Vacuum Cleaner ;18.2C, 18.6C(2) Andrew Bordiss for extracts from the article which first appeared in the Sunday Correspondent; CA2, CA8, CA17, CA45 Methuen London for the excerpts from So you think you can cope ith customers? A Video Arts Guide; CAT, CA46 Barclays Bank ple; CA24 Agence France Presse; CA25 Oxford University Press for the excerpt from the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictimary; CA28 Nestlé UK. Ltd; CA30 Longman Group UK Ld for the extracts from the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English CA38 Reuters Ltd. For permission to reproduce photographs: pp. 3 (top left), 48 (top right, far right and bottom right), 50, 65, 76 (SmithKline Beecham Consumer Brands/Mellhenny Co.), 191, 203 Jeremy Pembrey; p. 3 (right) Tim Graham/Camera Press, (bottom left) Dave Stewart/Fotofusion; p.1] Michael Stecle/ The Independent; photographs of the interviewees on pp. 14, 24, 66, 73, 95, 118, 135, 147, 174, 221, 226 Peter Taylor; p. 19 Hallam Murray/John Murray Publishers Ltd; p. 24 (left) Douglas Dickens; pp. 48 (top far left and lefi), 127 (right), 258 (bottom) Bill Godfrey; pp. 48 (bottom left), 189, 287 Leo Jones; p. $1 Neil Libbert/ ‘Camera Press; p. 71 by permission of Paulette Maisner; p. 85 Len Bordeaux, Bordeaux Photography Inc., Seattle/Pan Macmillan; p. 88 The Guardian; p.92 Tony Stone Worldwide; p. 94 (top left Michael Short/Robert Harding Picture Library, (right) Robert Harding Picture Library, (bottom left) Peter Francis/Camera Press; p. 96 Enrico Ferorelli/ DOT/Colorific!; p. 99 (top) Timothy Woodcock Photolibrary, (bottom) Peter Francis/Camera Press, London; p. 100 Mitsukoshi Ltd for the photograph of Nihonbashi Store; p. 109 The Bournemouth Advertiser/ Benetton SPA; p. 112 (Far left) ‘Stewart Mark/Camera Press Ltd, (others) Conservative Central Office; p.120 BBC Enterprises © BBC 1989; p. 127 (left) Howard J. Davies/Panos Pictures; p.130 (left) Cory Bevington/Fotofusion, (right) Timothy Woodcock Photolibrary; p. 141 Simon Grossett/Frank Spooner Pictures; p. 145 Russell-Cotes Art Gallery and Museum, Bournemouth/ photograph by Harold Morris; p. 147 (right) Frangois Gohier/ Ardea; pp. 152, 244, 251 (photograph by Max Halberstadt, Sigmund Freud copyrights, courtesy of W.E. Freud), 293, 307 ‘photograph by Jeffrey Morgan), 30° (painting by Glyn. Philpot) - all Mary Evans Picture Library; p. 159 (top left) Liba Taylor/The Hutchison Library, (top right) Michael Harvey/Panos Pictures, (centre left) Abbas/ Magnum Photos, (centre right) Ron Giling/Panos Pictures, (main bottom left) Steve McCurry/Magnum Photos, (bottom right) Axandre/Telegraph Colour Library, (inset bottom left) Robin Hanbury-Tenison/ Survival International, 310 Edgware Road, London WC2 IDY; p. 176 (top left and right) Dr Jeremy Burgess, (bottom left) David Sharf — all Science Photo Library; p.202 Edward Hopper, American, 1882-1967, ‘Nighthawks’ (detail), oil on canvas, 1942, 76.2 144em, Friends Of American Art Collection, 313 1942.51, photograph © 1992 The Art Institute of Chicago, All Rights Reserved; p. 204 Graham Turner; pp. 219, 296, 305 The Kobal Collection; p. 221 British Film Institute Stills, Posters and Designs, Vision Video Ltd and Prominent Features (American Friends) Ltd; p. 229 The Prado and DACS for ‘Guernica’ 1937 by Pablo Picasso, © DACS 1993; p, 258 (top left) Marian Kaplan, (bottom right) Chris Smith — all photographs Camera Press; p. 267 Barnes & Webster Ltd/The National Army Museum; p.270 (top) The Hulton Deutsch Collection, (bottom) Topham Picture Source; p. 286 Graham Turner/The Guardian; p, 290 J. Allan Cash; p. 294 Edward Hopper ‘Sunlight in Cafeteria’, Yale University Art Gallery, Bequest of Stephen Carlton Clark; p. 295 British Film Institute Stills, Posters and Designs, ‘Working Gir!’ © 1988 Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation. All rights reserved; pp. 297, 306, 309 ‘Past and Present No 2’, ‘No 1’, ‘No 3” by Augustus Egg, The Tate Gallery, London; p. 299 Agence Vandystadt/Atisport; p. 303 Edward Hopper, ‘Conference at Night’, The Roland P. Murdock Collection, Wichita Museum, Wichita, Kansas, photograph by Henry Nelson; p. 304 British Film Institute Stills, Posters and Designs, copyright © by Universal City Studios, Inc. Courtesy of MCA Publishing Rights, a division of MCA Inc. For permission to reproduce book covers: HarperCollins Publishers for p. 80 The Towers of Trebizond; Penguin Books Ltd for p. 163 A Dark- Adapted Eye/ cover illustration by Lionel Jeans, p. 163 Brazzaville Beach, p. 172 The Mosquito Coast/ cover illustration by Martin Baker, p. 172 The Great Gatshy/ cover illustration by Jean-Paul Tibbles, p. 194 My Secret History/cover photograph by Moggy, p. 194 ‘My Family and Other Animals/cover photograph © 314 BBC Enterprises 1987, p. 263 Goodbye to All That/ cover shows detail from ‘Travoys arriving with wounded at a dressing station, at Smol, Macedonia’ by Stanley Spencer in the Imperial War Museum; HarperCollins for p. 172.4 Farewell to Arms/cover photograph of Rock Hudson and Jennifer Jones in the 1957 20th-Century Fox production of A Farewell to rms, The Cinema Bookshop; Secker & Warburg for p. 163 Nice Work/jacket design by Peter Dyer, illustration by Paul Cox; p. 196 Wilt/jacket design by ‘The Beaver Design Company, artist Red Ranch; Mandarin/Octopus for p. 172 The Grapes of Wrath/ design by Pentagram, illustration by Richard Hess; Jonathan Cape Ltd for p. 174 Memory of Departure/ cover; p. 174 Pilgrim's Way/ jacket design © Jonathan Cape 1988, illustration by Sue Moxley; Pan Macmillan for p. 194 The Cement Garden/ cover illustration by Russell Mills, typography by Vaughan Oliver, photography by David Buckland; Faber & Faber for p. 197 The Wimbledon Poisoner/ cover illustration by Pierre le Pan; p. 199 George Weidenfeld and Nicolson for The Millstone. For permission to reproduce cartoons: pp. 13, 215 Knight Features for the ‘Peanuts? cartoons which first appeared in The Observer; pp. 14 25, 33,49, 60, 63, 70, 78, 90, 93, 101, 116, 118, 122, 131, 139, 144, 155, 161, 170, 17, 184, 195, 209, 218, 234, 237, 242, 245, 253, 259, 271, 283 by kind permission of Punch; p. 200 David Austin; p. 212 The London Evening Standard for ‘Bristow’ by Frank Dickens. Drawings by Chris Evans (pp. 5, 8, 77, 291, 300), Leslie Marshall (pp. 66, 79, 83, 150) and David McKee (pp. 3, 57). Artwork by Peter Ducker and Hardlines. Index Grammar review 1.3 Comparing and constrasting 22. Articles and determiners 3.2 Reporting 1 43. ~ing and to_ 5.4 The passive ~ 1 6.3, The future 7.3. Past and present 8.3. Modal verbs 9.3 Question tags & negative questions 10.3 Conditional sentences — 1 11.3 Conjunctions & connectors — 1 12.3, Verbs + prepositions 13.3 Revision: As the saying goes... 14.3, Word order: phrasal verbs 15.4 Prepositions 16.3 Relative clauses 174 Adjectives + prepositions 184 Examination practice Advanced grammar 1.8. Using participles 27 Position of adverbs 3.7 Using inversion for emphasis 48° Wh- clauses 5.8 Should and be 6.7 Revision and exam practice 7.7 Further uses of ~ing 87 There 9.8 Reporting —2 10.7. Uses of the past 117 ft... constructions 12.7 The passive ~2 13.7. Conditional sentences — 2 14.7. Revision and exam practice 15.8 Conjunctions & connectors ~ 2 16.9. Exam techniques: Use of English Vocabulary development LS. Adjective + noun collocations 2.5 Words easily confused 3.8 Opposites 4.5, Forming adjectives 5.5. Position of adjectives & participles 6.5. Collocations: adverbs of degree 7.5 Compound nouns 8.5 Prefixes 9.6 Abstract nouns 10.5. Different styles 11.5 Collocations: idioms 125. Suffixes Underlying meanings Collocations: verb phrases 15.6 Exam practice 16.7 Synonyms 178 Modifying adjectives & participles 18.1 Examination practice Writing Skills 1.9 ‘Golden rules’ 2.6 Keeping the reader's interest 3.6 Punctuation 4.7 Paragraphs — 1 5.9 Making notes ~ 1 6.9 Avoiding repetition 7.8 Sequencing ideas 8.9 Paragraphs ~2 9.9. Making notes ~ 2 10.8 Showing your attitude 114 A good beginning 12.8 Thinking about the reader 13.6 The narrator 14.6. A good ending 15.9. Styles 16.6 Illustration and allusion 17.7 Exam practice 18.3 Exam practice Verbs and idioms 2.9 keep & hold 4.10 make & do 6.11 come & go B12 bring & get 1.11 put & set 1211 give & take 14.9 good & bud 16.12 mind, brain & word Progress to Proficiency New Edition Student’s Book Progress to Proficiency New Edition is a coursebook which provides systematic and enjoyable preparation for all five papers of the Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English examination. It is fully up-to-date, incorporating recent changes to the Proficiency examination. Progress to Proficiency New Edition is a radical revision of the original with a substantial amount of new material in the eighteen topic-based units, including four entirely new ones, Progress to Proficiency New Edition provides: completely new sections dealing with grammar review and advanced grammar a: vocabulary development, including sections on coflocation and word formation varied input and exercises on ‘difficult’ areas such as idioms and phrasal verbs be * exam-style practice and annotated exercises to prepare students for the requirements of the exam informative exam tips on how to approach each paper * a wealth of varied reading passages accompanied by a wide range of tasks to develop reading skills and appreciation + systematic training in writing skills, including composition and summary writing thorough preparation for the listening paper with many revised and new recordings, including authentic interviews with a wide cross-section of people frequent opportunities for discussion and new sections devoted to the examination interview * acomprehensive index so that users can easily locate areas they wish to study eb08! Designed to be used on either intensive or part-time courses, Progress to Proficiency New Edition is a flexible and motivating coursebook for students who are preparing for the examination. The Teacher's Book contains teaching notes, background information, answers to all the exercises, transcripts of the recordings and ideas for further discussion. The course consists of: Student's Book Teacher's Book Set of 3 cassettes ISBN 0-521-42575-1 CAMBRIDGE | | | | UNIVERSITY PRESS 78052194, 9 25759!