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Computer Networks

for

Computer Science & Information


Technology
By

www.thegateacademy.com

Syllabus

Computer Networks

Syllabus for Computer Networks


ISO/OSI stack, LAN technologies (Ethernet, Token ring), Flow and error control techniques,
Routing algorithms, Congestion control, TCP/UDP and sockets, IP(v4), Application layer
protocols (ICMP, DNS, SMTP, POP, FTP, HTTP); Basic concepts of hubs, switches, gateways, and
routers.

Analysis of GATE Papers


(Computer Network)
Year

Percentage of marks

2013

7.00

2012

9.00

2011

3.00

2010

8.00

2009

3.33

Overall Percentage

6.513 %
2008

6.00

2007

9.33

2006

7.33

2005

6.00

2004

7.33

2003

5.33

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Contents

Computer Networks

CONTENTS
Chapters

Page No

#1 Introduction

1 32

Computer Network

Goals/ Advantages of Networking

13

Components of Network

Criteria of a Network

Classification of a Network

Types of Network Connection

Network Topology

46

Transmission Modes

67

Data and Data Communication

The Model

7 20

Networks Connecting Devices

20 24

Assignment 1

25 28

Assignment 2

29

Answer Keys

30

Explanations

30 32

#2 Physical Layers (Data rate, Digital transmission)

33 47

Introduction

33

Transmission Impairment

33 34

Digital transmission

34 38

Transmission Mode

38 39

Multiplexing

39 40

Transmission Media

40 41

Assignment 1

42 44

Assignment 2

44 45

Answer Keys

46

Explanations

46 47
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Contents

Computer Networks

#3

Medium Access Sublayer (LAN Technologies: Ethernet, Token


Ring)

48 64

Introduction

48

Multiple Access Protocols

48 52

Ethernet Cabling

53

The 802.3 MAC sublayer protocol

54

IEEE standard 802.4-Token Bus

54 55

IEEE standard 802.5-Token Ring

55 58

Assignment 1

59 60

Assignment 2

60 61

Answer Keys

62

Explanations

62 64

#4

The Data Link Layer (Flow and error control techniques)

65 - 99

Data link Layer Design Issues

65 68

Error Detection and Error Correction

69 78

Flow Control and Error Control

78 91

High-level Data Link Control (HDLC) Protocol

91 93

Assignment 1

94 95

Assignment 2

95 96

Answer Keys

97

Explanations

97 99

#5

Routing & Congestion Control

100 114

Routing

100 101

Routing Algorithms:

101 107

Assignment 1

108 110

Assignment 2

110 111

Answer Keys

112

Explanations

112 114

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Contents

Computer Networks

#6

TCP/IP, UDP And Sockets, IP(V4)

115 145

Over View of TCP/IP

115 117

Network Layer

117 121

Addressing on Internet

122 126

Subnetting

127 131

Other Protocol in the Network Layer

131 133

Transport Layer

133 137

Assignment 1

138 139

Assignment 2

140 141

Answer Keys

142

Explanations

142 145

#7

Application Layer

146 157

The Domian Name Service (DNS)

146 147

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

148 149

Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)

149

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)

149 150

Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

150

Multipose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME)

150

Post Office Protocol (POP)

151

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

151

Assignment 1

152 153

Assignment 2

154

Answer Keys

155

Explanations

155 157

#8

Network Security

158 175

Symmetric key or Private key algorithms

158 160

Asymmetric key Algorithm (or) Public key Algorithm

160 161

Digital Signatures

161 162

Firewalls

162 168
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Contents

Computer Networks

Assignment 1

169 170

Assignment 2

171 172

Answer Keys

173

Explanations

173 175

#9

Module Test

176 - 191

Test Questions

176 184

Answer Keys

185

Explanations

185 191

Reference Books

192

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Chapter 1

Computer Networks

CHAPTER 1
Introduction
Computer Network
A computer network is created when several computers and terminal device are connected
together by data communication system.
A network is basically a communication system for computers.
Just as the telephone system allows two people to talk, networks allow computers to
communicate. Figure 1.1 illustrate a simple computer network where computer A and B can
communicate and share resources through computer C.

Fig. 1.1 Computer A and B can access files on C, and


can use the printer connected to C.

Goals / Advantages of Networking


(1)

Program and file sharing


Software resources can also be used more effectively over a network. With stand-alone
computers (i.e. not connected to network), the software used on the computer must be
present on each computers hard disk. It is also difficult and time consuming to install and
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Chapter 1

Computer Networks

configure the software individually on every computer. With a network one can centrally
install and configure the software, which can be accessed at the entire connected
computer.
(2)

Network Resource sharing


Network resources include printers, plotters, Fax modems, scanners, floppy disks, CDROMS and storage devices (i.e. Hard disks) which can be shared by terminals connected to
network. For example the sharing of a resource such as a storage device.

(3)

Database sharing
A database program is an ideal application for a network. A network feature called record
locking lets multiple users simultaneously access a file without corrupting the data.
Record locking insures that no two users edit the same record at the same time.

(4)

Economical Expansion of the PC Base


Networks provide an economical way to expand the number of computers in an
organization.

(5)

Ability to use network software


A class of software called Groupware is designed specifically for networks. It lets users
interact and coordinate their activities.
Note: Not all software will use a network even if one is installed. You should check the
software documentation to see what features, if any, the software provides in a network
environment.

(6)

Ability to use electronic mail


Electronic mail lets users easily communicate with one another Messages are dropped in
mailboxes for the recipients to read at a convenient time.

(7)

Creation of workgroups
Groups are important in networks. They can consist of users who work in a department or
who are assigned to special project. With Netware, one can assign users to groups and
then give each group access to special directories and resources not accessible by other
users. This saves the trouble of assigning access to each individual user.

(8)

Centralized Management
Because Netware users dedicated servers can be grouped in one location, along with the
shared resource attached to them, for easier management.
Hardware upgrades, software backups, system maintenance and system protection are
much easier to handle when these devices are in one location.

(9)

Security
A network provides more secure environment for a companys important information.
Security starts with the login procedure to ensure that a user accesses the network using
his or her own account. This account is tailored (i.e. made according to the user
requirements) to give the user access only to authorized areas of the server and the
network. Login restrictions can force a user a log in at one specific station and only during
specific time frame or period.

(10) Access to more than one operating system


Netware provides connections for many different operating systems, including DOS, OS/2,
UNIX, and Apple Talk. Users of these systems can access files on the Netware server.
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Chapter 1

Computer Networks

(11) Enhancement of the corporate structure


Networks can change the structure of an organization and the way it is managed. Users
who work in a specific department and for a specific manager no longer need to be in the
same physical area. Their offices can be located in areas where their expertise is most
needed. The network ties them to their department managers and systems. This
arrangement is useful for special project in which individuals from different departments,
such as research, production and marketing, need to work closely with each other.

Components of Network
Computer networks have the following fundamental components:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Server
Workstations
Network Interface Cards
Cabling system
Shared Resources and Peripherals.

Criteria of a Network
A network must able to meet a certain number of criteria. The most important of these are
follows
(i) Performance: performance can be measured in many ways, including transmit time and
response time. The performance of a network depends upon these following factors:
(i) Number of users
(ii) Types of transmission medium
(iii) Capacity of connected hardware
(iv) Efficiency of the software
(ii) Reliability: In addition to accuracy of delivery. Network reliability is measured by the
frequency of failure, the time it takes for a link to recover from a failure.
(iii) Security: Network security issues include protecting data from the unauthorized access.

Classification of network
It contains two or more computer along with a transmission path to share information and
resource of communication system. By the networking we can make interconnection of two or
more network device
Depending upon the graphical area, we can divide the computer network in 3 parts.
(i) LAN (Local Area Network)
(ii) MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)
(iii) WAN (Wide Area Network)
(i) LAN: It spans over a diameter of 2 km, typically data transfer rate for LAN is 10-100 Mbps,
it is used by a signal organization. It propagates high transmission over unexpensive
media. Example co-axial cable, twisted pair cable.
(ii) MAN: It spans over 10 100km diameter. Data rate for MAN is 10 Mbps. Some special
equipments are required for transmission.
(iii) WAN: It spans across the country or nation. Data transfer rate for WAN is 1.5 mbps. It is
used by multiple organizations
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Chapter 1

Computer Networks

Types of Network Connection


In a network two or more device are connected together through link. Link is a path for
communication that transfer data from one device to another.
There are two possible type of connection.
(i) Point to point
(ii) Multi-point
(i)

Point to point: In this case one device is connected to another device.


Link

Work station

Work station

Fig 1.2 Point to Point connection


(ii)

Multi-point: Here two or more device are connected to each other. In a multipoint
connection the capacity of the channel is shared either spatially or temporarily.
Work station
Work station
Main
frame

Work station
Fig 1.3 Multi-point connection

Network Topology
There are two types of topology
1. Physical topology
2. Logical topology
1.

Physical topology: Physical topology represent the physical structure of computer


network. It tells how different computers are connected across its communication
path. There are six basic topology possible.
(i) Mess
(ii) Star
(iii) Ring
(iv) Hybrid
(v) Bus
(vi) Cellular

(i)

Mess Topology: In mesh topology every device has a dedicated point to point link to
every other device. A fully connected mesh network has n(n 1)/2 physical channel
to link n device. To accommodate that many links, every device on the network must
have (n-1) input/output ports.

Advantages
(i) Eliminate traffic problems
(ii) A mesh topology is robust
(iii) It is more secure and private
(iv) Fault identification and fault isolation is easy
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